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FORM AND STYLE OF BALTHASAR ERBEN'S SOLO AND SMALL-SCALE SACRED CONCERTOS.

Gdansk, one of the largest and wealthiest cities of the 17th century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, was distinguished by an abundant and diversified musical life. The repertoire that had been created there at the time has survived to our times only in residual form, and the composers who had been active there, despite their undisputed talent, had sunk into oblivion. Among them is Balthasar Erben (1626-1686), who for twenty-eight years served as Kapellmeister at St. Mary's Church, the main temple in Gdansk. In reality, the position entailed being the municipal Kapellmeister (1) and the candidate for the post was appointed by the Municipal Council with the approval of church authorities. That meant in practical terms that the musician serving in the office was the most important figure responsible for the shape of musical life in the city.

The composer was born in Gdansk in 1626. Regrettably, little is known of the early period of his life, including the course of his musical education. We do, however, have the information that as an adult he amassed experience in music during his sojourn in Regenburg (where he met, among others, Johann Jacob Froberger), and during his numerous foreign voyages, a period when he visited Germany, the Netherlands, England, France, and Italy. On return to his native town, in January 1658, he was appointed to the prestigious position of Kapellmeister at St Mary's Church and of the ensemble of the Municipal Council, a post that he served in until his death (his funeral took place on 3 October 1686) (2).

Erben's extant compositional oeuvre comprises, due to the office he held, mostly vocal and instrumental religious works with Latin and German texts, several Protestant songs for voice and basso continuo (3), an aria composed to honour the abdication of Polish King John II Casimir (4), as well as instrumental compositions--Passacaglia, Courante and Sarabanda (found in a manuscript anthology entitled Franzosische Art Instrument Stucklein) (5) and Sonata sopra ut re mi fa sol la for two violins and continuo (6). With one exception, Erben's compositions were preserved outside of Gdansk, thus being a testament to the reception of his work in other European centres. Nevertheless, it may be assumed that they were also performed in Gdansk (7). The most numerous set of sources is held in the University Library in Uppsala, in the collection of Gustav Duben, a Kapellmeister at the Royal Court in Stockholm (8). The collection includes seventeen compositions by Erben (some of which in two or three sources), thus constituting the most significant source for the works of the Kapellmeister from Gdansk. Six other pieces can be found in the Staats bibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz in Berlin, one--in Hudobne muzeum Slovenskeho narodneho muzea [Music Museum of the Slovak National Museum] in Dolna Krupa in Slovakia (within a manuscript anthology created in Saxon city of Zittau), while three pieces for harpsichord, preserved in a set of German origin, are now held at Yale Uni versity's Music Library in New Haven (9). The prints by Georg Neumark, which include the Protestant songs by Erben, found their way to the Fondation Martin Bodmer Bibli otheca Bodmeriana in Cologne, the Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek in Kiel, and the Leipziger Stadtbibliothek, Musikbibliothek (10). The print of Halt auff! grosses Himmels-Liecht! [!]--as the only work by Erben--was preserved in the National Archive in Gdansk and at the Gdansk Library of the Polish Academy of Sciences (11). Several titles of missing compositions today are provided in inventories and in a publication by Hermann Rausching (12).

From among twenty one extant compositions by Erben that may be recognised as church concertos, only six are scored for ensembles smaller than four voices with instrumental accompaniment. The remaining ones are four- and five-voice compositions including continuo (13), as well as pieces for five and six voices (including additional ripieni parts), instruments, and continuo. The following article discusses the solo and small-scale concertos of Erben, since it is in them that the influence of Italian monody and musica moderna best manifests itself.

The extant solo compositions by Erben are scored for soprano voice accompanied by viola or violin and viola ensemble, as well as continuo. In his pieces for larger ensembles, also, the composer often included violas as accompanying instruments (14). The remaining concertos of the discussed group were intended for three voices in various configurations (3C, SAB, ATB) with the accompaniment of two violins and continuo (see Table 1). Pieces for vocal ensemble comprised of soprano, alto, and bass, as well as alto, tenor, and bass are also present in the extant works by Kaspar Forster (1616-1673), Erben's predecessor in the post of Kapellmeister at St. Mary's Church (15). The latter type of vocal ensemble can also be noted in the works of composers affiliated with the Royal Court in Warsaw-Marco Scacchi (ca. 1600-1662) (16), and Marcin Mielczewski (ca. 1600-1651) (17).

The texts of the discussed musical pieces are constituted by German and Latin passages from the Bible (Book of Psalms, Book of Isaiah, and Book of Revelation), as well as strophic poetry. Additionally, in the composition Ante oculos tuos, Domine, the composer used a Latin prayer, the authorship of which was ascribed to St. Augustine. The structure and semantic layer of the texts bears major influence upon the structural divisions in Erben's works.

The arrangement of Ante oculos tuos, Domine scored for soprano and instrumental ensemble comprising three violas and organ in the basso continuo part, were given a sectional structure, however with a clear tendency to join the segments into larger wholes aligned with regard to both material and expression. As a result, we are able to separate four segments (see Table 2). Such division is correlated with the semantic layer of the scored text, which comprises a reflection on the sinful condition of man and a hopeful plea for God's mercy.

In Erben's Ante oculos tuos, Domine, similar to the compositions by Forster, as well as his Italian master Giacomo Carissimi (1605-1674), an important role is given to affective recitative. After the initial Sinfonia with an imitative introduction of the respective instruments, a solo voice resounds with a delicate ('Sona alla discretione') for the major part chordal accompaniment, providing harmonic filling (see Example 1). Such a compositional style brings to mind the solo passages in Audite mortales by Bartlomiej Pekiel (see Example 2). (19)

The entire section (mm. 23-94) is kept in the spirit of recitative; therefore, the words of the text are treated almost exclusively syllabically. Occasional short melismas are given the form of conventional madrigalisms and are correlated to the words: 'conferimus' (we carry), 'flevimus' (we have wept), 'extenderis' (you will extend), 'clamamus' (we are calling). Such patterns serving to provide musical illustration are most often associated with the categories of action and movement. A melisma evoking a falling motive on the word 'suspenderis' (you will lower) constitutes a conventional figure of musical rhetoric known as catabasis (see Example 3). The latter is a melic inversion of the trope of anabasis, applied to the word 'extenderis' (you will extend).

In order to intensify the expressive qualities of the text permeated with words connoting pain and suffering (e.g., weakness, ordeals, gasps of pain), harmonic solutions are applied, such as--associated with the representation of affectus doloris--dissonant intervals alongside delays and semitone deviations.

The expressive transformation occurring in the text was reflected in the musical layer through the change to triple metre and a more aria-like and flowing melody line. The parts for soprano and viola I are written in parallel thirds (with minor irregularities). Other instruments provide harmonic filling. The limited number of parts, the contrast between recitative and aria-like melody are elements indicating a gradual transformation of the form of sacred concerto into cantata. However, in Erben's compositions, the respective segments do not yet constitute the widely-elaborate independent parts, hence the process is not as distinctive as in the case of some works by Forster.

The structural principle, involving an interlacing of vocal fragments with instrumental sections, guided the composer in his elaboration of Ich freue mich im Herrn for soprano accompanied by pairs of violins, violas, violone, and basso continuo (20). The basis for musical elaboration in this case is constituted by two verses from the Book of Isaiah (61:10-11). It is a joyful song of praise:
"I will greatly rejoice in the Lord, my whole being shall exult in my
God; for he has clothed me with the garments of salvation, he has
covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom decks
himself with a garland, and as a bride adorns herself with her jewels.
For as the earth brings forth its shoots, and as a garden causes what
is sown in it to spring up, so the Lord God will cause righteousness
and praise to spring up before all the nations" (NRSV) (21).


The nuptial symbolism implied in the passage is among the most suggestive specimens of biblical imagery, bespeaking a deep bond and a covenant of love uniting the Lord with his chosen people.

The work opens with an instrumental Sinfonia (mm. 1-15), after which the soprano with an accompaniment exclusively limited to basso continuo presents the first section of the biblical verse ("Ich freue mich im Herrn, und meine Seele ist frohlich in meinem Gott"; see Example 4a). After a short instrumental section, the vocal part returns with the initial musical and textual material (the phrase starts a fourth higher), which, however, quickly undergoes modifications. In the later course of the piece, the composer is consistent in alternating the vocal part with short or slightly more elaborate instrumental sections, until the final tutti spanning the closing eight bars of the composition. The texture of purely instrumental fragments varies from homorhythmic (usually exhibiting slight irregularities), through initial imitation, non-imitative polyphony, and imperfect consonance movement (short fragments for a pair of violins; see Example 4b).

The first and last sections, written in a triple metre, are pervaded with aria-like melodies with a prevalence for stepwise movement. Here, the composer introduces melismas as illustrative elements, correlated with the words 'freue' (rejoice), 'frohlich' (joyful; see Example 5).

The melodic line of the central section, in a duple metre, is almost strictly syllabic, verging on recitative (see Example 6).

A different architectural concept is displayed in Ach! dass ich doch im meinen Augen hatte (see Table 3). It is a musical adaptation of a strophic poem by an unknown author, who found the inspiration for his work in the biblical Book of Lamentations (22). The first stanza of the text is a lamentation of a sinner and a call to repentance in the face of impending punishment. In the second stanza, the lyric subject bemoans the fall of Jerusalem (referred to here as Zion and Salem) touched by God's wrath and begs for mercy. The third and final stanza returns with a dramatic plea for grace, followed by a passage expressing faith and trust in God's mercy, as well as gratitude to Him (23). The structure of the musical setting approaches a strophic aria; however, each stanza receives a slightly different form. What is retained are the recurring melodic formulae and homogenous harmonic progressions. The strophic form is underscored in the returning instrumental fragments.

The twelve-measure long Sinfonia (referred to in the source as 'Sonata' and 'Sinf.') opening the composition returns in the course of the piece as an element separating the respective stanzas. Another instrumental section, spanning four bars and repeated three times (also referred to as 'Sinf.' in the source) divides the material of each stanza into two parts comprising four lines of the poem each. Hence, the entire composition is noticeably uniform. The participation of instruments in the vocal parts is limited to accompanying two viola da gambas and continuo (in the four initial lines of each stanza) and to a section of an instrumental tutti either concurrently or alternately with the vocal part (in the following lines). The opening section of each stanza is reminiscent in its form of an aria although the regular structure of phrases and melodic flow, typical for that genre, is interrupted by repetition of words and intermittent short motifs separated by rests. In contrast, the elaboration of the ending passages of each stanza bears the influence of the concertato style. The shape of melodic lines displays a noticeable underscoring of single words, representative rather of a concerto than an aria. The distinctive characteristic of the piece is, therefore, the interfusing of stylistic features of both genres.

Ach! dass ich doch in meinen Augen hatte is one of the most emphatic works by Erben. The composer used in it a wide range of figures of musical rhetoric, not only to illustrate words, but also in order to evoke the expressive message of the text. Already the initial Sonata--with its distinctive short motifs separated by rests, stillness of movement, and dynamic contrast--foreshadows the intensity of the musical setting.

The typical for baroque affectation, apparent in the text, found its expression predominantly in the manner of shaping the melodic line (see Example 8). The melodies of the piece are marked by significant intensity of exclamation (exclamatio) and sighing (suspiratio), typical of lamentations.

Erben creates the melodic line through the emphasis provided by rhetorical figures to single expressive words (verba affectum), he introduces repetition as the trope of amplification, namely the words 'Ich bitt, Ich fleh, Ich schrei!' (I ask, I beg, I shout!) (see Example 11), as well as features typical of musical tone painting. Melismatic phrases with small note values correlated to the words: 'fliessen', 'brennen', 'berennen' (flow, burn, besiege) constitute typical figures denoting movement (see Example 12). The accumulation of such tropes makes Erben's work appear close to the madrigal convention.

The imitation of sobbing, sighing, the diversified rhythmical structure, the short phrases separated by rests and larger intervallic leaps--these are the elements Erben applies in order to display the expressive nature of the literary text. The coherence between the verbal and the musical manifests itself also in the tonal sphere. The composer chose for his work the key of C minor, described by various theorists as of sad or even despondent mood (24). Therein, the main clausulae lead to an interval of a major third (C), that is, one underscoring the generally positive thought provided only in the message in the final lines of text: "I know that you help, I know you support. For this with your people, I wish to give you thanks and never before you, O Father, do I wish to waver. And the enemy will also be thoroughly humiliated and declare of his own accord that you are our God".

In the pieces scored for three vocal parts with a pair of violins and continuo, the composer takes full advantage of the opportunities provided to him by a larger ensemble, and to a greater extent, introducing the features of the concertato style.

In Habe deine Lust an dem Herren, the composer draws upon a passage from the Book of Psalms, one of the most popular sources of texts for his contemporaries (25); he develops his entire composition using the fourth and fifth verses of Psalm 37: "Take delight in the Lord, and he will give you the desires of your heart. Commit your way to the Lord; trust in him, and he will act" (NRSV). In the musical setting, four sections can be identified, reflecting the respective half-verses of the Psalm. Erben decides here not to include the initial instrumental Sinfonia.

The piece opens with an imitative entrance respectively for sopranos I, II, and III accompanied by organ, later joined by violins reiterating the same thematic phrase (see Example 13). In the course of the piece, voices and instruments are treated as equally important and they enter into motivic correspondence. The entire opening passage is structured around the initial phrase, recurring against the backdrop of an ostinato bass line (though slightly modified beginning with its third iteration). The distinctive element here is the motif of an echo conjured up by both vocal and violin parts.

The subsequent section (mm. 23-45) is also dominated by concertato texture with short motifs exchanged between voices and instruments. The closing of that section coincides with a marked caesura, separating the respective verses of the Psalm. The third section (mm. 46-63) opens with a homorhythmic tutti, emphasising the words: "Befiehl dem Herren deine Wege" (Commit your way to the Lord) (the figure of noema), followed again by motivic correspondence (see Example 14).

In final section (mm. 62-104), the composer diversifies the ensemble to a slightly larger extent. At the outset, he underscores violin I, subsequently a similar melodic and rhythmic material, namely a melismatic figure correlating to the word 'act' (Wohlmachen), is repeated respectively by soprano I, soprano II, and soprano III. In the course of the section, various combinations of ensemble within the concertato texture are used, including pairs of voices in parallel thirds (sopranos II and III, violins I and II). It is all a build-up to a texturally denser ultimate tutti.

The most coherent in terms of form, but also of motifs, is the musical elaboration of Sei getreu bis in den Tod scored--as can be inferred from the clefs and voice registers--for soprano, alto, bass, two violins and basso continuo. The literary text for the piece comes from a single verse from the Book of Revelation (2:10): "Be faithful until death, and I will give you the crown of life" (NRSV). It is one repeated in the New Testament calls to keep the faith despite all suffering and trials.

In the course of the piece, it is possible to distinguish several passages ending with a cadence, although they are not markedly separated nor significantly contrasted. The sounds comprising the cadence of one section either constitute the beginning of the following section, or resound freely, creating the impression of a continuum of sound (see Example 15).

Also in this case, the composer does not include a separate instrumental Sinfonia. Although the composition opens with a pair of violins with continuo, m. 2 already introduces a bass solo. This presentation of the initial fragment of the text ("Be faithful until death", mm. 2-8) is accompanied by a series of harmonic tensions, with a concurrent lack of cadence (which appears as late as at the beginning of m. 8). In that manner, the composer evocatively illustrates the idea of a permanent enduring. The leading motif of the entire work, however, are the words introducing the promise of everlasting life--"so will Ich dir die Krone des Lebens geben" (and I will give you the crown of life). The musical setting of the half-verse with the main motif featuring a descending triad fills the better part of the piece (see Example 16).

Vocal and instrumental parts are treated virtually on equal terms here. The composer does differentiate the ensemble, i.e., he separates solo sections, duets for soprano and alto, a pair of violins and three vocal parts--all accompanied by continuo. However, the solo fragments are all written only for the bass voice. The melodic line of the continuo part is shaped in the likeness of the vocal bass. In the composition, the elements of concertato and imitative techniques interfuse.

In the final section of the composition (mm. 35-45), there is a systematic increase in textual density and, in turn, a build-up of tension. The key words, namely 'Krone', 'Lebens', 'geben' (crown, life, give) are underscored throughout the piece using melismas of small note values. The key (B-flat major) is correlated with the positive message of the text.

The last of the extant small-scale sacred concertos by Erben is Confitebor tibi, Domine scored for alto, tenor, and bass, accompanied by two violins and continuo. On this occasion, the composer chose one of the most popular Vesper psalms, Psalm 111 (v. 1-10). The text, uniform in terms of its expressive content, is in fact a prayer of gratitude and praise.

The architecture of Confitebor is rather more reminiscent of concertos dating back to the first half of the seventeenth century, which typically featured form with independent parts (see Table 4). In its course, twenty sections can be identified, contrasted in terms of ensemble, texture, and metre.

The piece is 321 measures, being the longest of Erben's works thus far discussed (26). The piece is permeated by features typical of concertato style. Respective sections are contrasted in terms of scoring, texture, and metre. The composer juxtaposes imitational and concertato fragments with a homorhythmic tutti, while segments with full ensemble are contrasted with those with soloists' or ensemble vocal parts. The entire composition follows the principle of alternating duple and triple metres. The mensural shifts serve predominantly to diversify the form.

In the musical setting for the respective verses, repetitions of single words and entire phrases are apparent. These perform, above all else, a form generating function and serve to develop a more complex musical passage. One may also easily notice here Erben's striving to integrate the form through repetition in the final section of the piece, the instrumental Sinfonia, and the textual and musical material of the initial section.

In principle, the text is treated syllabically and the melodic line in the sections in duple metre is shaped largely on the basis of repetition of tones, whereas in those in triple metre, it is slightly more fluent, benefitting to a larger extent from the stepwise movement. Relatively scarce melismas are correlated with words of rather neutral meaning, e.g., 'meo', 'testamenti', 'nomen' (my, testament, name). The sole exception being a conventional melismatic phrase for the word 'laudatio' (praise).

The instrumental parts are imitative in nature in parallel thirds; they enter into motivic correspondence, provide harmonic filling, and in some sections they double the vocal parts. Their melodies are largely shaped in the likeness of the vocal parts (see Example 17).

In the musical setting, several devices applied in order to interpret the text can be identified, such as the introduction of a short homorhythmic section to underscore the words "Magna opera Domini" (Great are the works of the Lord).

Confitebor tibi, Domine varies significantly from the remaining concertos by Erben, not only in regard to the architectural features and the extent to which the musical setting is dependent on the text. Limitations of melodic creativity are visible here; certain features of the harmonic aspect of the work are also striking, such as, for example, unusual chord progressions and dissonances that do not have a clear motivation in the semantic layer of the text.

The discussed solo and small-scale compositions by Erben are diversified, bearing a testament to the composer's invention, as well as to his pursuit of rendering the musical setting as complete a structure of the text as seems possible. A majority of compositions display the author's tendency to elaborate the respective sections, thus creating larger portions homogenous both in terms of expression and oftentimes also of motivic content. Such formal structures were often used in the music created in the Polish--Lithuanian Commonwealth in the second half of the seventeenth century. Standing out in regard to their architecture are the musical settings of the stanzaic poem Ach! dass ich doch in meinen Augen hatte and of Psalm 111, Confitebor tibi, Domine. The latter was given a multisectional form, typical for the works dating back to the first half of the seventeenth century, which evolved due to the modifications introduced to the composition of the ensemble, as well as textural and mensural contrasts.

In Erben's works, one can also identify varying manners of applying instrumental features. Ich freue mich im Herrn is still governed by the principle of alternate occurrences of vocal and instrumental parts, which resound together only in the final tutti. In other solo compositions, the composer assigns to the chosen instruments (Ach! dass ich doch in meinen Augen hatte) or to the entire ensemble (Ante oculos tuos), the role of providing an accompaniment for the vocal part, while in some sections, he also introduces instrumental segments alternately with the vocal part (Ach! dass ich doch in meinen Augen hatte). In the small-scale concertos, the instrumental parts are treated virtually on equal terms with vocal ones. The continuo usually provides the harmonic base, with the exception of Confitebor tibi, Domine and Sei getreu bis in den Tod, in which it is shaped in line with the vocal bass (obviously, the composer avoids doubling the more minute note values).

The discussed repertoire features the concertato technique, imitation, homorhythm, as well as monody. The respective pieces present distinctive types of melodic lines, ranging from recitative, through more aria-like and flowing ones, to an emphatic one comprising short motifs separated by rests. In most of the works in question, Erben strives to reflect the structure and semantics of the texts as comprehensively as possible, thus executing the leading postulate of the seconda pratica.

English Abstract

Balthasar Erben (1626-1686), Kapellmeister at St. Mary's Church in Gdansk was, at his time, one of the most eminent representatives of the musical life in the city. This article aims to shed light on his solo and small-scale concertos with respect to their form and style. In this repertoire, the influence of Italian monody and musica moderna manifests itself.

French Abstract

Balthasar Erben (1626-1686), Kapellmeister de l'eglise Sainte-Marie de Gdansk etait, a son epoque, l'un des plus eminents representants de la vie musicale de la ville. Cet article vise a faire la lumiere sur ses concertos solo et a petite echelle en ce qui concerne leur forme et leur style. Dans ce repertoire, l'influence de la monodie italienne et de la musique moderne se manifeste.

German Abstract

Balthasar Erben (1626-1686), Kapellmeister an der Marienkirche in Danzig, war zu seiner Zeit einer der bedeutendsten Vertreter des Musiklebens in der Stadt. Dieser Artikel soll sein Solo und seine kleinen Konzerte in Form und Stil beleuchten. In diesem Repertoire manifestiert sich der Einfluss der italienischen Monodie und der Musica Moderna.

Justyna Szombara is a musicologist and music librarian. From 2008 to 2011, she worked in the Library of the Institute of Musicology at the Jagiellonian University; since January 2012, she has been working at the Centre for the Documentation of the 19th- and 20th-Century Polish Music, named after I. J. Paderewski. She is the author of several articles concerning musical culture in seventeenth-century Poland, and source-critical editions of works of Crato Butner, Balthasar Erben, Christoph Werner, and Franciszek Perneckher. This article was created as a result of research carried out under the Preludium project entitled Z badan nad recepcja wloskiej 'musica moderna' w Europie Polnocnej: koncert koscielny w tworczosci kompozytorow gdanskich, realised at the Institute of Musicology, Jagiellonian University in Krakow and financed by the Polish National Science Centre (DEC-2012/05/N/HS2/02836).

(1.) As opposed to the cantors of Hamburg, Lubeck, and Leipzig, who were in charge of all main churches of the city, the Kapellmeister of Gdansk was only responsible for the music in St. Mary's Church. He was, moreover, relieved of his teaching duty (being only obliged to educate the boy sopranos singing in his choir), whereas Northern German cantors would teach music in parish schools, hence they had such school choirs at their disposal in their churches. The Kapellmeister of St. Mary's Church in Gdansk directed an ensemble of professional singers and instrumentalists, the ensemble of St. Mary's Church at the same time being the representative ensemble of the Municipal Council, cf. Friedhelm Krummacher. 'Individualitat und Tradition in der Danziger Figural musik vor 1700', in: Musica antiqua V: Acta scientifica, ed. Eleonora Harendarska, (Bydgoszcz: Filharmonia Pomorska im. I. Paderewskiego, 1978), 341.

(2.) More biographical detail is provided in the introduction to the critical edition of Erben's works, cf. Balthasar Erben. O Domine Jesu Christe, Domine Jesu Christe, ed. Justyna Szombara. Sub Sole Sarmatiae, 34 (Krakow: Musica Iagellonica, 2016), http://www.muzykologia.uj.edu.pl/documents/6464892/19284549/Balthasar_Erben_Domine_Jesu_Christe_O_Domine_Jesu_Christe.pdf/ff946023-e1a4-45c2-b087-35b17bf0114c, accessed 15 March 2019.

(3.) These songs were published within the collections of German composer and poet, Georg Neumark: Poetisch- und Musikalisches Lustwaldchen (Hamburg: Johann Naumann/Michael Pfeiffer, 1652) and Fortgepflantzter Musikalisch-Poetischer Lustwald (Jena: Georg Sengenwald, 1657).

(4.) Balthasar Erben. Denk- und Dank-Altar: Halt auff! grosses Himmels-Liecht! (Dantzig: Ludwig Knausten, 1668). For more about this work, see Zygmunt M. Szweykowski. 'Notatki z zapomnianej przeszlosci (2). Aria wokalna na cze Jana Kazimierza', Ruch Muzyczny 10 (1958): 29-30 and Danuta Szlagowska. 'Gdanscy muzycy w darze krolowi Janowi II Kazimierzowi', Aspekty Muzyki 2 (2012): 81-98.

(5.) This is the so-called Hintze-Manuskript, a manuscript containing twenty-eight pieces for keyboard instruments, the majority of which are by anonymous authors, with three pieces each signed by Balthasar Erben and Jonas Tresura, two pieces by Johann Jakob Froberger, and a single one by Johann Caspar Kerll. For more information on the manuscript, see Siegbert Rampe. 'Das 'Hinze-Manuskript': Ein Dokument zu Biographie und Werk von Matthias Weckmann und Johann Jacob Froberger', Schutz Jahrbuch 19 (1997): 71-111.

(6.) The manuscript of the work is held in the Carolina Rediviva University Library in Uppsala, shelf mark Instr. mus. i hs. 3:4.

(7.) This may be inferred both from the fact that Erben spent most of his artistic life in Gdansk, as well as that of the source transmission of his compositions (seven pieces from Duben's collection were created by a Gdansk-based copyist, on paper manufactured in Gdansk).

(8.) Valuable information on Duben's collection can be found in Maria Schildt. Gustav Duben at Work: Musical Repertory and Practice of Swedish Court Musicians, 1663-1690 (Ph.D. diss., Uppsala Universitet, 2014).

(9.) Hintze-Manuskript, shelf mark Ma.21.H59.

(10.) For a full list of libraries, see the RISM Inventory. The collection Fortgepflantzter Musikalisch-Poetischer Lustwald is also available online: https://books.google.pl/books?id=pnpFAAAAcAAJ&lpg=PT302&ots=vFslDzIm33&dq=%22Georg%20NeNeuma%22%20Fortgepflanzt%20Musikalisch-Poetischer%20Lustwald&hl=pl&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false, accessed 15 March 2019.

(11.) Shelf marks: PL-APG 300,R_Ff,50, pp. 239-244; PL-GD Oe 7. 2[degrees] adl. 86.

(12.) See Max Seifert. 'Die Chorbibliothek der St. Michaelisschule in Luneburg', Sammelbande der Internationalen Musikgesellschaft, 9. Jahrg., H. 4 (July-September 1908): 603; Johann Philipp Krieger. 21 ausgewahlte @Kirchenkompositionen, Denkmaler der Deutscher Tonkunst, Bd. 53-54, ed. Max Seiffert (Leipzig: Breitkopf und Hartel, 1916): LV (it contains a copy of and inventory of music documents created by Johann Philip Krieger, Kapellmeister at the Court of Johann Adolf I in Weissenfels); Tadeusz Maciejewski. 'Inwentarz muzykaliow kapeli karmelickiej w Krakowie na Piasku z lat 1665-1684', Muzyka 2 (1976): 89; Hermann Rauschning. Geschichte der Musik und Musikpflege in Danzig. Von den Anfangen bis zur Auflosung der Kirchenkapellen. Quellen und Darstellungen zur Geschichte Westpreussens, 15 (Danzig: Kommissionsverlag der Danziger Verlags-Gesellschaft, 1931): 242. For a list of extant works and the titles of missing vocal and instrumental concertos by Erben, see Justyna Szombara. 'On the Reception of Italian "musica moderna" in Northern Europe: The Sacred Concertos in Seventeenth-Century Gdansk', in Musica Baltica. Music-making in Baltic Cities--Various Kinds, Places, Repertoire, Performers, Instruments, ed. Danuta Popinigis, Danuta Szlagowska, and Jolanta Wo niak (Gdansk: Akademia Muzyczna im. Stanislawa Moniuszki w Gdansku, 2015), 276-286.

(13.) Such an ensemble appears only twice within the extant works by Erben (in O Domine Jesu Christe and Domine Jesu Christe); it also stands out from among the Northern German repertoire of the second half of the seventeenth century of the genre known as seconda pratica, as the repertoire of the period was dominated by vocal compositions accompanied by bowed instruments and continuo. See Geoffrey Webber. North German Church Music in the Age of Buxtehude (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2001), 103-114. Erben used such ensembles while arranging texts of similar expressive structure. In both cases, the basis for the musical setting are contemplative texts and prayers of supplication, although in the anonymous text to Domine Jesu Christe, there is also an additional motif of God's praise.

(14.) Miserere mei Deus (SSAATB, 4vla bc), Peccavi super numerum (SSAATB, 3vla, vlne, bc, ripieno: 3vla).

(15.) Beatus vir (CAB, 2vl, bc), Intenderunt arcum (CAB, bc), Benedicam Dominum (CAB, 2vl, bc), O bone Jesu (SAB, 2vl, vla,bc), O vos omnes qui laboratis (SAB, 2vl, vg, bc), Et cum ingressus esset Jesus (ATB, bc), Stillate rores stellae micate (ATB, 2vl, bc), Gentes redemptae pascha (ATB, 2vl, vg, bc), Laudate pueri Dominum (ATB, 2vl, vlne, bc), O plausus orantes jungamus (ATB, 2vl, bc), Repleta est malis anima nostra (ATB, 2vl, bc). See Berthold Warnecke. Kaspar Forster der Jungere (1616-1673) und die europaische Stilvielfalt im 17. Jahrhundert. Schriften zur Musikwissenschaft aus Munster, 21 (Schneverdingen: Wagner, 2004).

(16.) Omnes gentes (ATB, bc), Cantate Domino (ATB, 2vl, vlne, bc). See Aleksandra Patalas. W kosciele, w komnacie i w teatrze: Marco Scacchi: zycie, muzyka, teoria. Acta musicologica Universitatis Cracoviensis, 19 (Krakow: Musica Iagellonica, 2010).

(17.) Sub tuum praesidium (ATB, bc), Salve Virgo Puerpera (ATB, 2 vl, fg, bc). See Barbara Przybyszewska-Jarminska. Muzyka pod patronatem polskich Wazow: Marcin Mielczewski (Warszawa: Instytut Sztuki PAN, 2011).

(18.) Numbers 1, 3-6 are published in Balthasar Erben. Ach! dass ich doch in meinen Augen hatte, Ante oculos tuos, Domine, Confitebor tibi, Domine, Habe deine Lust an dem Herren, Sei getreu bis in den Tod, ed. Justyna Szombara. Thesaurus Musicae Gedanensis, 3 (Gdansk: Akademia Muzyczna im. Stanislawa Moniuszki w Gdansku, 2018).

(19.) In all likelihood, from 1649, Bartlomiej Pekiel was the Kapellmeister at the Royal Court in Warsaw. The Royal Ensemble accompanied the monarchs during their formal visits to Gdansk. We know that Erben performed before King John II Casimir during the latter's sojourn in Gdansk from 19 September to 3 October 1651. It was also then that he had the opportunity to admire the performance by the Warsaw Royal Ensemble. The works by Pekiel were also known in Gdansk owing to the scribal activity of Crato Butner, the cantor at St. Catharine's Church (in the period 1660-1679), who copied, among others, works by Polish and Italian composers affiliated with the Royal Court in Warsaw (i.e., M. Mielczewski, B. Pekiel, M. Scacchi, and T. Merula).

(20.) The composition was preserved in the form of a tablature; the names of voices were identified on the basis of clefs and registers.

(21.) Where marked, the passages quoted from the Bible are provided according to the New Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition (NRSV).

(22.) Those strongly emotive passages of the Old Testament had previously influenced many artists, to mention only the masters of Renaissance polyphony, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina and Orlando di Lasso. The texts from the Book of Lamentations also provided the basis for musical works by, among others, Johannes Tinctoris, Heinrich Isaac, Carlo Gesualdo da Venosa, Tomas Luis de Victoria, and Marc-Antoine Charpentier ; see also Tomasz Jasinski. 'Lamentacje Jeremiasza w muzyce', in Jerozolima w kulturze europejskiej, ed. Piotr Paszkiewicz and Tadeusz Zadrozny (Warszawa: Instytut Sztuki Polskiej Akademii Nauk, 1997), 113-127.

(23.) In the tradition of the Catholic Church, works written to excerpts from the Book of Lamentations were performed in the time of the Paschal Triduum, during the so-called Tenebrae (Officium tenebrarum), an element of the Liturgy of the Triduum. Likewise, the composition Ach! dass ich doch in meinen Augen hatte by a Lutheran Kapellmeister may have served to celebrate the liturgy of Holy Week or in the services held during Lent.

(24.) Szymon Paczkowski. Nauka o afektach w mysli muzycznej I polowy XVII wieku. Studia et Dissertationes Instituti Musicologiae Universitatis Varsoviensis, 8 (Lublin: Polihymnia, 1998).

(25.) See G. Webber, 86.

(26.) By comparison, the musical setting of Habe deine Lust an dem Herren spans 104 measures, whereas Sei getreu bis in den Tod, forty-five measures.
Table 1. List of solo and small-scale compositions of Balthasar Erben
(18).

    Text incipit               Scoring

1.  Ante oculos tuos. Domine   S, vla (3), org
2.  Ich freue mich im Herrn    S, vl (2), vla (2), vlne,
                               org
3.  Ach! dass ich doch in      S, vl (2), violetta, vla,
    meinen Augen hatte         vla da gamba (2), be
4.  Habe deine Lust an dem     3C, vl (2), org
    Herren
5.  Sei getreu his in den Tod  SAB, vl (2), org
6.  Confitebor tibi, Domine    ATB, vl (2), bc

    Text incipit               Library siglum/shelf mark

1.  Ante oculos tuos. Domine   S-Uu
                               a) Vok. mus. i hs. 20:2
                               b) Vok. mus. i hs. 83:39
                               (organ tablature)
2.  Ich freue mich im Herrn    S-Uu
                               Vok. mus. i hs. 83:81
                               (organ tablature)
3.  Ach! dass ich doch in      S-Uu
    meinen Augen hatte         a) Vok. mus. i hs. 20:1
                               b) Vok. mus. i hs. 20:1a
                               c) Vok. mus. i hs. 85:76
                               (organ tablature)
4.  Habe deine Lust an dem     D-B
    Herren                     Mus.ms. 30294 (f. 38r-39v)
5.  Sei getreu his in den Tod  D-B
                               Mus.ms. 30294 (f. 36r-37v)
6.  Confitebor tibi, Domine    S-Uu
                               a) Vok. mus. i hs. 20:3
                               b) Vok, mus. i hs. 80:53

    Text incipit               Dates of sources

1.  Ante oculos tuos. Domine   a)ca. 1668-1670
                               (according to Bruno
                               Grus nick (*))
                               b)1669
                               (according to Jan Olof
                               Ruden (**))
2.  Ich freue mich im Herrn    ea. 1668-1672
                               [J. O. Ruden)
3.  Ach! dass ich doch in      Scribe's note on a):
    meinen Augen hatte         "Dantisci A.o 1682. 10
                               Augusti: S. Schirm".
                               b)ca. 1686-1690
                               (J.O. Ruden)
                               c) undefined
4.  Habe deine Lust an dem     Between 1675 and 1750
    Herren                     (RISM)
5.  Sei getreu his in den Tod  Between 1675 and 1750
                               (RISM)
6.  Confitebor tibi, Domine    a), b) 1665 (B. Grusnick)

(*) Bruno Grusnick. 'Die Dubensammlung. Ein Versuch ihrer
chronologischen Ordnung', Teil II-III, Svensk Tidskrift for
Musikforskning 48 (1966).
(**) Jan Olof Ruden. 'Vattenmarken och musikforskning: presentation och
tillampning av en dateringsmelod pa musikalier i handskrift i Uppsala
universitetsbiblioteks Dubensamling' (Ph.D. diss., Uppsala Universitet,
1968).

Table 2. Segmentation scheme of Ante oculos tuos, Domine.

Text                               Meter  Scoring  Techniques /    Bars
                                                   styles

Sinfonia                           c      3vle,    imitation,      1-22
                                          org      counterpoint
Ante oculos tuos, Domine, culpas
nostras ferimus; et plagas quas
accepimus, conferimus.             c      tutti    declamatory    23-35
Si pensamus malum quod fecimus,
minus est quod patimur, mains est
quod meremur.                                                     35-39
Gravius est quod commisimus,
levius est quod toleramus.                                        40-45
Peccati poenam sentimus, et
peccandi pertinaciam non vitamus.                                 45-51
In flagellis luis infirmitas
nostra teritur, et iniquitas non
mutatur,                                                          51-54
Mens aegra torquelur, et cervix
non flectitur.                                                    55-59
Vita in dolore suspirat, et in
opere non se emend at.                                            55-59
Vita in dolore suspirat, et in
opere non se emendat.                                             60-64
Si expectas, non corrigimur; si
vindicas, non duramus.                                            65-72
Confitemur in correctione quod
egimus; obliviscimur post
visitationem quod flevimus.                                       73-80
Si extenderis manum. facienda
promittimus; si suspenderis
gladium, promissa non solvimus.                                   80-87
Si ferias, clamamus ut parcas; si
peperceris, iterum provocamus ut
ferias.                                                           88-94
Hahes, Domine, confitcntes reos;
novimus quod nisi dimitlas, reete
nos perimus.                                                      95-102
Praesta, Pater omnipotens, sine
merilo quod rogamus,               3/2    tutti    aria-like     103-122
Praesta, Pater omnipotens, sine
merito quod rogamus, qui feeisti
ex nihilo qui te rogarem qui
fecisti ex nihilo qui te rogarent
qui te rogarent.                   cents  tutti    melismatic    123-128

Table 3. Segmentation scheme of Ach! dass ich doch im meinen Augen
hatte.

     Text                                          Meter

I    Sonata                                        c
     Ach! ach dass ich doch in meinen Augen
     hatte
     des Wassers g'nug und Tranen um die
     Wette
     mit deinem Volk moeht Hiessen,
     lassen hin!
     Wie aber, ach! ach! ach was tustu was tustu,
     o o mein Sinn?
     Sinfonia
     Ach! ach wach doch wach doch auf, wach
     auf vom Schlaf der Sunden!
     Lass ja die Sicherheit dich nicht mehr
     uberwinden dich nicht mehr uberwinden!
     O o bessre dich, denn es ist hohe Zeit!
     Der grosse Gott hat schon die Straf
     hat schon
     die Straf die Straf bereit.
II   [Sonata]                                      c
     Gerechter Gott, ich sehe ich sehe fast noch
     brennen
     die Zionsburg und Salem ganz berennen
     in deinem heissen Grimm in deinem
     heissen
     Grimm.
     Ach! schone doch, hor meine Tranen.
     Stimm!
     Sinfonia
     Ach! handle nicht mil uns mil uns nach
     unsern Sunden!
     Lass uns bei Dir. ach! Gnade, Gnade finden
     ach! Gnade, Gnade finden!
     Hor auf, o Gott, zu strafen zu strafen
     deine Stadt
     und dieses Land, das ganz von Seufzen
     von Seufzen matt.
III  [Sonata]                                      c
     Noch keiner noch keiner nicht, weil diese
     Welt gestanden,
     so dir vertraut, ist worden hier zuschanden,
     auf deine Gnad. Ich bitt, ich Hell,
     ich schrei!
     Ich weiss, du hilfst, ich weiss,
     du stehst uns
     bei ich weiss ich weiss, du
     stehst uns bei.
     Sinfonia
     So will ich auch mit deinem Volk dir
     danken
     und nimmermehr von dir, o Vater, wanken
     von dir, o Vater, wanken.
     So wird der Feind auch werden auch werden
     gar zu Spoil
     und sagen selbst, dass du dass du
     seist unser
     Gott
     dass du seist unser Gott dass du
     seist unser
     Gott
     unser unser Gott.

     Text                                          Scoring

I    Sonata                                        2vli, violetta,
                                                   vla, 2vle dg,
                                                   bc
     Ach! ach dass ich doch in meinen Augen        S, 2vle dg, bc
     hatte
     des Wassers g'nug und Tranen um die
     Wette
     mit deinem Volk moeht Hiessen,
     lassen hin!
     Wie aber, ach! ach! ach was tustu was tustu,
     o o mein Sinn?
     Sinfonia                                      2vli, violetta,
                                                   vla, 2vle dg,
                                                   bc
     Ach! ach wach doch wach doch auf, wach        S, bc / tutti / S,
     auf vom Schlaf der Sunden!                    bc/tutti/S,
     Lass ja die Sicherheit dich nicht mehr        bc / tutti / S,
     uberwinden dich nicht mehr uberwinden!        bc
     O o bessre dich, denn es ist hohe Zeit!
     Der grosse Gott hat schon die Straf
     hat schon
     die Straf die Straf bereit.
II   [Sonata]                                      2vli, violetta.
                                                   vla, 2vle dg,
                                                   bc
     Gerechter Gott, ich sehe ich sehe fast noch   S, 2vle dg, bc
     brennen
     die Zionsburg und Salem ganz berennen
     in deinem heissen Grimm in deinem
     heissen
     Grimm.
     Ach! schone doch, hor meine Tranen.
     Stimm!
     Sinfonia                                      2vli, violetta,
                                                   vla, 2vle dg,
                                                   bc
     Ach! handle nicht mil uns mil uns nach        S, bc / tuiti / S.
     unsern Sunden!                                bc / tutti / S,
     Lass uns bei Dir. ach! Gnade, Gnade finden    bc / tutti / S,
     ach! Gnade, Gnade finden!                     bc
     Hor auf, o Gott, zu strafen zu strafen
     deine Stadt
     und dieses Land, das ganz von Seufzen
     von Seufzen matt.
III  [Sonata]                                      2vli, violetta,
                                                   via, 2vle dg,
                                                   bc
     Noch keiner noch keiner nicht, weil diese     S, 2vle dg, bc
     Welt gestanden,
     so dir vertraut, ist worden hier zuschanden,
     auf deine Gnad. Ich bitt, ich Hell,
     ich schrei!
     Ich weiss, du hilfst, ich weiss,
     du stehst uns
     bei ich weiss ich weiss, du
     stehst uns bei.
     Sinfonia                                      2vli, violetta,
                                                   vla, 2vle dg,
                                                   bc
     So will ich auch mit deinem Volk dir          S, bc / tutti / S,
     danken                                        bc / tutti / S,
     und nimmermehr von dir, o Vater, wanken       bc / tutti / S,
     von dir, o Vater, wanken.                     bc
     So wird der Feind auch werden auch werden
     gar zu Spoil
     und sagen selbst, dass du dass du
     seist unser
     Gott
     dass du seist unser Gott dass du
     seist unser
     Gott
     unser unser Gott.                             tutti

     Text                                          Sequence     Bars
                                                   of sections

I    Sonata                                        a              1-12
     Ach! ach dass ich doch in meinen Augen        h             13-25
     hatte
     des Wassers g'nug und Tranen um die
     Wette
     mit deinem Volk moeht Hiessen,
     lassen hin!
     Wie aber, ach! ach! ach was tustu was tustu,
     o o mein Sinn?
     Sinfonia                                      c             26-29
     Ach! ach wach doch wach doch auf, wach        d             30-46
     auf vom Schlaf der Sunden!
     Lass ja die Sicherheit dich nicht mehr
     uberwinden dich nicht mehr uberwinden!
     O o bessre dich, denn es ist hohe Zeit!
     Der grosse Gott hat schon die Straf
     hat schon
     die Straf die Straf bereit.
II   [Sonata]                                      a             46-57
     Gerechter Gott, ich sehe ich sehe fast noch   e             58-74
     brennen
     die Zionsburg und Salem ganz berennen
     in deinem heissen Grimm in deinem
     heissen
     Grimm.
     Ach! schone doch, hor meine Tranen.
     Stimm!
     Sinfonia                                      c             75-78
     Ach! handle nicht mil uns mil uns nach        d'            79-95
     unsern Sunden!
     Lass uns bei Dir. ach! Gnade, Gnade finden
     ach! Gnade, Gnade finden!
     Hor auf, o Gott, zu strafen zu strafen
     deine Stadt
     und dieses Land, das ganz von Seufzen
     von Seufzen matt.
III  [Sonata]                                      a             95-106
     Noch keiner noch keiner nicht, weil diese     f            107-121
     Welt gestanden,
     so dir vertraut, ist worden hier zuschanden,
     auf deine Gnad. Ich bitt, ich Hell,
     ich schrei!
     Ich weiss, du hilfst, ich weiss,
     du stehst uns
     bei ich weiss ich weiss, du
     stehst uns bei.
     Sinfonia                                      c            122-125
     So will ich auch mit deinem Volk dir          d"           126-145
     danken
     und nimmermehr von dir, o Vater, wanken
     von dir, o Vater, wanken.
     So wird der Feind auch werden auch werden
     gar zu Spoil
     und sagen selbst, dass du dass du
     seist unser
     Gott
     dass du seist unser Gott dass du
     seist unser
     Gott
     unser unser Gott.                             g            146-149

Table 4. Segmentation scheme of Confitebor tibi, Domine.

Text                                            Meter  Scoring

Sinfonia                                        cents  2vli, bc
Confitebor tibi, Domine, in toto corde meo: in         T-B-A, bc I
consilio justorum, et congregatione.                   ATB, be / tutti
Magna opera Domini:                                    tutti
exquisita in omnes voluntates ejus.             6/4    A-T-B-V1 [-VI
                                                       II, bc
Confessio et magnificentia opus ejus:           cents  A, 2vli, bc
et justitia ejus manet in saeculum saeculi.     6/4    A-B-T-VI II-VI
                                                       I, bc
Memoriam fecit mirabilium suorum,               cents  T, 2vli, bc
misericors et miserator Dominus:                6/4    T-B-VI II-VI
escam dedit timentibus se.                             I-A, bc
Memor erit in saeculum testamenti sui:          cents  B, 2vli, bc
virtutem operum suorum annuntiabil populo suo:  6 4    B-C, T, bc
Ut det illis haereditatem gentium:
opera manuum                                    cents  T-A, 2vli, bc
ejus Veritas et judicium.
Fidelia omnia mandata ejus: confirmata in       3/2    tutti
sacculum saeculi, facta in vcritate
et acquitate.
Redemptioncm misit populo suo: mandavit in      cents  T-A, bc
acternum testamentum snum. Sanctum
et terribile nomen ejus:                        3/2    VI I-T-VI
                                                       II-B-A, be
inilium sapientiae timor Domini.                cents  tutti
Intellectus bonus omnibus facientibus
eum: laudatio                                   3/2    B, 2vli, ba
ejus manet in saeeulum saeculi.
Gloria                                          cents  tutti
hloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto.     6/4    T-B-A, bc
Sinfonia                                        cents  2vli, bc
Confitebor tibi, Domine, in toto corde meo:            T-B-A, bc /
Sicut erat in principio, et nune, et
semper, et in                                          ATB. bc / tutti
sacculasacculorum.

Text                                            Technique /       Bars
                                                style

Sinfonia                                        initial           1-8
                                                imitation,
                                                parallel voice
                                                leading
Confitebor tibi, Domine, in toto corde meo: in  imitation,        8-29
consilio justorum, et congregatione.            concertato
Magna opera Domini:                             homorhythm       30-33
exquisita in omnes voluntates ejus.             imitation,       34-48
                                                concertato
Confessio et magnificentia opus ejus:           declamatory      49-56
et justitia ejus manet in saeculum saeculi.     imitation,       56-68
                                                concertato
Memoriam fecit mirabilium suorum,               declamatory      69-75
misericors et miserator Dominus:                concertato       76-109
escam dedit timentibus se.
Memor erit in saeculum testamenti sui:          melismalic      110-119
virtutem operum suorum annuntiabil populo suo:  imitation,      120-143
                                                concertato
Ut det illis haereditatem gentium:              imitation,      144-153
opera manuum ejus Veritas et judicium.          parallel voice
                                                leading
Fidelia omnia mandata ejus: confirmata in       quasi-          153-182
sacculum saeculi, facta in vcritate             homorhythm/
et acquitate.                                   concertato
Redemptioncm misit populo suo: mandavit in      initial         183-195
acternum testamentum snum. Sanctum              imitation,
                                                parallel voice
                                                leading
et terribile nomen ejus:                        initiation,     196-216
                                                concertato
inilium sapientiae timor Domini.                homorhythm      217-225
Intellectus bonus omnibus facientibus           aria-like       226-256
eum: laudatio ejus manet in saeeulum
saeculi.
Gloria                                          homorhythm      257-258
hloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto.     imitation,      259-274
                                                concertato
Sinfonia                                        initial         275-282
                                                imitation,
                                                parallel voice
                                                leading
Confitebor tibi, Domine, in toto corde meo:     imitation,      282-321
Sicut erat in principio, et nune, et            concertato
semper, et in sacculasacculorum.
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Date:Apr 1, 2019
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