Printer Friendly

FREQUENCY OF ABO AND RH (D) BLOOD GROUPS INVOLVING VOLUNTEER DONORS IN DISTRICT NOWSHERA.

Byline: Bilal Hassan Khan, Shahnaz Attaullah and Awais Hassan Khan

ABSTRACT

Objective: To find out the frequency of ABO and Rh (D) blood groups among healthy volunteer blood donors in District Nowshera.

Methodology: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted from April, 2015 to March, 2016 in District Nowshera. Blood group of 1190 healthy college's students who wanted to donate blood were analyzed while data of 2410 blood donors were collected from Civil Hospital, Pabbi and District Hospital Nowshera. The data of total study subjects (3600) were analyzed following standard statistical procedures.

Results: Out of 3600 healthy adult donors, males were 2580 and females were 1020, with a male to female ratio of 2.52:1. Group 'B' (32.0 %) was found to be most predominant blood group, followed by "O" (29.8%), "A" (27.4 %) and "AB" groups were (10.8 %). Rh (D) was found to be positive in 3348 (93%) subjects in the study population.

Conclusion: Blood group 'B' had the maximum frequency and 'AB' had the minimum occurrence among blood donors of District Nowshera. Majority of blood groups were Rh (D) positive.

Key Words: Blood grouping, Blood donors, District Nowshera

INTRODUCTION

The antigens of blood groups ABO and Rhesus (Rh) are the most regularly studied genomic pointers in a large group of people1. Among several other blood groups determined so far, the ABO blood groups are very important to date in view of the safe transfusion practices2. The awareness about the distribution of blood groups is crucial for effective blood bank records and transfusion services. Besides, the information is also important for medical verdict, genetic knowledge, genetic analysis and also for the broad-spectrum wellbeing of the humans.

The findings of different studies showed that blood group "O" and " A" are common in USA3 and Saudi Arabia4. Whereas, in west Bengal, the incidence of group "A" was maximum5. In some parts of Pakistan, group "O" was reported dominant while in other regions group "B" was the most frequent6,7. It is consequently essential to know about the allocation of these blood groups. The current study was therefore, planned to scrutinize the same in blood donors of District Nowshera. It will not only provide baseline data for future research work in this field but it will be useful to clinicians and various blood donors societies, who are responsible for pro-curement of blood to the patients.

METHODOLOGY

A total number of 3600 healthy adult donors were included in the study. The subjects included both male (2580) and female (1020). Data of 2410 donors were collected from the record of the two hospitals of District Nowshera. While blood samples of 1190 college's students who want to donate the blood were collected by finger prick in most cases and occasionally by venipuncture through a disposable syringe (Table 1).

The blood samples were examined with standard Tile's techniques; using anti-A, anti-B and anti-D sera8. Both forward (cell grouping) and reverse grouping (serum grouping) methods were used. The final blood group was confirmed only if both forward and reverse groups were identical. Weak "D" red cells were considered to be Rh (D) positive. The data was compiled and then analyzed for the frequency of ABO and Rh-D blood groups with standard statistical methods.

RESULTS

Out of 3600 healthy adult donors, males were 2580 and females were 1020, with a male to female ratio of 2.52:1. The frequency data of blood groups (ABO and Rh) of 3600 donor subjects are presented in table 2. Group 'B' (32.0 %) was found to be most predominant blood group. The next highest was group 'O' (29.8 %). Rh (D) was found to be positive in 3348 (93%) subjects in the study population. The gender distribution of blood groups (ABO and Rh) is shown in table 3. Both the sexes showed almost the same array of distribution regarding frequency of blood groups.

Table 1: Distribution of subjects

Study Place###Number of subjects

District Headquarter Hospital, Nowshera###1690

Tehsil Headquarter Hospital, Pabbi###720

Government College (Boys), Nowshera###380

Government College (Girls), Nowshera###265

Polytechnic College, Nowshera###182

Government College, Pabbi###237

Government College, Akora Khattak###126

Total number of subjects###3600

Table 2: Pattern of blood groups in donors of District Nowshera

Blood Group###Number of Subjects###Percentage

A###986###27.4 %

B###1153###32.0 %

AB###389###10.8 %

O###1072###29.8 %

Rh(D)-positive###3348###93.0%

Rh(D)-negative###252###07%

Table 3: Gender-wise distribution of blood groups

Blood Grou p###Number of male Subjects###Number of female Subjects

A###704###282

B###823###330

AB###297###92

O###756###316

Table 4: Comparison with other studies (in percentage)

Blood Group###Present###Peshawar14###Mardan11###Islamabad12###Saudi###USA3

###Study###Arabia13

A###27.4###28###24.75###25.53###33.4###40

B###32.0###34###27.97###33.33###6.0###10

AB###10.8###07###19.36###10.04###3.8###05

O###29.8###31###27.93###31.10###56.8###45

Year of Study###2016###1993###2013###2006###2009###1988

DISCUSSION

The allocation of blood group are variable in different races, tribal groups, and socio-economic populations9,10. In the present study, the blood donors in District Nowshera have high percentage of group 'B'. The second dominant was group 'O'. Similar results were reported earlier11,12. However, in USA and Saudi Arabia most dominant group was 'O' and second common was 'A'3,13. (Table 4)

Rh (D) was negative in 07 % donors of study population. Other researchers found less Rh (D) negative (5%)14. While Egyptians have no negative 'A' and 'AB' groups4. As far as Rh phenotype is concerned, the overall trend is very high for Rh (D) positive as compared to the negative phenotype6,7. Weak D were considered to be Rh (D) positive among donors because when weak D red cells are transfused to D-negative patients, the patients get immunized and produce anti-D. Blood transfusion services usually give weak D donors the designation "Rh positive, weak D. While as recipients, patients with the weak D phenotype are considered to be Rh (D)-negative, and usually receive only Rh (D)-negative red cells.

The national and International studies have shown that majority of Asians have a typical B>O>A>AB pattern while most Africans, Americans, Australians and English exhibit an O>A>B>AB pattern of ABO phenotypes7,12. Some European nations on the other hand show an A>O>B>AB pattern3.

A study documented the associations of blood groups 'A' and 'O' to carcinoma stomach and duodenal ulcer respectively7. While some scientists demonstrated that the 'O' group individuals are more physically fit than 'A' group individuals. Besides, 'O' group subjects have got a 60% chance of reaching 75 years of age6.

Another study reported that 'O' and 'B' mothers are more successful in reproduction and indicate low percentage of perinatal loss (stillbirths and abortions) as compared to other groups. Besides, they highlighted that Rh negative mothers have more male's birth than Rh positive mothers14.

CONCLUSION

Blood group 'B' had the maximum frequency and 'AB' had the minimum occurrence among blood donors of District Nowshera. Majority of blood groups were Rh (D) positive.

REFERENCES

1. Worlledge S, Ogiemudia SE, Thomas CO, Ikoku BN, Luzzutto L. Blood Group antigen and anti bodies in Nigeria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1974; 68: 249-64.

2. Calhoun L, Petz LD. Erythrocyte antigens. In: Beutler E, Lichman MA, Coller BS, Kipps TJ, Selisohn U, Editors. Williams's hematology. 6th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc, Health Professions Division; 2001:1849-57.

3. Khan MR. Biochemistry text book. Carvan Press Darbar Market, Lahore 1988:58.

4. Moslem UM, Shashi A. Haemoglobin levels and blood groups in person living at high altitude. Ann Saudi Med 1989; 9:458.

5. Datta UK, Mondal S, Mukhrjee S. A study of the distribution of ABO and Rh (D) blood groups among Lodhatribe in Midnapore district of west Bengal. J Indian Med Assoc 1997; 95: 497-9.

6. Khurshed B, Naz M, Mabood SF. Frequency of ABO and Rh (D) blood group in district Swabi, NWFP. J Sci Tech Univ Pesh 1992; 16: 5.

7. Mabood N, Mohammad W, Banuri F. Frequency of ABO and Rh (D) blood groups in Mardan. J Ayub Med Coll 1993; 6:18.

8. Dacie JV, Kewis SN. Practical haematology. In: Lewis SM, Bain BJ, Bates I. Editors. 9th Ed. London: Churchill Livingstone. Harcourt Publ Limit; 2001:234.

9. Sidhu S. Distribution of the ABO blood groups and Rh (D) factor among the scheduled caste population of Punjab. Anthropologist 2003; 5:203-4.

10. Pramanik T, Pramanik S. Distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups in Nepalese medical students: a report. East Mediterr Health J 2000; 6:156-8.

11. Khalid M, Aslam N, Siyar M, Ahmed R. distribution of ABO and Rh D blood groups among blood donors in district Mardan Pakistan. J Saidu Med Coll Swat. 2013; 3:318-22.

12. Khan MS, Farooq N, Qamar N, Tahir F, Subhan F, Kazi BM et al. Trend of blood groups and Rh Factor in the twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. J Pak Med Assoc 2006; 56:299-302.

13. Sarhan MA, Saleh KA, Bin-Dajem SM. Distribution of ABO blood groups and Rhesus factor in Southwest Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J 2009; 30:116-9.

14. Shah SH, Subhani F, Haqh, Aslam MJ. Frequency of ABO and Rh(D) blood groups in Lahore. J Sci Tech Univ Pesh 1990; 14:107-9.
COPYRIGHT 2017 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2017 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:90ASI
Date:Jun 30, 2017
Words:1810
Previous Article:COMPARISION OF MEAN HEALING TIME AND MEAN PAIN SCORES BETWEEN FISTULECTOMY AND FISTULOTOMY FOR THE TREATMENT OF LOW FISTULA IN ANO.
Next Article:ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH HEART BLOCKS REQUIRING PERMANENT PACEMAKER.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters