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FLORAL ATTRIBUTES OF PASSION FRUITS (Passiflora edulis Sims.) AT VARIED FLASHES.

Byline: Mira Rani Das, M.A.B. Mia, T. Hossain, J.U. Ahmed, Mofazzol Hossain and M.Z.Haq

Studying floral biology is one of the important criteria for developing high yielding and quality passion fruit through breeding technique and management practices. An experiment was conducted at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh farm to determine the flowering behavior, floral biology, fruit setting, yield and quality of passion fruits at varied flashes. Yellow passion fruits (Passiflora edulis Sims.) were grown in pits and their floral attributes were observed under different flashes. Comparison of floral attributes was made among the flashes. The results indicated that flower morphological attributes namely anther length and breadth, stigma diameter, ovary length and breadth were found better in third flash. Viability of pollen and their pollen germination on stigma, pollen tube growth inside the style were noticed as favorable during third and fourth flashes.

The results concluded that third flash was the best in respect of floral attributes and floral biological parameters.

Keywords: Passion fruit, floral biology, pollination, fruit setting, yield

INTRODUCTION

Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims.) is gaining prominence for its excellent taste and flavor for the diverse group of people in the world. It is an excellent fruit having high amount of beta carotene, potassium and dietary fiber (Anonymous, 2012). It is a good source of ascorbic acid, and is good for people who have high blood pressure. There are prospects for being improvement of this fruits in the Asian countries. In Bangladesh, it is new fruit crop which is being popularized rapidly, and is being cultivated sporadically in a minor scale although have a great demand in the aristocratic society. As it is a new crop in Bangladesh and there are no suitable cultivar for well adaptation, high yielding and easy domestication and exploration of this interesting fruit. It is a special type of fruit where peculiar floral behavior having hermaphrodite nature, solitary flowers located at the leaf axils.

It is a photosensitive fruit crop and a long day plant where day length required for flowering is more than 10.5 h (Ullah et al., 2009). Plant breeders are not giving much attention for developing these crops as a new crop, and lack of adequate floral biology is one of the limitations for the improvement of the crop.

It is a special type of flower and blooming pattern is rather different from other alien fruit crop. The flower appears to have ten whitish petals where every other petal is a little more scoop-shaped and green-margined than the next. The green-margined ones are sepals and the later, whiter ones are petals. In androecia, the anther and filament constitute the stamen, with pollen emerging from the anthers. There are usually five stamens with large anthers. In gynoecia, the ovary is borne over androgynophore. The ovary and triple- branched style form a prominent central structure. There are three styles united at the base, and at the top of style there are three bifurcated stigmas (Vanderplank, 1996). Passion fruit flowers are protandrous as anther dehisces before stigma become receptive, and stigma remains receptive from the time of flower opening to closing (Cox, 1957). On a special kind of stalk held on the lower parts known as a androgynophore.

When the fruit develops it will still have its stalk attached. This is a good way to distinguish passion- flower fruits from other kinds of lemon-sized, yellow fruits. All the sepal, petal and sexual parts come together during blossom. The outgrowth is often known as a corona, or "crown" which attract the pollinators to the center of the flower for pollination. Floral biology refers to a comprehensive study of flowers which includes anthesis, dehiscence of anthers, pollen fertility and stigma receptivity (Kalloo, 1988). It is crucial to know the floral attributes of passion flower in breeding technique for developing high yielding and quality fruit.

Most cultivars of yellow passion fruits are self-incompatible, and successful pollination is essential for fruit setting. Honey bee (Apis millifera) and carpenter bee (Xylocopa sonorina) are natural pollinators for fruit set of passion fruit. Many yellow passion fruits do not set fruit unless their flowers are dusted with pollen from a different vine that is genetically compatible. Hand pollination is the easiest way to ensure fruit production. Hand pollination increases fruit yield in passion fruit. There are limited reports on floral biology of passion fruit under spatial and temporal condition in Bangladesh. Therefore, attempts have been taken to study the floral biology of yellow passion fruit under varied flashes and different artificial pollination techniques.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Experimental set up and condition: The experiment was conducted at the experimental farm and laboratory of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh in 2008 and 2009 which is situated at 24.09deg North latitude and 90.26deg East longitudes with an elevation of 8.4 meter above the sea level. The climate of experimental site was subtropical characterized by heavy rainfall during April to September and scanty during the rest of the year, and the annual rainfall is favorable for passion fruit growing. The soil of the experimental field was clay loam in texture and acidic in nature with pH of around 5.8. The experimental plot was well-drained high land where pits were prepared on the raised beds. Recommended fertilizers were applied in the pits (50x50x50 cm3) 10 days before transplanting of cuttings. The yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims.) was used as test material for the experiment.

The vine cuttings were transplanted in the pits where the pit to pit distance was 2.5m. Trellises are required for the production of passion fruit for the life of the vine, and a single row trellis system was used where a single row of wooden fence posts around 2.4 in length was made. The spacing of the passion fruit was directly related to the spacing of the poles of the trellis, and vines were pruned in late winter. Irrigation and other management practices were done as and when necessary.

Passion fruit produces solitary flower bud at the axils of leaf and flowers developed from flower bud. Group of flower blooming within flash and between flashes have some interval. Passion fruit produced five flashes of bud in a year under Bangladesh climatic condition. Passion fruit started bud initiation in April. It showed first bud flash in April 10, second in May 09, third in June 15, fourth in July 02 and finally fifth in August 03. It is assumed that flowering period and numbers of flashes are affected by climatic condition as well as geographic position of cultivation. Parameters studied: The flower blooming parameters and floral morphological attributes namely anther length, breadth, filament length, breadth, stigma diameter, receptivity of stigma were measured at different flashes. Pistil morphology namely ovary diameter, length of style was recorded at diverse flashes.

The pollen attributes namely pollen viability; pollen size, pollen germination, and pollen tube length were measured with the help of microscope and micrometer. Pollen germination percent on stigma was calculated pollinating the stigma with fresh pollens just after anther dehiscence. To study the pollen tube growth behavior, flower buds likely to open in the next day were emasculated and covered with butter paper bags. On the following day, pollen grains from previously bagged flowers were collected and placed on the stigmatic surface of emasculated flowers and covered with butter paper again. After 1~ 6 h pollinated pistils were collected and placed in acetic-alcohol solution (1:3 v/v). The samples were taken out from the fixative (acetic-alcohol) after 24 h and removed the adhered solution by putting them on to a tissue paper. Then pollens were preserved in 70 Percent ethanol at about 4degC till the samples were observed under microscope.

To prepare the sample for fluorescent microscopic study, samples were washed gently with distilled water for 2 to 3 times and then heated in 1N NaOH at 60degC for 40 minutes. Then they were again rinsed with water gently to remove the NaOH and put in 0.1 Percent decolorized aniline blue solution (a fluorescent die) for 15 minutes. The samples were then placed on slides, covered with cover-slip and gently tapped. Pollen tube growth behavior was studied using fluorescent microscope. Receptivity of stigma: Twenty five flowers were emasculated 48 h before anthesis and bagged. Then the stigmas were artificially pollinated at different time intervals and re-bagged for another 5 days. Fruit set data were recorded 15 days after pollination. Another test of receptivity of the stigma was accomplished by examining the pollen tube growth in the style after pollinating the stigmas at different time intervals before and after anthesis.

The collected data were analyzed statistically using the MSTATC computer software MS-Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, USA) and MSTAT-C (Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA) and following the methods of Gomez and Gomez (1984). The analysis of variance procedure (ANOVA), differences among treatment means were determined using the Least Significant Difference (LSD) at 5 Percent level of significance.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Morphology of reproductive organs Anther length: Generally, the anther length of passion fruit was increased with the advancement of plant age. The anther length ranged from 9.6 to 10.8 mm at different flashes (Table 1). At third flash it was recorded the longest (10.8 mm) as compared with other flashes. It was noticed to be decreased gradually at fourth and fifth flash. Variation in floral morphology, days to flowering, chronology of bud development, time of anthesis and dehiscence in two accessions of passion flower. More or less similar variations of different organs of passion fruit were noticed at different flashes in a year (Nazrul et al., 2003). Anther length of passion flower was recorded and the longest during June flash (third flash) which is corroborated with the findings of Nazrul et al. (2003).

Anther breadth: Anther breadth of passion flower recorded variable at different flashes in a year (Table 1). The anther length, breadth was recorded maximum at third flash, and passion flower showed vigorous vegetative growth andh

Table 1. Morphology of reproductive organs of passion flower at different flashes

Different###Stamen###Carpel###Androgy-###No. of

flashed

###Anther###Anther###Filament###Stigma###Style###Style###Ovary###Ovary###nophore###corona/

###length###breadth###length###diameter###length###breadth###surface###surface###length###flower

###(mm)###(mm)###(mm)###(mm)###(mm)###(mm)###length (mm)###breadth (mm)###(mm)

First###9.6 +- 0.3###4.3 +- 0.2###9.0 +- 0.2###4.0 +- 0.2###15.0 +- 0.9###1.4 +- 0.1###6.0 +- 0.3###6.0 +- 0.1###17.5 +- 0.5###146.0 +- 4

Second###10.7 +- 0.4###4.3 +- 0.1###9.9 +- 0.2###5.0 +- 0.2###15.6 +- 0.3###1.4 +- 0.2###6.3 +- 0.3###5.3 +- 0.3###15.7 +- 0.4###155.0 +- 6

Third###10.8 +- 0.3###4.5 +- 0.1###10.0 +- 0.3###5.2 +- 0.3###16.5 +- 0.2###1.6 +- 0.2###6.7 +- 0.7###6.0 +- 0.1###15.5 +- 0.5###159.0 +- 4

Fourth###10.4 +- 0.3###4.2 +- 0.1###9.7 +- 0.2###4.5 +- 0.2###14.0 +- 0.5###1.3 +- 0.2###6.0 +- 0.1###5.0 +- 0.1###14.0 +- 0.4###147.0 +- 4

Fifth###10.0 +- 0.1###3.9 +- 0.1###9.5 +- 0.2###3.9 +- 0.1###14.0 +- 0.1###1.3 +- 0.1###6.0 +- 0.3###5.0 +- 0.1###14.1 +- 0.3###142.0 +- 4

Mean###10.3###4.24###9.62###4.52###15.02###1.4###6.2###5.46###15.36###149.8

SE indicates standard error

produced bigger flower at third flash when prevailed hot humid weather which is associated with the formation of different reproductive organs.

Filament length: The filament is a part of stamen which carries anther at its apex. The filament length of passion flower ranged from 9.0 to 10.0 mm at first and third flashes, respectively (Table 1). The longest filaments were produced at third flash, and at the beginning and end of flowering periods plants produced shortest filament compared with third flash.

Stigma diameter: Stigma diameter of passion flower at different flashes was found to variable ranging from 3.9 mm to 5.2 mm (Table 1). Passion flower produced the biggest stigma during hot humid weather prevailing during third flash. At first and last (fifth) flashes stigma diameter declined gradually.

Style length: The styles of passion fruit were longer than the filaments (Table 1). Style length at different flashes was recorded variable. Flowers of third flash produced the longest (16.5 mm) style compared to other flashes. At last flash, passion flower produced the shortest style.

Style breadth: Style breadth of passion flower was noticed variable as that of style length at different flashes (Table 1), and the highest style length and breadth was recorded at third flash.

Ovary length and breadth: The shape of ovary of passion fruit was noticed spheroidal. Ovary length and breadth of passion fruit at different flashes ranged from 6.0 to 6.7mm and 5.0 to 6.0 mm, respectively (Table 1). Plants produced the biggest ovary at third flash which is supported by Nazrul et al. (2003).

Corona number: Corona of passion flower acts as an insect attractant for pollination and fruit setting. Passion flowers have a unique flower structure with corona. Number of corona was noticed to vary from 140 to 159 at different flashes. Plant produced maximum number of corona at third flash during moist and hot weather (Table 1). Similar findings were narrated by Nazrul et al. (2003) in two accessions of passion flower.

Androgynophore: Androgynophore represents elongated stalk-like located between accessory and essential organs of passion flower, and it is ranged from 14.0 to 15.7 mm at different flashes (Table 1). Comparatively the longer androgynophore was noticed at second and third flashes. Pollen viability at anther dehiscence: The highest pollen viability was recorded at one hour after dehiscence at all the flashes. Especially at third flash, pollen viability was found highest (67 Percent) after 3 hours after anther dehiscence (Table 2). The viability was found to be increased gradually with the advancement of anther dehiscence peat at all flashes at three hours after anthers dehiscence. Pollen viability at fours and onward was recorded to decrease gradually. Pollen viability as other flower characteristics was noticed to be associated with weather condition. Passion flowers showed the highest pollen viability during third flash when weather condition was record hot and humid. At hot and humid

Table 1. Morphology of reproductive organs of passion flower at different flashes

Different###Stamen###Carpel###Androgy-###No. of

flashed

###Anther###Anther###Filament###Stigma###Style###Style###Ovary###Ovary###nophore###corona/

###length###breadth###length###diameter###length###breadth###surface###surface###length###flower

###(mm)###(mm)###(mm)###(mm)###(mm)###(mm)###length (mm)###breadth (mm)###(mm)

First###9.6 +- 0.3###4.3 +- 0.2###9.0 +- 0.2###4.0 +- 0.2###15.0 +- 0.9###1.4 +- 0.1###6.0 +- 0.3###6.0 +- 0.1###17.5 +- 0.5###146.0 +- 4

Second###10.7 +- 0.4###4.3 +- 0.1###9.9 +- 0.2###5.0 +- 0.2###15.6 +- 0.3###1.4 +- 0.2###6.3 +- 0.3###5.3 +- 0.3###15.7 +- 0.4###155.0 +- 6

Third###10.8 +- 0.3###4.5 +- 0.1###10.0 +- 0.3###5.2 +- 0.3###16.5 +- 0.2###1.6 +- 0.2###6.7 +- 0.7###6.0 +- 0.1###15.5 +- 0.5###159.0 +- 4

Fourth###10.4 +- 0.3###4.2 +- 0.1###9.7 +- 0.2###4.5 +- 0.2###14.0 +- 0.5###1.3 +- 0.2###6.0 +- 0.1###5.0 +- 0.1###14.0 +- 0.4###147.0 +- 4

Fifth###10.0 +- 0.1###3.9 +- 0.1###9.5 +- 0.2###3.9 +- 0.1###14.0 +- 0.1###1.3 +- 0.1###6.0 +- 0.3###5.0 +- 0.1###14.1 +- 0.3###142.0 +- 4

Mean###10.3###4.24###9.62###4.52###15.02###1.4###6.2###5.46###15.36###149.8

Just at the initiation of anther dehiscence

condition pollen viability of passion flower was recorded the highest (67 Percent) at third flash (Table 2). Kishore et al. (2010) mentioned that pollen dehiscence mainly occurred at mid- day in yellow passion flower which is supported the present findings. Little contradictory findings were reported by Cobert and Willmer (1980) who observed pollen dehiscence and pollination of yellow passion flower in afternoon. Hasanuzzaman (1999) reported that in snake gourd (Trichosanthes cucumerina L.) anther dehiscence started even before anthesis and completed near about full bloom. These findings are contradictory with the present study. Bruckner et al. (2000) reported that low temperature and low humidity caused loss of pollen germination of passion flower pollen. Their findings to some extent support the present study on pollen viability. Pollen viability of snake gourd at different times after anther dehiscence was reported variable (Hasanuzzaman, 1999). These findings are in accordance with the present findings.

Pollen size (diameter): Viable pollen size at different flashes just at the time of anther dehiscence varied from 251 to 270 (Mu)m (Table 3). The smallest size pollen (251 (Mu)m) was recorded at first flashes followed by fifth flash (261(Mu)m). The largest (270(Mu)m) sized pollen was recorded in third and fourth flash. With the advancement of anther dehiscence period viable pollen size was noticed to be increased. Plant produced the largest viable pollen at different flashes at 2 and 3 h after dehiscence. With the further advancement of anther dehiscence period from 3 h, viable pollen size was recorded to be decreased gradually. Viable pollen size recorded the largest at third flash at 2 h after anther dehiscence when hot-humid weather prevailed. Among the different flashes passion flower produced the largest viable pollen during the third flash (Fig. 1.). This may be associated with the weather condition of growing period.

Pollen germination on stigma: Stigma is the receptive surface on which pollen germinates after pollination. It was noticed that stigma pollinated just after anther dehiscence at first flash did not germinate any pollen. With the advancement of plant age (flashes), pollen germination percent on stigma was found to be increased when stigma was pollinated with fresh pollen just after anther dehiscence The highest receptivity was found at 3 h aged pollinated stigma with 3 h aged pollen grains (Table 4). Kishore et al. (2010) in their study reported maximum receptivity of stigma on the day of anthesis.

The findings complied with the report of Duarte and Sierra (1997) who mentioned that stigma of passion flower was receptive on the day of anthesis. Souza et al. (2004) indicated that flower receptivity tended to decline sharply after 14:00 h in Brazil which is in accordance with the present finding. Souza et al. (2004) also reported the greatest mean receptivity percentage values were at midday and 12:00 h and the lowest values at 17:00 h. Souza et al. (2002) reported more than 75 Percent pollen viability at 24 h after anthesis of passion flower. Pollen germination percent on stigma was noticed the highest (6.25), when stigma was pollinated with pollen just after anther dehiscence. But after third flash pollen germination percent showed a decreasing trend. Pollen germination percent on stigma pollinated with pollens of different ages (hours) at different flashes was noticed to be increased gradually.

Pollen germination percent was recorded the highest when was pollinated with 3 h aged pollens at different flashes.

Pollen germination percent on stigma pollinated with 3 h aged pollen at different flashes ranged from 38.35(fifth flash) to 51.75(third flash). Results revealed that pollen germination on stigma was recorded the highest (51.75 Percent) during third flash when stigma was pollinated with 3 h aged

Table 3. Pollen size (diameter) (Mu m) of viable pollens of passion flower at different flashes at different times after dehiscence

Different###At different times (h) after anther dehiscence###Mean

flashes###0###1###2###3###4###5###6###

First###251 +- 0.14###295 +- 0.24###301 +- 0.30###302 +- 0.18###291 +- 0.40###265 +- 0.38###245 +- 0.18###279 +- 0.26

Second###253 +- 0.14###289 +- 0.24###304 +- 0.31###300 +- 0.24###286 +- 0.43###270 +- 0.43###241 +- 0.18###278 +- 0.28

Third###270 +- 0.16###305 +- 0.24###347 +- 0.28###318 +- 0.28###308 +- 0.35###275 +- 0.40###266 +- 0.15###298 +- 0.27

Fourth###270 +- 0.14###300 +- 0.32###299 +- 0.25###305 +- 0.20###288 +- 0.43###245 +- 0.43###240 +- 0.15###278 +- 0.27

Fifth###261 +- 0.15###279 +- 0.28###310 +- 0.25###300 +- 0.28###275 +- 0.44###270 +- 0.44###240 +- 0.20###276 +- 0.29

Mean###261 +- 0.15###294 +- 0.26###312 +- 0.28###305 +- 0.24###290 +- 0.41###265 +- 0.42###246 +- 0.17###282 +- 0.28

pollen (Table 4). Thereafter a decreasing trend of pollen germination on stigma was noticed. It was observed that pollen germination percentage on stigma pollinated with 4, 5 and 6 h aged pollens showed a decreasing trend at all flashes. Pollen germination percent was noted minimum when stigma pollinated with 6 h aged pollen.

Pollen tube growth in style: Pollen tube growth behavior in style at different flashes was noticed variable (Table 5). No pollen tube was recorded in style when one h aged stigma was pollinated with 3 h aged pollen during first and fifth flashes. However, very few and few pollen tube was recorded in style during second, third and fourth flashes. Pollen tube in style recorded moderate and abundant when 2 h aged stigma was pollinated with 3 h aged pollen at different flashes. On the other hand when 3 h aged stigma was pollinated with 3 h aged pollen, profuse number of pollen tubes were noticed in style at third and fourth flashed. With the further advancement of stigma age, number of pollen tubes in style was found to decrease drastically at different flashes.

Stigma receptivity: Stigma receptivity of pollen depends upon the nature of stigmatic and pollen surfaces. Stigma receptivity and duration of receptivity of stigma with 3 h aged pollen grains at different flashes were presented in Table 6. Stigma receptivity at different flashes varied from 0.00 to 39.6 Percent. Among the flashes stigma receptivity was recorded highest (39.6 Percent) when 3 h aged stigma was pollinated 3 h aged pollen grain. Bruckner et al. (2000) reported that low temperature and low humidity caused loss of pollen germination of passion flower. In the present research, passion fruit did not produce any flower from late October to late March when low temperature prevailed in Bangladesh. They reported that pollen germination was more effective when pollens were stored at room temperature until one day after collection (50 Percent germination) and poorer at the third day (26 Percent). Stigma receptivity of passion flower was maximal on the day of anthesis (Sing et al., 2006).

They also mentioned that pollen viability of passion flower is highly associated with environment humidity and atmospheric temperature. Pollen viability of passion fruit in the present investigation was recorded highest during third flash when high humid weather condition prevailed. Under this weather condition pollen germination percent was recorded highest in passion fruit. Pollen viability of snake gourd at different times after anther dehiscence was reported variable (Hasanuzzaman, 1999). These findings are in accordance with the present findings.

Table 4. Pollen germination on stigma of passion flower at different flashes pollinated (Percent) with different ages (hours)

Different###Pollen germination(Percent) on stigma at different flashes pollinated with different aged (h) pollen

flashes###0###1###2###3###4###5###6

First###00.00 +- 0.13###10.60 +- 0.23###21.35 +- 0.29###41.36 +- 0.17###30.15 +- 0.43###10.00 +- 0.50###3.42 +- 0.23

Second###3.50 +- 0.26###25.16 +- 0.22###35.76 +- 0.20###45.65 +- 0.19###40.10 +- 0.50###12.00 +- 0.43###4.60 +- 0.53

Third###6.25 +- 0.62###31.17 +- 0.32###40.38 +- 0.18###51.75 +- 0.17###42.37 +- 0.46###10.70 +- 0.55###5.00 +- 0.47

Fourth###4.15 +- 0.65###25.71 +- 0.61###35.15 +- 0.30###47.38 +- 0.21###38.17 +- 0.61###10.40 +- 0.51###4.70 +- 0.21

Fifth###1.50 +- 0.15###12.75 +- 0.46###19.45 +- 0.33###38.35 +- 0.14###26.18 +- 0.44###8.15 +- 0.58###3.00 +- 0.42

Mean###3.08###21.08###30.42###44.90###35.40###10.25###4.14

Just with the initiation of anther dehiscence

Table 5. Pollen tubes growth behavior in style at different flashes pollinated with 3 hours aged pollen

###Stigma age (h)

Flashes###1###2###3###4###5###6

First###no###moderate###Moderate###moderate###few###no

Second###Very few###moderate###Abundant###moderate###few###Very few

Third###few###abundant###Profuse###moderate###few###few

Fourth###few###abundant###Profuse###moderate###few###Very few

Fifth###no###moderate###Moderate###moderate###few###no

Ten styles were collected and fixation was done 2 hours after stigma pollination

Table 6. Stigma receptivity of passion flower at different flashes pollinating stigma with 3 h aged pollen (Percent)

Flashes###Age of stigma###

###1###2###3###4###5###6###Mean

First###0.0 +- 0.46###6.9 +- 0.67###18.4 +- 0.21###12.6 +- 0.19###2.0 +- 0.51###0.0 +- 0.44###6.7

Second###2.0 +- 0.11###12.0 +- 0.50###27.9 +- 0.23###15.8 +- 0.39###4.5 +- 0.37###1.0 +- 0.39###10.5

Third###6.3 +- 0.31###20.7 +- 0.51###39.6 +- 0.60###25.1 +- 0.56###6.5 +- 0.51###1.5 +- 0.45###16.6

Fourth###5.8 +- 0.65###11.9 +- 0.59###31.8 +- 0.18###18.5 +- 0.30###2.5 +- 0.40###0.0 +- 0.52###11.8

Fifth###2.6 +- 0.61###6.5 +- 0.42###20.4 +- 0.14###9.3 +- 0.37###1.3 +- 0.69###0.0 +- 0.44###6.7

Mean###3.3###11.8###27.60###16.3###3.40###0.5###10.5

Conclusions: Flower of passion fruit is special type which bears solitary flower at the leaf axil. Comparisons of floral attributes among the flashes were made and the results indicated that anther length, breadth and filament length of passion flower were found bigger at third flash. Similar tendency was noticed in case of stigma, style and ovary of carpel of gynoecium of passion flower. Pollen viability with the advancement of flower age was noticed to be increased gradually up to 3 h; thereafter pollen viability was recorded to decline gradually at all flashes. Pollen diameter was recorded larger at all flashes at 2 h after anther dehiscence, but the same was noted maximum during third flash. Pollen germination percent on stigma was recorded highest (51.75) during third flash when stigma was pollinated with 3 h aged pollens. Large number of pollen tubes was noticed to grow through style during third flash when 3 h aged stigmas were pollinated with 3 h aged pollens.

Stigma receptivity of pollen grains was observed maximum during third flash when 3 h aged stigmas were pollinated with pollen grains

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Department of Crop Botany, Department of Horticulture, Seed Science and Technology Unit

Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur 1706, Bangladesh

Corresponding author's e.mail : mira_ati@yahoo.com
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Author:Das, Mira Rani; Mia, M.A.B.; Hossain, T.; Ahmed, J.U.; Hossain, Mofazzol; M.Z.Haq
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Agriculture Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Mar 31, 2013
Words:5012
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