Printer Friendly


ABSTRACT. Urban forest fragments face challenges to habitat quality due to small size, isolation from larger natural areas, and close association with anthropogenic disturbance. Monitoring changes in vegetation can inform management practices targeted at preserving biodiversity in the face of these threats. Woollen's Gardens is a high-quality mesic upland forest preserve in the city of Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, with a bccchmaple older-growth forest and a significant display of showy spring wildflowers. The entire preserve was inventoried and quantitative vegetation analysis along seven 100 m transects was conducted in 2003 and again in 2016 to track changes. Data from both years document a high-quality flora with few non-native plants. Floristic Quality Index values for native species, derived from Floristic Quality Assessment, were 50.2 in 2003 and 47.3 in 2016. Native mean C-values of 4.5 and 4.3 for each year support that the site is comparable to the highest quality natural areas in central Indiana. Values declined little when non-natives were included, indicating non-natives are having little negative impact on the flora. Although non-natives comprised less than 10% of the flora, 11 of the 16 species are considered invasive in Indiana. In 2003, invasive Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) was among species in plots with the highest relative importance value. In 2016, invasive wintercrceper (Euonymus fortunei) was among these species. Limited public access to Woollen's Gardens minimizes human disturbance, but invasive species arc a threat to vegetation quality. Continuation of eradication efforts is strongly recommended before populations of these non-natives become more difficult to control.

Keywords: Floristic quality index (FQI), Indiana flora, invasive specics, floristic change, urban forest fragment


Studying changes in floristic composition of natural areas over time provides insight into vegetation quality that can be used to better understand plant community dynamics, to document species introductions and extirpations, and to inform site management. Quantitative vegetation sampling of permanent plots has the additional benefit of providing data on abundance and frequency, allowing floristic change to be more completely documented and monitored through time. Data derived from repeated sampling of permanent plots in locations where the surrounding landscape is undergoing significant habitat alteration, such as in cities, can provide important data for tracking the influences of urbanization on flora. For example, Dolan et al. (2015) documented an increase in the number and coverage of non-native species over a decade in two natural areas in Indianapolis, Indiana, based on permanent plot data.

Supported by funding from the Land Stewardship Office of the City of Indianapolis, we surveyed Woollen's Gardens, an urban forest fragment, in 2003 to get a base-line assessment of the plants present. In 2016, the study was repeated, visiting the preserve multiple times over the course of the year to record an overall inventory and resampling plots along the seven transects established in 2003. To report changes over time, herbaceous vegetation was quantified and overall floristic quality evaluated for both years. Results are reported here, along with management recommendations based on the findings.

Woollen's Gardens is a 38 acre state-dedicated Nature Preserve in northeast Marion County. The preserve is a remnant of a larger gift of land to the city by William Woollen in 1909 (Fig. I). The land was used at that time for nature study. As a city park, the site was spared from development. The site has been long-recognized as one of the highest-quality forested natural areas in the city (Brothers 1994). Dolan et al. (2011) documented Woollen's Gardens to be among the top three of 14 natural areas inventoried between 1996 and 2007 in Indianapolis, based on a low percentage of non-native plants and other measures of habitat integrity.

The Indiana Department of Natural Resources Directory of Indiana's Dedicated Nature Preserves, (IDNR 1988) describes Woollen's Gardens as "old-growth mesic upland forest dominated by beech, sugar maple, hackberry, red oak, chinquapin oak, black maple, and blue ash, with some trees reaching diameters of up to 40 inches." Indianapolis/Marion County is in the Central Till Plain Natural Region of Indiana (Homoya et al. 1985). This is a region of gently rolling terrain comprised of Wisconsin era glacial till deposits, often over 30 m deep. The area was 98% forested in pre-European settlement times (Barret al. 2002).

Woollen's Gardens is bounded on the north and west by Fall Creek, on the east by Interstate 465, and on the south by apartments and an upscale neighborhood of estate-style single-family homes. The site is characterized by a floodplain adjacent to the creek and a series of north-facing ridges above the creek, separated by, in some cases, fairly deeply carved ravines (Fig. 2). The upland woodland is visually uniform with prominent mature trees. Areas of disturbance occur in flood-prone sites along the creek and adjacent to the apartment complex and yards. Dumping of trash and yard refuse, along with run-off sites of gray water, are present in these areas but the habitat is more pristine deeper in the preserve. Management has primarily been focused on invasive species removal.


Floral inventory.--The preserve was visited 12 times from April to November during 2003 and 13 times during the same months in 2016. The flora was inventoried by meander walks that covered all areas of the preserve. Names follow usage from the Indiana Plant Atlas (Dolan & Moore 2017) and/or the online Universal FQA calculator (Freyman et al. 2015). Dr. Paul Rothrock of Indiana University's Deam Herbarium provided identification of grasses and sedges.

Floristic quality assessment.--Plant lists from both survey years were analyzed separately and combined using the Indiana database (based on Rothrock (2004)) of the Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) software (Freyman et al. 2015). Mean C, a component of FQA. measures the overall quality of the habitat as indicated by the native species present (Swink & Wilhelm 1994). In this approach, native species have been assigned numbers, coefficients of conservatism (C-values), from 0-10 based on their perceived fidelity to natural plant communities. Higher numbers indicate intolerance of disturbance and restriction to presettlement remnants (Rothrock 2004). The C values are averaged to generate a mean C. In general, mean C of 3.5 and higher indicates that a community retains remnant natural quality. The Floristic Quality Index (FQI) for a site is calculated by multiplying the mean C-value for all native plants at a site by the square root of the number of native species present, thereby weighting the mean C-value by species richness. Higher FQI numbers indicate greater natural habitat integrity. Mean C and FQI with nonnatives indicates the influence non-native plants have in reducing habitat quality. Sites with high natural area quality in central Indiana would be expected to have FQI values of 35 or greater (Rothrock & Homoya 2005). When comparing FQI values for a given site over time, the absolute value is not as important as how the number changes through time, with decreasing values indicating site quality decline from an ecological perspective.

Quantitative vegetation analysis.--Seven 100 m transects located throughout the preserve (Fig. 3) were assessed between May and August in 2003 and 2016. Transect GPS coordinates and sample dates are presented in Appendix 1. Six of the seven transects were in upland forest habitat; the seventh was located on the floodplain of Fall Creek. Each species in the herb-layer (all herbaceous plants and woody plants smaller than 10 cm dbh) was identified and its aerial coverage in 1 [m.sup.2] plots located every 10 m along each transect was characterized. We used a modified Daubenmire cover class scheme (Daubenmire 1959; McCune & Grace 2002) to document cover: 1 = 1-7%, 2 = 8-25%, 3 = 26-50%, 4 = 51-75%, 5 = 76-93%, and 6 = 94-100%. Frequency (the number of plots out of 70 that each species occurred) and average cover class (averaged over all 70 plots) were calculated for herb-layer vegetation. Relative importance values (RIV) were calculated for each species by adding relative frequency and relative cover and dividing by two.

End points of the seven transects for vegetation sampling were marked temporarily in 2003 and their Global Positioning System (GPS) locations recorded. Prior to 2016 work, a professional survey team relocated the end points to within 1.0 cm accuracy using current GPS technology. These points were then marked with rebar pounded into the ground to within 2-5 cm of the soil surface.


A total of 166 taxa was observed during the two study years. Showy stands of declined trillium (Trillium flexipes) were present in 2003, along with pink valerian (Valeriana pauciflora) and starry campion (Silene stellata). In 2016, feathery false Solomon seal (Maianthemum racemosum) was especially prominent throughout the preserve. All plants are listed in Appendix 2, along with C-value, physiognomy (tree, fern, perennial forb, etc.), and the year and date first seen. Only 16 of the total taxa (9.6%) were non-native plants (indicated with name in capital letters in Appendix 2). The only rare, threatened, or endangered taxon found at Woollen's Gardens was American ginseng (Panax quinquefalius), seen in 2016. It is a state listed Watch List plant ( dnr/naturepreserve/files/np-etrplants.pdf). Cigar tree (Catalpa speciosa) is state listed in its native range near the Ohio River in southwestern Indiana, but in central Indiana it has escaped from cultivation (Jackson 2004). Downy yellow violet (Viola pubescens) is a Watch List plant, but that designation does not apply to the variety occurring in central Indiana (Michael Homoya, Pers. Comm.), and the FQA database for Indiana does not distinguish varieties for this species (Rothrock 2004).

Floristic Quality Assessment for Woollen's Gardens shows the presence of a flora with numerous conservative species that is minimally impacted by non-natives (Table 1). The reduction in mean C and mean FQ1 when non-natives are included is small for each sample year. Thirty-three species with C-values of 7 or greater were seen in one or both years (Table 2). C-values of 7-10 reflect species representative of high-quality natural areas that have suffered little disturbance (Swink & Wilhelm 1994). Smooth blue aster (Symphyotrichum laeve) was the only C-value 10 species. It was seen in 2003 but not 2016. Glade fern (Diplazium pycnocarpon), the only plant with a C-value of 9, was found both years. Comparison of plants with low C-values (C = 0-3) shows an increase in 2016 compared with 2003 (Fig. 4).

Herb-layer plot data.--Data on frequency and abundance of individual species collected from surveyed plots reveal additional changes in the flora between survey years (Appendix 3). The most striking difference between years is the RIV of 13.0 for Canada wood nettle (Laportea canadensis) in 2016. The species was not among the top ten species for RIV in 2003. RIV of sugar maple (Acer saccharum ssp. saccharum) almost doubled and RIV of ash seedlings (Fraxinus sp.) more than doubled between sample years. Two invasive species were among the top 10 in RIV: Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) in 2003 and wintercreeper (Euonymus fortunei) in 2016.

An average of four species was found in each plot in 2003; in 2016 the average was three. These numbers mask a species turnover rate of almost 50%. Forty species were present in plots in both 2003 and 2016. Seventeen were present only in 2003, 14 only in 2016.

Species of concern.--Although total site inventories for the two years documented few non-natives, over half that were present are invasive species of management concern in Indiana ( invasiveplants.php). Nine of the 11 invasive species rank as species of high concern in the state (Table 3). Herb-layer data from the sample plots allow comparison of the abundance and location of invasives (Table 4). Transects 4, 6, and 7 harbored the most invasives. Transect 7 is located in the floodplain of Fall Creek (Fig. 3), a location subject to soil disturbance and spread of propagules due to flooding. Transects 4 and 6 are most closely adjacent to neighborhood edges (Fig. 3), points of increased likelihood of introduction and spread of invasives.


Data from both 2003 and 2016 document that Woollen's Gardens continues to be a high-quality example of upland forest, as first noted by Brothers (1994). Ninety percent of the species present are native to Indiana. The average for 14 Indianapolis/Marion County parks and natural areas reported by Dolan et al. (2011) is 81 %, while the overall average for the flora of Indiana as a whole is estimated to be 70% (Kay Yatskievych, Pers. Comm). FQI values for Woollen's Gardens declined by 2.9 units, calculated based on either natives only or natives with non-natives included, between 2003 and 2016, indicating a slight decline in vegetation quality, even though the percentage of non-natives was similar both years. However, even the reduced FQI of 47.3 for 2016 indicates the flora of Woollen's Gardens is of regional significance from a conservation perspective (Swink & Wilhelm 1994).

FQI can be influenced by the size of an area being inventoried (Rothrock & Homoya 2005), so it is better used to detect changes in quality at a single site through time than to make comparisons between sites. Mean C-values are independent of the area of a site being inventoried, allowing direct comparisons between different sites. Native mean C-values for both years at Woollen's Gardens of greater than 4.0 are comparable to values we have found in the other state dedicated nature preserves in Marion County: Marott Park, Spring Pond, and Eagle's Crest, with mean native C-values of 3.8, 3.8, and 4.5, respectively (Dolan et al. 2011). These properties all had higher native mean C-values than 10 other parks and natural areas remnants surveyed, which had mean native C-values in the 3.0-3.7 range. Hubini et al. (2017) recently reported mean native C-values of 3.4 for Cooper-Skinner Woods, an urban forest remnant on the Ball State University campus in Delaware County in east central Indiana. Mean native C-values for the best natural sites in the Central Till Plain of central Indiana are in the low 4 range. This is due to a limited number of conservative species, reflecting the historic presence of few specialized habitats (Rothrock & Homoya 2005), likely further influenced by contemporary factors, including small size and isolation from larger tracts of natural habitat and the increased presence of introduced species that accompany habitat conversion for urbanization and agriculture (Hubini et al. 2017 and references therein).

Woollen's Gardens vegetation quality is not currently greatly influenced by non-native species, based on FQA. Using data from the 2003 inventory, Dolan et al. (2011) reported Woollen's Gardens had the highest mean C-value with nonnatives of 14 natural areas in Indianapolis surveyed between 1996 and 2007. The 2016 mean C-value with non-natives of 3.9 is in line with these findings. Differences between mean C with and without non-natives each year was only 0.4 units. Rothrock & Homoya (2005) have suggested that the natural quality of a site has been compromised when non-native species richness lowers the mean C-value by more than 0.7 units.

Although about the same number of species was documented in sample plots in 2003 and 2016, these numbers mask a species turnover rate of almost 50%. This is a phenomenon seen at other sites in the city (Dolan et al. 2015) and has been attributed to a combination of factors, including disturbance caused by management to remove invasive species, white tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimrn) browse, and rainfall and other climatological differences between sample years (Dolan et al. 2015). Aspects of this species turnover are reflected in Figure 4 as an increase in species with lower C-values, those with lower fidelity to high-quality habitat.

Between 2003 and 2016, the RIV of sugar maple, ash seedlings, and Canada wood nettle greatly increased in the herb-layer at Woollen's Gardens. Increases in sugar maple over the last 20 years have been recently documented in other mesic forests in central Indiana (Dolan 2015) and were first reported in Indiana as early as 1977 (Abrell & Jackson 1977). This pattern has been seen in many regional oak-hickory forests, perhaps due to reduced frequency of natural disturbance such as fire (Pierce et al. 2006). Increases in the frequency and cover of ash seedlings may reflect natural mast cycles in ash (Boerner & Brinkman 1996) or increased seed produced by trees stressed by the recently introduced emerald ash borer (Agrilusplanipennis Fairmaire), as has been proposed by Ben Dor et al. (2006). However, few or no ash seedlings were observed in forests in Ohio and Michigan with high ash mortality due to the borer (Klooster et al. 2014). Canada wood nettles are associated with gaps in forest canopy cover and have been documented to increase in forests where canopies have been opened due to Dutch elm disease (Biederman 2000), likely similar to gaps created when ash trees are killed by the borer. Further, dense patches of nettles are associated with reduced abundance of summer-reproducing forbs and graminoids in Minnesota forests, along with increases in sugar maple (Biederman 2000). Interactions of these disturbance factors with natural succession processes no doubt influence species dynamics at Woollen's Gardens.

The decline in RIV of Amur honeysuckle between survey years likely reflect management success at targeting this plant. However, winter-creeper has greatly increased in frequency and cover, a trend we have seen in many natural areas in Marion County over the last decade following honeysuckle removal. Not much is known about the invasion dynamics of wintercreeper (Bauer & Reynolds 2016; Mattingly et al. 2016), but increases in the presence of non-target invasive species are not uncommon following invasive species control efforts (Kettenring & Adams 2011). Wintercreeper should be a priority species for management action at Woollen's Gardens going forward.

Woollen's Gardens has little foot traffic due to limited parking, few trails, and lack of publicity. These features may contribute to the relatively low numbers of non-native and invasive plant species present, as hikers can introduce and spread non-native seed (Drayton & Primack 1996; Pickering et al. 2011). A large management concern at the site presented itself in September, 2016, however. Strong winds toppled many large trees along a ridge in the center of the preserve, near Transects 5 and 6. On our final visit in 2016, many leaning snapped trees and hanging branches presented hazards. This natural disturbance will open the canopy and potentially change the flora for many years to come. Forest openings are especially vulnerable to invasive species (Hutchinson & Vankat 1997; Pavlovic & Leicht-Young 2011), including wintercreeper (Swearingen & Bargeron 2016), which may then increase in density and/or spread within Woollen's Gardens. Management should focus on controlling invasives throughout the preserve, but especially in these areas. Vegetation should be reinventoried and transects surveyed again within the next few years to monitor changes in order to document the effectiveness of control efforts in maintaining habitat quality in this ecologically significant urban forest remnant.


Butler University undergraduate students, including Brandon Hunt, Kyle Cherry, and Jenna Krasek, assisted with fieldwork. Don Miller, Director, City of Indianapolis Office of Land Stewardship, provided exceptional support in all aspects of the project. Kay Yatskievych and Paul Rothrock helped with identification of some plants. Alison Taylor and Haley Coffman provided helpful edits. The authors wish to especially thank Proceedings editors Don Ruch and Paul Rothrock and reviewers for improving this manuscript throughout the submission process.


Abrell, D.B. & M.T. Jackson. 1977. A decade of change in an old-growth beech-maple forest in Indiana. American Midland Naturalist 98:22-32.

Barr, R.C., B.E. Hall. J.A. Wilson, C. Souch, G. Lindsey, J.A. Bacone, R.K. Campbell & L.P. Tedesco. 2002. Documenting changes in the natural environment of Indianapolis-Marion County from European settlement to the present. Ecological Restoration 20:37-46.

Bauer, J.T. & H.L. Reynolds. 2016. Restoring native understory to a woodland invaded by Euonymus fortunei, multiple factors affect success. Restoration Ecology 24:45-52.

BenDor, T.K., S.S. Metealf. L.E. Fontcnot, B. Sangunett & B. Hannon. 2006. Modeling the spread of emerald ash borer. Ecological Modelling 197:221-236.

Biederman, L.A. 2000. Response of wood nettle (Laportea canadensis) to Euro-American land-use in southeast Minnesota. Master's Thesis. University of Minnesota. Twin Cities, Minnesota. 103 pp.

Boerner, R.E.J. & J.A. Brinkman. 1996. Ten years of tree seedling establishment and mortality in an Ohio deciduous forest complex. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 123:309-317.

Brothers, T.S. 1994. Flora and fauna. Pp. 583 585. In The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. (D.J. Bodenhamer & R.D. Barrows, Eds.). Indiana University Press. Bloomington, Indiana.

Daubenmire, R.F. 1959. Canopy coverage method of vegetation analysis. Northwest Scientist 33: 43-64.

Dolan. R.W. 2015. Two hundred years of forest change: effects of urbanization on tree species composition and structure. Arboriculture and Urban Forestry 43:136-145.

Dolan. R.W. & M.E. Moore. 2017 Indiana Plant Atlas. [S.M. Landry and K.N. Campbell (original application development), USF Water Institute. University of South Florida]. Butler University Friesner Herbarium, Indianapolis, Indiana. At: (Accessed 2 January 2017).

Dolan, R.W.. J.D. Stephens & M.E. Moore. 2011. Living More Than just enough for the city: persistence of high-quality vegetation in natural areas in an urban setting. Diversity 3:611 627; doi:10.3390/d3040611--published online 3 October 2011.

Dolan, R.W.. J.D. Stephens & M.E. Moore. 2015. Changes in plant species composition and structure in two peri-urban nature preserves over 10 years. American Midland Naturalist 174:33-48.

Drayton. B. & R.B. Primack. 1996. Plant species lost in an isolated conservation area in metropolitan Boston from 1894-1993. Conservation Biology 10:30-39.

Freyman, M.A.. L.A. Masters & S. Packard. 2015. The Universal Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) Calculator: an online tool for ecological assessment and monitoring. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 7:380-383. At: https://universalfqa. org.

Homoya, M.A.. D.B Abrell. J R. Aldrich & T.W. Post. 1985. Natural Regions of Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Acadcmy of Science 94:245-268.

Hubini, A.M.H.. D.G. Ruch, M.E. Crecelius, J.E. Taylor, K.S. Badger & P.E. Rothrock. 2017. Floristic inventory of the Cooper Woods-Skinner Woods Complex, Ball State University. Delaware County, Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 126:72 93.

Hutchinson, T.F. & J.L. Vankat. 1997. Invasibility and effects of Amur honeysuckle in southwestern Ohio forests. Conservation Biology 11:1117-1124.

IDNR (Indiana Department of Natural Resources). 1988. Directory of Indiana's Dedicated Nature Preserves. Division of Nature Preserves, Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Indianapolis. Indiana. 99 pp.

Jackson. M.T. 2004. 101 Trees of Indiana: A Field Guide. Indiana University Press. Bloomington. Indiana. 364 pp.

Kettenring, K.M. & C.R. Adams. 2011. Lessons learned from invasive plant control experiments: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology 48:970-979.

Klooster, W.S.. D.A. Herms. K.S. Knight, C.P. Herms, D.G. McCullough, A. Smith. K.J.K. Gandi & J. Cardina. 2014. Ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality, regeneration, and seed bank dynamics in mixed hardwood forests following invasion by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis). Biological Invasions 16:859-873.

Mattingly, K.L.. R.W. McEwan, R.D. Paratley. S.R. Bray. J.R. Lempke & M.A. Arthur. 2016. Recovery of forest floor diversity after removal of the normative, invasive plant Euonynms fortunei. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 143:103-166.

McCune. B. & J.B. Grace. 2002. Analysis of Ecological Communities. MjM Software Design. Gleneden Beach. Oregon. 304 pp.

Pavlovic, N.B. & Leight-Young. 2011. Are temperate mature forests buffered from invasive lianas? Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 138:85-92.

Pickering. C.M., A. Mount. M.C. Wichmann & J.M. Bullock. 2011. Estimating human-mediated dispersal of seeds within an Australian protected area. Biological Invasions 13:1869-1880.

Pierce, A.R., G. Parker & K. Rabenold. 2006. Forest succession in an oak-hickory dominated stand during a 40-year period at the Ross Biological Reserve, Indiana. Natural Areas Journal 26:351-359.

Rothrock, P.E. 2004. Floristic quality assessment in Indiana: The concept, use, and development of Coefficients of Conservatism. Final Report for ARN A305-4-53 Floristic Quality Assessment Grant CD975586-01, Environmental Protection Agency Wetland Program Development Grant. 96 pp. At: docs/regulatory/FloristicAssessment_IND.pdf.

Rothrock, P.E. & M.A. Homoya. 2005. An evaluation of Indiana's floristic quality assessment. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 114:9-18.

Swearingen, J. & C. Bargeron. 2016. Invasive Atlas of the United States. University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. At: http:/ (Accessed 1 December 2017).

Swink, F. & G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region, 4th edition. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis, Indiana. 921 pp.

Manuscript received 6 August 2017, revised 15 January 2018.
Appendix 1.--GPS coordinates for end points of transects
and location of memorial plaque at Woollen's Gardens,
with dates of sampling in 2003 and 2016.

Transect end point   X1                Y1               2003     2006

1a                   -86.04865671640   39.86393599340   24 Jul   8 Aug
1b                   -86.04811417650   39.86316989180
2a                   -86.05025729250   39.86363636590   25 May   26 May
2b                   -86.05081993290   39.86286426150
3a                   -86.05114790570   39.86350318840   7 Jul    29 Jun
3b                   -86.05124470330   39.86263547360
4a                   -86.04948316780   39.86275964190   7 Jul    26 Jun
4b                   -86.05033173180   39.86220121890
5a                   -86.05411402700   39.86257418400   13 Aug   23 Aug
5b                   -86.05298449660   39.86264173070
6a                   -86.05505816670   39.86273692250   2 Jun    25 May
6b                   -86.05623313780   39.86254304350
7a                   -86.05762127820   39.86255656880   2 Jun    25 May
7b                   -86.05713143170   39.86334260710
Rock with plaque     -86.04974553940   39.86255893270

Appendix 2--All plants observed at Woollen's Gardens.
Non-native species are in capital letters. * = invasive
in Indiana. Miller = observed by Don Miller.

Scientific name                      Common name

Acer negundo                         Boxelder
Acer rubrum                          Red maple
Acer saccharinum                     Silver maple
Acer saccharum s. nigrum             Black maple
Acer saccharum s. saccharum          Sugar maple
Actaea pachypoda                     Doll's-eyes
Aesculus glabra                      Ohio buckeye
Ageratina altissima                  White snakeroot
AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA *                Tree-of-heaven
ALLIARIA PETIOLATA *                 Garlic mustard
Allium tricoccum v. burdickii        Wild leek
Anemone acutiloba                    Sharp-lobcd hepatica
Arisaema dracontium                  Green dragon
Arisaema triphyllum                  Indian turnip
Arnoglossum atriplicifolium          Pale Indian plantain
Asarum canadense                     Canada wild ginger
Asimina triloba                      Pawpaw
BERBERIS THUNBERGII *                Japanese barberry
Bidens frondosa                      Common beggar's ticks
Boehmeria cylindrica                 False nettle
Cardamine concatenala                Toothwort
Carex albursina                      Blunt-scaled wood sedge
Carex amphibola                      False gray sedge
Carex gracilescens                   Slender wood sedge
Carex grayi                          Common bur sedge
Carex hitchcockiana                  Hairy gray sedge
Carex jamesii                        Grass sedge
Carex laxiflora                      Beech wood sedge
Carex oligocarpa                     Few-fruited gray sedge
Carpinus caroliniana                 Blue beech
Carra cordiformis                    Bitternut hickory
Carra glabra                         Pignut hickory
Carra laciniosa                      Big shellbark hickory
Carya ovata                          Shagbark hickory
Catalpa speciosa                     Cigar tree
Caulophyllum thalictroides           Blue cohosh
CELASTRUS ORBICULATA *               Oriental bittersweet
Certis occidentalis                  Hack berry
Cercis canadensis                    Eastern redbud
Claytonia virginica                  Spring beauty
Circaea lutetiana                    Enchanter's nightshade
Collinsonia canadensis               Citronella horse balm
Cornus florida                       Flowering dogwood
Cornus racemosa                      Gray dogwood
Crataegus sp.                        Hawthorn
Cryptotaenia canadensis              Flonewort
Cystopteris protrusa                 Common fragile fern
Delphinium tricorne                  Dwarf larkspur
Dicentra canadensis                  Squirrel corn
Dicentra cucullaria                  Dutchman's breeches
Diplazium pycnocarpon                Glade fern
DUCHESNEA INDICA                     Indian strawberry
Elymus villosus                      Hairy wild rye
Elymus virginicus                    Virginia wild rye
Enemion biternatum                   False rue anemone
Epifagus virginiana                  Beech drops
Erigenia bulbosa                     Harbinger-of-spring
Erigeron philadelphicus              Marsh Acabane
Erythronium americanum               Yellow adder's tongue
EUONYMUS FORTUNEI *                  Winlercrccper
Euonymus obovata                     Running strawberry bush
Fagus grandifolia                    American beech
Festuca subverticillata              Nodding fescue
Floerkea proserpinacoides            False mermaid weed
FORSYTHIA SUSPENSA                   Weeping forsythia
Fraxinus americana                   White ash
Fraxinus pennsylvanka                Green ash
Fraxinus quadrangulata               Blue ash
Galium aparine                       Annual bcdstraw
Galium circaezans                    Smooth wild licorice
Geranium maculatum                   Wild geranium
Geum canadense                       White avens
Glyceria striata                     Fowl manna grass
Hybanthus concolor                   Green violet
Hydrangea arborescens                Wild hydrangea
Hydrophyllum appendiculatum          Great waterleaf
Hydrophyllum canadense               Canada waterleaf
Hydrophyllum mcicrophyllum           Large-leaf waterleaf
Hydrophyllum virginiamim             Virginia waterleaf
Impatiens pallida                    Pale touch-me-not
Iodanthus pinnatifidus               Violet cress
Juglans nigra                        Black walnut
Laportea canadensis                  Canada wood nettle
Lepidium virginicum                  Common pepper grass
LIGUSTRUM OBTUSIFOLIUM *             Border privet
Lindera benzoin                      Hairy spicebush
Liriodendron tulipifera              Tulip poplar
LONICERA JAPONICA *                  Japanese honeysuckle
LONICERA MAACKII *                   Amur honeysuckle
Lysimachia ciliata                   Fringed loosestrife
LYSIMACHIA NUMMULARIA                Moneywort
Maianthemum racemosum                Feathery false Solomon seal
Maianthemum stellatum                Starry false Solomon seal
Menispermum canadense                Moonseed
Mertensia virginica                  Virginia bluebells
Mimidus alatus                       Winged monkey flower
Nyssa sylvatica                      Black gum
ORNITHOGALUM UMBELLATUM              Star-of-Bethlchem
Osmorhiza claytonii                  Hairy sweet cicely
Osmorhiza longistylis                Anise root
Ostrya virginiana                    Hop hornbeam
Packera glabella                     Buttcrwced
Packern obovata                      Round-leaved ragwort
Panax qiiinquefolius                 American ginseng
Parthenocissus quinquefolio          Virginia creeper
Phlox divaricata                     Blue phlox
Phytolacca americana                 Pokeweed
Pilea pumila                         Canada clearweed
Platanus occidentalis                Sycamore
Poa sylvestris                       Woodland blue grass
Podophyllum peltatum                 May apple
Polygonatum biflorum                 Small solomon's seal
Polymnia canadensis                  Pale lcafcup
Polyslichum acrostichoides           Christmas fern
Populas deltoides                    Eastern cottonwood
Prenanthes alba                      Lion's foot
Prunus serotina                      Wild black cherry
Ptelea trifoliata                    Smooth wafer ash
Quercus alba                         White oak
Quercus bicolor                      Swamp white oak
Quercus muehlenbergii                Chinquapin oak
Quercus rubra                        Northern red oak
Ranunculus abortivas                 Little-leaf buttercup
RANUNCULUS FICARIA *                 Lesser celandine
Ranunculus hispidas                  Rough buttercup
RHODOTYPOS SCANDENS *                Jetbead
Ribes cynosbati                      Prickly wild gooseberry
ROSA MULTIFLORA *                    Japanese rose
Rubus allegheniensis                 Common blackberry
Rudheckia laciniata                  Wild golden glow
Sambucas nigra s. canadensis         Common elderberry
Sanguinaria canadensis               Bloodroot
Sanicula odorata                     Black snakcroot
Silene stellata                      Starry campion
Silene virginica                     Fire pink
Smilax hispida (= S. tamnoides)      Bristly green brier
Smilax herbacea (= S. lasioneura)    Cat brier
Solidago caesia                      Bluestcm goldcnrod
Solidago canadensis                  Canada goldcnrod
Solidago flexicaulis                 Zig-zag goldcnrod
Stachys palustris                    Hedge-nettle
Stellaria pubera                     Great chickwccd
Stylophorum diphyllum                Celandine poppy
Symphyotrichum cordifoliwn           Heart-leaved aster
Symphyotrichum laeve                 Smooth blue aster
Symphyotrichum lateriflorum          Side-flowering aster
Symphyotrichum pilosum               Hairy aster
Symplocarpus foetidus                Skunk cabbage
TARAXACUM OFFICINALE                 Common dandelion
Tilia americana                      American linden
Tovara virginiana                    Virginia knotweed
Toxicodendron radiions               Poison ivy
Trodescantia subaspera               Broad-leaved spidcrwort
Trillium flexipes                    Declined trillium
Trillium grandiflorum                Large white trillium
Trillium recurvation                 Red trillium
Trillium sessile                     Sessile trillium
Uliniis americano                    American elm
Ulmus rubra                          Slippery elm
Uvularia grandiflora                 Large-flower bellwort
Valeriana pauciflora                 Pink valerian
Verbena urticifolia                  While vervain
Verbesina alternifolia               Wingstcm
Viola pubescens                      Downy yellow violet
Viola sororia                        Woolly blue violet
Viola striata                        Common white violet

Scientific name                      C    Physiognomy

Acer negundo                         1    Tree
Acer rubrum                          5    Tree
Acer saccharinum                     1    Tree
Acer saccharum s. nigrum             6    Tree
Acer saccharum s. saccharum          4    Tree
Actaea pachypoda                     7    Perennial forb
Aesculus glabra                      5    Tree
Ageratina altissima                  2    Perennial forb
AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA *                0    Tree
ALLIARIA PETIOLATA *                 0    Biennial forb
Allium tricoccum v. burdickii        6    Perennial forb
Anemone acutiloba                    8    Perennial forb
Arisaema dracontium                  5    Perennial forb
Arisaema triphyllum                  4    Perennial forb
Arnoglossum atriplicifolium          6    Perennial forb
Asarum canadense                     5    Perennial forb
Asimina triloba                      6    Tree
BERBERIS THUNBERGII *                0    Shrub
Bidens frondosa                      1    Annual forb
Boehmeria cylindrica                 3    Perennial forb
Cardamine concatenala                4    Perennial forb
Carex albursina                      7    Perennial sedge
Carex amphibola                      8    Perennial sedge
Carex gracilescens                   5    Perennial sedge
Carex grayi                          5    Perennial sedge
Carex hitchcockiana                  8    Perennial sedge
Carex jamesii                        4    Perennial sedge
Carex laxiflora                      7    Perennial sedge
Carex oligocarpa                     8    Perennial sedge
Carpinus caroliniana                 5    Tree
Carra cordiformis                    5    Tree
Carra glabra                         4    Tree
Carra laciniosa                      8    Tree
Carya ovata                          4    Tree
Catalpa speciosa                     0    Tree
Caulophyllum thalictroides           8    Perennial forb
CELASTRUS ORBICULATA *               0    Woody vine
Certis occidentalis                  3    Tree
Cercis canadensis                    3    Tree
Claytonia virginica                  2    Perennial forb
Circaea lutetiana                    2    Perennial forb
Collinsonia canadensis               8    Perennial forb
Cornus florida                       4    Tree
Cornus racemosa                      2    Shrub
Crataegus sp.                        ?    Tree
Cryptotaenia canadensis              3    Perennial forb
Cystopteris protrusa                 4    Fern
Delphinium tricorne                  5    Perennial forb
Dicentra canadensis                  7    Perennial forb
Dicentra cucullaria                  6    Perennial forb
Diplazium pycnocarpon                9    Fern
DUCHESNEA INDICA                     0    Perennial forb
Elymus villosus                      4    Perennial forb
Elymus virginicus                    3    Perennial forb
Enemion biternatum                   5    Perennial forb
Epifagus virginiana                  8    Perennial forb
Erigenia bulbosa                     5    Perennial forb
Erigeron philadelphicus              3    Perennial forb
Erythronium americanum               5    Perennial forb
EUONYMUS FORTUNEI *                  0    Shrub
Euonymus obovata                     7    Shrub
Fagus grandifolia                    8    Tree
Festuca subverticillata              2    Perennial grass
Floerkea proserpinacoides            5    Annual forb
FORSYTHIA SUSPENSA                   0    Shrub
Fraxinus americana                   4    Tree
Fraxinus pennsylvanka                3    Tree
Fraxinus quadrangulata               7    Tree
Galium aparine                       1    Annual forb
Galium circaezans                    7    Perennial forb
Geranium maculatum                   4    Perennial forb
Geum canadense                       1    Perennial forb
Glyceria striata                     4    Perennial forb
Hybanthus concolor                   6    Perennial forb
Hydrangea arborescens                7    Shrub
Hydrophyllum appendiculatum          6    Perennial forb
Hydrophyllum canadense               8    Perennial forb
Hydrophyllum mcicrophyllum           7    Perennial forb
Hydrophyllum virginiamim             4    Perennial forb
Impatiens pallida                    4    Annual forb
Iodanthus pinnatifidus               6    Perennial forb
Juglans nigra                        2    Tree
Laportea canadensis                  2    Perennial forb
Lepidium virginicum                  0    Annual forb
LIGUSTRUM OBTUSIFOLIUM *             0    Shrub
Lindera benzoin                      5    Shrub
Liriodendron tulipifera              4    Tree
LONICERA JAPONICA *                  0    Woody vine
LONICERA MAACKII *                   0    Shrub
Lysimachia ciliata                   4    Perennial forb
LYSIMACHIA NUMMULARIA                0    Perennial forb
Maianthemum racemosum                4    Perennial forb
Maianthemum stellatum                6    Perennial forb
Menispermum canadense                3    Woody vine
Mertensia virginica                  6    Perennial forb
Mimidus alatus                       4    Perennial forb
Nyssa sylvatica                      5    Tree
ORNITHOGALUM UMBELLATUM              0    Perennial forb
Osmorhiza claytonii                  3    Perennial forb
Osmorhiza longistylis                3    Perennial forb
Ostrya virginiana                    5    Tree
Packera glabella                     0    Annual forb
Packern obovata                      7    Perennial forb
Panax qiiinquefolius                 7    Perennial forb
Parthenocissus quinquefolio          2    Woody vine
Phlox divaricata                     5    Perennial forb
Phytolacca americana                 0    Perennial forb
Pilea pumila                         2    Annual forb
Platanus occidentalis                3    Tree
Poa sylvestris                       5    Perennial forb
Podophyllum peltatum                 3    Perennial forb
Polygonatum biflorum                 4    Perennial forb
Polymnia canadensis                  3    Perennial forb
Polyslichum acrostichoides           5    Fern
Populas deltoides                    1    Tree
Prenanthes alba                      5    Perennial forb
Prunus serotina                      1    Tree
Ptelea trifoliata                    4    Shrub
Quercus alba                         5    Tree
Quercus bicolor                      7    Tree
Quercus muehlenbergii                4    Tree
Quercus rubra                        4    Tree
Ranunculus abortivas                 0    Annual forb
RANUNCULUS FICARIA *                 0    Perennial forb
Ranunculus hispidas                  7    Perennial forb
RHODOTYPOS SCANDENS *                0    Shrub
Ribes cynosbati                      4    Shrub
ROSA MULTIFLORA *                    0    Shrub
Rubus allegheniensis                 2    Shrub
Rudheckia laciniata                  3    Perennial forb
Sambucas nigra s. canadensis         2    Shrub
Sanguinaria canadensis               5    Perennial forb
Sanicula odorata                     2    Perennial forb
Silene stellata                      5    Perennial forb
Silene virginica                     7    Perennial forb
Smilax hispida (= S. tamnoides)      3    Woody vine
Smilax herbacea (= S. lasioneura)    4    Herbaceous vine
Solidago caesia                      7    Perennial forb
Solidago canadensis                  0    Perennial forb
Solidago flexicaulis                 3    Perennial forb
Stachys palustris                    4    Perennial forb
Stellaria pubera                     7    Perennial forb
Stylophorum diphyllum                7    Perennial forb
Symphyotrichum cordifoliwn           5    Perennial forb
Symphyotrichum laeve                 10   Perennial forb
Symphyotrichum lateriflorum          3    Perennial forb
Symphyotrichum pilosum               0    Perennial forb
Symplocarpus foetidus                8    Perennial forb
TARAXACUM OFFICINALE                 0    Perennial forb
Tilia americana                      5    Tree
Tovara virginiana                    3    Perennial forb
Toxicodendron radiions               1    Woody vine
Trodescantia subaspera               4    Perennial forb
Trillium flexipes                    5    Perennial forb
Trillium grandiflorum                8    Perennial forb
Trillium recurvation                 4    Perennial forb
Trillium sessile                     4    Perennial forb
Uliniis americano                    3    Tree
Ulmus rubra                          3    Tree
Uvularia grandiflora                 7    Perennial forb
Valeriana pauciflora                 7    Perennial forb
Verbena urticifolia                  3    Perennial forb
Verbesina alternifolia               3    Perennial forb
Viola pubescens                      5    Perennial forb
Viola sororia                        1    Perennial forb
Viola striata                        4    Perennial forb

Scientific name                      2003     2016

Acer negundo                         30 Apr   12 May
Acer rubrum                          27 May
Acer saccharinum                     12 May   26 May
Acer saccharum s. nigrum             23 Apr   25 May
Acer saccharum s. saccharum          23 Apr   12 May
Actaea pachypoda                     30 Apr   26 May
Aesculus glabra                      23 Apr   19 Apr
Ageratina altissima                  12 May   25 May
AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA *                8 Sep    1 Jun
ALLIARIA PETIOLATA *                 30 Apr   21 Mar
Allium tricoccum v. burdickii        23 Apr   19 Apr
Anemone acutiloba                    30 Apr   21 Mar
Arisaema dracontium                           25 May
Arisaema triphyllum                  23 Apr   19 Apr
Arnoglossum atriplicifolium          24 Jul
Asarum canadense                     23 Apr   19 Apr
Asimina triloba                      23 Apr   12 May
BERBERIS THUNBERGII *                27 May
Bidens frondosa                               23 Aug
Boehmeria cylindrica                 2 Jun
Cardamine concatenala                23 Apr   21 Mar
Carex albursina                               7 Jul
Carex amphibola                      12 May
Carex gracilescens                            7 Jul
Carex grayi                          27 May   23 Aug
Carex hitchcockiana                           14 Jul
Carex jamesii                                 7 Jul
Carex laxiflora                      30 Apr   29 Jun
Carex oligocarpa                              1 Jun
Carpinus caroliniana                 30 Apr
Carra cordiformis                    30 Apr   1 Jun
Carra glabra                         7 Jul    23 Aug
Carra laciniosa                      27 May   1 Jun
Carya ovata                          7 Jul    1 Jun
Catalpa speciosa                              1 Jun
Caulophyllum thalictroides                    12 May
CELASTRUS ORBICULATA *               30 Apr   1 Jun
Certis occidentalis                  30 Apr   25 May
Cercis canadensis                    23 Apr   19 Apr
Claytonia virginica                  7 Jul
Circaea lutetiana                    23 Apr   21 Mar
Collinsonia canadensis               13 Aug   19 May
Cornus florida                       23 Apr
Cornus racemosa                      30 Apr   26 May
Crataegus sp.                        30 Apr
Cryptotaenia canadensis              12 May   1 Jun
Cystopteris protrusa                 30 Apr   19 Apr
Delphinium tricorne                  30 Apr
Dicentra canadensis                           12 May
Dicentra cucullaria                  23 Apr   19 Apr
Diplazium pycnocarpon                12 May   12 May
DUCHESNEA INDICA                     23 Apr
Elymus villosus                      8 Sep    1 Jun
Elymus virginicus                    12 May   1 Jun
Enemion biternatum                   30 Apr   21 Mar
Epifagus virginiana                  8 Sep
Erigenia bulbosa                     23 Apr   21 Mar
Erigeron philadelphicus                       1 Jun
Erythronium americanum               23 Apr   21 Mar
EUONYMUS FORTUNEI *                  27 May   12 May
Euonymus obovata                     12 May   19 May
Fagus grandifolia                    23 Apr   21 Mar
Festuca subverticillata                       1 Jun
Floerkea proserpinacoides            30 Apr
FORSYTHIA SUSPENSA                            21 Mar
Fraxinus americana                   23 Apr   26 May
Fraxinus pennsylvanka                30 Apr   25 May
Fraxinus quadrangulata               30 Apr   19 May
Galium aparine                       30 Apr   19 May
Galium circaezans                    30 Apr
Geranium maculatum                   23 Apr   19 May
Geum canadense                       12 May   23 Aug
Glyceria striata                     8 Sep    Miller
Hybanthus concolor                   12 May
Hydrangea arborescens                12 May   1 Jun
Hydrophyllum appendiculatum          23-Apr   12-May
Hydrophyllum canadense               12 May   12 May
Hydrophyllum mcicrophyllum           30 Apr   21 Apr
Hydrophyllum virginiamim             27 May
Impatiens pallida                    30 Apr   25 May
Iodanthus pinnatifidus               12 May   12 May
Juglans nigra                        30 Apr   23 Aug
Laportea canadensis                  12 May   12 May
Lepidium virginicum                           1 Jun
LIGUSTRUM OBTUSIFOLIUM *             23 Apr   21 Mar
Lindera benzoin                      30 Apr   19 Apr
Liriodendron tulipifera              30 Apr   12 May
LONICERA JAPONICA *                  30 Apr
LONICERA MAACKII *                   23 Apr   12 May
Lysimachia ciliata                            23 Aug
LYSIMACHIA NUMMULARIA                         23 Aug
Maianthemum racemosum                30 Apr   19 Apr
Maianthemum stellatum                         12 May
Menispermum canadense                30 Apr
Mertensia virginica                  23 Apr
Mimidus alatus                                23 Aug
Nyssa sylvatica                               25 May
ORNITHOGALUM UMBELLATUM                       12 May
Osmorhiza claytonii                  2 Jun    19 May
Osmorhiza longistylis                30 Apr   19 May
Ostrya virginiana                    2 Jun    12 May
Packera glabella                              19 May
Packern obovata                      30 Apr
Panax qiiinquefolius                          Miller
Parthenocissus quinquefolio          30 Apr   12 May
Phlox divaricata                     7 Jul    7 Jul
Phytolacca americana                 23 Apr   19 Apr
Pilea pumila                         12 May   19 May
Platanus occidentalis                30 Apr   25 May
Poa sylvestris                       12 May   25 May
Podophyllum peltatum                 23 Apr   12 May
Polygonatum biflorum                 30 Apr   25 May
Polymnia canadensis                  30 Apr   23 Aug
Polyslichum acrostichoides           30 Apr   19 May
Populas deltoides                    12 May   25 May
Prenanthes alba                      30 Apr
Prunus serotina                      30 Apr   12 May
Ptelea trifoliata                    8 Sep    1 Jun
Quercus alba                         30 Apr   12 May
Quercus bicolor                               25 May
Quercus muehlenbergii                7 Jul    1 Jun
Quercus rubra                        30 Apr   19 May
Ranunculus abortivas                 23 Apr
RANUNCULUS FICARIA *                 23 Apr   21 Mar
Ranunculus hispidas                  30 Apr   12 May
RHODOTYPOS SCANDENS *                12 May   19 Apr
Ribes cynosbati                      30 Apr   12 May
ROSA MULTIFLORA *                             19 May
Rubus allegheniensis                 22 Oct   1 Jun
Rudheckia laciniata                  2 Jun    1 Jun
Sambucas nigra s. canadensis         12 May   12 May
Sanguinaria canadensis               23 Apr   21 Mar
Sanicula odorata                     23 Apr   21 Mar
Silene stellata                      24 Jul
Silene virginica                     30 Apr   Miller
Smilax hispida (= S. tamnoides)      7 Jul
Smilax herbacea (= S. lasioneura)    12 May   25 May
Solidago caesia                      24 Jul
Solidago canadensis                           1 Jun
Solidago flexicaulis                 24 Jul   14 Sep
Stachys palustris                    27 May
Stellaria pubera                     23 Apr   19 May
Stylophorum diphyllum                23 Apr   19 Apr
Symphyotrichum cordifoliwn           27 May   8 Nov
Symphyotrichum laeve                 22 Oct
Symphyotrichum lateriflorum          22 Oct
Symphyotrichum pilosum               22 Oct
Symplocarpus foetidus                22 Oct
TARAXACUM OFFICINALE                          1 Jun
Tilia americana                      30 Apr   23 Aug
Tovara virginiana                    30 Apr   25 May
Toxicodendron radiions               23 Apr   19 May
Trodescantia subaspera               24 Jul   23 Aug
Trillium flexipes                    23 Apr   12 May
Trillium grandiflorum                23 Apr
Trillium recurvation                 30 Apr   21 Mar
Trillium sessile                     30 Apr   21 Mar
Uliniis americano                    2 Jun    25 May
Ulmus rubra                          30 Apr   25 May
Uvularia grandiflora                 23 Apr   21 Mar
Valeriana pauciflora                 12 May   19 May
Verbena urticifolia                           14 Sep
Verbesina alternifolia               12 May
Viola pubescens                      30 Apr   19 Apr
Viola sororia                        23 Apr   19 Apr
Viola striata                        30 Apr   12 May

Appendix 3.--Frequency, average cover class, and relative importance
value (RIV) for herb-layer species in transects. RIV was calculated
by adding each species' relative frequency and relative cover and
dividing by two. Only absolute values for frequency and covcr are
presented here. Taxa with the ten greatest RIVs each year are
in bold.


Species                          Freq   Ave cover   RIV

Acer negando                      --       --        --
Acer saccharinum                  6       0.09      1.8
Acer saccharum s. nigrum          --       --        --
Acer saccharum s. saccharum#     15#      0.31#     5.4#
Actaea pachypoda                  3       0.06      1.0
Aesculus glabra                   3       0.10      1.4
Ageratina altissima               --       --        --
Alliaria petiolata                2       0.04      0.7
Allium tricoccum v. burdickii     7       0.11      2.3
Anemone aculiloba                 5       0.08      1.7
Arisaema dracontium               --       --        --
Arisaema triphyllum               5       0.09      1.6
Asarum canadense#                14#      0.36#     5.6#
Asimina triloba                   3       0.10      1.4
Boehmeria cylindrica              2       0.07      1.0
Cardamine concatenata             --       --        --
Carex laxiflora                   6       0.09      1.8
Carex sp.                         --       --        --
Carya seedling                    5       0.10      1.8
Celtis occidentalis               2       0.03      0.6
Cornus seedling                   --       --        --
Cryptotaenia canadensis           1       0.01      0.3
Cystopteris protrusa              2       0.03      0.6
Elymus virginicus                 1       0.01      0.3
Enemion biternatum                6       0.10      2.0
Euonymus fortunei#                1       0.04      0.6
Euonymus obovata                  --       --        --
Fraxinus seedling#                8#      0.24#     3.5#
Galium aparine                    3       0.04      0.9
Geum canadense                    2       0.03      0.6
Hydrangea arborescens             1       0.04      0.6
Hydrophyllum appendiculatum       6       0.09      1.8
Hydrophyllum canadense#           7#      0.34#     4.2#
Hydrophyllum macrophyllum#        9#      0.20#     3.3#
Impatiens pallida#               15#      0.30#     5.3#
Laportea canadensis#              3       0.11      1.5
Lindera benzoin                   6       0.17      2.5
Liriodendron tulipifera           --       --        --
Lonicera maackii#                 6#      0.19#     2.7#
Maianthemum racemosum#           16#      0.41#     6.4#
Osmorhiza claytonii               1       0.01      0.3
Osmorhiza longistylis             1       0.01      0.3
Parthenocissus quinquefolio#     12#      0.30#     4.7#
Phlox divaricata                  --       --        --
Pilea pumila                      --       --        --
Podophyllum peltatum              5       0.14      2.1
Polygonatum biflorum#            13#      0.26#     4.6#
Polymnia canadensis               --       --        --
Polystichum acrostichoides        1       0.03      0.5
Prunas serotina                   4       0.06      1.2
Quereus seedling                  7       0.10      2.2
Ranunculus abortinis              3       0.04      0.9
Ranunculus ficaria                --       --        --
Ribes cynosbati                   1       0.03      0.5
Rudbeckia laciniata               1       0.03      0.5
Sanguinaria canadensis            5       0.10      1.8
Sanicula odorala                  5       0.06      1.7
Smilax hispida                    --       --        --
Smilax lasioneura                 1       0.01      0.3
Solidago caesia                   1       0.03      0.5
Solidago flexicaulis              4       0.09      1.5
Stylophorum diphyllum             3       0.04      0.9
Symphyotrichum cordifolium        6       0.10      2.0
Tovara virginiana                 4       0.07      1.4
Toxicodendron radicans#           5       0.14      2.1
Tradescantia subaspera            1       0.03      0.5
Trillium sessile                  2       0.03      0.6
Ulmus seedling                    3       0.07      1.2
Uvularia grandiflora              3       0.06      1.0
Verbesina alternifolia            1       0.01      0.3
Viola sp.                         6       0.13      2.2


Species                          Freq   Ave cover    RIV

Acer negando                      3       0.06       1.3
Acer saccharinum                  --       --        --
Acer saccharum s. nigrum          1       0.03       0.5
Acer saccharum s. saccharum#     27#      0.46#     10.7#
Actaea pachypoda                  1       0.03       0.5
Aesculus glabra                   1       0.03       0.5
Ageratina altissima               1       0.03       0.5
Alliaria petiolata                3       0.04       1.1
Allium tricoccum v. burdickii     3       0.04       1.1
Anemone aculiloba                 2       0.03       0.8
Arisaema dracontium               2       0.04       0.9
Arisaema triphyllum               2       0.04       0.9
Asarum canadense#                13#      0.37#     6.7#
Asimina triloba                   1       0.06       0.8
Boehmeria cylindrica              --       --        --
Cardamine concatenata             3       0.04       1.1
Carex laxiflora                   3       0.06       1.3
Carex sp.                         2       0.04       0.9
Carya seedling                    3       0.04       1.1
Celtis occidentalis               1       0.01       0.4
Cornus seedling                   1       0.03       0.5
Cryptotaenia canadensis           --       --        --
Cystopteris protrusa              --       --        --
Elymus virginicus                 --       --        --
Enemion biternatum                2       0.03       0.8
Euonymus fortunei#                7#      0.14#     3.0#
Euonymus obovata                  1       0.03       0.5
Fraxinus seedling#               17#      0.37#     7.6#
Galium aparine                    1       0.01       0.4
Geum canadense                    1       0.01       0.4
Hydrangea arborescens             --       --        --
Hydrophyllum appendiculatum       3       0.06       1.3
Hydrophyllum canadense#           5#      0.19#     3.0#
Hydrophyllum macrophyllum#        1       0.01       0.4
Impatiens pallida#                2       0.03       0.8
Laportea canadensis#             23#      0.77#     13.0#
Lindera benzoin                   1       0.01       0.4
Liriodendron tulipifera           1       0.01       0.4
Lonicera maackii#                 4       0.09       1.8
Maianthemum racemosum#           11#      0.27#     5.2#
Osmorhiza claytonii               --       --         _
Osmorhiza longistylis             --       --        --
Parthenocissus quinquefolio#     10#      0.20#     4.3#
Phlox divaricata                  2       0.03       0.8
Pilea pumila                      7       0.10       2.6
Podophyllum peltatum              3       0.09       1.6
Polygonatum biflorum#            10#      0.24#     4.7#
Polymnia canadensis               1       0.01       0.4
Polystichum acrostichoides        --       --        --
Prunas serotina                   7       0.10       2.6
Quereus seedling                  2       0.03       0.8
Ranunculus abortinis              --       --        --
Ranunculus ficaria                2       0.04       0.9
Ribes cynosbati                   --       --        --
Rudbeckia laciniata               --       --        --
Sanguinaria canadensis            5       0.07       1.9
Sanicula odorala                  1       0.03       0.5
Smilax hispida                    2       0.03       0.8
Smilax lasioneura                 --       --        --
Solidago caesia                   --       --        --
Solidago flexicaulis              1       0.01       0.4
Stylophorum diphyllum             1       0.01       0.4
Symphyotrichum cordifolium        --       --        --
Tovara virginiana                 2       0.03       0.8
Toxicodendron radicans#           7#      0.13#     2.9#
Tradescantia subaspera            1       0.01       0.4
Trillium sessile                  --       --        --
Ulmus seedling                    3       0.04       1.1
Uvularia grandiflora              3       0.04       1.1
Verbesina alternifolia            --       --        --
Viola sp.                         4       0.06       1.5

Taxa with the ten greatest RIVs each year are in #.

(1) Corresponding author: Rebecca W. Dolan, 317940-9413 (phone), 317-940-9519 (fax),

Caption: Figure 1.--Memorial plaque at Woollen's Gardens Nature Preserve.

Caption: Figure 2.--Woollen's Gardens Nature Preserve topography and location. Note close proximity of major interstate highways and residential development.

Caption: Figure 3.--General locations of survey transects in Woollen's Gardens Nature Preserve. GPS coordinates arc presented in Appendix 1.

Caption: Figure 4.--Distribution of C-values for all native plants seen in 2003 and 2016.
Table 1.--Florislic quality assessment results
for Woollen's Gardens.

                   Both years   2003   2016

NATIVE SPECIES        150       128    122
  Total Species       166       139    134
  % Native            90.4      92.1   91.0
NATIVE MEAN C         4.5       4.5    4.3
  W/Non-native        4.0       4.1    3.9
NATIVE FQI            54.2      50.2   47.3
  W/Non-Natives       51.5      48.0   45.1

Table 2.-Plants with C values of 7 or greater
present at Woollen's Gardens.

Scientific name               Common name

Symphyotrichum lucre          Smooth blue aster
Diplaziwn pycnocarpon         Glade fern
Anemone acutiloba             Sharp-lobed hepatica
Carex amphibola               False gray sedge
Carex hitchcockiana           Hairy gray sedge
Carex oligocarpa              Few-fruited gray sedge
Carya laciniosa               Big shellbark hickory
Caulophyllum thalictroides    Blue cohosh
Collinsonia canadensis        Citronella horse balm
Epifagus virginiana           Beech drops
Fagus grandifolia             American beech
Hydrophyllum canadense        Canada waterleaf
Symplocarpus foetidus         Skunk cabbage
Trillium grandiflorum         Large white trillium
Actaea pachypoda              Doll's-eyes
Carex albursina               Blunt-scaled wood sedge
Carex Uixifloru               Beech wood sedge
Dicentra canadensis           Squirrel corn
Euonymus obovata              Running strawberry bush
Fraxinus quadrangulata        Blue ash
Galium circaezans             Smooth wild licorice
Hydrangea arborescens         Wild hydrangea
Hydrophyllum macrophyllum     Large-leaf waterleaf
Packera obovata               Round-leaved ragwort
Panax quinquefolius           American ginseng
Quercus bicolor               Swamp white oak
Ranunculus hispidas           Rough buttercup
Silene virginica              Fire pink
Solidago caesia               Bluestem goldenrod
Stellaria pubera              Great chickweed
Stylophorwn diphyllum         Celandine poppy
Uvularia grandiflora          Large-flower bellwort
Valeriana pauciflora          Pink valerian

                                        Year observed

Scientific name               C-value   2003     2016

Symphyotrichum lucre            10        X
Diplaziwn pycnocarpon            9        X       X
Anemone acutiloba                8        X       X
Carex amphibola                  8        X
Carex hitchcockiana              8                X
Carex oligocarpa                 8                X
Carya laciniosa                  8        X       X
Caulophyllum thalictroides       8                X
Collinsonia canadensis           8        X       X
Epifagus virginiana              8        X
Fagus grandifolia                8        X       X
Hydrophyllum canadense           8        X       X
Symplocarpus foetidus            8        X
Trillium grandiflorum            8        X
Actaea pachypoda                 7        X       X
Carex albursina                  7                X
Carex Uixifloru                  7        X       X
Dicentra canadensis              7                X
Euonymus obovata                 7        X       X
Fraxinus quadrangulata           7        X       X
Galium circaezans                7        X
Hydrangea arborescens            7        X       X
Hydrophyllum macrophyllum        7        X       X
Packera obovata                  7        X
Panax quinquefolius              7                X
Quercus bicolor                  7                X
Ranunculus hispidas              7        X       X
Silene virginica                 7        X       X
Solidago caesia                  7        X
Stellaria pubera                 7        X       X
Stylophorwn diphyllum            7        X       X
Uvularia grandiflora             7        X       X
Valeriana pauciflora             7        X       X

Table 3-Invasive species al Woollen's Gardens.
Rank indicates invasiveness rank in Indiana


Scicnlific name           Common name            2003   2016   Rank

Ailanthus altissima       Tree-of-heaven          x      x     high
Alliaria petiolata        Garlic mustard          x      x     high
Berberis thunbergii       Japanese barberry       x            high
Celastrus orbiculata      Oriental bittersweet    x      x     high
Euonymus fortunei         Wintercreeper           x      x     high
Ligustrum obtusifolium    Border privet           x      x     high
Lonicera japonica         Japanese honeysuckle    x            high
Lonicera maackii          Amur honeysuckle        x      x     high
Ranunculus ficaria        Lesser celandine        x      x     caution
Rhodotypos scandens       Jetbead                 x      x     caution
Rosa multiflora           Japanese rose                  x     high

Table 4.--Invasive species present in herb-layer sample plots.
Format = transect number: plot number (cover class). Ranunculus
ficaria was present elsewhere in the preserve in 2003 but not
detected in plots.

Species               2003                  2016

Alliaria petiolata    T3:1 (2), T3:7 (3)    T2:1 (1), T2:2 (1),
                                            T2:4 (1)

Euonymous fortunei    T3:7 (3)              T3:1 (2), T3:2 (1),
                                            T3:3 (2), T3:7 (2)

                                            T4:4 (1)

                                            T5:4 (1)

                                            T6:1 (1)

Lonicera maackii      T1:8 (1)              T1:4 (2), T1:6 (1),
                                            T1:7 (2)

                      T3:5 (3), T4:1 (3),   T3:4 (1)
                      T4:4 (2), T4:5 (1),
                      T6:4 (3)

Ranunculus ficaria    --                    T3:2 (1), T3:10 (2)
COPYRIGHT 2017 Indiana Academy of Science
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2017 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Dolan, Rebecca W.; Moore, Mareia E.
Publication:Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jul 1, 2017

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters