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Extending traditional classroom boundaries.

David H. Gillette (*)

Introduction

Almost since the advent of electronic mail (e-mail) educators have sought to extend traditional classroom boundaries by integrating the known qualities of writing as a teaching and learning tool with the power of electronic communication. Although we as economists have not been absent from these endeavors, discussions with colleagues across the country suggest undiscovered territory still lies before us. The experiences recorded here continue the discussion of using electronic tools to promote active learning (Gillette, 1996), but within the context of economics course work.

All electronic resources are not equally applicable for all courses. The three most accessible resources highlighted below: electronic mail (e-mail), electronic conferencing, and the World Wide Web, have been used to varying degrees in numerous courses and could easily be utilized in many more. Examples of the application of these resources, as given below, come from three courses: Introduction to Economics, a survey for non-majors; Intermediate Macro-economic Theory; and the Economic Analysis of Social and Policy Issues, a beginning research methodology course. Ranging from individual to group communication to information retrieval, each resource provides a different service. Depending upon the professor's desires and the students' needs, one or more of these resources may be appropriate for a particular learning environment. Benefits at the margin are positive, but so are costs; thus a frank discussion of both occurs as warranted through out the paper.

Electronic Mail

"Hi, I had a question in class about the last chapter on Tuesday but was embarrassed to ask it because I thought that it might sound kind of stupid. And that I should have picked up the answer by just reading the chapter. Well I didn't come up with the answer and I'm afraid if I don't ask I'll get behind. I don't quite understand..."

Most professors at least suspect questions like this go unanswered each semester if not each week or each class period. This one, received on electronic-mail (e-mail) shortly after class ended that day, did not. It was asked and answered within hours following a class for which the student had prepared but remained confused after attending. The question was, in fact, not stupid; but rather dealt with a fundamental [economic] building block, the misunderstanding of which frequently becomes the source of faulty reasoning throughout the semester. E-Mail provided this student rapid access to the professor even though neither could have met with the other in person that afternoon. For this student the learning process continued, i.e., remained alive and active, even though personal inhibitions precluded open participation in the classroom. (Gillette, p. 59)

Many professors have by now experienced this type of communication with their students and routinely include an e-mail address as part of their course syllabi. Particularly for those classes which only meet once a week, the use of E-mail and a recipient list affords professors an efficient line of communication with the entire class in between class periods. One sending of a message can arrive at any number of e-mail accounts with virtually no more effort than a phone call; unless the line is busy, in which case e-mail becomes even less of an effort. Of course, each student must be a regular e-mail reader for this system to be fool-proof, but experience suggests that with a little training and the proper incentives, the use of e-mail can be as successful as any other method of communication. Incentives can include hints for homework problems, references to relevant newspaper articles, or tips for studying for exams. E-mail applications can be as varied as a professor's imagination; serving well in course adm inistration when issues of privacy such as grade distribution are concerned, or simply in sending a quick compliment to a student for an unusually good or insightful contribution to class that day. Many of its uses, including all of those mentioned so far, can also be incorporated in an electronic conference as discussed later on.

E-mail users already know of its logistic advantages such as: location independence, student and professor need not physically "connect" with each other; convenient timing, both parties send and receive messages at their own convenience; efficient time use, messages and replies more frequently get right to the point than do office visits; both professor and student have a record of when contact was made; and among still others is the opportunity for students to practice expressing their economics questions in writing. For professors wishing to be of greater access to students, the benefits of e-mail sometimes seem unaccompanied by any significant costs, short of just having something else to check; and respond to regularly. However, e-mail's accessibility from the home, office, or a computer lab (which certainly facilitates regular checking), may at thc same time be the source of at least one disadvantage because of the opportunity it provides to take work home. Another cost might occur with the loss of pers onal contact between students and professors as they have less face to face interaction with each other. Experience suggests, however, that student appreciation for a quick response may work to offset such losses and may even contribute to more meaningful face to face interactions when they do occur. Certainly, if some students "speak up" and ask their questions by writing them on e-mail where they do not by vocalizing them in class, then some interaction would seem better than no interaction. Nonetheless, e-mail has become a virtually unavoidable feature of academia, potentially leaving behind (whether for good or ill) those who shun its adoption.

Electronic Conferencing

While e-mail applications seem almost universal; and, since both professors and students already understand a mailing system, the adoption of e-mail as a resource may, for adopters, come almost as second nature. Conferencing on the other hand initially requires somewhat more planning than does the use of e-mail. Electronic conferences are usually maintained on mainframe computers, but may also be available on networks. (1) The professor will set up a conference by establishing a menu of topics (see Exhibit 1) which students can read, or to which students can add their own comments.

Students then read what others have posted to the conference, and post their own comments as they wish. As in the classroom, students vary in the amount they read and the number of comments they post, but on a conference the roles of leaders and followers are often reversed as are gender tendencies. Quite frequently some of the best comments posted to the conference come from those students who never raise their hands in class, but who feel more comfortable having had time to think things over before posting a contribution. For example, after a discussion about self-interest and voluntary, non-fraudulent trade in this introductory class, one student posted the following comment to the open topic shown above. This posting began a discussion which carried on for several weeks about many basic principles of economics. Students shared their views and asked questions about the relationship of economics to areas of interest in their lives and topics important to them that normally never surface in the classroom.

>:::The following added 1996/09/06 19:59 by N529

_how does a person that chooses economics as his life study (and by this i mean ANY economist)--not become a pessimistic, disillusioned, socialist hermit? it just seems like the study centers very basically around pleasing the individual, oddly enough, this class is very interesting to me, but i find that every day i become more convinced of the aspects of human nature that i try the hardest to pretend aren't there. and please don't think i'm self-righteous, as i am no less a part of this than anyone else. I, TOO, am a purchaser of things that i think will somehow better me or keep me content. i am only curious as to what it would be like to not only realize what self-centered creatures we are, but to study the effects of our self-centeredness (is that a word?) every day? dr. gillette, ... i would be interested in how you view yourself as an economist and/or would love to be enlightened as to whether or not economists actually are more well-rounded, compassionate, etc. AS A RESULT OF their keen sense of under standing the way that humans work. just some questions i've had.

This conference discussion provided an opportunity to demonstrate the relevance of economics to students' own lives, and since the conference is open twenty-four hours a day, class continued whenever students, or the professor, had a thought to share, or otherwise felt the urge; and many postings did come well after midnight.

Another use of the conference in this introductory class consists of posting MITs after class each day. At the end of each class period students write down one or two sentences about the Most Important Thing (MIT) they learned that day. A student worker then compiles and posts the MITs, anonymously, to the conference within a few hours following class. Initially this activity had been intended to provide students, using their own words, with a quick overview and source of study for everything that had been covered that day in class (unedited, of course, by the professor except for "economic" correctness). MITs soon proved, however, to have the unforeseen benefits of stimulating an additional thought process on the part of students during class, and of providing valuable feedback to the professor about the effectiveness of that day's activities. Other uses of this conference include the posting of course announcements, of each journal and reading assignment given, and of examples of particularly good student work. Such postings eliminated all excuses of losing, or not having received, course assignments. They also provided an avenue of honoring students who performed well while at the same time providing other students with good models of successful work they could emulate.

The purpose of the conference facility in Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory (see Exhibit 2) differs somewhat from that of the principles course.

In this more advanced course a conference provides students the opportunity to participate in substantial discussions about significant real world issues relevant to their economics curriculum. After reading assigned portions of a supplementary text about some aspect of economics, a conference discussion provides all class members with the opportunity for a significant dialogue about that issue without taking away from lecture time needed for other purposes. When appropriate, however, commenting briefly in class about the conference dialogue validates the process and the conference experience by acknowledging students' effort in that dimension of the course. Granted, a conference site does also provide the opportunity for a rant, but experience suggests that peer pressures keep such occurrences at a minimum; and, when one does happen, paging forward causes less disruption than does having to shut someone down in the middle of class.

The success of such conference dialogues depends heavily upon the choice of outside reading selected by the professor. Past books include The Misunderstood Economy, by Robert Eisner and The Economic Report of the President (ERP). Eisner's book was very successful at stimulating both conference and classroom discussion relevant to course material. His idea's were engaging and frequently quite new to students. The ERP was much less successful. Students perceived it more as campaign rhetoric than economic analysis and found it much less engaging than their peers had found The Misunderstood Economy. Students in another semester seemed to find, For a New Liberty, by Murray Rothbard, as engaging as their counterparts found Eisner's work. Several entries typical of the postings discussing Rothbard's work are given here. The first comes from his discussion of what he calls the Libertarian Heritage and the others come from the open discussion topic about current events.

>:::The following added 1997/01/30 11:58 by S314

I believe that the remnants left in our society today include the notion that government is too big and also the ideas of separation of church and state. Along with that, the separation of state and everything as put in the book. Today I seem to hear a lot about wanting separation from everything.

Although, if government actually separated itself from our lives then we would have problems. For example, what would happen to all those people on disability, who truly need assistance to make it. Or what about federal grants and the portion of the budget allocated to education? I think that people are eager to jump on the bandwagon and say that to have true liberty the government should stay out of our lives but what would are lives be like without the government's help? I'm not saying that I think the government should run our lives but maybe we should be more appreciative of the help that is given to those who need it.

>:::The following added 1997/02/14 13:54 by N614

What do you think Libertarians would say regarding Pres. Clinton's attempts not to interfere in the pilot strike against American Airlines?

>::: The following added 1997/02/15 10:55 by Professor

Great question. Hmmm... My first thoughts were that they would approve since doing so would interfere with the pilots' rights over their own labor, or American's rights to their labor as the entrepreneurs. Then I heard an NPR piece on the ground crews who felt the pilots had no right to play around with their livelihoods. Which, I believe brings up a more fundamental question about how Libertarians would perceive unions in general. I suspect they would have been supportive of Clinton's initial resistance to getting involved, but since then the pilots have struck, and President Clinton did invoke the 1926 Railway Labor Act (which now includes airlines) I suspect they would no longer be quite so supportive of his actions. What do you all think? Where do one person's rights end and another's begin? Is a $120,000 per year really all that bad? Whom will this all end up costing the most? The pilots? American? Airline passengers? The rest of us?

>:::The following added 1997/02/16 12:24 by M675

just a comment on the AA pilots' ''strike''. I believe the real victims would have been the ground crew members and the flight attendants who only make 20- -30,000. i saw a news piece where these employees were interviewed and needless to say they were not too happy about the pilots striking even though they average 120,000 a year, and senior pilots can make 300,000 a year. I am by no means anti-union, but after hearing what these pilots make it became very hard to sympathize with them.

The key factors in making an appropriate choice of an outside reading that keeps students involved appear to be topic relevance to current interests and readings that address those topics from a new, or perhaps even an alternatives, perspective.

Besides the physical setup of a mainframe conference (depending on class size, it takes about an hour to set one up) the costs of using one derive from its vigilance and accountability aspects. If professors want students to take the process seriously, they must hold them accountable for their efforts just as they would any other aspect of the course. This, of course, requires professors to read the conference regularly and provide timely feedback about the conference dialog. One successful approach has been to begin each conference dialogue with a couple of questions to which students can respond. For example, the following questions began the discussion topic about thc Libertarian Heritage from which the first comment in the block quote above was taken.

>:::The following added 1997/01/07 10:58 by Professor

As I read this first chapter, two questions arose in my mind that I post here for you to be thinking about as you read about the Libertarian Heritage.

1) What remnants of classical liberalism still exist in our economy today?

2) What evidence can we paint to today to either support or refute the notion of a gigantic con job?

Students then have the opportunity to demonstrate their engagement with and understanding of the material they have read by posting comments in response to one or both of these questions, or to any of the comments made by one of their peers. Having their comments open to peer scrutiny seems to carry a fair amount of weight. Each student also receives a very brief one sentence e-mail comment from the professor about each comment posted to the conference along with a score which can be used to opt for a bye on one of the reading questions on their exams. Professors might also consider taking exam questions from the conference dialogue itself.

Some of the conference applications used in Intermediate Macroeconomics that seem relevant for other economics courses include the open discussion and general course announcement categories (also utilized in the principles course described above). Posting references to relevant WSJ articles has been one use of the general course announcement category and a discussion topic about assigned homework problems has proven useful as well. The following examples represent the type of help students provide and request from each other when they "talk" about their homework. These and other comments suggest that some class members use the conference as a method of organizing themselves into a larger learning community.

>:::The following added 1997/02/04 19:07 by Q853

On the homework . . . question 14d. I increases by $100 billion which increases I to $1,000 billion and GDP to 6,735.94. This is as far as we can get. . . . Help! Also . . if you aren't already aware, on number 14 t should be equal to .26. Otherwise the equation does not yield 6635.94 billion for GDP. . . . . THANKS!

>:::The following added 1997/02/04 21:49 by Q853

Nevermind I figured it out. Thanks->:::The following added 1997/02/06 20:59 by R552 We cannot derive the first equation for 17a. SOMEONE HELP US. We got all of problem 18, though, so if anyone needs help, we're your people.

>:::The following added 1997/02/10 07:55 by Professor TYPO NOTIFICATION!! In problem number 20, M should be equal to 950, not 9500. My apologies. (It is, however, correctly given as 950 in part d.)

Establishing and participating in conferences such as these does take time. However, professors across several disciplines on the Truman State University campus who continue using conferences in their classes, and in general the students participating in them, feel the benefits to the learning process outweigh the costs. Quantifying these costs and benefits, however, remains as of yet an illusive goal. Conference management programs can identify each participant by name and/or computer ID number and they can also track conference activity by those readers who post fewer, or no, comments of their own but who follow along with the conversation nonetheless. Conference participation can also be restricted to only the members of a given class as was the case with both of the examples described above. Still, a conference may not provide something for every member of the class, but it does seem to provide a stimulus that gets many students thinking about and discussing important economic issues alongside the develop ment of the theory professors require them to learn in the classroom. For those students who do participate, writing their thoughts in this manner requires them to think more carefully about them. Writing what they think helps avoid rambling, and improves their writing; but, most importantly, it promotes clear headed thinking and mental self-discipline.

World Wide Web

Literally through jumping into hyperspace over the past few years, Web browsers have made the internet a significantly more useful, now almost indispensable, research and instructional resource. At a minimum the World Wide Web now serves as an efficient tool for rapidly exploring differing views on various economic issues; at a maximum, its fullest potential remains as yet undiscovered. Instructors in economics have already experimented with everything from using the Web to have their students find out about economics in the news, to making its use an integral part of a traditional classroom course, to offering virtual economics courses where students never set foot in the classroom, even for exams.

With the advent of any technological breakthrough, adopters consist of both users and developers, each requiring significantly different levels of resource commitment. The same holds true for educational applications on the World Wide Web, where the primary resource commitment is time. For users, instructors who wish only to incorporate the Web as an additional outside resource, the startup costs will hinge on the degree to which they want their students' experience to be useful and meaningful and therefore the degree to which they spend time working the Web in order to anticipate students' experience. Instructors who take enough time to teach students what key words work best in searching, how to expand and contract their search, and how to utilize a search engine to their best advantage will find their students having more useful and meaningful experiences. Because the plethora of information on the Web simultaneously serves as one of its greatest disadvantages; learning about useful Web sites and teaching efficient search strategies becomes of paramount importance. Otherwise, searching the Web can easily become a random, and frustrating experience, one that both students and professors will resist if they perceive it to only make their tasks harder by taking more time rather than saving it. Developers, on the other hand, must expect to commit substantially more time to the construction of Web sites that either complement, become an integral part of, or in some cases actually become their courses.

Users

From exploring economic issues and principles, to gathering data for testing theory in research methodology courses, the Web makes a wealth of information available. One initial concern for instructors in using the Web stems from the ease of posting both reliable as well as questionable information on it. Not that the issue of source credibility presents any new concern for research instructors; but whereas previously such concerns could be met through appropriate guidance and some reliance on the judgment and checks of the acquisition process for local library holdings, a professor's role must now include at least some instruction, or perhaps a greater emphasis, on the recognition of reliable source material. An instructor might, for example, provide a set of samples, or Web site addresses, that set the standard to which their sources should measure up.

An Economics of Social and Policy Issues course naturally lends itself to using the Web as a research tool. As taught at Truman, each student in a class of ten to twelve students selects an individual research topic and pursues it over the course of the semester. Classroom discussions then center around student findings and the tools necessary to pursue their analysis. In this context the Web serves as an invaluable resource especially for getting students started quickly on exploring the various viewpoints concerning the issues they choose. For this, and most aspects of in this course, a list of useful Web sites such as the one included as Appendix One provides one of the best resources to make the Web seem like less work rather than more. Note, for example, site numbers 27-38 where various news organizations have on-line archives equipped with search engines students can use to become informed about the public debate concerning a given issue. Then as their work progresses they can utilize facilities such a s First Search where literally thousands of articles have been cataloged on dozens of databases, many with full text, all of which can either be searched from a Web browser or downloaded and read with Adobe Acrobat Reader. (See Appendix Two 1 or selected listings of over forty different databases served by First Search and maintained by OCLC, an On-line Computer Library Center.) Students can also use the Web to learn about their topics directly from government agencies or as a source of data acquisition by referring to sites such as numbers 1-26 in Appendix One under Economic Resources, Federal Reserve Banks, and Government Agencies. In such classes as this, the Web serves as a readily available resource and with minimal time requirements on the part of the instructor.

Even with extremely low levels of instructor time commitment, such as simply adopting an appropriate textbook, the Web can still open up whole new worlds of excitement for students studying economics. For example, in conjunction with The Wall Street Journal Interactive, W.W. Norton now maintains a Web site titled "Economics in the News" where WSJ articles are annotated with questions relating the articles back to relevant topics in its principles of economics and intermediate micro-and macro-economic theory textbooks. Dryden, Prentice Hall, and Southwestern now all have textbooks in which relevant portions of their chapters have been annotated with Web addresses where students can go to search for further information. Through its principles texts, Prentice Hall's Web site incorporates such support resources as Steven's Guide to Logical Fallacies and the product of a FIPSE Grant titled "Math Skills for Introductory Economics: Introduction to Graphs." In these cases, and many others similar to them, the only t ime commitment required is to learn about them and take advantage of them. Part of that learning will, however, frustrate students because it will consist of discovering that a particular Web site no longer exists, or that the promises made in a text about the relevance of a site go unfulfilled; either because the site no longer exists, or because it has been modified, or because the original author saw some relevance that no one else sees. Nevertheless, finding ways to use the Web for exciting students and teaching them about economics, or any other subject for that matter, continue to expand as fast as professors' and students' imaginations can come up with them.

Developers

More and more professors have already created Web pages for their students, linking together many of the resources available on the Web. (See Appendix One, numbers 39-52 for a small sampling of such web sites.) Such endeavors do, of course, require a much more significant level of time commitment than a beginning user might be willing to make. On the low level end of professor homepages David Gillette (#39) uses a simple and easily maintained web site to link to Truman's web-based course management facility (Black Board's Course Info) and to other sites used regularly in his courses.

At a more involved level, three well thought out uses of professor homepages in economics, each with a little different style, are those maintained by Thomas Cook (#48) at North Seattle Community College, Scott Simpkins (#47) at North Carolina A&T State University, and by Ken Rhea (#42) at the University of Toronto. Each of these professors has integrated the use of the World Wide Web directly into their courses in a way fairly representative of where the majority of economics home pages seem situated. They include syllabi, homework, data for the homework, study guides and hints, links to news sources, sample tests, test results, information about other courses and careers in economics, and the list goes on and on.

Thomas Gooch has developed an online Distance Degree Program course, the Fundamentals of Economics (#41), where students enroll in an internet course and never come to class. All assignments are submitted via Washington State University's DDP web facilities or with the appropriate arrangements via email, fax, or regular mail. Sharon Ryan (#46) requires attendance in her large lecture classes at the University of Missouri but coordinates all class activities and makes all lecture notes and practice quizzes and exams available through her class web site. Bob Parks has taken yet another twist by requiring students in his class to create a web page. See Students' Class Project (#50) Appendix One for an example.

Two even more highly sophisticated sites that stand out as examples requiring perhaps the greatest level of time commitment are: oo . . . Micro! (#43) and Richard Stratton's course (#45). 00 ... Micro! contains audio, integrated text, lecture series, a graphical calculator, spreadsheet, and econometrics capabilities, all from a Web browser. Among a number of useful features Richard Stratton's site also allows students to view lecture presentations directly over the Web through the use of an additional plug-in for Netscape called Compel Show (an Asymetrix Insite product which each student at that school has automatically through their network hookup). As visits to these sites will suggest, the fullest potential for Web applications does indeed remain yet undiscovered.

In general, anything a professor deems potentially useful to students can be included and made available over the World Wide Web. Perhaps a quick sojourn to the sites of two other disciplines here at Truman might also serve as examples of where the Web can take us. A historian, Vanessa Davis (#52), uses her home page to provide her students access to a number of historical source documents she wants them to read, and to explain a little about what motivated at least one historian's determination to become one. An anthropologist, Laura Zimmer-Tamakoshi (#53), has compiled the efforts of her field work in New Guinea and made them available in an award winning site. Finally, for those interested in seeing how literally thousands of professors throughout the world use the Web, links to the work of educators in all disciplines, all over the world, have been organized and compiled together at a site titled, The World Lecture Hall (#51). They invite all to visit their sites and learn from their ideas.

Opportunity costs of professors' time play perhaps one of the more prominent roles in deciding what to include on a Web page. Visiting other sites can generate ideas of what might and might not work in a given circumstance and serve to minimize the initial construction costs. However, once the Web site is constructed it must still be maintained. While site maintenance requires less time commitment than construction does, but nevertheless, it must be planned for. Other considerations that require attention include issues of student access to the Web and hardware and software reliability. Enough physical sites, and the local computing facilities to support them remain constraining concerns. Student's abilities to interact with the technology no longer pose serious concerns, in fact not having the technology to offer them will be the concern of the future. A final pedagogical concern arises when we ask at what point we have put so much out on the Web that students lose the incentive to attend class altogether a nd consequently sacrifice whatever positive benefits arise from the interaction in that setting. A sense of balance and of perspective must continually be sought in order to maximize student learning and understanding of economics.

Conclusion

E-mail, electronic conferences, and the World Wide Web all provide economics professors with additional and virtually unlimited resources for support of their efforts to advance students' understanding of economics in the world around them. The ability to utilize the processes of discussion, dialog, and public discourse through the technological support described in this paper may eventually come close to expanding physical classroom boundaries almost without limit; but even with limitless classroom boundaries professors will continue to face other traditional concerns such as personal responsibility for ideas, ethical and academic integrity issues, and holding students responsible for the mastery of course material. Some of the problems associated with an expanding electronic universe may even magnify some of these remaining concerns. Classroom boundaries never have stopped at the classroom door, but now, more than ever, any physical boundaries professors have been accustomed to will provide less and less o f a constraining influence on their teaching and learning environments.

(*.) Associate Professor of Economics, Division of Social Sciences, Truman State University (www.truman.edu) Kirksville, MO 63501, gillette@truman.edu, (660) 785-4334.

Notes

(1.) Since submission of this article, Electronic conferences have become known as Discussion Boards and have been integrated into web based course facilities such as Black Board's Course Info. They work the same but are generally more efficient and are generally easier for students to access and for professors to set up.

References

Bump, Jerome. "Radical Changes in Class Discussion Using Networked Computers." Computers in the Humanities, 24:49--65, 1990.

Cooper, Marilyn M. & Selfe, Cynthia L. "Computer Conferences and Learning: Authority, Resistance, and Internally Persuasive Discourse." College English, 52:847--69, December 1990.

Falk, Bennett. The Internet Roadmap. 2nd ed. Sybex Inc., Alameda, CA. 1994.

Gillette, David H. "Using Electronic Tools to Promote Active Learning." Using Active Learning in College Classes: A Range of Options for Faculty, edited by Tracey E. Sutherland and Charles C. Bonwell. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, Number 67, Fall 1996. Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, CA. 1996.

Hansen, Edmund, et. al. "Computer Conferencing for Collaborative Learning in Large College Classes." Final report of a Grant Project, Indiana University. (Available on ERIC.)

Hartman, Karen, et. al. "Patterns of Social Interaction and Learning to Write: Some Effects of Network Technologies." Written Communication, 8:79--113, January 1991.

Kinkead, Joyce. "Computer Conversations: E-mail and Writing Instruction." College Composition and Communication, 38:337--41, October 1987.

Mabrito, Jark. "Computer-Mediated Communication and High-Apprehensive Writers: Rethinking the Collaborative Process." Bulletin of the Association for Business Communication, 55:26--30, December 1992.

McClelland, Andy. "E-Mailing a Large Class." IT Times, June 1993, Volume 1, Number 5. Published by the Information Technology Division, University of California, Davis.

Updegrove, Daniel A. "Electronic Mail in Education." Educational Technology, 31:37--40, April 1991.
EXHIBIT 1

MUSIC/SP Conferencing Facility.

Subject: Introduction to Economics

S Topic Last Changed Description

_ SUCCESS 1996/09/28 18:11 Yes! I can do this!
_ ANNOUNCE 1996/12/04 16:32 Announcements
_ OPEN 1996/12/09 18:33 Open Discussion of class,
 news, economics, etc.
_ ASGNMNTS 1996/11/21 15:24 Journal and Reading
 Assignments
_ MITS123 1996/12/03 16:39 MITs, Dec. 3
_ MITS1129 1996/11/26 15:25 MITs, Nov. 26
_ MITS1121 1996/11/22 07:45 MITs, Nov. 21
_ MITS1119 1996/11/19 17:24 MITs, Nov. 19
_ JRNL20 1996/11/14 16:31 Journal 20: Cost of Living
_ MITS1114 1996/11/14 16:07 MITs, Nov. 14

I [right arrow] Selection options: V: View A: Append
EXHIBIT 2

MUSIC/SP Confercing Facility.

Subject: Macroeconomic Issues

S Topic Last Changed Description

 MADEIT 1997/01/15 23:01 I made it through my first
 quiz.
 GENERAL 1997/02/16 12:24 Open Discussion of News or
 Anything Else
 PARTNER 1997/01/27 13:39 Need a study partner? Say
 so here, and find one.
 ANNOUNCE 1997/02/26 15:15 General Course Announcements
 HOMEWORK 1997/02/26 15:49 Questions and their Answers
 about the Homework
 HERITAGE 1997/01/31 09:54 New Liberty Ch 1: The
 Libertarian Heritage
 PROPERTY 1997/03/14 11:36 New Liberty Ch 2: Property
 and Exchange
 STATE 1997/03/16 18:13 New Liberty Ch 3: The State
 GREENSPN 1997/03/05 10:22 Alan Greenspan's Humphrey
 Hawkins Testimony

I [right arrow] Selection options: V: View A: Append
APPENDIX 1: Selected Economics Related Web Sites

 Economics Resouces

 1. CCER National Budget http://garnet.berkeley.edu:
 Simulation 3333/budget/budget.html
 2. The Concord Coalition http://www.concordcoalition.org/
 3. ECONlinks http://www.ncat.edu/~
 simkinss/econlinks.html
 4. Economics Departments http://www.albany.edu/
 with PhD Progra econ/eco_phds.html
 5. Economic Democracy http://garnet.berkeley.edu:3333/
 Information Networ
 6. Economic Resources http://www.lib.umich.edu/
 on the Internet libhome/rrs/classes/econ.html
 7. Economy at a Glance http://www.bls.gov/eag/eag.map.html
 8. History of Economic http://socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca/
 Thought Archive ~econ/ugcm/3113/
 9. Statistical Abstract http://www.census.gov/prod/www/
 of the United St statistical-abstract-us.html
10. The Ludwig von Mises http://www.mises.org/
 Institute
11. National Debt Clock http://www.brillig.com/debt.clock/
12. Sources for Economists http://www.rfe.org
 in Economics
13. WebEc-WWW Resources http://www.helsinki.fi/WebEc/

Federal Reserve Banks and
 Government Agencies

14. FRED database--Federal http://www.stls.frb.org/fred/
 Reserve Economic Data
15. Federal Reserve Bank http://www.ny.frb.org/
 of New York
16. FRBNY Fedpoints http://www.ny.frb.org/
 pihome/fedpoint/
17. Cleveland Federal http://www.clev.frb.org/
 Reserve Bank
18. Minneapolis Federal http://woodrow.mpls.
 Reserve Bank frb.fed.us/index.html
19. Federal Reserve Bank http://www.frbsf.org/index.html
 of San Francisco
20. BEA HomePage http://www.bea.doc.gov/
21. Economic Report of http://www.gpo.ucop.
 the President edu/catalog/erp00.hml
22. GPO Gate, Select http://www.gpo.ucop.
 Databases by Title edu/dbsearch.html
23. National Bureau of http://www.nber.org/index.html
 Economic Research
24. U.S. Census Bureau http://www.census.gov/
25. US Treasury: Bureaus http://www.treas.gov/bureaus.html
26. Welcome The White House http://www.whitehouse.
 News Media gov/WH/Welcome.html
27. Accuracy in Media http://www.aim.org
28. Marketplace Radio http://www.marketplace.org/
 Business News
29. Dismal Scientist http://www.dismal.com
30. Economics in the http://www.wwnorton.com/wsj/
 News (WSJ & W.W. Norton)
31. Forbes ASAP http://www.forbes.com/asap/
32. NPR Online http://www.npr.org/
33. Policy.com http://www.policy.com
34. Slate Online Magazine http://www.slate.com
35. The Economist http://www.economist.com
36. The New York Times http://nytimes.com/
37. The Wall Street http://interactive.wsj.com/home.html
 Journal Interactive
38. The Washington Post http://www.washingtonpost.com
 Teaching Economics
39. David Gillette's http://www.2.truman.edu/~gillette/
 Homepage
40. International http://dylee.keel.econ.
 Economics Online ship.edu/intntl/ecn321/321syl.html
41. Fundamentals of http://www.eus.wsu.edu/ddp/courses/
 Macroeconomics guides/econ102x/intro.html
42. Ken Rea's Home Page http://www.chass.
 utoronto.ca/~reak/home.html
43. oo_Micro! http://medusa.be.
 udel.edu/oo_Micro%21.html
44. Pearson Distributed http://www.pearsoned.com/
 Learning dl/home.html
45. Richard Stratton Course http://www.uakron.
 Home Page 3250:201 edu/econ/e201/e201rws.html
 Macroeconomic
46. Principles of http://www.missouri.
 Microeconomics edu/~econsr/lecture2a_econ4.pdf
47. Scott Simkins-Economics- http://www.ncat.edu/
 NC A & T State Univ ~simkinss/econlinks.html
48. Thomas Cook's Page http://www.sccd.ctc.
 for Econ Students edu:80/~thomcook/
49. Tom Fox Introductory http://econ.la.psu.
 Macroeconomics, edu/~tfox/econ4/
 Penn State
50. Students' Class Project http://wuecorib.wustl.
 edu/e104/econ104sp97/students97.html
51. The World Lecture Hall http://www.utexas.
 edu/world/lecture/index.html
52. Dr. Vanessa L. Davis-- http://www.truman.edu/
 Home Page academics/ss/faculty/
 davisv/index.html
53. Dr. Laura Tamakoshi http://www.truman.edu/
 Anthropology Fieldstudy academics/ss/faculty/
 tamakoshil/index.html
APPENDIX 2

Selected Database Served by First Search http://jake.prod.oclc.org:3050/

Database Label Database Name or Description

ACRICOLA Agricultural subjects; provided by
 National Agriculture Library
AIDS/Cancer Cancer and AIDS research gathered form
 worldwide scientific literatures.
AppSciTechAb Applied Science and Technology
 Abstracts
ArtAbstracts Art Abstracts-Index to art publications
Article 1st Article First-Citations from tables of
 contents of 13,000 periodicals.
A&H Search Arts and Humanities Search-A citation
 index
BasicBIOSIS Recent developments in the areas of
 biological and biomedical sciences
BiographyInd Biography Index-Indexes books and
 periodicals for articles about people
BiolAgrIndez Biological and Agricultural Index
BioDigest Biology Digest-Abstracts of articles in
 over 300 journals
BookRevDigst Book Review Digest-indexes book reviews
 in nearly 100 periodicals
BooksInPrint Information on US books currently in
 print
CINAHL Current Index to Nursing and Allied
 Health literature
ConsumerIndx Subject index to contents of over 100
 periodicals for consumers
Contents 1st Table of contents pages form more than
 13,000 periodicals
Disclosure Database of about 11,000 US companies
 filing with the SEC
Diss Dissertation Abstracts (includes mostly
 US and some foreign)
EconLit Citations with abstracts, to articles
 from more than 400 economics journals
EducationAbs Index to the leading 400 periodicals in
 education
Environment Environmental Sciences and Pollution
 Management database
ERIC The most complete listing of educational
 materials available since 1966
FactSearch Facts/statistics about current social,
 economic, and political issues
GEOBASE Citations covering worldwide literature
 on geography, geology, etc.
GeoRef Earth-science references from more than
 4,000 journals
GPO Catalog of the US Government Printing
 Office, 1976+
IndxLegalPer Index to Legal Periodicals and Books
INSPEC Index to published works in physics,
 engineering, electronics, computing,
 etc.
LibraryLit Index to articles and books in the
 library and information science fields
MDX Health Citations with abstracts of health
 articles for the general public
Medline Covers all areas of medicine, indexes
 over 3,500 journals
MicrocompAbs Focuses on personal computers in
 education, business, industry and the
 home
NetFirst Contains bibliographic citations
 describing Internet-accessible resources
NewsAbs Indexes and abstracts more than 25 US
 and regional newspapers
PAIS Decade Last 10 years of the Public Affairs
 Information Service database
PaperFirst Provides access to individual papers
 presented at conferences worldwide
PerAbs Indexing and abstracts for over 1,500
 popular and academic periodicals
Proceedings An index of conference publications
PRO CD Biz Contains about 15.4 million records of
 white page listings for businesses
PRO CD Home Contains about 80 million records of
 white page listings for residences
PsycFirst Most recent three years from the
 American Psychological Assn database
RILM Abs International bibliography of scholarly
 writings on music and related
 disciplines
SocioAbs Articles of relevance to undergrad
 socioloy/social science curriculum
WorldCat World's most comprehensive bibliography,
 with 34 million records
Worldscope Financial information on nearly 9,000
 of the world's largest companies
COPYRIGHT 2001 Omicron Delta Epsilon
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2001 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Author:Gillette, David H.
Publication:American Economist
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 22, 2001
Words:6932
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