FOURTEEN DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS THAT REDUCE SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION AND COULD POTENTIALLY HELP MANAGE TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS A REVIEW OF THE AVAILABLE EVIDENCE.
This commentary will review the effect of commonly used dietary supplements on inflammation in order to evaluate whether type 2 diabetes melitus supplements can potentially reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2.
In 2013, Wang, et al, published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 22 cohorts involving over 40,000 subjects. This meta-analysis provided evidence that elevated levels of CRP are significantly associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. (1) The following are dietary supplements with an anti-inflammatory effect:
In 2018, Koushki, et al, who published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials totaling over 700 participants. This study suggests that resveratrol supplementation significantly reduced hs-CRP levels. (2)
Two studies will be mentioned for the anti-inflammatory effect of magnesium. In 2014, Dibaba, et al, conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of seven cross sectional studies involving over 32,000 subjects. This meta-analysis and systematic review indicates that dietary magnesium intake is significantly and inversely associated with serum CRP levels. (3) In 2017, Simental-Mendia, et al, carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials. This study indicated that magnesium supplementation reduces CRP levels among individuals with inflammation. (4)
In 2017, Mazidi, et al, published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 20 randomized controlled trials which indicated a that there was a significant reduction in serum CRP following probiotic administration. (5)
In 2018, Jafarneyad, et al, performed a meta-analysis of 12 randomized controlled trials with over 400 patients. This meta-analysis showed that vitamin C supplementation reduces serum CRP level, particularly in younger subjects, with higher CRP baseline level. (6)
In 2015, Sahebkar conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of six studies comprising over 1,000 patients. This study supports the clinically relevant benefit of L-carnitine supplementation in lowering the circulating levels of CRP. (7)
In 2018, carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of eight randomized controlled trials which showed greater improvement in CRP levels following zinc supplementation. (8)
In 2018, Mousa, et al, performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of 20 randomized controlled trials comprising over 1,200 participants. In this study vitamin supplemented groups had lower levels of Creactive protein. (9)
ALPHA LIPOIC ACID:
Two studies in 2018 will be mentioned for the antiinflammatory effect of alpha lipoic acid. The first study was by Saboori, et al, who published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled comprising over 250 patients. This study showed that alpha-lipoic acid supplementation could significantly decrease CRP level in patients with elevated levels of this inflammatory marker. (10) The second study was by Akbari, et al, who conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 18 randomized clinical trials which demonstrated the promising impact of alpha lipoic acid administration on decreasing inflammatory markers such as CRP, IL-6 and TNF-[varies] or [proportional] among patients with metabolic syndrome and related disorders. (11)
In 2018, Nikpayam, et al, carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of 5 trials involving over 300 participants. This study suggested that Pycnogenol consumption can decrease the level of CRP and have antiinflammatory effect. (12)
In 2018, Akbari, et al, performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of 6 randomized controlled trials showing the promising effect of melatonin administration on reducing CRP and IL-6 levels among patients with metabolic syndrome and related disorders. (13)
In 2017, Ju, et al, published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials comprising over 43,000 participants. In this study decreased serum CRP suggests a positive effect on inflammation in coronary heart disease. (14)
Two studies will be cited for the anti-inflammatory effects of curcuminoids. In 2014, Sahebkar carried out a meta-analysis of 6 trials involving over 170 subjects. Compared with placebo, supplementation with curcuminoids was associated with a significant reduction in circulating CRP levels. (15) In 2019, Tabrizi, et al, conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 15 randomized controlled trials which suggests that taking curcumin-containing supplements may exert antiinflammatory properties through a significant reduction inIL-6 and hs-CRP. (16)
In 2016, Mazidi, et al, performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of 9 studies which suggests that ginger supplementation significantly reduces serum CRP and improves glycemia indexes and lipid profile. (17)
In 2016, Lin, et al, published a systematic review and met-analysis of 8 randomized controlled trials involving over 900 participants. In this study omega 3 significantly decreased CRP concentration in type-2 diabetes mellitus. (18)
There seems to be a causal relationship between systemic inflammation and diabetes mellitus type 2 based on elevated c-reactive protein being a risk factor for DM type 2. The 14 dietary supplements discussed in this commentary could be used as adjunct therapy in diabetes type 2 to decrease systemic inflammation.
About the author:
Adrian Isaza is both a physician and an academic. As an academic he authored a chapter of the book "The Role of Functional Food Security in Global Health". He also teaches graduate students at Everglades University for the Alternative Medicine Degree program. He recently obtained his degree as a Doctor of Medicine and practices medicine full time in Tampa, Florida. Dr. Isaza has published over 30 papers advocating the use of alternative medicine.
(1.) Wang X, Bao W, Liu J, et al. Inflammatory markers and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(1): 166-75.
(2.) Koushki M, Dashatan NA, Meshkani R. Effect of Resveratrol Supplementation on Inflammatory Markers: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Clin Ther. 2018;40(7): 1180-1192.e5.
(3.) Dibaba DT, Xun P, He K. Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with serum C-reactive protein levels: meta-analysis and systematic review. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014;68(4):510-6.
(4.) Simental-mendia LE, Sahebkar A, Rodriguez-moran M, Zambrano-galvan G, Guerrero-romero F. Effect of Magnesium Supplementation on Plasma C-reactive Protein Concentrations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Curr Pharm Des. 2017;23 (31): 4678-4686.
(5.) Mazidi M, Rezaie P, Ferns GA, Vatanparast H. Impact of Probiotic Administration on Serum C-Reactive Protein Concentrations: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Control Trials. Nutrients. 2017;9(1 ):20. Published 2017 Jan 3. doi:10.3390/nu9010020
(6.) Jafarnejad S, Boccardi V, Hosseini B, Taghizadeh M, Hamedifard Z. A Meta-analysis of Randomized Control Trials: The Impact of Vitamin C Supplementation on Serum CRP and Serum hs-CRP Concentrations. Curr Pharm Des. 2018;24(30):3520-3528.
(7.) Sahebkar A. Effect of L-carnitine Supplementation on Circulating C-reactive Protein Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Med Biochem. 2015;34(2): 151-159.
(8.) Mousavi SM, Djafarian K, Mojtahed A, Varkaneh HK., Shab-bidar S. The effect of zinc supplementation on plasma C-reactive protein concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Pharmacol. 2018;834:10-16.
(9.) Mousa A, Naderpoor N, Teede H, Scragg R, De courten B. Vitamin D supplementation for improvement of chronic low-grade inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr Rev. 2018;76(5):380-394.
(10.) Saboori S, Falahi E, Eslampour E, Zeinali khosroshahi M, Yousefi rad E. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on C-reactive protein level: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2018;.
(11.) Akbari M, Ostadmohammadi V, Tabrizi R, et al. The effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on inflammatory markers among patients with metabolic syndrome and related disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2018;15:39.
(12.) Nikpayam O, Rouhani MH, Pourmasoumi M, Roshanravan N, Ghaedi E, Mohammadi H. The Effect of Pycnogenol Supplementation on Plasma C-Reactive Protein Concentration: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Clin Nutr Res. 2018;7(2):117-125.
(13.) Akbari M, Ostadmohammadi V, Tabrizi R, et al. The effects of melatonin supplementation on inflammatory markers among patients with metabolic syndrome or related disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Inflammopharmacology. 2018;26(4):899-907.
(14.) Ju W, Li X, Li Z, et al. The effect of selenium supplementation on coronary heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2017;44:8-16.
(15.) Sahebkar A. Are curcuminoids effective C-reactive protein-lowering agents in clinical practice? Evidence from a meta-analysis. Phytother Res. 2014;28(5):633-42.
(16.) Tabrizi R, Vakili S, Akbari M, et al. The effects of curcumin-containing supplements on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress: A systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. Phytother Res. 2019;33(2):253-262.
(17.) Mazidi M, Gao HK, Rezaie P, Ferns GA. The effect of ginger supplementation on serum C-reactive protein, lipid profile and glycaemia: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Food Nutr Res. 2016;60:32613. Published 2016 Nov 1. doi:10.3402/fnr.v60.32613.
(18.) Lin N, Shi JJ, Li YM, et al. What is the impact of n-3 PUFAs on inflammation markers in Type 2 diabetic mellitus populations?: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Lipids Health Dis. 2016; 15:133. Published 2016 Aug 20. doi: 10.1186/s 12944-016-0303-7.
by Adrian Isaza PhD DC MS
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|Date:||Jun 1, 2019|
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