FLORISTIC INVENTORY OF WOOLLEN'S GARDENS NATURE PRESERVE, INDIANAPOLIS, MARION COUNTY, INDIANA, USA, WITH QUANTITATIVE VEGETATION SAMPLING OF PERMANENT PLOTS IN 2003 AND 2016.
Keywords: Floristic quality index (FQI), Indiana flora, invasive specics, floristic change, urban forest fragment
Studying changes in floristic composition of natural areas over time provides insight into vegetation quality that can be used to better understand plant community dynamics, to document species introductions and extirpations, and to inform site management. Quantitative vegetation sampling of permanent plots has the additional benefit of providing data on abundance and frequency, allowing floristic change to be more completely documented and monitored through time. Data derived from repeated sampling of permanent plots in locations where the surrounding landscape is undergoing significant habitat alteration, such as in cities, can provide important data for tracking the influences of urbanization on flora. For example, Dolan et al. (2015) documented an increase in the number and coverage of non-native species over a decade in two natural areas in Indianapolis, Indiana, based on permanent plot data.
Supported by funding from the Land Stewardship Office of the City of Indianapolis, we surveyed Woollen's Gardens, an urban forest fragment, in 2003 to get a base-line assessment of the plants present. In 2016, the study was repeated, visiting the preserve multiple times over the course of the year to record an overall inventory and resampling plots along the seven transects established in 2003. To report changes over time, herbaceous vegetation was quantified and overall floristic quality evaluated for both years. Results are reported here, along with management recommendations based on the findings.
Woollen's Gardens is a 38 acre state-dedicated Nature Preserve in northeast Marion County. The preserve is a remnant of a larger gift of land to the city by William Woollen in 1909 (Fig. I). The land was used at that time for nature study. As a city park, the site was spared from development. The site has been long-recognized as one of the highest-quality forested natural areas in the city (Brothers 1994). Dolan et al. (2011) documented Woollen's Gardens to be among the top three of 14 natural areas inventoried between 1996 and 2007 in Indianapolis, based on a low percentage of non-native plants and other measures of habitat integrity.
The Indiana Department of Natural Resources Directory of Indiana's Dedicated Nature Preserves, (IDNR 1988) describes Woollen's Gardens as "old-growth mesic upland forest dominated by beech, sugar maple, hackberry, red oak, chinquapin oak, black maple, and blue ash, with some trees reaching diameters of up to 40 inches." Indianapolis/Marion County is in the Central Till Plain Natural Region of Indiana (Homoya et al. 1985). This is a region of gently rolling terrain comprised of Wisconsin era glacial till deposits, often over 30 m deep. The area was 98% forested in pre-European settlement times (Barret al. 2002).
Woollen's Gardens is bounded on the north and west by Fall Creek, on the east by Interstate 465, and on the south by apartments and an upscale neighborhood of estate-style single-family homes. The site is characterized by a floodplain adjacent to the creek and a series of north-facing ridges above the creek, separated by, in some cases, fairly deeply carved ravines (Fig. 2). The upland woodland is visually uniform with prominent mature trees. Areas of disturbance occur in flood-prone sites along the creek and adjacent to the apartment complex and yards. Dumping of trash and yard refuse, along with run-off sites of gray water, are present in these areas but the habitat is more pristine deeper in the preserve. Management has primarily been focused on invasive species removal.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Floral inventory.--The preserve was visited 12 times from April to November during 2003 and 13 times during the same months in 2016. The flora was inventoried by meander walks that covered all areas of the preserve. Names follow usage from the Indiana Plant Atlas (Dolan & Moore 2017) and/or the online Universal FQA calculator (Freyman et al. 2015). Dr. Paul Rothrock of Indiana University's Deam Herbarium provided identification of grasses and sedges.
Floristic quality assessment.--Plant lists from both survey years were analyzed separately and combined using the Indiana database (based on Rothrock (2004)) of the Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) software (Freyman et al. 2015). Mean C, a component of FQA. measures the overall quality of the habitat as indicated by the native species present (Swink & Wilhelm 1994). In this approach, native species have been assigned numbers, coefficients of conservatism (C-values), from 0-10 based on their perceived fidelity to natural plant communities. Higher numbers indicate intolerance of disturbance and restriction to presettlement remnants (Rothrock 2004). The C values are averaged to generate a mean C. In general, mean C of 3.5 and higher indicates that a community retains remnant natural quality. The Floristic Quality Index (FQI) for a site is calculated by multiplying the mean C-value for all native plants at a site by the square root of the number of native species present, thereby weighting the mean C-value by species richness. Higher FQI numbers indicate greater natural habitat integrity. Mean C and FQI with nonnatives indicates the influence non-native plants have in reducing habitat quality. Sites with high natural area quality in central Indiana would be expected to have FQI values of 35 or greater (Rothrock & Homoya 2005). When comparing FQI values for a given site over time, the absolute value is not as important as how the number changes through time, with decreasing values indicating site quality decline from an ecological perspective.
Quantitative vegetation analysis.--Seven 100 m transects located throughout the preserve (Fig. 3) were assessed between May and August in 2003 and 2016. Transect GPS coordinates and sample dates are presented in Appendix 1. Six of the seven transects were in upland forest habitat; the seventh was located on the floodplain of Fall Creek. Each species in the herb-layer (all herbaceous plants and woody plants smaller than 10 cm dbh) was identified and its aerial coverage in 1 [m.sup.2] plots located every 10 m along each transect was characterized. We used a modified Daubenmire cover class scheme (Daubenmire 1959; McCune & Grace 2002) to document cover: 1 = 1-7%, 2 = 8-25%, 3 = 26-50%, 4 = 51-75%, 5 = 76-93%, and 6 = 94-100%. Frequency (the number of plots out of 70 that each species occurred) and average cover class (averaged over all 70 plots) were calculated for herb-layer vegetation. Relative importance values (RIV) were calculated for each species by adding relative frequency and relative cover and dividing by two.
End points of the seven transects for vegetation sampling were marked temporarily in 2003 and their Global Positioning System (GPS) locations recorded. Prior to 2016 work, a professional survey team relocated the end points to within 1.0 cm accuracy using current GPS technology. These points were then marked with rebar pounded into the ground to within 2-5 cm of the soil surface.
A total of 166 taxa was observed during the two study years. Showy stands of declined trillium (Trillium flexipes) were present in 2003, along with pink valerian (Valeriana pauciflora) and starry campion (Silene stellata). In 2016, feathery false Solomon seal (Maianthemum racemosum) was especially prominent throughout the preserve. All plants are listed in Appendix 2, along with C-value, physiognomy (tree, fern, perennial forb, etc.), and the year and date first seen. Only 16 of the total taxa (9.6%) were non-native plants (indicated with name in capital letters in Appendix 2). The only rare, threatened, or endangered taxon found at Woollen's Gardens was American ginseng (Panax quinquefalius), seen in 2016. It is a state listed Watch List plant (http://www.in.gov/ dnr/naturepreserve/files/np-etrplants.pdf). Cigar tree (Catalpa speciosa) is state listed in its native range near the Ohio River in southwestern Indiana, but in central Indiana it has escaped from cultivation (Jackson 2004). Downy yellow violet (Viola pubescens) is a Watch List plant, but that designation does not apply to the variety occurring in central Indiana (Michael Homoya, Pers. Comm.), and the FQA database for Indiana does not distinguish varieties for this species (Rothrock 2004).
Floristic Quality Assessment for Woollen's Gardens shows the presence of a flora with numerous conservative species that is minimally impacted by non-natives (Table 1). The reduction in mean C and mean FQ1 when non-natives are included is small for each sample year. Thirty-three species with C-values of 7 or greater were seen in one or both years (Table 2). C-values of 7-10 reflect species representative of high-quality natural areas that have suffered little disturbance (Swink & Wilhelm 1994). Smooth blue aster (Symphyotrichum laeve) was the only C-value 10 species. It was seen in 2003 but not 2016. Glade fern (Diplazium pycnocarpon), the only plant with a C-value of 9, was found both years. Comparison of plants with low C-values (C = 0-3) shows an increase in 2016 compared with 2003 (Fig. 4).
Herb-layer plot data.--Data on frequency and abundance of individual species collected from surveyed plots reveal additional changes in the flora between survey years (Appendix 3). The most striking difference between years is the RIV of 13.0 for Canada wood nettle (Laportea canadensis) in 2016. The species was not among the top ten species for RIV in 2003. RIV of sugar maple (Acer saccharum ssp. saccharum) almost doubled and RIV of ash seedlings (Fraxinus sp.) more than doubled between sample years. Two invasive species were among the top 10 in RIV: Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) in 2003 and wintercreeper (Euonymus fortunei) in 2016.
An average of four species was found in each plot in 2003; in 2016 the average was three. These numbers mask a species turnover rate of almost 50%. Forty species were present in plots in both 2003 and 2016. Seventeen were present only in 2003, 14 only in 2016.
Species of concern.--Although total site inventories for the two years documented few non-natives, over half that were present are invasive species of management concern in Indiana (https://www.entm.purdue.edu/iisc/ invasiveplants.php). Nine of the 11 invasive species rank as species of high concern in the state (Table 3). Herb-layer data from the sample plots allow comparison of the abundance and location of invasives (Table 4). Transects 4, 6, and 7 harbored the most invasives. Transect 7 is located in the floodplain of Fall Creek (Fig. 3), a location subject to soil disturbance and spread of propagules due to flooding. Transects 4 and 6 are most closely adjacent to neighborhood edges (Fig. 3), points of increased likelihood of introduction and spread of invasives.
Data from both 2003 and 2016 document that Woollen's Gardens continues to be a high-quality example of upland forest, as first noted by Brothers (1994). Ninety percent of the species present are native to Indiana. The average for 14 Indianapolis/Marion County parks and natural areas reported by Dolan et al. (2011) is 81 %, while the overall average for the flora of Indiana as a whole is estimated to be 70% (Kay Yatskievych, Pers. Comm). FQI values for Woollen's Gardens declined by 2.9 units, calculated based on either natives only or natives with non-natives included, between 2003 and 2016, indicating a slight decline in vegetation quality, even though the percentage of non-natives was similar both years. However, even the reduced FQI of 47.3 for 2016 indicates the flora of Woollen's Gardens is of regional significance from a conservation perspective (Swink & Wilhelm 1994).
FQI can be influenced by the size of an area being inventoried (Rothrock & Homoya 2005), so it is better used to detect changes in quality at a single site through time than to make comparisons between sites. Mean C-values are independent of the area of a site being inventoried, allowing direct comparisons between different sites. Native mean C-values for both years at Woollen's Gardens of greater than 4.0 are comparable to values we have found in the other state dedicated nature preserves in Marion County: Marott Park, Spring Pond, and Eagle's Crest, with mean native C-values of 3.8, 3.8, and 4.5, respectively (Dolan et al. 2011). These properties all had higher native mean C-values than 10 other parks and natural areas remnants surveyed, which had mean native C-values in the 3.0-3.7 range. Hubini et al. (2017) recently reported mean native C-values of 3.4 for Cooper-Skinner Woods, an urban forest remnant on the Ball State University campus in Delaware County in east central Indiana. Mean native C-values for the best natural sites in the Central Till Plain of central Indiana are in the low 4 range. This is due to a limited number of conservative species, reflecting the historic presence of few specialized habitats (Rothrock & Homoya 2005), likely further influenced by contemporary factors, including small size and isolation from larger tracts of natural habitat and the increased presence of introduced species that accompany habitat conversion for urbanization and agriculture (Hubini et al. 2017 and references therein).
Woollen's Gardens vegetation quality is not currently greatly influenced by non-native species, based on FQA. Using data from the 2003 inventory, Dolan et al. (2011) reported Woollen's Gardens had the highest mean C-value with nonnatives of 14 natural areas in Indianapolis surveyed between 1996 and 2007. The 2016 mean C-value with non-natives of 3.9 is in line with these findings. Differences between mean C with and without non-natives each year was only 0.4 units. Rothrock & Homoya (2005) have suggested that the natural quality of a site has been compromised when non-native species richness lowers the mean C-value by more than 0.7 units.
Although about the same number of species was documented in sample plots in 2003 and 2016, these numbers mask a species turnover rate of almost 50%. This is a phenomenon seen at other sites in the city (Dolan et al. 2015) and has been attributed to a combination of factors, including disturbance caused by management to remove invasive species, white tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimrn) browse, and rainfall and other climatological differences between sample years (Dolan et al. 2015). Aspects of this species turnover are reflected in Figure 4 as an increase in species with lower C-values, those with lower fidelity to high-quality habitat.
Between 2003 and 2016, the RIV of sugar maple, ash seedlings, and Canada wood nettle greatly increased in the herb-layer at Woollen's Gardens. Increases in sugar maple over the last 20 years have been recently documented in other mesic forests in central Indiana (Dolan 2015) and were first reported in Indiana as early as 1977 (Abrell & Jackson 1977). This pattern has been seen in many regional oak-hickory forests, perhaps due to reduced frequency of natural disturbance such as fire (Pierce et al. 2006). Increases in the frequency and cover of ash seedlings may reflect natural mast cycles in ash (Boerner & Brinkman 1996) or increased seed produced by trees stressed by the recently introduced emerald ash borer (Agrilusplanipennis Fairmaire), as has been proposed by Ben Dor et al. (2006). However, few or no ash seedlings were observed in forests in Ohio and Michigan with high ash mortality due to the borer (Klooster et al. 2014). Canada wood nettles are associated with gaps in forest canopy cover and have been documented to increase in forests where canopies have been opened due to Dutch elm disease (Biederman 2000), likely similar to gaps created when ash trees are killed by the borer. Further, dense patches of nettles are associated with reduced abundance of summer-reproducing forbs and graminoids in Minnesota forests, along with increases in sugar maple (Biederman 2000). Interactions of these disturbance factors with natural succession processes no doubt influence species dynamics at Woollen's Gardens.
The decline in RIV of Amur honeysuckle between survey years likely reflect management success at targeting this plant. However, winter-creeper has greatly increased in frequency and cover, a trend we have seen in many natural areas in Marion County over the last decade following honeysuckle removal. Not much is known about the invasion dynamics of wintercreeper (Bauer & Reynolds 2016; Mattingly et al. 2016), but increases in the presence of non-target invasive species are not uncommon following invasive species control efforts (Kettenring & Adams 2011). Wintercreeper should be a priority species for management action at Woollen's Gardens going forward.
Woollen's Gardens has little foot traffic due to limited parking, few trails, and lack of publicity. These features may contribute to the relatively low numbers of non-native and invasive plant species present, as hikers can introduce and spread non-native seed (Drayton & Primack 1996; Pickering et al. 2011). A large management concern at the site presented itself in September, 2016, however. Strong winds toppled many large trees along a ridge in the center of the preserve, near Transects 5 and 6. On our final visit in 2016, many leaning snapped trees and hanging branches presented hazards. This natural disturbance will open the canopy and potentially change the flora for many years to come. Forest openings are especially vulnerable to invasive species (Hutchinson & Vankat 1997; Pavlovic & Leicht-Young 2011), including wintercreeper (Swearingen & Bargeron 2016), which may then increase in density and/or spread within Woollen's Gardens. Management should focus on controlling invasives throughout the preserve, but especially in these areas. Vegetation should be reinventoried and transects surveyed again within the next few years to monitor changes in order to document the effectiveness of control efforts in maintaining habitat quality in this ecologically significant urban forest remnant.
Butler University undergraduate students, including Brandon Hunt, Kyle Cherry, and Jenna Krasek, assisted with fieldwork. Don Miller, Director, City of Indianapolis Office of Land Stewardship, provided exceptional support in all aspects of the project. Kay Yatskievych and Paul Rothrock helped with identification of some plants. Alison Taylor and Haley Coffman provided helpful edits. The authors wish to especially thank Proceedings editors Don Ruch and Paul Rothrock and reviewers for improving this manuscript throughout the submission process.
Abrell, D.B. & M.T. Jackson. 1977. A decade of change in an old-growth beech-maple forest in Indiana. American Midland Naturalist 98:22-32.
Barr, R.C., B.E. Hall. J.A. Wilson, C. Souch, G. Lindsey, J.A. Bacone, R.K. Campbell & L.P. Tedesco. 2002. Documenting changes in the natural environment of Indianapolis-Marion County from European settlement to the present. Ecological Restoration 20:37-46.
Bauer, J.T. & H.L. Reynolds. 2016. Restoring native understory to a woodland invaded by Euonymus fortunei, multiple factors affect success. Restoration Ecology 24:45-52.
BenDor, T.K., S.S. Metealf. L.E. Fontcnot, B. Sangunett & B. Hannon. 2006. Modeling the spread of emerald ash borer. Ecological Modelling 197:221-236.
Biederman, L.A. 2000. Response of wood nettle (Laportea canadensis) to Euro-American land-use in southeast Minnesota. Master's Thesis. University of Minnesota. Twin Cities, Minnesota. 103 pp.
Boerner, R.E.J. & J.A. Brinkman. 1996. Ten years of tree seedling establishment and mortality in an Ohio deciduous forest complex. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 123:309-317.
Brothers, T.S. 1994. Flora and fauna. Pp. 583 585. In The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. (D.J. Bodenhamer & R.D. Barrows, Eds.). Indiana University Press. Bloomington, Indiana.
Daubenmire, R.F. 1959. Canopy coverage method of vegetation analysis. Northwest Scientist 33: 43-64.
Dolan. R.W. 2015. Two hundred years of forest change: effects of urbanization on tree species composition and structure. Arboriculture and Urban Forestry 43:136-145.
Dolan. R.W. & M.E. Moore. 2017 Indiana Plant Atlas. [S.M. Landry and K.N. Campbell (original application development), USF Water Institute. University of South Florida]. Butler University Friesner Herbarium, Indianapolis, Indiana. At: http://www.indiana.plantatlas.usf.edu. (Accessed 2 January 2017).
Dolan, R.W.. J.D. Stephens & M.E. Moore. 2011. Living More Than just enough for the city: persistence of high-quality vegetation in natural areas in an urban setting. Diversity 3:611 627; doi:10.3390/d3040611--published online 3 October 2011.
Dolan, R.W.. J.D. Stephens & M.E. Moore. 2015. Changes in plant species composition and structure in two peri-urban nature preserves over 10 years. American Midland Naturalist 174:33-48.
Drayton. B. & R.B. Primack. 1996. Plant species lost in an isolated conservation area in metropolitan Boston from 1894-1993. Conservation Biology 10:30-39.
Freyman, M.A.. L.A. Masters & S. Packard. 2015. The Universal Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) Calculator: an online tool for ecological assessment and monitoring. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 7:380-383. At: https://universalfqa. org.
Homoya, M.A.. D.B Abrell. J R. Aldrich & T.W. Post. 1985. Natural Regions of Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Acadcmy of Science 94:245-268.
Hubini, A.M.H.. D.G. Ruch, M.E. Crecelius, J.E. Taylor, K.S. Badger & P.E. Rothrock. 2017. Floristic inventory of the Cooper Woods-Skinner Woods Complex, Ball State University. Delaware County, Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 126:72 93.
Hutchinson, T.F. & J.L. Vankat. 1997. Invasibility and effects of Amur honeysuckle in southwestern Ohio forests. Conservation Biology 11:1117-1124.
IDNR (Indiana Department of Natural Resources). 1988. Directory of Indiana's Dedicated Nature Preserves. Division of Nature Preserves, Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Indianapolis. Indiana. 99 pp.
Jackson. M.T. 2004. 101 Trees of Indiana: A Field Guide. Indiana University Press. Bloomington. Indiana. 364 pp.
Kettenring, K.M. & C.R. Adams. 2011. Lessons learned from invasive plant control experiments: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology 48:970-979.
Klooster, W.S.. D.A. Herms. K.S. Knight, C.P. Herms, D.G. McCullough, A. Smith. K.J.K. Gandi & J. Cardina. 2014. Ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality, regeneration, and seed bank dynamics in mixed hardwood forests following invasion by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis). Biological Invasions 16:859-873.
Mattingly, K.L.. R.W. McEwan, R.D. Paratley. S.R. Bray. J.R. Lempke & M.A. Arthur. 2016. Recovery of forest floor diversity after removal of the normative, invasive plant Euonynms fortunei. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 143:103-166.
McCune. B. & J.B. Grace. 2002. Analysis of Ecological Communities. MjM Software Design. Gleneden Beach. Oregon. 304 pp.
Pavlovic, N.B. & Leight-Young. 2011. Are temperate mature forests buffered from invasive lianas? Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 138:85-92.
Pickering. C.M., A. Mount. M.C. Wichmann & J.M. Bullock. 2011. Estimating human-mediated dispersal of seeds within an Australian protected area. Biological Invasions 13:1869-1880.
Pierce, A.R., G. Parker & K. Rabenold. 2006. Forest succession in an oak-hickory dominated stand during a 40-year period at the Ross Biological Reserve, Indiana. Natural Areas Journal 26:351-359.
Rothrock, P.E. 2004. Floristic quality assessment in Indiana: The concept, use, and development of Coefficients of Conservatism. Final Report for ARN A305-4-53 Floristic Quality Assessment Grant CD975586-01, Environmental Protection Agency Wetland Program Development Grant. 96 pp. At: http://www.lrl.usace.army.mil/Portals/64/ docs/regulatory/FloristicAssessment_IND.pdf.
Rothrock, P.E. & M.A. Homoya. 2005. An evaluation of Indiana's floristic quality assessment. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 114:9-18.
Swearingen, J. & C. Bargeron. 2016. Invasive Atlas of the United States. University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. At: http:/Invasiveplantatlas.org. (Accessed 1 December 2017).
Swink, F. & G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region, 4th edition. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis, Indiana. 921 pp.
Manuscript received 6 August 2017, revised 15 January 2018.
Appendix 1.--GPS coordinates for end points of transects and location of memorial plaque at Woollen's Gardens, with dates of sampling in 2003 and 2016. Transect end point X1 Y1 2003 2006 1a -86.04865671640 39.86393599340 24 Jul 8 Aug 1b -86.04811417650 39.86316989180 2a -86.05025729250 39.86363636590 25 May 26 May 2b -86.05081993290 39.86286426150 3a -86.05114790570 39.86350318840 7 Jul 29 Jun 3b -86.05124470330 39.86263547360 4a -86.04948316780 39.86275964190 7 Jul 26 Jun 4b -86.05033173180 39.86220121890 5a -86.05411402700 39.86257418400 13 Aug 23 Aug 5b -86.05298449660 39.86264173070 6a -86.05505816670 39.86273692250 2 Jun 25 May 6b -86.05623313780 39.86254304350 7a -86.05762127820 39.86255656880 2 Jun 25 May 7b -86.05713143170 39.86334260710 Rock with plaque -86.04974553940 39.86255893270 Appendix 2--All plants observed at Woollen's Gardens. Non-native species are in capital letters. * = invasive in Indiana. Miller = observed by Don Miller. Scientific name Common name Acer negundo Boxelder Acer rubrum Red maple Acer saccharinum Silver maple Acer saccharum s. nigrum Black maple Acer saccharum s. saccharum Sugar maple Actaea pachypoda Doll's-eyes Aesculus glabra Ohio buckeye Ageratina altissima White snakeroot AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA * Tree-of-heaven ALLIARIA PETIOLATA * Garlic mustard Allium tricoccum v. burdickii Wild leek Anemone acutiloba Sharp-lobcd hepatica Arisaema dracontium Green dragon Arisaema triphyllum Indian turnip Arnoglossum atriplicifolium Pale Indian plantain Asarum canadense Canada wild ginger Asimina triloba Pawpaw BERBERIS THUNBERGII * Japanese barberry Bidens frondosa Common beggar's ticks Boehmeria cylindrica False nettle Cardamine concatenala Toothwort Carex albursina Blunt-scaled wood sedge Carex amphibola False gray sedge Carex gracilescens Slender wood sedge Carex grayi Common bur sedge Carex hitchcockiana Hairy gray sedge Carex jamesii Grass sedge Carex laxiflora Beech wood sedge Carex oligocarpa Few-fruited gray sedge Carpinus caroliniana Blue beech Carra cordiformis Bitternut hickory Carra glabra Pignut hickory Carra laciniosa Big shellbark hickory Carya ovata Shagbark hickory Catalpa speciosa Cigar tree Caulophyllum thalictroides Blue cohosh CELASTRUS ORBICULATA * Oriental bittersweet Certis occidentalis Hack berry Cercis canadensis Eastern redbud Claytonia virginica Spring beauty Circaea lutetiana Enchanter's nightshade Collinsonia canadensis Citronella horse balm Cornus florida Flowering dogwood Cornus racemosa Gray dogwood Crataegus sp. Hawthorn Cryptotaenia canadensis Flonewort Cystopteris protrusa Common fragile fern Delphinium tricorne Dwarf larkspur Dicentra canadensis Squirrel corn Dicentra cucullaria Dutchman's breeches Diplazium pycnocarpon Glade fern DUCHESNEA INDICA Indian strawberry Elymus villosus Hairy wild rye Elymus virginicus Virginia wild rye Enemion biternatum False rue anemone Epifagus virginiana Beech drops Erigenia bulbosa Harbinger-of-spring Erigeron philadelphicus Marsh Acabane Erythronium americanum Yellow adder's tongue EUONYMUS FORTUNEI * Winlercrccper Euonymus obovata Running strawberry bush Fagus grandifolia American beech Festuca subverticillata Nodding fescue Floerkea proserpinacoides False mermaid weed FORSYTHIA SUSPENSA Weeping forsythia Fraxinus americana White ash Fraxinus pennsylvanka Green ash Fraxinus quadrangulata Blue ash Galium aparine Annual bcdstraw Galium circaezans Smooth wild licorice Geranium maculatum Wild geranium Geum canadense White avens Glyceria striata Fowl manna grass Hybanthus concolor Green violet Hydrangea arborescens Wild hydrangea Hydrophyllum appendiculatum Great waterleaf Hydrophyllum canadense Canada waterleaf Hydrophyllum mcicrophyllum Large-leaf waterleaf Hydrophyllum virginiamim Virginia waterleaf Impatiens pallida Pale touch-me-not Iodanthus pinnatifidus Violet cress Juglans nigra Black walnut Laportea canadensis Canada wood nettle Lepidium virginicum Common pepper grass LIGUSTRUM OBTUSIFOLIUM * Border privet Lindera benzoin Hairy spicebush Liriodendron tulipifera Tulip poplar LONICERA JAPONICA * Japanese honeysuckle LONICERA MAACKII * Amur honeysuckle Lysimachia ciliata Fringed loosestrife LYSIMACHIA NUMMULARIA Moneywort Maianthemum racemosum Feathery false Solomon seal Maianthemum stellatum Starry false Solomon seal Menispermum canadense Moonseed Mertensia virginica Virginia bluebells Mimidus alatus Winged monkey flower Nyssa sylvatica Black gum ORNITHOGALUM UMBELLATUM Star-of-Bethlchem Osmorhiza claytonii Hairy sweet cicely Osmorhiza longistylis Anise root Ostrya virginiana Hop hornbeam Packera glabella Buttcrwced Packern obovata Round-leaved ragwort Panax qiiinquefolius American ginseng Parthenocissus quinquefolio Virginia creeper Phlox divaricata Blue phlox Phytolacca americana Pokeweed Pilea pumila Canada clearweed Platanus occidentalis Sycamore Poa sylvestris Woodland blue grass Podophyllum peltatum May apple Polygonatum biflorum Small solomon's seal Polymnia canadensis Pale lcafcup Polyslichum acrostichoides Christmas fern Populas deltoides Eastern cottonwood Prenanthes alba Lion's foot Prunus serotina Wild black cherry Ptelea trifoliata Smooth wafer ash Quercus alba White oak Quercus bicolor Swamp white oak Quercus muehlenbergii Chinquapin oak Quercus rubra Northern red oak Ranunculus abortivas Little-leaf buttercup RANUNCULUS FICARIA * Lesser celandine Ranunculus hispidas Rough buttercup RHODOTYPOS SCANDENS * Jetbead Ribes cynosbati Prickly wild gooseberry ROSA MULTIFLORA * Japanese rose Rubus allegheniensis Common blackberry Rudheckia laciniata Wild golden glow Sambucas nigra s. canadensis Common elderberry Sanguinaria canadensis Bloodroot Sanicula odorata Black snakcroot Silene stellata Starry campion Silene virginica Fire pink Smilax hispida (= S. tamnoides) Bristly green brier Smilax herbacea (= S. lasioneura) Cat brier Solidago caesia Bluestcm goldcnrod Solidago canadensis Canada goldcnrod Solidago flexicaulis Zig-zag goldcnrod Stachys palustris Hedge-nettle Stellaria pubera Great chickwccd Stylophorum diphyllum Celandine poppy Symphyotrichum cordifoliwn Heart-leaved aster Symphyotrichum laeve Smooth blue aster Symphyotrichum lateriflorum Side-flowering aster Symphyotrichum pilosum Hairy aster Symplocarpus foetidus Skunk cabbage TARAXACUM OFFICINALE Common dandelion Tilia americana American linden Tovara virginiana Virginia knotweed Toxicodendron radiions Poison ivy Trodescantia subaspera Broad-leaved spidcrwort Trillium flexipes Declined trillium Trillium grandiflorum Large white trillium Trillium recurvation Red trillium Trillium sessile Sessile trillium Uliniis americano American elm Ulmus rubra Slippery elm Uvularia grandiflora Large-flower bellwort Valeriana pauciflora Pink valerian Verbena urticifolia While vervain Verbesina alternifolia Wingstcm Viola pubescens Downy yellow violet Viola sororia Woolly blue violet Viola striata Common white violet Scientific name C Physiognomy Acer negundo 1 Tree Acer rubrum 5 Tree Acer saccharinum 1 Tree Acer saccharum s. nigrum 6 Tree Acer saccharum s. saccharum 4 Tree Actaea pachypoda 7 Perennial forb Aesculus glabra 5 Tree Ageratina altissima 2 Perennial forb AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA * 0 Tree ALLIARIA PETIOLATA * 0 Biennial forb Allium tricoccum v. burdickii 6 Perennial forb Anemone acutiloba 8 Perennial forb Arisaema dracontium 5 Perennial forb Arisaema triphyllum 4 Perennial forb Arnoglossum atriplicifolium 6 Perennial forb Asarum canadense 5 Perennial forb Asimina triloba 6 Tree BERBERIS THUNBERGII * 0 Shrub Bidens frondosa 1 Annual forb Boehmeria cylindrica 3 Perennial forb Cardamine concatenala 4 Perennial forb Carex albursina 7 Perennial sedge Carex amphibola 8 Perennial sedge Carex gracilescens 5 Perennial sedge Carex grayi 5 Perennial sedge Carex hitchcockiana 8 Perennial sedge Carex jamesii 4 Perennial sedge Carex laxiflora 7 Perennial sedge Carex oligocarpa 8 Perennial sedge Carpinus caroliniana 5 Tree Carra cordiformis 5 Tree Carra glabra 4 Tree Carra laciniosa 8 Tree Carya ovata 4 Tree Catalpa speciosa 0 Tree Caulophyllum thalictroides 8 Perennial forb CELASTRUS ORBICULATA * 0 Woody vine Certis occidentalis 3 Tree Cercis canadensis 3 Tree Claytonia virginica 2 Perennial forb Circaea lutetiana 2 Perennial forb Collinsonia canadensis 8 Perennial forb Cornus florida 4 Tree Cornus racemosa 2 Shrub Crataegus sp. ? Tree Cryptotaenia canadensis 3 Perennial forb Cystopteris protrusa 4 Fern Delphinium tricorne 5 Perennial forb Dicentra canadensis 7 Perennial forb Dicentra cucullaria 6 Perennial forb Diplazium pycnocarpon 9 Fern DUCHESNEA INDICA 0 Perennial forb Elymus villosus 4 Perennial forb Elymus virginicus 3 Perennial forb Enemion biternatum 5 Perennial forb Epifagus virginiana 8 Perennial forb Erigenia bulbosa 5 Perennial forb Erigeron philadelphicus 3 Perennial forb Erythronium americanum 5 Perennial forb EUONYMUS FORTUNEI * 0 Shrub Euonymus obovata 7 Shrub Fagus grandifolia 8 Tree Festuca subverticillata 2 Perennial grass Floerkea proserpinacoides 5 Annual forb FORSYTHIA SUSPENSA 0 Shrub Fraxinus americana 4 Tree Fraxinus pennsylvanka 3 Tree Fraxinus quadrangulata 7 Tree Galium aparine 1 Annual forb Galium circaezans 7 Perennial forb Geranium maculatum 4 Perennial forb Geum canadense 1 Perennial forb Glyceria striata 4 Perennial forb Hybanthus concolor 6 Perennial forb Hydrangea arborescens 7 Shrub Hydrophyllum appendiculatum 6 Perennial forb Hydrophyllum canadense 8 Perennial forb Hydrophyllum mcicrophyllum 7 Perennial forb Hydrophyllum virginiamim 4 Perennial forb Impatiens pallida 4 Annual forb Iodanthus pinnatifidus 6 Perennial forb Juglans nigra 2 Tree Laportea canadensis 2 Perennial forb Lepidium virginicum 0 Annual forb LIGUSTRUM OBTUSIFOLIUM * 0 Shrub Lindera benzoin 5 Shrub Liriodendron tulipifera 4 Tree LONICERA JAPONICA * 0 Woody vine LONICERA MAACKII * 0 Shrub Lysimachia ciliata 4 Perennial forb LYSIMACHIA NUMMULARIA 0 Perennial forb Maianthemum racemosum 4 Perennial forb Maianthemum stellatum 6 Perennial forb Menispermum canadense 3 Woody vine Mertensia virginica 6 Perennial forb Mimidus alatus 4 Perennial forb Nyssa sylvatica 5 Tree ORNITHOGALUM UMBELLATUM 0 Perennial forb Osmorhiza claytonii 3 Perennial forb Osmorhiza longistylis 3 Perennial forb Ostrya virginiana 5 Tree Packera glabella 0 Annual forb Packern obovata 7 Perennial forb Panax qiiinquefolius 7 Perennial forb Parthenocissus quinquefolio 2 Woody vine Phlox divaricata 5 Perennial forb Phytolacca americana 0 Perennial forb Pilea pumila 2 Annual forb Platanus occidentalis 3 Tree Poa sylvestris 5 Perennial forb Podophyllum peltatum 3 Perennial forb Polygonatum biflorum 4 Perennial forb Polymnia canadensis 3 Perennial forb Polyslichum acrostichoides 5 Fern Populas deltoides 1 Tree Prenanthes alba 5 Perennial forb Prunus serotina 1 Tree Ptelea trifoliata 4 Shrub Quercus alba 5 Tree Quercus bicolor 7 Tree Quercus muehlenbergii 4 Tree Quercus rubra 4 Tree Ranunculus abortivas 0 Annual forb RANUNCULUS FICARIA * 0 Perennial forb Ranunculus hispidas 7 Perennial forb RHODOTYPOS SCANDENS * 0 Shrub Ribes cynosbati 4 Shrub ROSA MULTIFLORA * 0 Shrub Rubus allegheniensis 2 Shrub Rudheckia laciniata 3 Perennial forb Sambucas nigra s. canadensis 2 Shrub Sanguinaria canadensis 5 Perennial forb Sanicula odorata 2 Perennial forb Silene stellata 5 Perennial forb Silene virginica 7 Perennial forb Smilax hispida (= S. tamnoides) 3 Woody vine Smilax herbacea (= S. lasioneura) 4 Herbaceous vine Solidago caesia 7 Perennial forb Solidago canadensis 0 Perennial forb Solidago flexicaulis 3 Perennial forb Stachys palustris 4 Perennial forb Stellaria pubera 7 Perennial forb Stylophorum diphyllum 7 Perennial forb Symphyotrichum cordifoliwn 5 Perennial forb Symphyotrichum laeve 10 Perennial forb Symphyotrichum lateriflorum 3 Perennial forb Symphyotrichum pilosum 0 Perennial forb Symplocarpus foetidus 8 Perennial forb TARAXACUM OFFICINALE 0 Perennial forb Tilia americana 5 Tree Tovara virginiana 3 Perennial forb Toxicodendron radiions 1 Woody vine Trodescantia subaspera 4 Perennial forb Trillium flexipes 5 Perennial forb Trillium grandiflorum 8 Perennial forb Trillium recurvation 4 Perennial forb Trillium sessile 4 Perennial forb Uliniis americano 3 Tree Ulmus rubra 3 Tree Uvularia grandiflora 7 Perennial forb Valeriana pauciflora 7 Perennial forb Verbena urticifolia 3 Perennial forb Verbesina alternifolia 3 Perennial forb Viola pubescens 5 Perennial forb Viola sororia 1 Perennial forb Viola striata 4 Perennial forb Scientific name 2003 2016 Acer negundo 30 Apr 12 May Acer rubrum 27 May Acer saccharinum 12 May 26 May Acer saccharum s. nigrum 23 Apr 25 May Acer saccharum s. saccharum 23 Apr 12 May Actaea pachypoda 30 Apr 26 May Aesculus glabra 23 Apr 19 Apr Ageratina altissima 12 May 25 May AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA * 8 Sep 1 Jun ALLIARIA PETIOLATA * 30 Apr 21 Mar Allium tricoccum v. burdickii 23 Apr 19 Apr Anemone acutiloba 30 Apr 21 Mar Arisaema dracontium 25 May Arisaema triphyllum 23 Apr 19 Apr Arnoglossum atriplicifolium 24 Jul Asarum canadense 23 Apr 19 Apr Asimina triloba 23 Apr 12 May BERBERIS THUNBERGII * 27 May Bidens frondosa 23 Aug Boehmeria cylindrica 2 Jun Cardamine concatenala 23 Apr 21 Mar Carex albursina 7 Jul Carex amphibola 12 May Carex gracilescens 7 Jul Carex grayi 27 May 23 Aug Carex hitchcockiana 14 Jul Carex jamesii 7 Jul Carex laxiflora 30 Apr 29 Jun Carex oligocarpa 1 Jun Carpinus caroliniana 30 Apr Carra cordiformis 30 Apr 1 Jun Carra glabra 7 Jul 23 Aug Carra laciniosa 27 May 1 Jun Carya ovata 7 Jul 1 Jun Catalpa speciosa 1 Jun Caulophyllum thalictroides 12 May CELASTRUS ORBICULATA * 30 Apr 1 Jun Certis occidentalis 30 Apr 25 May Cercis canadensis 23 Apr 19 Apr Claytonia virginica 7 Jul Circaea lutetiana 23 Apr 21 Mar Collinsonia canadensis 13 Aug 19 May Cornus florida 23 Apr Cornus racemosa 30 Apr 26 May Crataegus sp. 30 Apr Cryptotaenia canadensis 12 May 1 Jun Cystopteris protrusa 30 Apr 19 Apr Delphinium tricorne 30 Apr Dicentra canadensis 12 May Dicentra cucullaria 23 Apr 19 Apr Diplazium pycnocarpon 12 May 12 May DUCHESNEA INDICA 23 Apr Elymus villosus 8 Sep 1 Jun Elymus virginicus 12 May 1 Jun Enemion biternatum 30 Apr 21 Mar Epifagus virginiana 8 Sep Erigenia bulbosa 23 Apr 21 Mar Erigeron philadelphicus 1 Jun Erythronium americanum 23 Apr 21 Mar EUONYMUS FORTUNEI * 27 May 12 May Euonymus obovata 12 May 19 May Fagus grandifolia 23 Apr 21 Mar Festuca subverticillata 1 Jun Floerkea proserpinacoides 30 Apr FORSYTHIA SUSPENSA 21 Mar Fraxinus americana 23 Apr 26 May Fraxinus pennsylvanka 30 Apr 25 May Fraxinus quadrangulata 30 Apr 19 May Galium aparine 30 Apr 19 May Galium circaezans 30 Apr Geranium maculatum 23 Apr 19 May Geum canadense 12 May 23 Aug Glyceria striata 8 Sep Miller Hybanthus concolor 12 May Hydrangea arborescens 12 May 1 Jun Hydrophyllum appendiculatum 23-Apr 12-May Hydrophyllum canadense 12 May 12 May Hydrophyllum mcicrophyllum 30 Apr 21 Apr Hydrophyllum virginiamim 27 May Impatiens pallida 30 Apr 25 May Iodanthus pinnatifidus 12 May 12 May Juglans nigra 30 Apr 23 Aug Laportea canadensis 12 May 12 May Lepidium virginicum 1 Jun LIGUSTRUM OBTUSIFOLIUM * 23 Apr 21 Mar Lindera benzoin 30 Apr 19 Apr Liriodendron tulipifera 30 Apr 12 May LONICERA JAPONICA * 30 Apr LONICERA MAACKII * 23 Apr 12 May Lysimachia ciliata 23 Aug LYSIMACHIA NUMMULARIA 23 Aug Maianthemum racemosum 30 Apr 19 Apr Maianthemum stellatum 12 May Menispermum canadense 30 Apr Mertensia virginica 23 Apr Mimidus alatus 23 Aug Nyssa sylvatica 25 May ORNITHOGALUM UMBELLATUM 12 May Osmorhiza claytonii 2 Jun 19 May Osmorhiza longistylis 30 Apr 19 May Ostrya virginiana 2 Jun 12 May Packera glabella 19 May Packern obovata 30 Apr Panax qiiinquefolius Miller Parthenocissus quinquefolio 30 Apr 12 May Phlox divaricata 7 Jul 7 Jul Phytolacca americana 23 Apr 19 Apr Pilea pumila 12 May 19 May Platanus occidentalis 30 Apr 25 May Poa sylvestris 12 May 25 May Podophyllum peltatum 23 Apr 12 May Polygonatum biflorum 30 Apr 25 May Polymnia canadensis 30 Apr 23 Aug Polyslichum acrostichoides 30 Apr 19 May Populas deltoides 12 May 25 May Prenanthes alba 30 Apr Prunus serotina 30 Apr 12 May Ptelea trifoliata 8 Sep 1 Jun Quercus alba 30 Apr 12 May Quercus bicolor 25 May Quercus muehlenbergii 7 Jul 1 Jun Quercus rubra 30 Apr 19 May Ranunculus abortivas 23 Apr RANUNCULUS FICARIA * 23 Apr 21 Mar Ranunculus hispidas 30 Apr 12 May RHODOTYPOS SCANDENS * 12 May 19 Apr Ribes cynosbati 30 Apr 12 May ROSA MULTIFLORA * 19 May Rubus allegheniensis 22 Oct 1 Jun Rudheckia laciniata 2 Jun 1 Jun Sambucas nigra s. canadensis 12 May 12 May Sanguinaria canadensis 23 Apr 21 Mar Sanicula odorata 23 Apr 21 Mar Silene stellata 24 Jul Silene virginica 30 Apr Miller Smilax hispida (= S. tamnoides) 7 Jul Smilax herbacea (= S. lasioneura) 12 May 25 May Solidago caesia 24 Jul Solidago canadensis 1 Jun Solidago flexicaulis 24 Jul 14 Sep Stachys palustris 27 May Stellaria pubera 23 Apr 19 May Stylophorum diphyllum 23 Apr 19 Apr Symphyotrichum cordifoliwn 27 May 8 Nov Symphyotrichum laeve 22 Oct Symphyotrichum lateriflorum 22 Oct Symphyotrichum pilosum 22 Oct Symplocarpus foetidus 22 Oct TARAXACUM OFFICINALE 1 Jun Tilia americana 30 Apr 23 Aug Tovara virginiana 30 Apr 25 May Toxicodendron radiions 23 Apr 19 May Trodescantia subaspera 24 Jul 23 Aug Trillium flexipes 23 Apr 12 May Trillium grandiflorum 23 Apr Trillium recurvation 30 Apr 21 Mar Trillium sessile 30 Apr 21 Mar Uliniis americano 2 Jun 25 May Ulmus rubra 30 Apr 25 May Uvularia grandiflora 23 Apr 21 Mar Valeriana pauciflora 12 May 19 May Verbena urticifolia 14 Sep Verbesina alternifolia 12 May Viola pubescens 30 Apr 19 Apr Viola sororia 23 Apr 19 Apr Viola striata 30 Apr 12 May Appendix 3.--Frequency, average cover class, and relative importance value (RIV) for herb-layer species in transects. RIV was calculated by adding each species' relative frequency and relative cover and dividing by two. Only absolute values for frequency and covcr are presented here. Taxa with the ten greatest RIVs each year are in bold. 2003 Species Freq Ave cover RIV Acer negando -- -- -- Acer saccharinum 6 0.09 1.8 Acer saccharum s. nigrum -- -- -- Acer saccharum s. saccharum# 15# 0.31# 5.4# Actaea pachypoda 3 0.06 1.0 Aesculus glabra 3 0.10 1.4 Ageratina altissima -- -- -- Alliaria petiolata 2 0.04 0.7 Allium tricoccum v. burdickii 7 0.11 2.3 Anemone aculiloba 5 0.08 1.7 Arisaema dracontium -- -- -- Arisaema triphyllum 5 0.09 1.6 Asarum canadense# 14# 0.36# 5.6# Asimina triloba 3 0.10 1.4 Boehmeria cylindrica 2 0.07 1.0 Cardamine concatenata -- -- -- Carex laxiflora 6 0.09 1.8 Carex sp. -- -- -- Carya seedling 5 0.10 1.8 Celtis occidentalis 2 0.03 0.6 Cornus seedling -- -- -- Cryptotaenia canadensis 1 0.01 0.3 Cystopteris protrusa 2 0.03 0.6 Elymus virginicus 1 0.01 0.3 Enemion biternatum 6 0.10 2.0 Euonymus fortunei# 1 0.04 0.6 Euonymus obovata -- -- -- Fraxinus seedling# 8# 0.24# 3.5# Galium aparine 3 0.04 0.9 Geum canadense 2 0.03 0.6 Hydrangea arborescens 1 0.04 0.6 Hydrophyllum appendiculatum 6 0.09 1.8 Hydrophyllum canadense# 7# 0.34# 4.2# Hydrophyllum macrophyllum# 9# 0.20# 3.3# Impatiens pallida# 15# 0.30# 5.3# Laportea canadensis# 3 0.11 1.5 Lindera benzoin 6 0.17 2.5 Liriodendron tulipifera -- -- -- Lonicera maackii# 6# 0.19# 2.7# Maianthemum racemosum# 16# 0.41# 6.4# Osmorhiza claytonii 1 0.01 0.3 Osmorhiza longistylis 1 0.01 0.3 Parthenocissus quinquefolio# 12# 0.30# 4.7# Phlox divaricata -- -- -- Pilea pumila -- -- -- Podophyllum peltatum 5 0.14 2.1 Polygonatum biflorum# 13# 0.26# 4.6# Polymnia canadensis -- -- -- Polystichum acrostichoides 1 0.03 0.5 Prunas serotina 4 0.06 1.2 Quereus seedling 7 0.10 2.2 Ranunculus abortinis 3 0.04 0.9 Ranunculus ficaria -- -- -- Ribes cynosbati 1 0.03 0.5 Rudbeckia laciniata 1 0.03 0.5 Sanguinaria canadensis 5 0.10 1.8 Sanicula odorala 5 0.06 1.7 Smilax hispida -- -- -- Smilax lasioneura 1 0.01 0.3 Solidago caesia 1 0.03 0.5 Solidago flexicaulis 4 0.09 1.5 Stylophorum diphyllum 3 0.04 0.9 Symphyotrichum cordifolium 6 0.10 2.0 Tovara virginiana 4 0.07 1.4 Toxicodendron radicans# 5 0.14 2.1 Tradescantia subaspera 1 0.03 0.5 Trillium sessile 2 0.03 0.6 Ulmus seedling 3 0.07 1.2 Uvularia grandiflora 3 0.06 1.0 Verbesina alternifolia 1 0.01 0.3 Viola sp. 6 0.13 2.2 2016 Species Freq Ave cover RIV Acer negando 3 0.06 1.3 Acer saccharinum -- -- -- Acer saccharum s. nigrum 1 0.03 0.5 Acer saccharum s. saccharum# 27# 0.46# 10.7# Actaea pachypoda 1 0.03 0.5 Aesculus glabra 1 0.03 0.5 Ageratina altissima 1 0.03 0.5 Alliaria petiolata 3 0.04 1.1 Allium tricoccum v. burdickii 3 0.04 1.1 Anemone aculiloba 2 0.03 0.8 Arisaema dracontium 2 0.04 0.9 Arisaema triphyllum 2 0.04 0.9 Asarum canadense# 13# 0.37# 6.7# Asimina triloba 1 0.06 0.8 Boehmeria cylindrica -- -- -- Cardamine concatenata 3 0.04 1.1 Carex laxiflora 3 0.06 1.3 Carex sp. 2 0.04 0.9 Carya seedling 3 0.04 1.1 Celtis occidentalis 1 0.01 0.4 Cornus seedling 1 0.03 0.5 Cryptotaenia canadensis -- -- -- Cystopteris protrusa -- -- -- Elymus virginicus -- -- -- Enemion biternatum 2 0.03 0.8 Euonymus fortunei# 7# 0.14# 3.0# Euonymus obovata 1 0.03 0.5 Fraxinus seedling# 17# 0.37# 7.6# Galium aparine 1 0.01 0.4 Geum canadense 1 0.01 0.4 Hydrangea arborescens -- -- -- Hydrophyllum appendiculatum 3 0.06 1.3 Hydrophyllum canadense# 5# 0.19# 3.0# Hydrophyllum macrophyllum# 1 0.01 0.4 Impatiens pallida# 2 0.03 0.8 Laportea canadensis# 23# 0.77# 13.0# Lindera benzoin 1 0.01 0.4 Liriodendron tulipifera 1 0.01 0.4 Lonicera maackii# 4 0.09 1.8 Maianthemum racemosum# 11# 0.27# 5.2# Osmorhiza claytonii -- -- _ Osmorhiza longistylis -- -- -- Parthenocissus quinquefolio# 10# 0.20# 4.3# Phlox divaricata 2 0.03 0.8 Pilea pumila 7 0.10 2.6 Podophyllum peltatum 3 0.09 1.6 Polygonatum biflorum# 10# 0.24# 4.7# Polymnia canadensis 1 0.01 0.4 Polystichum acrostichoides -- -- -- Prunas serotina 7 0.10 2.6 Quereus seedling 2 0.03 0.8 Ranunculus abortinis -- -- -- Ranunculus ficaria 2 0.04 0.9 Ribes cynosbati -- -- -- Rudbeckia laciniata -- -- -- Sanguinaria canadensis 5 0.07 1.9 Sanicula odorala 1 0.03 0.5 Smilax hispida 2 0.03 0.8 Smilax lasioneura -- -- -- Solidago caesia -- -- -- Solidago flexicaulis 1 0.01 0.4 Stylophorum diphyllum 1 0.01 0.4 Symphyotrichum cordifolium -- -- -- Tovara virginiana 2 0.03 0.8 Toxicodendron radicans# 7# 0.13# 2.9# Tradescantia subaspera 1 0.01 0.4 Trillium sessile -- -- -- Ulmus seedling 3 0.04 1.1 Uvularia grandiflora 3 0.04 1.1 Verbesina alternifolia -- -- -- Viola sp. 4 0.06 1.5 Note: Taxa with the ten greatest RIVs each year are in #.
(1) Corresponding author: Rebecca W. Dolan, 317940-9413 (phone), 317-940-9519 (fax), firstname.lastname@example.org.
Caption: Figure 1.--Memorial plaque at Woollen's Gardens Nature Preserve.
Caption: Figure 2.--Woollen's Gardens Nature Preserve topography and location. Note close proximity of major interstate highways and residential development.
Caption: Figure 3.--General locations of survey transects in Woollen's Gardens Nature Preserve. GPS coordinates arc presented in Appendix 1.
Caption: Figure 4.--Distribution of C-values for all native plants seen in 2003 and 2016.
Table 1.--Florislic quality assessment results for Woollen's Gardens. Both years 2003 2016 NATIVE SPECIES 150 128 122 Total Species 166 139 134 % Native 90.4 92.1 91.0 NATIVE MEAN C 4.5 4.5 4.3 W/Non-native 4.0 4.1 3.9 NATIVE FQI 54.2 50.2 47.3 W/Non-Natives 51.5 48.0 45.1 Table 2.-Plants with C values of 7 or greater present at Woollen's Gardens. Scientific name Common name Symphyotrichum lucre Smooth blue aster Diplaziwn pycnocarpon Glade fern Anemone acutiloba Sharp-lobed hepatica Carex amphibola False gray sedge Carex hitchcockiana Hairy gray sedge Carex oligocarpa Few-fruited gray sedge Carya laciniosa Big shellbark hickory Caulophyllum thalictroides Blue cohosh Collinsonia canadensis Citronella horse balm Epifagus virginiana Beech drops Fagus grandifolia American beech Hydrophyllum canadense Canada waterleaf Symplocarpus foetidus Skunk cabbage Trillium grandiflorum Large white trillium Actaea pachypoda Doll's-eyes Carex albursina Blunt-scaled wood sedge Carex Uixifloru Beech wood sedge Dicentra canadensis Squirrel corn Euonymus obovata Running strawberry bush Fraxinus quadrangulata Blue ash Galium circaezans Smooth wild licorice Hydrangea arborescens Wild hydrangea Hydrophyllum macrophyllum Large-leaf waterleaf Packera obovata Round-leaved ragwort Panax quinquefolius American ginseng Quercus bicolor Swamp white oak Ranunculus hispidas Rough buttercup Silene virginica Fire pink Solidago caesia Bluestem goldenrod Stellaria pubera Great chickweed Stylophorwn diphyllum Celandine poppy Uvularia grandiflora Large-flower bellwort Valeriana pauciflora Pink valerian Year observed Scientific name C-value 2003 2016 Symphyotrichum lucre 10 X Diplaziwn pycnocarpon 9 X X Anemone acutiloba 8 X X Carex amphibola 8 X Carex hitchcockiana 8 X Carex oligocarpa 8 X Carya laciniosa 8 X X Caulophyllum thalictroides 8 X Collinsonia canadensis 8 X X Epifagus virginiana 8 X Fagus grandifolia 8 X X Hydrophyllum canadense 8 X X Symplocarpus foetidus 8 X Trillium grandiflorum 8 X Actaea pachypoda 7 X X Carex albursina 7 X Carex Uixifloru 7 X X Dicentra canadensis 7 X Euonymus obovata 7 X X Fraxinus quadrangulata 7 X X Galium circaezans 7 X Hydrangea arborescens 7 X X Hydrophyllum macrophyllum 7 X X Packera obovata 7 X Panax quinquefolius 7 X Quercus bicolor 7 X Ranunculus hispidas 7 X X Silene virginica 7 X X Solidago caesia 7 X Stellaria pubera 7 X X Stylophorwn diphyllum 7 X X Uvularia grandiflora 7 X X Valeriana pauciflora 7 X X Table 3-Invasive species al Woollen's Gardens. Rank indicates invasiveness rank in Indiana (https://www.entm.purdue.edu/iisc/invasiveplants.php). Year observed Scicnlific name Common name 2003 2016 Rank Ailanthus altissima Tree-of-heaven x x high Alliaria petiolata Garlic mustard x x high Berberis thunbergii Japanese barberry x high Celastrus orbiculata Oriental bittersweet x x high Euonymus fortunei Wintercreeper x x high Ligustrum obtusifolium Border privet x x high Lonicera japonica Japanese honeysuckle x high Lonicera maackii Amur honeysuckle x x high Ranunculus ficaria Lesser celandine x x caution Rhodotypos scandens Jetbead x x caution Rosa multiflora Japanese rose x high Table 4.--Invasive species present in herb-layer sample plots. Format = transect number: plot number (cover class). Ranunculus ficaria was present elsewhere in the preserve in 2003 but not detected in plots. Species 2003 2016 Alliaria petiolata T3:1 (2), T3:7 (3) T2:1 (1), T2:2 (1), T2:4 (1) Euonymous fortunei T3:7 (3) T3:1 (2), T3:2 (1), T3:3 (2), T3:7 (2) T4:4 (1) T5:4 (1) T6:1 (1) Lonicera maackii T1:8 (1) T1:4 (2), T1:6 (1), T1:7 (2) T3:5 (3), T4:1 (3), T3:4 (1) T4:4 (2), T4:5 (1), T6:4 (3) Ranunculus ficaria -- T3:2 (1), T3:10 (2)
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Dolan, Rebecca W.; Moore, Mareia E.|
|Publication:||Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2017|
|Previous Article:||SUNBURNING SOLAR RADIATION IN CENTRAL INDIANA.|
|Next Article:||CLUTCH-LEVEL VARIATION IN PREDATOR AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOR IN WOOD FROG LITHOBATES SYLVATICUS) TADPOLES.|