FRANCISCUS MONACHUS AND THE c.1529 PARIS GILT GLOBE.
Franciscus Monachus or, to give his native Flemish name, Frans Smunck (c.1490-1565), was a Franciscan monk and noted cosmographer living in Mechlin, Brabant. (2) Mechlin was the residence of the Archduchess Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Netherlands for her nephew, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. (3) Franciscus came into royal favour for having cast a horoscope for the Archduchess, accurately predicting the defeat and capture of Francis I of France by Charles V at the battle of Pavia in February 1525. (4) At about that time he wrote a treatise on geography in the form of an epistle to his patron, John Carondelet, titular Archbishop of Palermo and chief Privy Counsellor to the Archduchess Margaret. (5) In it, he promises to refute "the delusions of Ptolemy and other former geographers". Sometime between 1524 and 1529, (6) the epistle was published at the direction of Carondelet as a booklet in Antwerp, under the title of De Orbis Situ ac Descriptione. Carondelet informed Franciscus: "since there are several things of no little importance in the letter you have delivered to us which are contrary to the authority of the ancient and, indeed, foremost geographers, we have thought that it should be printed and published. [...] In accordance with duty, therefore, we have sent the epistle to the workshop of the copperplate engravers." (7) The full title of the tract was:
On the Situation and Description of the Globe. A very clear and lucid letter from Francis, a monk of the Franciscan Order, to the Most Reverend Archbishop of Palermo; wherein, clearly revised and worthy of note, the misconceptions of Ptolemy and other former geographers are dispelled; also, concerning the newly discovered lands, seas and islands; the dominion of Prester John; the location of Paradise, and the length of the mile in relation to celestial degrees. All most clearly examined and worthy of remembrance. (8)
The Emperor granted a privilege or copyright in the following terms: "With a privilege from the Most Invincible Emperor of the Romans, Charles V, that for five years no-one may print or cause to be printed this geographical book together with the globes under forfeit of all copies and otherwise the imposition of the most severe penalty". (9) It is noteworthy that the privilege refers to "globes", indicating that copies were made.
The treatise was written by Franciscus to accompany and explain a globe constructed under his direction for Carondelet by the noted goldsmith Gaspard van der Heyden, who was also known as Gaspar a Myrica or Gasperus Amerycius. (10) Carondelet required an up-to-date globe like that of the famous Nuremberg cosmographer, Johannes Schoener, which was difficult to procure in the Netherlands in copies sufficient for his needs, and so commissioned one from Franciscus and van der Heyden. As explained by the publisher, Roland Bollaert:
Carondelet had observed that there was a shortage of copies of the work of Johannes Schoener, who with the greatest skill and, indeed, exactitude, had established the principles of cosmography and the configuration of images of the heavens. He forthwith entrusted Gaspard van der Heyden, whom he knew as a most accomplished engraver from his previously sculpting a globe of the Earth [that of Franciscus], to bring forth from under his anvil a configuration of the celestial sphere, and that I might again print it in a book, just as I had already harvested & pruned the vine [he had published for Carondelet De Orbis Situ]'" (11)
The globe has apparently not survived, but its principal features are indicated by a woodcut double hemisphere outline map of the world that illustrates the title page of the treatise (Fig. 1.). Each of the two hemispheres, which were engraved on separate wood blocks, measures 65mm x 65mm. The edges of the hemispheres coincide with Franciscus' estimate of the location of the meridian dividing line between the Portuguese and the Spanish claims to trade, navigation and conquest according to the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, and carry the inscriptions: Hoc orbis Hemisphoerium cedit regi Lusitanioe/ Hispanioe (This Hemisphere of the globe is ceded to the King of Portugal/Spain). (12) As Charles V was also King of Spain, Franciscus naturally adhered to the Spanish view and indicated the Moluccas or Spice Islands as being within Charles's dominion. He announced his aim to seek to correct and extend Ptolemy's Geography in the following terms:
Of all the cosmographers that ever flourished, Claudius Ptolemy undoubtedly holds primacy. But no matter how great, and how graphically he recorded the sought-for heights of cosmography, by his own admission he did not set the final hand to the description of the world. In fact, no more than the fourth part of the globe, if but carefully examined, shall we find expressed perfectly and completely by him; neither did he deny that in what he reaped in the more remote, and therefore less explored places, he was deceived. But from the Fortunate Isles [Canaries] even to the Port of Samba in longitude 170 and latitude 4, which the former travellers called Syamba [Champa] and the Portuguese Jamnia, his description must be accepted, excepting only those, some in our region and some in the Indian seas, corrected by the accurate surveys of the Portuguese. Whatever remained of the world whether in the East or in the South had to be either corrected or added to. (13)
Franciscus cites his sources for the information he used: the Travels of Marco Polo; the Speculum Historiale of Vincent of Beauvais on the Tartars; the tales of Sir John Mandeville; and the Voiage of Odoric of Pordenone. Odoric travelled as a papal emissary to the Great Khan (then Yesun Temur, sixth Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty) in Khanbalik (now Beijing), voyaging by way of India, Ceylon, Southeast Asia and southern China, returning to Europe through Central Asia, Persia and eastern Anatolia, c.1316-c.1330. Mandeville's account of his travels to the Indies and Cathay was taken from that of Oderic, but garbled and amplified with fables and tales drawn from Pliny and other ancient writers, and from his own imagination. (14) Mandeville's Voiage was very popular, and was drawn on by globe and map makers such as Martin Behaim and Johannes Schoener, and in that way the places described by Oderic found their way onto the map. Franciscus compared all of these descriptions with the second report of Hernando Cortes concerning his conquest of Mexico, and with the narrative of Ferdinand Magellan's voyage around the world according to Maximilian Transylvanus and Peter Martyr, in particular their depiction of East and Southeast Asia. He wrote:
Maximilian Transylvanus, recently published a letter concerning the Moluccas Islands, which are in the sea called variously the Mar del Sur [South Sea], or that of the Sinae, or of Syn [China Sea], finally revealed to our age as all clearly being in the portion and dominion of the King of Spain, except for Java and Porne or Borneo, of which a part toward the west is subject to the King of Portugal, the part which faces east being subject to the King of Spain. (15)
Franciscus identified Culua or Culuacana, a province of the Valley of Mexico described by Cortes, with Marco Polo's Cathay. Tenostica (Tenotchitlan), the Aztec capital of Mexico, situated in Lake Chalco, was Quinsam (Quinsay, or Hangzhou), the capital of Mangi (South China), (16) which Marco Polo described as situated in the midst of a lake, with canals like Venice. (17) Montezuma, the Mexican ruler, was the great Khan of Cathay; Thamachum or Tanago, north of Culuacana in Mexico, was identified with Polo's Tangut (modern Heilongjiang); Tenis, in North America was Tibet; the province of Messigo was Polo's and Odoric's Mansi, orMangi. Cattigara, the port city that, according to Ptolemy, signified the extreme point of the known world, was placed by Franciscus on the west coast of America (South America).
The Yucatan peninsula was considered by Franciscus to be an island, as it was for Peter Martyr. (18) Like Martyr, he identified Hispaniola with Marco Polo's Cipangu (Japan) (19) but disagreed with Martyr's identification of it with the Biblical Ophir, the source of King Solomon's gold: further, Franciscus held that Ophir was a port on the coast of Ethiopia near Malindi. Ethiopia was also the seat of Prester John's empire: "For here, we assert, Prester John was called by that title, not just in our own age but formerly". (20) That is, he identified Prester John with the Negus of Abyssinia.
Although Franciscus includes a strait between North and South America on his outline map, he is unsure of its existence, for he says in his text: "Some contend that westward of Cape Ligneres [Cape Higueres, in Honduras] there is a sea passage to the Gulf of San Miguel [Gulf of Panama]". (21) In general, he says:
Asia, Africa, Europe, and in particular India Culuacana [Mexico] and in the north, Sweden, Russia, Tartary, Baccalarea [Labrador and Newfoundland] and the Land of Florida, all of these extensive countries, planted at long distance from each other, are connected by a continuous tract of country and an uninterrupted route. Moreover, America [South America] is connected to the eastern lands and to Culuacana [Mexico], although this last is not yet definitely clear to us; but it cannot now be unknown to the Spanish. (22)
He fearlessly contradicted the venerable authority of Saint Augustine, who famously denied the habitability of the Antipodes with the declaration: "And that there are supposed to be Antipodeans, that is, men on the opposite side of the Earth, where the Sun rises when it sets for us, who tread their footsteps opposite to our feet: there is no reason for belief in them". (23) In contrast, Franciscus insisted: "And they deny the Antipodes, a heresy put forward by Saint Augustine, in spite of the acumen of his celestial genius; but experience and the sense of our eyes clearly prove the contrary". (24) A similar view was put forward by Nicolaus Copernicus, who was probably known to Franciscus through Johannes Dantiscus, ambassador of Poland to the Imperial court and patron of Copernicus. (25) In De Revolutionibus, in which he revealed the results of his lifetime's work, Copernicus wrote:
Ptolemy extended the habitable area halfway around the world, leaving beyond it unknown land, where the moderns have added Cathay and very extensive regions as far as sixty degrees of longitude, so that now a greater longitude of land is inhabited than is left for the Ocean. Moreover, to this should be added the great islands discovered in our time under the Princes of Spain and Portugal, especially America, named after the captain of the ship who discovered it and thought because of its as yet unascertained size to be another world, besides many other islands heretofore unknown, which we do not wonder to regard as being the Antipodes or Antichthones; for geometrical reasoning compels us to believe that America is diametrically opposite Gangetic India. (26)
A notable feature of Franciscus' globe is the coastline of a large unnamed southern continent to the south of America. That part of it on the other side of the unnamed Strait of Magellan is shown with indentations, indicating, as declared in the text of De Orbis Situ, that it represents a land that has been discovered in two places. The rest of the coastline is represented by three straight lines, again reflecting the text which declares that it is only a notional coastline that has not yet been discovered. This undiscovered part bears the inscription: HEC PARS ORE IS NOBIS NAVIGATIONIBUS DETECTA NUNDUM EXISTIT (This part of the coastline that has been revealed to us by voyages is not yet apparent). (27) It seems to echo the inscription on the southern continent on Johannes Schoener's globe of 1520: BRASILIE REGIONIS INFERIOR PARS HEC EXISTIT LATVS (The lower part of the region of Brazil is reported/related to have been seen here). (28) In the text of De Orbis Situ ac Descriptione, the corresponding passage is:
In addition, to the South, land has been found in two places south of America toward the South Pole, stretching in longitude 43 degrees westward, to latitude South sometimes to 54, sometimes 53, sometimes 55 degrees as the topography reveals. Moreover, in the year 1526, a land was discovered at 0 degrees longitude and 52 degrees South latitude, parts of which are empty of inhabitants. The rest of the austral coasts are still hidden in obscurity but it seems to me very likely that that part of the Earth is not covered and overspread by the Ocean. Indeed, it is conjectured and argued that vast and extensive regions and islands lie there, but because of the distances between places and the infertile nature of the soil, they are less frequented. (29)
The discoveries he mentioned were presumably, besides Magellan's Tierra del Fuego, those made somewhere in the far South Atlantic by Amerigo Vespucci in 1497, allegedly by Pedro Cabral in 1500 or by Francisco de Hoces in 1526. These were all credited with having discovered a land of continental dimensions in the South Atlantic in the latitudes 50 to 56 degrees South. (30) It is not clear which of these three navigators Franciscus was referring to, or whether he was referring to their collective discovery of what was taken to be the coast of the southern continent.
Franciscus may have seen a copy of Antonio Pigafetta's account of the voyage of the Victoria, which was published in Paris in 1525, and contained a description and map of the Strait of Magellan or, as Pigafetta called it, Patagonian Strait (destroict Pathagonico). (31) With regard to the land on the southern shore of the strait, Pigafetta declared, "I think in the world there is no more beautiful country or better place than that". (32) This obviously gave a very attractive impression of the southern continent.
The southern continent described by Franciscus bears a remarkable similarity to that shown on the Globe Dore, or Paris Gilt Globe made around the same time. There are other correspondences between Franciscus' globe and the Gilt Globe.
THE PARIS GILT GLOBE
The Globe Dore, or Paris Gilt Globe, made c.1524-1529, is held at the Bibliotheque nationale de France (Fig. 2.). (33) It was loaned for display at the Mapping Our World exhibition at the National Library of Australia, Canberra (7 Nov. 2013-10 Mar. 2014). (34) The Gilt Globe is the work of a goldsmith and is therefore copied from a drawing or model by a cartographer. The line work of the coastlines and the track of the voyage of Magellan's ship, the Victoria, are neatly engraved with a burin, while the place names and textual inscriptions, all in small capitals, are imprinted with punches, which prevents palaeographic analysis of its origins and maker. (35) Such fine work so ably executed attests to its having been made for some great personage, who could have afforded such a costly piece. (36) The reference in the copyright granted to Franciscus and van der Heyden to "globes" (plural) suggests that they may have made more than one. (37) It must be noted that Carondelet had ordered that Franciscus' globe be sent to the copperplate engravers (chalcographi) so that copies of it could be made as gores to be published, and perhaps the anonymous set of globe gores known as the Stuttgart Gores (Fig. 3.)--so called from their being held by the Wurttemberg State Library at Stuttgart--were the product of Carondelet's order. (38) The globe that Carondelet had commissioned from Franciscus would have been one similar to Schoener's latest, that of 1523. The use of punches to print the inscriptions would have facilitated making copies of the globe, copies that Carondelet would have required for his officers.
In 1892, the historian of cartography, Lucien Gallois, noted the similarity of the Gilt Globe to the one described by Franciscus. (39) The geographic historian Sophus Ruge was of the opinion that the Gilt Globe could have been made by or for Johannes Schoener, because America appears on it as the easternmost part of Asia, reflecting Schoener's conviction at this time that America was joined to Asia. (40) Henry Harrisse concluded in 1892 that it was based on the lost globe Schoener made in 1523, or at least on a derivative of it, and he gave it the date of 1528 or 1529. His reasons were: the close general resemblance with Schoener's Globe of 1533/34, which in details, however, differs in such a way that the Gilt Globe must have been based on an earlier model; the greatest point of similarity being the joining of Asia and America. (41) Harrisse wrote before the globe gores held by the State Library at Stuttgart were brought to light by Frederik Wieder in 1924 and identified by him with Johannes Schoener's globe of 1523. It is noteworthy that all three, the Gilt Globe and Schoener's globes of 1523 and 1533, share the distinctive form Cattigora for Cattigara, and Messigo for Mexico. These forms are also used on the globe described by Franciscus Monachus in De Orbis Situ. That globe exhibits several important features common to the other three: the joining of America to Asia; a similarly described southern continent; and the identification of Hispaniola with Marco Polo's Cipangu (Japan). For these reasons, Frederik Wieder admitted that, apart from what he supposed to be the signature of Johannes Schoener on it, he would have been inclined to think the Stuttgart globe was the lost original referred to by Franciscus Monachus, which he also considered to be the model for the Gilt Globe. (42) What Wieder took to be Schoener's signature, the inscription PERISCII, was soon pointed out to him by the historian Eva Taylor to indicate the Periscians or inhabitants of the polar regions. With this objection eliminated, Wieder's hunch that there was a close connection between the Stuttgart globe gores, Schoener's globe of 1523, the Gilt Globe and the missing globe of Franciscus Monachus was more credible. Eva Taylor concluded: "That the Gilt Globe is a copy of the Stuttgart globe seems beyond dispute, for the agreement in outline, place-names and inscriptions is very close. The same globe served as the prototype of the double-heart map of Orontius Finaeus, published 1531, and of the known 1533 globe of Schoner, which was accompanied by his Opusculum geographicum". (43) Schoener described the Periscians in the Opusculum: "The Periscii, who are settled under the poles of the world, are so called by reason that their shadows roll around them like millstones through the course of the year". (44) As the Gilt Globe is evidently a copy of the Stuttgart globe, it adds force to the argument that it is the lost globe of Franciscus Monachus, constructed by Gaspard van der Heyden for John Carondelet. As pointed out by Antoine De Smet, although none of Heyden's metalwork is preserved, his collaboration with Gemma Frisius and Gerard Mercator is well known, and allows the presumption that his workshop in Louvain was a centre for the engraving and construction of maps and globes, as well as for the manufacture of scientific instruments. (45) In any case, all four of the aforementioned globes undeniably share a common provenance. The similarity of the Stuttgart Gores to the Gilt Globe is such as to greatly strengthen the case for the Globe being based on the Gores. (46) Support for this is the statement by Roland Bollaert in the foreword he wrote for the Antwerp edition of Johannes Schoener's Appendices in Opusculum Globi Astriferi, which he published at the behest of Carondelet in 1527. Bollaert said that Carondelet had noticed that there was a shortage of copies of the works of Johannes Schoener in the Netherlands and had commissioned van der Heyden, first to make a copy of Schoener's terrestrial globe (presumably that of 1523) and subsequently of his celestial globe. Bollaert was himself commissioned by Carondelet to publish the accompanying books for both, Franciscus' De Orbis Situ and Schoener's Appendices. (47)
The historian Jan Denuce noted that Oronce Fine's world map of 1531 probably gave a fairly faithful image of the lost globe of Franciscus. (48) Another similar globe is the Gotha Marble Globe, which has been attributed to Gaspard van der Heyden and dated to c.153 3. (49) It should also be noted that the distinctive forms Cattigora and Messigo, and the other features mentioned above, are also found on the 1531 world map of Oronce Fine. De Smet also suggested that Oronce Fine used the treatise and perhaps the globe of Franciscus as a source for his 1531 world map. (50)
Oronce Fine was Francis I's Mathematician Royal or Regius Mathematicarum interpres at the College Royal. (51) His 1531 double heart-shaped world map bears the same title as the Gilt Globe, NOVA, ET INTEGRA VNIVERSI ORBISDESCRIPTIO (A New, and Complete Description of the Whole World). On Fine's map, orbs has been corrected to orbis.52 The depiction of the world is in general the same as on the Gilt Globe, on Schoener's globes of 1523 and 1533 and the c.1526 globe of Franciscus Monachus. Fine said in 1534 that he had designed the map, "about fifteen years since ... in gratitude to the Most Christian and Most Mighty Francis, King of the French, our most clement Maecenas". (53) In that case, the original of Fine's map of the world would pre-date that of Franciscus.
FIRST CIRCUMNAVIGATION BY THE VICTORIA
Magellan's expedition, the first voyage round the world, 1519-1522, was financed by Cristobal de Haro, and completed--after Magellan's death in the Philippines--under the leadership of Juan Sebastian de Elcano. Haro had previously financed the Portuguese expedition led by Joao de Lisboa that in 1512-1513 had reached the Rio de la Plata. Joao de Lisboa had accompanied Amerigo Vespucci in his voyage of 1503-1504 and later composed treatises on seamanship and on the compass. (54) The Rio de la Plata was thought to be the strait between America and the Terra Australis that led into the Sinus Magnus in the Eastern Indian Ocean where the Spice Islands were located. (55) The information of Joao de Lisboa concerning the Rio de la Plata and his identification of it with the sought for strait into the Magnus Sinus was revealed in the 1514 publication, Newen Zeytung auss Presillg Landt (News from the Land of Brazil). The Zeytung described the Portuguese voyagers passing through a strait (in fact, the Rio de la Plata) between the southernmost point of America., or Brazil, and a land to the south west, referred to as vndtere Presill (in Latin, Brasilia inferior). This concept was shown on Schoener's 1515 and 1520 globes. When Magellan came to Valladolid in 1517 to present his plan to Charles V, he apparently had a similar globe, for Bartolome de Las Casas, who was present, recorded:
Magellan had a well painted globe in which the whole world was depicted, and on it he indicated the route he proposed to take, saying that the strait was left purposely blank so that no one should anticipate him. And on that day and at that hour I was in the office of the High Chancellor when the Bishop [of Burgos, Fonseca] brought it and showed the High Chancellor the voyage which was proposed; and, speaking with Magellan, I asked him what way he planned to take, and he answered that he intended to go by Cape Santa Maria, which we call the Rio de la Plata, and from thence to follow the coast up until he hit upon the strait. (56)
Haro's niece was married to the Emperor's secretary Maximilian Transylvanus. (57) When three of the survivors of Magellan's expedition (Elcano, the pilot Francisco Albo and the surgeon, Hernando Bustamante) were interviewed by Charles V at Valladolid in October 1522, Transylvanus was present. His resulting account of the expedition was sent as a letter, dated 24 October 1522, to Cardinal-Archbishop Matthias Lang while he was attending the Imperial Diet in Nuremberg, which was then meeting to debate the activities of Martin Luther. This was the epistle referred to by Franciscus Monachus. Lang arranged for it to be published in Cologne in January 1523, under title De Moluccis Insulis. It was published in Rome in November of the same year at the instigation of Francesco Chieregati, the Papal Nuncio to the Holy Roman Empire, who was also attending the Diet. (58)
Transylvanus also had a globe constructed which showed the expedition's discoveries. On this globe, America and Asia were separated by the sea. Franciscus said: "I happened to see the most beautiful of all globes, that of the famous and celebrated Maximilian Transylvanus.... on it a sea gap divided the Eastern lands from Culuaca [Mexico]". (59) Transylvanus' globe has not survived, but the c.1537 globe of Gemma Frisius, Gerard Mercator and Gaspar van der Heyden is dedicated to him, and may be considered to reflect his views on the separation of Asia from America. (60)
Johannes Schoener probably received information concerning the voyage of the Victoria during the meeting of the Diet in Nuremberg. An account of the expedition, with a globe illustrating the voyage, was sent by Charles V to his brother Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, who was presiding over the Diet. The account was probably that taken down by Transylvanus, and the globe a copy of that made for him which Franciscus claimed to have seen. The manuscript of Antonio Pigafetta's journal of the voyage was also available at the Diet. (61) The globe was displayed to the attendees. Francesco Chieregati, who was also Pigafetta's patron, having examined the globe and Transylvanus' account, described the Victoria's itinerary:
they sailed southwards to the islands in the Ocean Sea which are called Terra Ferma [America], and then going toward the limits that guard the Portuguese islands [in the East] they have gone round the tip of the said Terra Ferma, and after that sailing through the sea they call the Mar del Sur towards the west, then, having gone through all the West, they passed through all that sea toward the north and, arriving in the East, finding in the Sinus Magnus the Spice Isles; then, freighted, they passed by the Golden Chersonese, sailed by the island of Taprobana, the Gangetic, Persian and Arabian Gulfs, the Cape of Good Hope, the Ethiopian Sea [South Atlantic] and the Atlantic until they reached the Canaries, and so returned to their own country by another way. Here we have a long summary of the said voyage, sent by His Majesty Caesar [Charles V] to His Serenity the Archduke [Ferdinand], whose Grace has shared everything with me ... Caesar has also sent His Serenity a globe [palla] on which is depicted the whole of the said voyage. (62)
It is quite possible that Schoener saw the globe which had been sent by the Emperor when it was displayed to the Diet. He wrote to his patron, Reymer von Streytpergk, Bishop of Bamberg, in 1523, in a letter accompanying his new globe: "I have been at pains to construct this globe, having copied a very accurate one which an ingenious Spaniard has sent to a person of distinction". (63) The Emperor's, or Transylvanus' globe may have been the one that Schoener copied. (64) In his letter to Streytpergk, Schoener said that his globe revealed all the islands and countries that had been added to Ptolemy's geography by the discoveries of Vasco da Gama, Columbus, Cortes and Magellan's expedition, mentioning the account of the last by Transylvanus in De Moluccis Insulis. The Stuttgart globe gores, but not the Gilt Globe, bear a legend near the Strait of Magellan, describing the passage of Magellan's expedition to and through it, which consists of phrases strung together from De Moluccis Insulis. (65) It reads:
In the year 1519 the Spanish in five ships led by Magellan departed Seville on 10 August and in a few days arrived at the Fortunate Isles, the Hesperides [Cape Verde Islands] and from thence with some days of prosperous voyaging found a cape in America named Santa Maria; from hence at the end of March the following year they were brought to a gulf which was given the name St Julian, where from May they passed a severe winter. From thence they set forth on 22 August when they came to Cape Santa Cruz, upon which one of the five ships was wrecked. On 26 December [a mistake for November] they came to a strait, in some parts 3, in others 2 and at times 10 to 5 Italian miles wide, where the night lasted little more than 5 hours. From this strait another ship returned to Seville; the other three went through it into the lower [southern] hemisphere reaching the Orient and returning again to the West by doubling the Cape of Good Hope. (66)
Cebu, with whose chief, Rajah Humabon, (67) Magellan made a fatal alliance, is inscribed on the Gilt Globe as SUBITHA. Magellan's death at nearby Mactan, written MAUTHAN as in De Moluccis Insulis, is noted: MAUTHAN INS[ULA] IN QUA MAGALLANUS DVX CONFOSSVS EST (Mactan Island in which Captain Magellan was cut down). On the Stuttgart globe gores the inscription is: Mauthan Ins[ula] hicpugna cum nostris in qua Magallanus dux confossus est (Mactan Island in a fight with us here Captain Magellan was cut down). Transylvanus' words concerning this incident are: confossus est tandem ipse Magallanus (during which Magellan was cut down).
MAGELLAN FAILS TO FIND THE CAPE OF CATTIGARA
Franciscus Monachus extolled the achievements of Magellan's expedition, writing in De Orbis Situ:
In our time God has shown truly extraordinary and wonderful things, such as have never been revealed in any historical chronicles or monuments. Has it ever been heard of since the creation of the world that a fleet has circled the whole Earth? But this has been allowed to come to pass by the gods above under the auspices of Charles Caesar. It went so far as to glimpse the Antarctic pole, unknown lands, seas, people beyond the Equator, the very existence of whom was not long ago a matter for continual conjecture. But by the explorations of our Caesar a huge part of the world has been uncovered, laid bare and revealed itself. (68)
The goal of Magellan's expedition, the Spice Islands or Moluccas, were thought to be situated in the Sinus Magnus, as recounted by Chiericati. (69) To reach them, the expedition's ships had to do as Marco Polo was thought to have done in his voyage from China to India in 1292, that is, to double the southern tip of India Superior. The southern tip of India Superior was referred to as the promontory or cape of Cattigara, after the city given by Ptolemy in his Canon of Famous Cities as lying on the eastern shore of the Sinus Magnus at eight and a half degrees South. Amerigo Vespucci, on his 1499 voyage, had also aimed to "turn a headland that Ptolemy calls the Cape of Cattigara, which connects with the Sinus Magnus". (70) Behaim's globe (a version of which Magellan claimed to have seen) shows the city of Cattigara unnamed at this location, with the inscription: "Ptolemy has described the world to us no further than here but Marco Polo and John Mandeville have described other parts". (71) Catigara is also shown at this location on Martin Waldseemuller's 1507 world map. (72) Schoener, in the tract that he wrote to accompany his 1515 globe, the Luculentissima, located the city of Cattigara on the same latitude and longitude: 177[degrees] East of the Canaries, 8[degrees]30' South. (73)
In the earliest version of Ptolemy's [phrase omitted] (Canon of Famous Cities) the position of Cattigara was not 8[degrees]30' South, but 8[degrees]30' North. (74) The French archaeologist Louis Malleret and his colleagues established that Ptolemy's Cattigara (from the Sanskrit Krtanagara) was most probably the principal port of the ancient pre-Angkor kingdom referred to by its Chinese name of Funan (from the Pali, Suvanna bhumi/dvipa--Gold Land, or Island) in the delta of the Mekong (Ptolemy's River Cottiaris), located at or near a site called Oc Eo (from the Khmer, Or Gaio, 'Crystal Canal') in what is now An Giang Province, Vietnam. (75) The Liang Shu (History of the Liang Dynasty), records the arrival at the Chinese court in ad 166 of merchants from "Da Qin" (the Roman Empire) who had travelled by way of "the lands beyond Rinan". (76) Rinan ([phrase omitted], Vietnamese, NhatNam, "South of the Sun", referring to the southern hemisphere in which it was situated) was the southernmost province, or commandery, of the Han empire, in what subsequently became the independent kingdom of Dai Viet, now Vietnam. This could have been the expedition led by the merchant Alexander who was the source of Ptolemy's knowledge of Cattigara and the Sinus Magnus. (77)
Maximilian Transylvanus said that, although Magellan's ships "went as far as twelve degrees this side [citra, i.e., to the north] of the equinoctial line, they did not find the promontory of Cattigara, which Ptolemy had judged to extend a long way further beyond the equinoctial". (78) Antonio Pigafetta recorded in his journal of the voyage that, having crossed the Pacific, Magellan sought the "cap de Caticara" north of the Equator, continuing to sail north and west until he reached "thirteen degrees toward the Arctic Pole" for, as he explained, "this cape (saving the grace of those who have done cosmography, for they have never seen it) is not found where they think, but toward the north at 12 degrees or thereabout". (79)
Magellan had been at Malacca during 1511-1512, and was a friend of Francisco Serrao who sailed with one of the Portuguese ships under the command of Antonio Abreu eastward beyond Java to the Moluccas, demonstrating that the Cape of Cattigara did not proj ect to the south of the Equator. Information concerning this expedition was sent to him by Serrao, and also revealed to him by his brother-in-law, Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa published a book on the Portuguese discoveries upon his return from India in 1518 and joined the expedition, on which he commanded the Victoria as far as Cebu, where he was killed shortly after Magellan himself. (80) So informed, Magellan evidently concluded that Ptolemy had in fact located Cattigara to the north of the Equator and that its location in the Geography at eight and a half degrees south was due to a fault in the text that substituted "south" for "north". The Portuguese had concluded, as recorded by Joao de Barros, that: "since we see that our ships sail beyond this Cattigara," which Ptolemy had situated on a promontory that descended to nine degrees south of the Equator, the city of Cattigara had to be seen as no more than "a result of Ptolemy's computation, as an imagined celestial point, than to be such". (81) Or, as the cosmographer and colleague of Franciscus Monachus and Gaspar van der Heyden, Gemma Frisius said: "In the place where Ptolemy described Cattigara as projecting far beyond the Equator ... now, following repeated voyages on both this side and the other of the Equator, was found no continental land but an almost infinite number of islands". (82)
PTOLEMY'S SINUS MAGNUS BECOMES THE PACIFIC
The discoveries of Magellan's expedition caused Johannes Schoener to change his belief that America was an island in the Western Ocean and instead to see it as one and the same as India Superior, a promontory of Asia. (83) The failure of Magellan's expedition to find the peninsula of Cattigara/India Superior in the vicinity of the Moluccas led Schoener to the conclusion that America (South America) was that peninsula. He wrote the Opusculum Geographicum to accompany his 1533 globe: in chapter 22, "Concerning the Regions beyond Ptolemy", he explained:
Everything eastward further than the Sinae and the Seres and beyond 180 degrees of longitude East remained unknown to Ptolemy. After Ptolemy, in fact many regions beyond the longitude of 180 degrees to the East were discovered by the Venetian Marco Polo and others, but now the coastal parts of these lands have been explored by the Genoese Columbus and Americo Vespucci who, steering from Spain across the Western Ocean and landing there, supposing that part of the world to be an island called it America, the fourth part of the globe. But in fact, from the most recent voyages made in the year 1519 after Christ by Magellan commanding ships of the Most Invincible Caesar the Divine Charles to the Moluccas Islands, called by others the Maluquas, located in the Far East, they found that land to be the continent of India Superior, which is a part of Asia in which are immense kingdoms, huge rivers, and many other things said to be seen, of which we have made mention in the section above. (84)
He went on to set out his concept of the configuration and relationship of the places and regions of Asia and India Superior, that is, America:
To these parts of Asia belong the territory called that of the Bachalaos [Codfish, i.e. Newfoundland] so called from the new kind of fish there, the great region of Bergi [the Plain of Bargu near Kara-Koram in Mongolia], the Land of Florida, the Desert of Lop [in Eastern Turkestan], and their cities, at 213 degrees East and 20 to 48 degrees [North], the province of Tamacho [Tamachoan, in Mexico], Sucur, Sampa or Zampa [Champa], Cauul [Camul? i.e. Hami], Tangut [Gansu], Cuschin or Cathay, and Chulmana [Culhuacan, in Mexico], the province of San Miguel, Messigo or the realm of Mexico, wherein is the vast city of Temistitan [Tenochtitlan], built in the middle of a great lake, but which was called by the ancients Quinsay [Hangzhou, described by Marco Polo as being located between a lake and a large river, with many canals running through it (85)] at 226 degrees East and 30.21 degrees [North], the regions of Raylmana Tebequi [Tibet], from thence eastwards Temiscanata [in Mexico], Parias [Venezuela or Central America], Dariena, Uraba [Colombia], Pariona, the Cannibals [Brazil] and many other countries.
The similarity of this description to that set out in De Orbis Situ is obvious. It is noteworthy that Schoener speaks of the 180 degrees of longitude of Ptolemy, and says that the discoveries of Marco Polo were to the eastward of those 180 degrees. And as the discoveries of Columbus and Vespucci were considered to be to the westward of the same 180 degrees, their discoveries must inevitably sooner or later meet those of Marco Polo. (86) On his 1523 globe, as revealed in the Stuttgart gores, Schoener stretched the India Superior peninsula (Indochina) to include Mexico and South America, and enlarged the Sinus Magnus (Gulf of Thailand (87)) to become the Pacific Ocean, labelling the enlarged gulf SINUS MAGNUS EOV[s] MARE DE SUR. (88) The city of Cattigara was accordingly moved from where he had placed it in 1515 in its Ptolemaic co-ordinates far eastward to be located at eight and a half degrees south of the Equator on the eastern shore of the Oceanus Orientalis, which was now the western coast of America. Messigo (Mexico) was located in a composite of North America and East Asia as a neighbour of Cathay and Mangi. Schoener's 1533 globe confirmed America as an extension of the Cape of Cattigara (Indochina) with the inscription, America, Indiae superioris et Asiae continentis pars (America, a part of India Superior and of the Asian continent). Cattigara appears on the west coast of South America on Schoener's globes of 1523 and 1533, on Fine's 1531 map, and on the Gilt Globe as CATTIGORA PROV[INCIA]. On all of them, the Magnus Sinus is described as the Mare de Sur (South Sea). (89) On all three the sea to the west of the Strait of Magellan is called the Mare Magellanica (Magellanicum on Schoener's 1533 globe).
Cattigara, under the variant form Catigora, is also described as being in the same location by Franciscus Monachus in De Orbis Situ. Apparently aware that it had been the intention of Amerigo Vespucci in his 1499 voyage, "to see whether I could turn a headland that Ptolemy calls the Cape of Cattigara, which connects with the Sinus Magnus", Franciscus gave a different explanation for deciding where to place it:
The goal and terminus of Amerigo Vespucci's route in the West have not yet come within our knowledge. So I have put Catigora [Cattigara], which Ptolemy locates on the continent beyond the equinoctial line, at the space of 12 hours [180 degrees], but its longitude is uncertain (perhaps he received a report that it extended beyond the Torrid Zone in eastern lands) so not knowing the true longitude of the port of Catigora, nor reckoning its longitude, you will never by any means find its location. Wherefore, it is better that Catigora be sought in America, in the West. (90)
Franciscus identified the Aztec ruler, Montezuma, with the Great Khan: "I say nothing of the deeds of Hernando Cortes, most invincible of men, who, in foreign lands with no hope of external aid, achieved so much and so many things, such as are more fully set forth in his Second Report, and who fought his battles with the Great Khan, that is to say, he subjugated King Montezuma". (91) Franciscus ascribed his belief that Mexico/New Spain was connected with Asia to Cortes' report, writing in De Orbis Situ:
According to Hernando Cortes, Culua, or the province of Culuacana [Culhacan, i.e. Mexico], which in other travel narratives is called Cataya or Cathay, is where the realm of the Emperor of the East lies. The modern Themistetam or Tenostica [Tenochtitlan], was formerly Quinsay ... those places and regions which Marco the Venetian, Mandeville and Oderic examined and described have now been discovered in the West by the Spanish and, led by Hernando Cortes, overcome by arms and found to extend as far as our borders in the East. (92)
A similar belief was expressed by Caspar Vopell on his mappemonde of 1545. (93) An inscription on this map noted that he had asked Charles V when he visited Cologne, where Vopell resided, to rule on the question of whether Newfoundland, Florida, New Spain and America were connected to the Oriental lands. The Emperor, who was in receipt of a continuous flow of reports from New Spain concerning the newly discovered lands and islands, notably from Cortes, gave his response that the aforesaid lands "by no means appeared to be cloven asunder by the sea, but were linked to the Oriental lands". Furthermore:
the Spanish had made journeys again and again from Tenochtitlan the famous city of the Great Khan Emperor, otherwise known as King Montezuma, westward in search of the lands referred to, and no limit to such vastnesses could be found; suffice to say he declared that the land that fell to the region of Serica, which included the people of China, was certainly found to be contained within the Spanish limits, of which convincing proof came from the Indians with whom the invincible Ferdinand Cortes had engaged in war in New Spain. (94)
At Malacca in 1511, the Portuguese encountered ships from a country the local Malays called China (95) (from the Sanskrit, Cinastan). It took some time for the Portuguese and other Europeans to deduce that Cina was what the ancient Greeks and Romans referred to as Serica and Marco Polo as Cathay.
TIERRA DEL FUEGO, TERRA AUSTRALIS AND THE REGIO PATALIS
Magellan's discovery of Tierra del Fuego in 1520 was taken by Johannes Schoener as confirmation of the existence of the circum-antarctic continent, Terra Australis, hence the inscription on his 1523 globe: TERRA AVSTRALIS RECENTER INVENTA AT NONDUM PLENE COGNITA (Terra Australis, recently discovered but not yet fully known). This inscription does not appear on the Gilt Globe. Schoener's Terra Australis featured a huge promontory extending north almost to the Tropic of Capricorn, called the Regio Patalis (Region of Patala). His source for this was the Ymago Mundi of Pierre d'Ailly, written between 1410 and 1419 and printed in Louvain in 1483. Patala had been a city at the mouth of the Indus River, conquered by Alexander the Great and mentioned in the writings of Pliny the Elder and Strabo. (96) The city of Thatta in Pakistan now occupies the site. Patala appeared in its correct location, in the delta of the Indus Fluvius (Indus River) on the 1507 world map of Martin Waldseemuller. But almost all other cartographers of that time were misled by a mistake made by d'Ailly, who placed it under the Tropic of Capricorn and not, as Pliny said, the Tropic of Cancer: "towards the south according to Pliny is to be found habitation under the Tropic of Capricorn, and beyond, for there is said to be the Region of Pathala in India". (97) Schoener cited the chapter of the Ymago Mundi in which this passage occurred in his 1533 tract, Opusculum Geographicum. (98) The words, "and beyond", allowed geographers to locate the Region of Patala in the vicinity of, or attached to, the Southern Continent. The Region of Patala was demonstrated not to be a southward extension of the Asian continent by Magellan's expedition of 1519-1522, which sailed straight across where the Region of Patala was supposed to be. Thereupon, Schoener kept the Regio Patalis in its trans-Capricornian location, not as part of India Superior but on the other side of the Ocean as a promontory of the Terra Australis. The REGIO PATALIS appears in this location on the Gilt Globe and on Fine's mappemonde. Franciscus Monachus did not mention the Regio Patalis, but his belief that his southern continent was inhabited in parts was apparently based on the Ymago Mundi. Relying on the authority of Pierre d'Ailly, he said ([section]62) it was "conjectured and argued that vast and extensive regions and islands lie there". (99) He referred to the Strait of Magellan as one of the terminal points of the South Sea: "Regarding the lands in the south and the islands of the South Sea which from the port of Sa[m]ba [Champa] extend beyond the Moluccas to the Strait of Magellan, I have not confirmed their complete configuration faithfully and sincerely, although it is clear to me that the South Sea approaches to not more than eighteen degrees North". (100) As Franciscus believed Mexico and the lands north of it were joined to Cathay, there was no North Pacific in his conception. He showed the Strait of Magellan, unnamed, on the sketch map in De Orbis Situ.
TAPROBANA, OR SUMATRA
In the Opusculum Geographicum, Schoener said that, "Taprobana, today Samotra, is the very large island over against India, at 151 degrees [East] and 15 degrees below the Equator". (101) Accordingly, in an inscription on both the Stuttgart gores (Schoener's 1523 globe) and the Gilt Globe Samothra (Sumatra), which Marco Polo named as one of the eight kingdoms of Java Minor, is identified with TAPROBANA, the Ptolemaic name for Sri Lanka. The Collectanea Rerum Memorabilium of the early 3rd century ad Roman writer, Gaius Iulius Solinus, is given as the authority. The inscription reads:
Samothra called Taprobana, the most wealthy and powerful in the whole world; the reign of whose king is not hereditary and who is prohibited from having children. Gold, silver and other metals aplenty, it breeds elephants and tigers are native; here are rice, ginger, beryls and hyacinths. For more read chapter 66 of Solinus. (102)
Franciscus Monachus, revealing the close affinity of his globe with the Gilt Globe and that of Schoener, used the same distinctive version of the name in describing in a similar manner what he referred to as "the island of Samothra, called Taprobana by Ptolemy". He also called it Samotra, and said:
On our globe we have taken care that Ptolemy's figure be expressed, whence it may be concluded that this in truth is Taprobana [Ceylon/Sri Lanka], even though with a greater extent of longitude than Ptolemy had imagined. Not far from where Ptolemy placed Taprobana, on the other side of the kingdom of Moabar [Malabar], is found the island named Seylan [Ceylon], but this would not be Taprobana since it is beyond the Equator, nor does it call to mind that which pertains to Taprobana. (103)
Regarding Taprobana, Franciscus states that Marco Polo called it Java, meaning Java Minor, the actual Sumatra. Franciscus identifies Ptolemy's Taprobana (Sri Lanka) with Polo's Java Minor, that is, Sumatra. He pointed out that Marco Polo took the name Samotra from Samora, one of the kingdoms of this Taprobana cum Sumatra, as a synonym for the whole island. That is, when Polo described Java Minor as being divided into eight kingdoms, one of them being Sumatra, Franciscus believed him to be saying that it was Taprobana that was so divided. Franciscus refers to the island of Sumatra as Samora, or Samor, and implies that Polo was confused by the similarity of this name to Samotra to mis-identify Java Minor with Taprobana. The passage in question reads:
In the year of the renewal of the world 1296, Marco Polo returned home to his own country by a voyage through the islands of the South Sea, some of which he reviewed and described, though without order. He gave the name of Java [Minor] to Taprobana [Ceylon or Sumatra], spoke about the several kingdoms it contained, and stayed in one of the kingdoms of the island called Samora, the Indian nation and inhabitants of which call it Samotra [Sumatra]. I conclude, as I suspect perhaps few would guess, that he took from the name of the kingdom of Samor the word Samothra [Sumatra]. (104)
THE SOUTHERN CONTINENT OF GERARD MERCATOR AND THE DIEPPE CARTOGRAPHERS
Franciscus Monachus' younger colleague and sometime pupil, Gerard Mercator, produced a map of the world in 1538. (105) As noted by the cartographic historian Lawrence C. Wroth: "In many particulars, as in the portrayal of a Terra Australis, the double-cordiform world map of Gerard Mercator of 1538 followed the example set by Fine". (106) It also owed much of its topographical character to the 1536 globe he had helped Gemma Frisius and Gaspard van der Heyden to make. (107) Mercator's map departed from Fine's by showing the southern continent much smaller and unnamed, and without the hard outline he gave to the better known continents. It bore an inscription which echoed that on Franciscus' sketch map: "It is certain that there are lands here, but how much and the limits of their boundaries is uncertain". (108) The outline of Fine's RegioPatalis, though shown as a promontory of this smaller antarctic continent, was likewise unnamed. On the globe made by Gemma Frisius and Gaspard van der Heyden in 1537, Mercator was responsible for engraving many of the place names. Frisius located Patalena (the region of Patala) correctly, inter hostia Indi (between the mouths of the Indus). (109) Mercator produced his own globe in 1541, on which a huge continent extended around the Polus antarcticus, unnamed but inscribed: "This is the fifth and indeed, so far as we may suppose, greatest part added recently to our world, of whose shores verily but little has yet been explored". (110) This continent had a great promontory extending northward like Fine's Regio Patalis, but inscribed with names taken from Marco Polo, Beach and Maletur. If Mercator accepted that the location assigned to the region of Patala at the mouth of the Indus on the globe he had prepared with Gemma Frisius in 1537 was correct, it would explain why on his 1538 world map he did not give this name to the large peninsula of the southern continent, and why on his 1541 globe he identified this peninsula with Marco Polo's Beach and Maletur.
The series of French mappemondes made in and around the Normandy port of Dieppe in the early to mid-sixteenth century, like Mercator's, outline the circum-antarctic continent, described on most of them as LA TERRE AVSTRALLE NON DV TOVT DESCOVVERTE (Terra Australis, not wholly discovered), or some variant thereof. (111) This is apparently taken from the inscription on Oronce Fine's 1531 map, Terra australis recenter inventa sed nondum plene cognita ("Terra Australis recently discovered but not yet fully known"), which in turn was taken from Johannes Schoner's 1523 globe, TERRA AUSTRALIS RECENTER INVENTA AT NONDUM PLENE COGNITA (Terra Australis, recently discovered but not yet fully known). On the Gotha Marble Globe the inscription is the same as on Fine's map: TERRA AVSTRALIS RECENTER INVENTA SED NONDVMPLENE COGNITA. It also recalls the formula of Franciscus Monachus, "hec pars ore is nobis navigationibus detecta nundum existit" (this part of the coast that has been revealed to us by voyages has not yet been seen).
The Dieppe cartographer, Pierre Desceliers, noted in a legend inscribed on his 1550 map that the opinion of some cosmographers that America and Asia were joined to each other was not to be followed, as it was not supported by actual experience or by reason. (112) However, as George E. Nunn noted in 1929, the world maps of Pierre Desceliers and Nicolas Desliens, both representatives of the Dieppe school, were of the post-Magellan Schoener type and as an indication of this that Desceliers, in spite of his notional separation of Asia and America had, like Schoener and Fine, located the Asian campestria bergi, Tangut and Desert de Lop in America. (113) As had, in the case of Bergi and Tangut, Franciscus Monachus. Desert de Lop also appears on Desceliers' map in Asia, just to the north of Quinsay (Hangzhou). And the northwesternmost coast of Canada (America) opposite Asia is inscribed Terrre incongnue quant a nous (Land unknown to us), leaving open the question of whether or not it was joined to Asia.
The maker of the c.1547 Harleian mappemonde followed Schoener, Fine and Franciscus Monachus in locating Catigara on the west coast of South America, as did Guillaume Le Testu in his 1555 atlas, Cosmographie Universelle. Le Testu also locates the Moluques (Moluccas) within the SINUS MAGNUS. This reflected the identification of America (that is, South America) with the peninsula of Cattigara, or India Superior. Like Schoener and Fine, the Harleian also bilocates MESSIGO (Mexico) in both North America and in Asia adjacent to Cathay and Mangi. (114) On his mappemonde of 1566 Le Testu, like Mercator on his 1541 globe, notionally separated Cathay from Canada with a cartouche which read: Parce que Ceste coste et terre na estee Iusques Icy duement Recouverte Iay Mieux ayme la Laisser Imparfaicte Que de adjouter a ceste Carte Veritable Aulcune Mensonge (Because this coast and land have not hitherto been duly discovered I have preferred to leave it incomplete than to add to this accurate map any deception). (115) In his 1556 atlas, also like Mercator on his 1541 globe, Le Testu drew a large promontory extending northward from the southern continent, Terre australe, the northern part of which was inscribed Grande Iave (Mercator had called it Beach). (116) On his 1566 map, this promontory was unnamed and separated by an expanse of sea from the undefined southern coast of GRAND IAVE, while PETITE IAVE was shown, as on Mercator's globe, located off the eastern side of the unnamed promontory. (117)
John Carondelet commissioned Gaspard van der Heyden and Franciscus Monachus to construct a terrestrial globe for him because there were insufficient numbers of Johannes Schoener's globe procurable in the Netherlands. This suggests that Carondelet desired a globe similar to Schoener's globe of 1523. Schoener's 1523 globe gores and the Gilt Globe, like the globe sent by Charles V to Archduke Ferdinand in 1522, show the track round the world of Ferdinand Magellan's Victoria, by a line inscribed: Ille linea ex Sibilla ducta hispanorum navigationem ostendit (This line drawn from Seville shows the voyage of the Spanish).
The success of Magellan's expedition in reaching the Moluccas islands by sailing westwards, and its apparent justification of his claim that they lay within the Spanish hemisphere under the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, provoked a furious response from the Portuguese who also claimed them. At the Junta of Badaj oz/Elvas, called in 1524 to resolve the dispute over the islands, the Portuguese and Spanish negotiators soon found that globes were more useful than maps in pressing their cases. The acts of the meetings record that on 28 May, "By common consent both sides presented globes showing the whole world, where each nation had placed the distances to suit themselves". (118) As noted by Jerry Brotton, terrestrial globes provided "an even more compelling rhetorical platform [than maps] from which to establish claims to imperial global authority, far in excess of sea-charts and world maps which were unable to offer a similarly all-encompassing vision of the world in the aftermath of Magellan's voyage". (119)
Franciscus apologised to his patron for the haste in which he prepared his treatise and consequent imperfections in it, appealing to Carondelet for understanding of his position as a friar with many and onerous religious duties which encroached upon the time he could devote to intellectual pursuits:
Here you have, Most Excellent Bishop, the letter containing my explanations and, Oh Patron of Geography, would that it were polished with an eloquence that would satisfy the judgement of your heart. In addition, if there is anything lacking in this that would complete the model of the Earth we have made, would that your generosity might pardon its incompleteness due to excessive haste, for you know how we are so hindered by the strict obligations of our Order in attending to religious offices that we can scarce take rest from them to do any other work of the mind. If all these efforts of ours do not displease you, we would be sensible of the readiness of your generosity and would strive most earnestly for a fuller obedience to Your Reverence. Farewell, Excellent Bishop, and as this small contribution is made with all our goodwill, accept it with your liberality. (120)
His treatise, though, shows that he and Gaspard van der Heyden were able to construct a terrestrial globe for the privy councillor John Carondelet that represented the latest state of geographical knowledge and would have been of a standard equal to those of Johannes Schoener. It would therefore have met Carondelet's requirement for a globe that would assist him in international negotiations, such as with Portugal over the question of the Moluccas. The description Franciscus gives of it very closely matches the configuration of the Gilt Globe and allows for the possibility that the latter globe was also made by Gaspard van der Heyden under his direction. Support for this is the statement by Roland Bollaert in the foreword he wrote for the Antwerp edition of Johannes Schoener's Appendices in Opusculum Globi Astriferi, which he published at the behest of Carondelet in 1527. Bollaert said that Carondelet had noticed that there was a shortage of copies of the works of Johannes Schoener in the Netherlands and had commissioned van der Heyden, first to make a copy of Schoener's terrestrial globe (presumably that of 1523) and subsequently of his celestial globe. Bollaert was himself commissioned by Carondelet to publish the accompanying books for both, Franciscus' De Orbis Situ and Schoener's Appendices. (121)
As to the impact of Franciscus' globe and tract on other geographers and map-makers of his own time and subsequently, Gregorio Garcia noted in 1725 that among the modern cosmographers it was the monk Franciscus in De Orbis Situ who most clearly demonstrated the connection between Asia and New Spain (Mexico). (122) As the sixteenth century progressed the error of identifying Mexico with Marco Polo's Mangi and Cathay became apparent but the connection of North America with North Asia was not finally disproved until 1728 when the Russian expedition led by Vitus Bering sailed through the strait that now bears his name. With regard to the southern continent, the influence of Franciscus on cartography was more far-reaching. The affinity is obvious of his australis ore (austral lands) with the Terra australis on Fine's 1531 world map, on the Stuttgart/Schoener globe gores, on Schoener's 1533 globe and on Gerard Mercator's 1538 map of the world. Mercator's 1541 globe and 1569 world map, as also that of Abraham Ortelius of 1570, boldly displayed a huge austral continent, as did the mid-sixteenth Dieppe school of mapmakers. Subsequent generations of cartographers and geographic theorists continued to elaborate the beguiling image of a vast and wealthy Terra Australis to tempt the cupidity of merchants and statesmen, a process which reached its peak with the proposals of John Callander and Alexander Dalrymple in the 1760s for Great Britain to send out expeditions to discover the fabulous land, which led to James Cook's great voyages of 1768-1771 and 1772-1775 that finally destroyed the extravagant vision by revealing the true delineations of the southern hemisphere.
(1) Presented at Cartographies of Change: Then, Now and Tomorrow, the 9th National Cartographic Conference and the 46th Annual ANZMapS Conference, GeoCart '2018, 5-7 September 2018, Wellington, New Zealand. I thank the National Library of Australia for the use of the facilities of the Petherick Reading Room in preparing this article, and particularly Dr Martin Woods, NLA Curator of Maps, and his colleagues. I also thank Dr Brendan Whyte, editor of The Globe, and the anonymous referee whose comments were so helpful.
(2) In his obituary notice, "Franciscus Monachus" was identified as the Latinised form of his name, Frans Smunck, adopted when he matriculated at the University of Louvain; Ceijssens, 1938:70, no. 221; De Troeyer, 1969:104.
(3) Mechlin is the traditional English name for the city called Mechelen in Dutch/Flemish and Malines in French. Franciscus refers to it by its Latin name Mechlinia.
(4) Stadius, 1560: fol. A4r; quoted in Vanden Broecke, 2003:114.
(5) Crane, 2002:334, n.8. Carondelet's christian name was Anglicized to "John" in the English literature of his time and subsequently, such as the Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII.
(6) Van der Krogt, 1993:42. According to Secret (1969:423-431) the copy in the Bibliotheque nationale de France (Res.G.2916) bears the date 1524; but this must be a mistake, as noted by Gallois in 1890, the text ([section]62) refers to the discovery of a land in 1526 (Gallois, 1890: 42). Nijhoff, 1926:22, n.2, proposed a date of around 1529 from the address of the publisher, Roeland Bollaert, who began to reside there from that year, but this can only be regarded as indicative.
(7) Monachus, c.1526-29, [section]3.
(8) Monachus, c.1526-29.
(9) Monachus, c.1526-29.
(10) Van der Heyden adopted the Latin version of his name, a Myrica from myrica, which he took to be the Latin word for heiden = heath or heather; see Karrow, 1993:33.
(11) Animadverterat, laborari penuria exemplarium Schoneri, qui Cosmographiae rationem coelestiumque imaginum conformationem scitissime sane atque exactissime condidit. Demandat ille continue Iasparo ab America, ut quem in terrae globo exsculpendo pridem politissimum caelatorem cognorat, coelestis sphaerae configurationem sub incudem revocet; mihi ut librum rursum typis subjiciam, & ceu vitem iam demessam repastinem. Bollaert, 1527; cited in Van der Krogt, 2002:46.
(12) The Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal was signed at the royal palace of Tordesillas, Spain, on 7 June 1494. It divided the conquest and navigation of the lands discovered beyond Europe between the Portuguese and Spanish kings along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands.
(13) Monachus, c.1526-29, [section]12.
(14) Cordier, 1913:33-34; Mandeville, 1932:198.
(15) Monachus, c.1526-29, [section]51.
(16) Cordier, 1891:589.
(17) esta ciudad y aze assentada enl agua como Venecia (this city is wholly on the water, and surrounded by it like Venice); Polo, 1529: cap. cxviii.
(18) Peter Martyr de Anghiera, De Orbe Novo, Decade IV, 1521, cap. I, fol. lii; translated in Richard Hakluyt, A Selection of Curious, Rare and Early Voyages, London, R.H. Evans, 1811, vol. 4, p. 427.
(19) Caspar Vopell's world map of 1545 bears the inscription, Spagnolla Zipangum a P. Martyre modo Hispaniola (Spagnolla Zipango, now according to Peter Martyr, Hispaniola); Caspar Vopell, Nova et Integra Vniversalisqve Orbis Totivs Ivxta Germanvm Neotericorvm Traditionem Descriptio (Cologne, 1545).
(20) Monachus, c.1526-29, [section]41. In this, Franciscus agreed with Johannes Schoener, 1533: cap.xii.
(21) Monachus, c.1526-29, [section]61. The "caput de Ligneres" is undoubtedly "higueras", the furthest point reached by the expedition of Solis and Pinzon, in 1508-1509, and whose location was put by the pilot Ledesma at latitude 23[degrees]30' N.
(22) Monachus, c.1526-29, [section]14.
(23) Quod vero et Antipodas esse fabulantur, id est homines a contraria parte terrae, ubi sol oritur, quando occidit nobis, adversapedibus nostris calcare vestigia: nulla ratione credendum est; Augustinus, 1468: liber xvi, caput ix.
(24) Monachus, c.1526-29, [section]33. Franciscus also insisted that it was an error to fix Jerusalem at the centre of the world on the basis of a faulty interpretation of Psalm 73 : Deus [autem rex] noster ante saecula operatus est salutem in medio terrae (But God is our King before ages: He hath wrought salvation in the midst of the Earth).
(25) Crane, 2003:118.
(26) Ptolemoeus in sua Cosmographia ad medium usque circulum terram habitabilem extendit, relicta insuper incognita terra, ubi recentiores Cathagyam & amplissimas regiones, usque ad LX longitudinis gradus adiecerunt: ut iam maiori longitudine terra habitetur, quam sit reliquum oceani. Magis id erit clarum, si addantur insuloe oetate nostra sub Hispaniarum Lusitanioeque Principibus repertae et praesertim America ab inventore denominata navium proefecto, quam ob incompertam eius adhuc magnitudinem, alterum orbem terrarum putant, praeter multas alias insulas antea incognitas, quo minus etiam miremur Antipodes sive Antichthones esse. Ipsam enim Americam Geometrica ratio ex illius situ Indiae Gangeticae e diametro oppositam credi cogit. Copernicus, 1543: 2.
(27) This inscription was mistranslated in Harrisse, 1892:552, who was followed unquestioningly in this error by subsequent writers: see the discussion of this in King, 2017:101-104.
(28) I am grateful to Catherine Akeroyd for drawing this to my attention. The globe is held at the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg.
(29) Monachus, c.1526-29, [section]62.
(30) Vespucci, 1893:38-39; see also Lehmann, 2013:15-24; Montalboddo, 1508, fol. 1xxvv-1xxvvir; Navarrete, 1837:28.
(31) Pigafetta, 1525/1969: facing 22; Castro, 2010:110; but it is Destroict Patagonicque on the map of the strait in Castro, 2010:111, and Streto Patagonico in Pigafetta, 1800:40.
(32) Pigafetta, 1525/1969:22; Skelton, 1975:53; Castro, 2010:110.
(33) Images of the Globe dore: Nova et integra orbs (sic) descriptio, are online at: http://images.bnf.fr/jsp/index.jsp?contexte=accueil&destination=accueil.jsp (search for: Globe dore') accessed 12/9/2019.
(34) Whyte, 2013:73.
(35) Harrisse, 1892:562-568; Marcel, 1890:283-287; Wieder, 1924:408.
(36) Marcel, 1890:280-287.
(37) De Smet, 1964a:42, n.6.
(38) Monachus, c.1526-29, [section]3. 'Gores' are 'one of the triangular or lune-shaped pieces that form the surface of a celestial or terrestrial globe' (Oxford English Dictionary, 2019). 'Spherical globes of the Earth and Celestial sphere were first produced by Johannes Schoner using a process of printing map details on twelve paper gores that were cut out then pasted to a sphere. The gores were conveniently made to each have a width of 30 degrees of longitude matching the principal meridians from the South Pole and North Pole to the Equator' (Wikipedia, entry on 'Gore: segment').
(39) Gallois, 1894:408.
(40) Ruge, 1892:50.
(41) Harrisse, 1892:562-568, plate XXI, with description; Schoener's 1523 globe, pp.519-528; Schoener's 1533 globe: sketch of the western hemisphere, plate XVII, description on pp.592-594; incomplete drawing of the Gilt Globe, p.563, plate XXI.
(42) Wieder, 1925:3; Taylor, 1928:187-8.
(43) Taylor, 1928:186.
(44) Schoener, 1533, Pt.I, cap. xi.
(45) De Smet, 1964b:609-610.
(46) Pelletier, 1995: p.34.
(47) Bollaert, 1527: "Rolandus Bollardus studiosis, Salutem".
(48) Denuce, 1910: 260.
(49) Horn, 1962: 133-139; idem, 1973: 184-188.
(50) De Smet, 1964a:41.
(51) Oronce Fine's name is often found spelt with an acute accent, but D'Amat (1975:1370) gives a very definite direction that his name should be spelt without an accent, "Fine, et non Fine".
(52) Oronce Fine, NOVA, ET INTEGRA VNIVERSIORBIS DESCRIPTIO, 1531; online at: http://nla.gov.au/nla.map-rm2932 accessed 5/10/2018.
(53) DECIMVSQVINTVS CIRCITER agitur annus, candide Lector, quo universam Orbis terrarum designationem, in hanc humani cordis effigiem primum redegimus: Idque in gratiam Christianissimi ac potentissimi FRANCISCI Francorum Regis, Mecoenatis nostri clementissimi. Oronce Fine, single-cordiform world map, RECENS ET INTEGRA VNIVERSI ORBIS DESCRIPTIO, 1534-36, Studioso Lectori; online at: https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-231869553 accessed 12/9/2019.
(54) Avonto, 1999:240.
(55) R. Hennig, "The Representation on Maps of the Magalhaes Straits before their Discovery", ImagoMundi, 5(1948):11-33.
(56) Blair and Robertson, 1903:185.
(57) Cachey Jr., 2007: lii; Appleby, 2013: n.20.
(58) Transylvanus, Roma, 1523a:2.
(59) De Orbis Situ ac Descriptione.
(60) Magnifico ac Nobili Domino Maximiliano Transylvano Caroli V. Imp. Invictissimi etc Consiliario nostras hasce qualescunque lucubratiunculas dicatas esse voluimus. Cuius non minor opera quam favorem res in hunc perducta est finem (To the Magnificent and Noble Lord Maximilian Transylvanus, Councillor to the Invincible Charles V, Emperor, etc, we wish to dedicate these labours of ours. For no less than by his favour has the work been brought to finality.)
(61) "My servant from Vicenza whom I sent from Spain to the Indies has returned... and has brought a journal from the day he left Spain until the day of his return", Chiericati to Isabella d'Este Gonzaga, Nuremberg, 26 Dec. 1522, Archivio di Stato di Mantova, Archivio Gonzaga, b.523, c.152; quoted in Berchet, 1892:175, doc.x.
(62) sono andati prima per la via de ponente verso mezo iorno a quelle isole del mar Occeano che dicono terra ferma, et dal capo verso le confine che guarda verso le isole de li Portogalesi hanno cavalcato la ponta de la detta terra ferma, et se li hanno posto adietro navigando per il mar che loro chiamano del Sur verso il ponente, et superato poi tuto il ponente, hanno passati tuti li mari verso tramontana, et de li sonno scorsi in levante, ritrovando nel sino Magno le isole de le spitiarie; poi forniti che sonno stati hanno passato a l'Aurea Chersonesso, superando la Taprobana, el sino Gangetico, lo Persico, lo Arabico, el capo de Bona Speranza, el mar de Ethiopia, lo Atlantico, et tandem giunti alle Canarie per aliam viam reversi sunt in regionem suam ... qui havemo longissimi summarii de la detta navigatione, mandatiper la maesta cesarea al serenissimo archyduca [Ferdinando d 'Austria] el qual per sua gratia ha participate ogni cosa meco ... Cesare anche ha mandato a sua serenita una palla dove e pinto tuto il detto viaggio; Chiericati to Isabella d'Este Gonzaga, 10 Jan. 1523, quoted in Berchet, 1892:176, no.xi. Chiericati sent a copy of Transylvanus' epistle to Rome, where it was published by F. Minitius Calvus in 1524; A. Roersch, "Nouvelles indications concernant Maximilien Transsylvanus", Revue belge de Philologie et d'Histoire, nos.7-3(1928):871-879 at 873.
(63) Ego tam mirifice orbis pervagationi nonnihil volens adiicere, ut quae lectu videantur mirabilia, aspect credantur probabiliora, Globum huc in orbis modum efffingere studui, exemplar haud fallibile aemulatus, quod Hispaniarum solertia cuidam viro honere conspicuo transmisit; Schoener, 1523, in Coote, 1888:53, 99. It must be noted that Coote/Stevens mistranslated the phrase in Schoner's letter, modo sese consona admissione patientur, quod invenienda inventis non obstent: a correct translation is, "I do not wish however to set aside the globe I constructed some time ago, as it fully showed all that had at that time been discovered; so that they may be allowed acceptance in harmony with each other, for what is still to be discovered must not hinder what has been discovered'.
(64) Jean Denuce, Magellan: la Question des Moluques et la Premiere Circumnavigation du Globe, Bruxelles, Academies Royales, 1911, p.388, n.3; Rorsch, 1928, p.101, n.2.
(65) Wurttembergischen Landesbibliothek, Stuttgart, Nicolai'sche Sammlung, Bd.79, 36 f. 95 Globussegmente; described in Ruge, 1911: no. 94.
(66) Hispani anno 1519 navibus quinqe duce Magellano Hispali souerunt. E 10 augusti & paucis diebus ad insulas fortunatas. Ad hesperidum inde pervenrunt a quibus intra certos dies felici navigatione promonto in america detexere cui s marie nomen; hinc ultimo Martii anni sequentis delati ad sinum cui S Iuliano nomen imposuere ubi in maio asperrimam habuerunt hiemem. Ex hoc 22 augusti soluere tandem ad promonto crucis appulerunt ubi una ex quinqe navibus elissa. 26 decembris ad fretum pervenere latitudinis aliquando 3 aliquan 2 nonnumque 10 aut 5 miliaronum italicorum ubi noctem habebant paulo amplius horarum 5. Ex hoc freto navis altera hispalim rediit, cetere tres per hoc inferiorum hemisphaerium in occidentem rursus remearunt, penetrantes orientem C bonae spei preternavigantes.
(67) The nature of Humabon's position and authority is discussed in William Henry Scott, Barangay: Sixteenth- century Philippine Culture and Society, Ateneo de Manila University Press, Quezon City, 1994, pp.228-9.
(68) Monachus, c.1526-29, [section]55.
(69) See also Nunn, 1929:10; Nunn, 1934:627.
(70) perche mia intenzione era di vedere se potevo volgere uno cavo di terra che Ptolemeo nomina il Cavo di Cattegara, che e giunto con el Sino magno: Amerigo Vespucci to Lorenzo de'Medici, Seville, 18 July 1500; quoted in Bandini, 1745:66; and Luzzana Caraci, 1996:133.
(71) nit ferner hot uns tholomeus di welt befschrieben aber ander hat uns marco polo und manderville gefchrieben. See the reproduction of Behaim's globe in Ghillany, 1853. In Ravenstein's reproduction, the city has become a mountain. Ravenstein's reproduction is online at: https://collections.lib.uwm.edu/digital/collection/agdm/id/1226 accessed 12/9/2019.
(72) Martin Waldseemuller (1507), Universalis cosmographia secundum Ptholomaei traditionem et Americi Vespucii aliorumque lustrationes (The Universal Cosmography according to the Tradition of Ptolemy and the Discoveries of Amerigo Vespucci and others), St Die; image at: www.loc.gov/rr/geogmap/exh.html accessed 12/9/2019.
(73) Schoener, 1515: Tract II, f.59v. The Luculentissima is online at: https://books.google.com.au/books?id=avZu4BiPmDgC&pg and at: https://www.loc.gov/resource/ibc0001.2012rosen0628/?st=gallery accessed 12/9/2019.
(74) "Kattigara 8[degrees]30' nordl. Breite in den Procheiroi Kanones V, 8[degrees]30' sudl. Breite in Geographia VII, 3, 29"; Schnabel, 1930:225. See also Bagrow, 1945:322-323; and Polaschek, 1959:17-37.
(75) Malleret, 1962: 421-54.
(76) [phrase omitted]. In the 9th year of the Yanxi period of the Huan Di Emperor [AD 166], the King of Da Qin [Rome], Andun [Marcus Aurelius Antoninus], sent an embassy with tribute from beyond the frontier of Ri Nan [Vietnamese, Nhat Nam]. Liang Shu, c.AD 629, cap. 54.
(77) Schnabel, 1930:242-3.
(78) Transylvanus, 1523a: cap. 4.
(79) "lequel cap (sous correction de ceux qui ont fait la cosmographie car ils ne l'ontpoint vu) ne se trouve pas ou ils pensent, mais est vers le septentrion a 12[degrees] ou environ" : Pigafetta, 2010:118 ; "Lequel comme parlent les cosmographes ne trouverentpas commepensoient mais au septentrion xii. Degrezplus ou moins": Pigafetta, 1969:15-27 & 1984:128. "When they were past the Equinoctiall line ... they came to the xiii degrees above the Equinoctiall towarde the pole Artyke, indendyng as much as possible, to approche to the cape cauled of the owlde wryters Cattigara: The which is not founde as the owlde Cosmographers haue described it, but is towarde the north abowt xii degrees as they afterward understode": Pigafetta, 1555:222r.
(80) Dames, 1918: xlvi, l, lvi.
(81) Barros, Decada I da Asia, 1563/1777: lib.IX, cap. i, 299-300; Barros, Decada III da Asia, 1563/1628: lib.V, cap. v, f.126v.
(82) Hactenus parum aut nihil a Ptolemaei veterumque autorum vestigiis digressi sumus, sed nunc cum eo loco quo Ptolemaeus Cattigaram longe vltra Aequatorem prominentem descripsit, et deinde alii adnectentes regnum Var, Moabar et alia incerta fere ratione, nulla post frequentes ultra citraque aequatorem navigationes terra continens inventa fuerit, sed insularum infinituspaene numerus; Frisius, 1548: 131.
(83) Nunn, 1927:479, 1929:10, 1932:56-57 & 1934:629.
(84) Ab ortu quicquid ultra Sinas, Serasque ac ultra 180 gradum longitudinis est, totum Ptolem. incognitum permansit. Post Ptolomaeum vero ultra 180 gradum versus orientem multae regiones repertae per quendam Marcum Polum Venetium, ac allios, sed nunc a Columbo Genuensi et Americo Vesputio solum loca littoralia ex Hispaniis per Oceanum occidentalem illuc applicantes, lustratae sunt, eam partem terrae insulam existimantes vocarunt Americam, quartam orbis partem. Modo vero per novissimas navigationes, factas anno post Christum 1519 per Magellanum ducem navium invictissimi Caesaris divi Caroli etc. versus Moluccas insulas, quas alii Moluquas vocant, in supremo oriente positas, eam terram invenerunt esse continentem superioris Indiae, quae pars est Asiae. Schoener, 1533: Pars II, cap. xx; quoted in Wieser, 1881/1967:. Online at: http://books.google.com.au/books?id=EYMEAAAAQAAJ accessed 12/9/2019.
(85) Hangzhou [phrase omitted]: Marco Polo's account refers to Hangzhou as Kinsay (elsewhere Quinsay). One explanation of this word is that it came from a Chinese expression for "capital city", [phrase omitted] jingshi, which at the time would have been pronounced something like kingsai. More common is the explanation that Kinsay comes from [phrase omitted] Xingzai, "temporary imperial lodging", at that time a euphemistic name for Hangzhou suggesting that soon the emperor would return north to rule all of China. For an account of late 13th century Hangzhou, see Gernet, 1962; Hallberg, 1906-1907:355.
(86) Wieder, 1924:408.
(87) Herrmann, 1913:782-787; idem, 1939:123.
(88) Wieder, 1925:1-4 and Plates 1-3; and Taylor, 1928:186-8. EousMare was a Graeco-Roman term meaning the "Eastern Sea" to the east of India; genitive of Eos, goddess of the dawn.
(89) Magnus Sinus qui hodie mare de Sur vocatur (the Magnus Sinus which today is called the Mare de Sur); Schoener, 1533: Pars II, cap. xix.
(90) Monachus, c.1526-29, [section]60.
(91) Monachus, c.1526-29, [section]58.
(92) Monachus, c.1526-29, [section]38.
(93) NOVA ET INTEGRA VNIVERSALISQVE ORBIS TOTIVS IVXTA GERMANVM NEOTERICORVM TRADITIONEM DESCRIPTIO (A New Complete and Universal Description of the Whole World, according to the Modern German Tradition); the 1558 Venice edition is held at the Houghton Library, Harvard University, online at: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL: 1196240?buttons=y
(94) Ea Caesaream maiestatem conveni vera indagando ubi, mentio fuerat facta de illis terris modo dictis inter alia Caesaream maiestas responsionem dedit Terras praenominatas minime eam deremptas maris interstitio, sed orientalibus annexas. Praeterea Hispanos indies atque in dies a celebri civitate Themixitam magni Chan Imperatoris alias Montiszuma regis occidentem versus terras inquisisse perlustrasseque, referebat, nec ulli tante vastitatis limitem obtinerent potuisse, satisque indictum eam terram occiduam ad Sericae regione Sinarum populos usque protendi quos certo constaret intra Castellanorum limites contineri quantem satis compertam haere ex Indis, qui cum invictis Ferdinando Cortesio in Hispania Nova bella commiserunt.
(95) Barbosa, 1946:217-219, "O Grande Reino de China".
(96) See King, 2011.
(97) versus austrum secundum Plinium invenit habitationem esse sub tropic capricorni vel ultra, nam ibi dicitur esse Regio Pathalis in India; D'Ailly, 1483: cap. xix.
(98) Petrus etiam Cardinalis Cameracensis, in eo libro De Imagine Mundi conscripsit, capite 19 ponit... (Pierre Cardinal Compiegne [d'Ailly] sets out in chapter 19 of his book, Imago Mundi.); Schoener, 1533: Pars II, Cap. I, "De generali divisione terrae".
(99) Monachus, c.1526-29, [section]62.
(100) Monachus, c.1526-29, [section]59.
(101) Taprobana hodie Samotra, est infulapermaxima lndioe opposita sub gra.151,15. sub Aequatore; Schoener, 1533: Pt.II, cap. xxi.
(102) Taprobana Samothra dicta totius mundi maxima multarum rerum opulenta etpotens cuius rex ne regnam hereditarium fiat liberis gignendis operam dare prohibetur. Auro et argento abundant metalisque elephantes gignit et tigrides nascitur; hic oriza, mel, gingiber, berillus, hyacintus; plura apud solinum ca.66; Solinus, 1979.
(103) Monachus, c.1526-29, [section]50.
(104) Monachus, c.1526-29, [section]19.
(105) Gerard Mercator, world map, 1538; online at: www.wdl.org/en/item/6766/view/1/1/ accessed 5/10/2018.
(106) Wroth, 1944:169. "Mercator's 1538 map of the world is clearly indebted to Fine's map of 1531": Hiatt, 2008:226. "Fine's double cordiform projection was used by Mercator for his renowned world map of 1538": Snyder, 1997:37. "Mercator, who had studied under Gemma Frisius, was in turn influenced by Fine as his world map of 1538 shows": Schilder, 1976:15.
(107) Averdunk & Muller-Reinhard, 1914:15-21; Dorflinger, 1973:95; Horst, 2016:13.
(108) Terras hic esse certum est sed quatus quibusque limitibus finitas incertum.
(109) Frisius, 1530:164, cap. xxvi, "De India".
(110) QVINTA haec, et quidem amplissimapars, quantum coniectare licet, nuper orbi nostro accessit, verum paucis adhuc littoribus explorata. Online at: http://wp.unil.ch/mercator/quinta/ accessed 12/9/2019.
(111) As on Pierre Desceliers, mappemonde, 1546. Online at: https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-231280050/view accessed 12/9/2019.
(112) Aulcuns cosmographes ont conioinct Lasie auec La Floride, neufue espaigne, Terre ferme et Amerique, et disent icelle estre partie de Lasie mais loppinion diceulx nest en ensuyuir autant quelle nappert par certaine experience ne par raison; quoted in Van Duzer, 2015:71.
(113) Nunn, 1929:7. These place names come from Marco Polo: see Hallberg, 1906-1907:68, 316-318, 507-509.
(114) Harleian Mappemonde, mid-1540s, British Library, Add. MS 5413.
(115) Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, Res. Ge. AA.625; quoted in Harrisse, 1900:262.
(116) Le Testu, 1556.
(117) Le Testu, planisphere, 1566; Baverel et al., p.12. Online at https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b80015731.r=Le%20Testu accessed 12/9/2019.
(118) Blair and Robertson, 1903:185.
(119) Brotton, 1999:88.
(120) Monachus, c.1526-29, [section]67.
(121) Bollaert, 1527: "Rolandus Bollardus studiosis, Salutem".
(122) Garcia, 1725:8.
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Robert J. King 
 Robert J. King is an ANZMapS member and independent researcher working at the National Library of Australia, with special interest in European expansion into the Pacific in the 16th-18th centuries.
Correspondence to: email@example.com
Caption: Figure 1. Franciscus Monachus, double hemispheric map in De Orbis Situ ac Descriptione, Antwerp, c.1524- 29. (Wikipedia Commons).
Caption: Figure 2. Prester John in Aphrica on the Gilt Globe (Globe dore, 1524-29). (Bibliotheque Nationale de France)
Caption: Figure 3. Prester John in Aphrica on the Stuttgart globe gores. (National Library of Australia, RA 265, v. 1 pl. 1 (online at http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-1720103001)
[Please note: Some non-Latin characters were omitted from this article]
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