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Extensao de distribuyo geografica do gato-palheiro leopardus braccatus (carnivora, felidae) em um ecotono cerrado-caatinga-mata atlantica, Brasil.

RANGE EXTENSION OF THE PANTANAL CAT Leopardus braccatus (CARNIVORA, FELIDAE) IN A CERRADO-CAATINGA-ATLANTIC FOREST ECOTONE, BRAZIL

Pantanal cat or pampas cat Leopardus braccatus (Cope, 1889) is a small-sized felid (2.4-4.0 kg) (Nascimento, unpublished data) found in the open biomes (Cerrado, Pantanal, Chaco, Beni savannas and Pampas) of Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and northeastern Argentina (Garcia-Perea, 1994; Chebez et al., 2008; Chebez, 2009; Nascimento, 2010; Soljan et al., 2010; Barstow and Leslie, 2012; Queirolo et al., 2013a). Taxonomically, it has been regarded either as a subspecies of L. colocolo (Molina, 1782) (Cabrera, 1940, 1958; Ximenez, 1961, 1970; Johnson et al., 1999; Sunquist and Sunquist, 2009) or a subspecies of L. pajeros (Desmarest, 1816) (Pocock, 1941; Weigel, 1961). However Garcia-Perea (1994) recognized the Pantanal cat as a full species in the genus Lynchailurus Severtzov, 1858. This was followed by Wozencraft (2005), who differed from Garcia-Perea only in classifying the species in the genus Leopardus Gray, 1842. Two subspecies of L. braccatus are currently recognized: L. b. braccatus (Cope, 1889), found in Central Brazil (from Maranhao and Piaui to Mato Grosso do Sul), Bolivia, and Paraguay (Garcia-Perea, 1994; Nascimento, 2010; Barstow and Leslie, 2012); and L. b. munoai (Ximenez, 1961), which occurs in Southern Brazil (southern part of Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay and Northeastern Argentina (Garcia-Perea, 1994; Chebez et al., 2008; Nascimento, 2010; Soljan et al., 2010; Barstow and Leslie, 2012).

In the present study we report a new locality record for L. b. braccatus and also provide an updated distribution map based on records from museum specimens (Nascimento, 2010; Nascimento, unpublished data) and literature (Schwangart, 1941; Silveira, 1995; Santos Filho, 2000; Courtenay, 2002; Bagno et al., 2004; Emmons et al., 2006; Mamede and Alho, 2006; Caceres et al., 2007; Machado et al., 2008; Chebez, 2009; Rosa and Tolentino, 2009; Godoi et al., 2010; Luque et al., 2012) (Fig. 1; see Appendix 1). Some literature records were excluded due to dubious and misleading identifications (for example, Bordignon et al. [2006] identified a feral domestic cat Felis catus as a pampas cat, which was named in their article as Oncifelis colocolo). Comparing to other species of Neotropical cats, L. braccatus has a small number of specimens housed in scientific collections (Nascimento, unpublished data), covering widely separated geographic areas (Fig. 1), which results in a lack of knowledge about its individual variation, taxonomy, biogeography and natural history.

On May 20th 2015, one of us (PP) found two road-killed specimens of Pantanal cat (a male and a female) (Fig. 2) in the federal paved road BR-342, municipality of Aracuai, northeast of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil (16[degrees] 49' 47.50" S; 42[degrees] 00' 21.35" W) (Figs. 1 and 3). The location is 300 m above sea level, and 400 m away from the Jequitinhonha River main stream. The specimens were found at 07:40, and the preservation status of the specimens indicated their activity in the area during the dawn period. The characters of the photographed specimen matches with the description of the subspecies L. b. braccatus, i.e., it shows overall ground color of the body uniformly brown agouti with dark spots and stripes visible in the venter, but almost fainted, forming traces of dark brown rosettes in other parts of the body, especially in the flank, proximal stripes of the legs black and feet dorsally and ventrally black (sometimes the dorsal part of the feet are less darker than the ventral part), the spinal crest little darker than ground color, and tail not ringed and with black tip. The identification of the specimen was based on literature data, in comparison with reference material housed in scientific collections (e.g., Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, MZUSP) and also on unpublished data from one of us (FON).

This new locality extends the geographic distribution of the species about 310 km to the east and represents the easternmost limit for the species range, in a Cerrado-Caatinga-Atlantic Forest ecotone (Fig. 1). Furthermore, the locality is in the Jequitinhonha River Valley, a region characterized by native vegetation of different features, with certain particularities, that possesses controversial classification (Carrara et al., 2013), sometimes being classified as a transition zone between Cerrado and Caatinga (Fernandes and Bezerra, 1990; Carrara et al., 2013) or as an area under influence of Cerrado and Atlantic Forest (Carrara et al., 2013; SEMAD, 2015). The region nearby the record (Fig. 3) is located in the Caatinga domain, and featured by well-preserved large fragments of Seasonal Deciduous Forest (Scolforo and Carvalho, 2006). Extensive cattle raising is the predominant land use in the region.

Due to adverse circumstances, unfortunately the Pantanal cat specimens were neither collected nor measured, but one of them was photographed (Fig. 2). This photograph was recorded under the number UM-2015/05-000.424 in the database of "Sistema Urubu" (http://cbee. ufla.br/portal/sistema_urubu/urubu_web.php), which is an initiative of "Centro Brasileiro de Estudos em Ecologia de Estradas" (CBEE) that compiles, systematizes and provides information on the mortality of wildlife on roads and railways and aims to assist government agencies and road concessionaires in decision making to reduce these impacts.

[FIGURA 1 OMITIR]

[FIGURA 2 OMITIR]

Even though recent studies have increased our knowledge on the fauna of the Jequitinhonha River Valley (Drummond et al., 2005), L. braccatus had not been recorded in the region up to now. One possible explanation of the absence of L. braccatus in previous studies is that the species may be expanding its geographical distribution in recent years due to changes in landscape, similar to what happens in southern Brazil, where deforestation in the Atlantic Forest has allowed the expansion of open-area animals such as the pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) (Queirolo et al., 2013b) and maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) (Paula et al., 2013). On the other hand, it is possible that the species has always been present in the area but has never been recorded. Sampling difficulties associated with the elusive behavior of the animals, problems in identifying the species, and the low population density of the species throughout its geographical distribution may be some factors that make detection difficult and may result in false absences (Ferreira et al., 2014). A good example of this are the recent records for the bush dog (Speothos venaticus) in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil's state where the species was previously thought to be extinct (Ferreira et al., 2014), and also the unexpected record for Baturite Montain Range, in northeastern Brazil, within the Caatinga (Fernandes-Ferreira et al., 2011; 2015). Fur thermore, Queirolo et al. (2013a) suggest that L. braccatus occurs in low numbers (0.01-0.05 individuals/[km.sup.2]) and the effective population of the species in conservation areas of the Cerrado and Pantanal, 8.1% and 2.9% of the total area of the biomes respectively, is estimated between ~1200 and ~5900 individuals. Although further investigations are needed to test the hypotheses proposed here, we favor the second hypothesis, that the species was originally present in the area but conventional sampling methods (i.e. camera traps, censuses) failed to detect it.

[FIGURA 3 OMITIR]

Recibido 16 octubre 2015. Aceptado 13 febrero 2016. Editor asociado: F Prevosti

Acknowledgements. We are grateful to: Alex Bager, coordinator of Sistema Urubu, for authorizing the use of the image and specimen data; Guilherme Garbino for commentaries and suggestions; Francisco Ricardo de Andrade Neto, partner biologist during the road kill record; and Miriam Morales and one anonymous reviewer for advices on a previous version of the manuscript.

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APPENDIX 1

List of localities, in latitudinal order, showed in the Figure 1. Letters correspond to specimens housed in scientific collections and the numbers refers to the localities taken from literature.

Museum records: A. Parana (former Sao Joao da Palma), Tocantins, Brazil (12[degrees]33'S; 47[degrees]46'W) (MNRJ 3148); B. Chapada dos Guimaraes, Mato Grosso, Brazil (15[degrees]25'48" S; 55[degrees]45'00"W) (AMNH 354; holotype); C. Rio Sao Manuel, Adelandia, Goias, Brazil (16[degrees]25'12"S, 50[degrees]10'12"W) (MNRJ 3149); D. Descalvados, Upper Paraguay River, Mato Grosso, Brazil (16[degrees]45'S, 57[degrees]42'W) (USNM 256127 and FMNH 28335); E. Parque Nacional das Emas, Goias, Brazil (18[degrees]06'36"S, 52[degrees]55'12"W) (MNRJ 63629); F. Fazenda Pequi, Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul (20[degrees]28'12"S, 55[degrees]48'00"W) (MZUSP 7786); G. Tres Lagoas, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (20[degrees]45'00"S, 51[degrees]40'48"W) (MZUSP 7670); H. Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (21[degrees]37'48"S, 55[degrees]10'12"W) (MNRJ 24904, MNRJ 4868 and AMNH 133977); I. Juan de Zalagan, Gran Chaco, Presidente Hayes, Paraguay (23[degrees]06'S, 59[degrees]18'W) (AMNH 148573); J. Assuncao, Central, Paraguay (25[degrees]15'00"S, 57[degrees]40'12"W) (AMNH 243110). Museums acronyms: AMNH = American Museum of Natural History; FMNH = Field Museum of Natural History; MNRJ = Museu Nacional da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; MZUSP = Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo; USNM = National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution; UNB = Universidade de Brasilia.

Literature records: 1. Parque Estadual do Mirador, Maranhao, Brazil (06[degrees]20'S, 45[degrees]30'W; estimated coordinates) (Machado et al., 2008); 2. Cachoeira, Piaui, Brazil (07[degrees]20'S, 44[degrees]21'W) (Silveira, 1995); 3. TO-050, Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil (09[degrees]48'S, 48[degrees]21'W) (Bagno et al., 2004); 4. Barreiras do Piaui, Piaui, Brazil (10[degrees]08'S, 45[degrees]46'W) (Bagno et al., 2004); 5. TO-010, Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil (10[degrees]10'S, 48[degrees]20'W) (Bagno et al., 2004); 6. Sao Desiderio, Bahia, Brazil (12[degrees]21'S, 44[degrees]58'W) (Silveira, 1995); 7. Rio Parana, Tocantins, Brazil (12[degrees]40'S, 48[degrees]00'W) (Silveira, 1995); 8. BR-242, Arrarias, Tocantins, Brazil (12[degrees]47'S, 47[degrees]03'W) (Bagno et al., 2008); 9. Cercado Province, Beni, Bolivia (13[degrees]37'S, 65[degrees]07'W) (Luque et al., 2012); 10. Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros, Goias, Brazil (14[degrees]10'S, 45[degrees]30'W; estimated coordinates) (Rosa and Tolentino, 2009); 11. Los Fierros, Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, Santa Cruz, Bolivia (14[degrees]33'20"S, 60[degrees]55'43"W) (Emmons et al., 2006); 12. BR-158, Nova Xavantina, Brazil (14[degrees]41'S, 52[degrees]20'W) (Bagno et al., 2004); 13. Parque Nacional Grande Sertoes Veredas, Bahia/Minas Gerais, Brazil (15[degrees]06'S, 45[degrees]46'W; estimated coordinates) (Machado et al., 2008); 14. Parque Nacional Cavernas do Peruacu, Minas Gerais, Brazil (15[degrees]07'S, 44[degrees]19'W; estimated coordinates) (Machado et al., 2008); 15. BR-364, Chapada dos Guimaraes, Mato Grosso, Brasil (15[degrees]10'S, 55[degrees]40'W) (Bagno et al., 2004); 16. Cuiaba, Mato Grosso, Brazil (15[degrees]35'S, 56[degrees]05'W) (Silveira, 1995); 17. Estacao Ecologica Serra das Araras, Mato Grosso, Brazil (15[degrees]39'S, 57[degrees]01'W; estimated coordinates) (Santos Filho, 2000); 18. Taguatinga, Distrito Federal, Brazil (15[degrees]49'S, 48[degrees]03'W) (Silveira, 1995); 19. Fazenda Sao Miguel, Minas Gerais, Brazil (15[degrees]50'S, 46[degrees]30'W) (Courtenay, 2002); 20. BR-060, Abadiania/Alexania, Mato Grosso (16[degrees]06'S, 48[degrees]34'W) (Bagno et al., 2004); 21. Rondonopolis, Mato Grosso, Brazil (16[degrees]28'S, 48[degrees]03'W) (Silveira, 1995); 22. Rondonopolis, Mato Grosso, Brazil (16[degrees]29'S, 54[degrees]37'W) (Bagno et al., 2004); 23. BR-080, between Paraiso and Chapadao do Sul, Mato Grosso/Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (18[degrees]46'S, 52[degrees]38'W) (Godoi et al., 2010); 24. Nhumirim Ranch, Corumba, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (18[degrees]59'46"S, 56[degrees]36'40"W) (Godoi et al., 2010); 25. Pantanal, Sao Francisco Ranch, next to Miranda River, in Miranda county, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (20[degrees]05'10"S, 56[degrees]36'57"W) (Godoi et al., 2010); 26. Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil (20[degrees]15'S, 46[degrees]30'W; estimated coordinates) (Machado et al., 2008); 27. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas do Pantanal, Pantanal do Rio Negro, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (20[degrees]18'S, 55[degrees]18'W; estimated coordinates) (Mamede and Alho, 2006); 28. Parque Nacional da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (21[degrees]03'S, 56[degrees]41'W; estimated coordinates) (Caceres et al., 2007); 29. St. Luis, Apabergland [in vicinity of Rio Apa], Paraguay (22[degrees]06'S, 58[degrees]02'W; estimated coordinates) (Schwangart, 1941); 30. Parque Nacional Rio Pilcomayo, Formosa, Argentina (25[degrees]04'S, 58[degrees]07'W; estimated coordinates) (Chebez, 2009); and 31. Assuncao, Central, Paraguay (25[degrees]15'S, 57[degrees]40'12"W; estimated coordinates) (Schwangart, 1941).

Fabio Oliveira do Nascimento (1), Paulo dos Santos Pompeu (2), and Marcelo Passamani (2)

(1) Mastozoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Nazare 481, CEP 04263-000, Ipiranga, Sao Paulo, Brazil [Correspondence: Fabio Oliveira do Nascimento <fabnasc@gmail.com>].

(2) Setor de Ecologia, DBI, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Caixa Postal 3037, CEP 37200-000, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
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Title Annotation:texto en portugues
Author:Oliveira do Nascimento, Fabio; dos Santos Pompeu, Paulo; Passamani, Marcelo
Publication:Mastozoologia Neotropical
Date:Jun 1, 2016
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