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Exploring Frames and Slants in Coverage of IDPs From Swat In Leading Pakistani English Newspapers.

Byline: Shahid Hussain and Professor Syed Abdul Siraj

Abstract

The paper elaborates how three leading English newspapers of Pakistan, i.e. Daily Dawn, Daily The News and Daily The Nation treated the issue of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) from Swat. The content analysis of news stories on front and back pages and editorials of sample newspapers for a period of three months after the crisis started in Swat highlights the Frames and Slants used in coverage of the IDPs. The total number of news stories and editorials analyzed was 270, out of which there were 219 News Stories and 51 editorials. The News gave maximum coverage while Dawn gave the smallest space to the issue. The maximum number of stories were having slant "Unfavorable to Government'. The Frame used in the largest number of stories was "IDPs as Co-Citizens', the second "Taliban as Foe', third "War on Terror as an Issue', fourth "IDPs as Burden', fifth "War on Terror as Solution' and the Frame found in minimum number of stories was "Taliban as Friend'.

It is also important to note that coverage was more favorable towards IDPs, as the frame "IDPs as Co-Citizens' was used in a total of 117 stories.

Keywords: Newspaper, IDPs, Slants, Frames, Taliban

INTRODUCTION

After 9/11 Terrorist Attacks in the United States, President Bush told the world, "Every nation in every region now has a decision to make, either you are with us in the war on terror, or you are with the terrorists". Pakistan decided to side with US. It remains debatable, whether Pakistan's decision was wholly voluntary or it was made under duress. However, whatever were the reasons; Pakistan has emerged to become a central figure in the war against terrorism, which has so far taken lives of thousands of troops and innocent Citizens, and displaced millions of people from regions of their origins. In 2009, provincial government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa signed peace treaties with the local Taliban in Swat. According to the treaties, the government agreed to pull out Army from the area and Taliban also agreed to shut anti-state activities. However, complete ceasefire between the security forces and militants in the troubled areas remained only a dream.

Heading in the war on terror in May, 2009, Pakistan army started action against Taliban in the Swat valley of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. This war resulted in a largest humanitarian and displacement crisis, compelling more than a million people to flee the conflict zone while dozens of civilians were killed miserably (UNHCR official website).

Internally Displaced Persons

Unlike refugees, who have been deprived of the protection of their state of origin, Internally Displaced Persons remain legally under the protection of national authorities of their own country. The Internally Displaced Persons should, therefore, enjoy the same rights as the rest of the population. The Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement remind national authorities of their responsibility to ensure that the rights of IDPs are fulfilled (Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, available online).

"The internal displacement is usually the result of multiple factors. These include natural and human made disasters, ethnic or religious discrimination and armed conflicts etc. furthermore, the definitions of the concepts 'migration', 'refugee' and 'internally displaced persons (IDPs)' are loose and carelessly applied and are often used for same purposes" (Muggah, 2003, p. 6f).

The report generated by United Nations and published in Daily Dawn says that "Africa is witnessing the greatest volume of internal displacement with about 11.6 million IDPs in 21 countries, while South and South-East Asia met with the biggest increase in the population of IDPs from 3.5 million in 2008 to 4.3 million in 2009. It was also observed that the number of IDPs has jumped from 17 million in 1997 to more than 27 million in 2009. This report attributes the increase in the Internally Displaced Persons to long-running conflicts within the countries." (Daily Dawn, May 18, 2010). Some Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement have been formulated by the international community to preserve the rights of the Internally Displaced Persons. However, these are only the guidelines and not legal bindings (Newland, 2003: p.121).

Some of the major problems, which the Internally Displaced Persons face during their exodus are Social Status, Work and Education, Legal and Political Rights, Food, Shelter and Livelihood and Land and Property etc. (Newland, 2003).

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This study has been designed to achieve the following objectives:

1. To explore the types of frames used to highlight the issue of the Internally Displaced Persons from Swat.

2. To explore the kind of slants used in favour and against the government's policy to handle the situation of Internally Displaced Persons from Swat.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Gartner (1988) argues that "the government officials and politicians usually pressurize the media to influence the news content or to mediate the media message".

"More specifically, speeches, press briefing and press conferences by the government officials are means used by the government of any country to manage the media." (Dorman and Farhang, 1987; Yu and Riffe, 1988; and Mann, 1999).

Gans (1979) detected ethnocentrism, individualism, social order, and national leadership as values influencing decision for selecting news in the media. Similarly, Shoemaker and Reese (1991) say that "the reporter's framework, personal attitudes and orientations influence news construction." Reese and Lewis (2009) in their article "Framing the War on Terror: The Internalization of Policy in US Press" has examined that how the Bush administration's framing of war has been internalized by the media of the United States.

While talking about the Internally Displaced Persons, the literature review shows that very little research work has been carried out on different aspects of the Internally Displaced Persons especially on the media treatment of the IDPs. However, some of the studies carried out on the various aspects of the Internally Displaced Persons are discussed in following paragraphs. The Internally Displaced Persons usually settle spontaneously, however, a big number face problems in finding a suitable solution and, therefore, they have to live in camps, which are generally managed or administered by governments concerned and Non-Governmental Organizations. The literature published on the conflicts that resulted in the displacement of people is not as conceptually rich or theoretically exact. One of the major reasons of it is that the humanitarian community concentrates more on the aid delivery and implementation than on portrayal of different aspects and research.

"When there is a growing literature on Internally Displaced Persons, at the same time, there is little theoretical work on the settlement of the displaced persons" (Muggah, 2003).

Framing Theory

Framing theory originally presented by Erving Goffman in 1974 explains that people always require the system of primary framework to perceive and recognize the infinite number of happenings. These Frames help the people classify, simplify and filter the information reaching them in an easy way (Goffman, 1974).

According to Entman (1991), "journalists select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more prominent in media content, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation and moral evaluation". Entman (1991) further elaborates the phenomenon of Framing as "the process of Framing occurs when media persons prioritize some aspects of a reality in their texture as against others for whatever reasons by using some keywords, phrases, concepts and sentences that provide thematically reinforcing clusters of facts or judgments."

Norris elaborates the process of framing by saying that "the journalists consciously or unconsciously use news frames to simplify, prioritize and structure the news discourse", (Norris, 1995). According to Wikipedia, "a Frame defines the packaging of an element of rhetoric in such a way as to encourage certain interpretations and to discourage some other aspects".

Similarly Gitlin (1980) explains the Framing as "Media Frames are persistent patterns of cognition, interpretation, and presentation of selection, emphasis and exclusion, by which symbol handler routinely organizes discourse, whether verbal or visual. Framing also enables the journalists to process large amounts of information quickly and routinely to recognize it as information for efficient relay to their audiences." (Gitlin, 1980, p.7)

According to Scheufele (1999) "the Frame Analysis is neither a full-fledged theoretical paradigm, nor a coherent methodological approach, rather, the Frame analyses are a number of related, even sometimes partially incompatible methods for the analysis of discourse". Scheufele (2000) says that Agenda Setting tells the audience 'what to think about' while the Framing emphasis 'how to think about' an issue. However, the work on the framing done by Goffman in the year 1974 unifies all these analyses. The review of the literature, theoretical framework and initial assessment of the newspapers of the study led to the development of following Research Questions and Hypotheses.

Research Questions

Following Research Questions were formulated for the study:

* What were the differences among various newspapers in terms of policy in the coverage and treatment of the issue of IDPs?

* What were the Slants given by newspapers in coverage of IDPs?

* What were the Frames used by newspapers in coverage of IDPs?

Hypotheses

The following are the Hypotheses of the study:

* Dawn will give more 'Unfavorable' slant than The Nation and The News.

* The News will frame 'IDPs as Co-Citizens' more than The Nation and Dawn.

* The Nation will frame 'War on Terror as Problem' more than The News and Dawn.

* Dawn will frame 'Taliban as Foe' more than The News and The Nation.

METHODOLOGY

The study is based on the Content Analysis of three leading English newspapers of Pakistan i.e. Daily Dawn Islamabad, Daily The News Rawalpindi and Daily The Nation Islamabad for a period of three months (w.e.f. May 1, 2009 to July 31, 2009). All the hardcopies of sample newspapers for study period were collected and arranged in chronological order. All the editorials and news stories along with pictures published about the Internally Displaced Persons from Swat on front and back pages were collected, coded and analyzed. The reason for selection of time period is that the issue of Internally Displaced Persons from Swat remained dominant in Pakistani press during this time period (i.e. May 1, 2009 to July 31, 2009) after the start of the fight between militants in Swat and Security Forces of Pakistan in the first week of May, 2009. During this period, as per reports of the United Nations, more than a million people of Swat were uprooted.

The IDPs rushed to safer regions like Mardan, Charsadda, Swabi, Nowshera and Peshawar, where they were exposed to awful experience of displacement, which severely affected their physical, socio-economic and legal safety and left them in a confused, fearful, dependent and helpless situation.

The data was collected from the newspapers with the help of 'Code Sheet'. After data collection, the data was computerized using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS-16) and then it was analyzed to generate the results by using appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics.

Sample Newspapers

The reason for selection of sample newspapers is that these are the widely circulated English newspapers in Pakistan, covering almost all important issues. Another reason for the selection of these three newspapers is that these newspapers are usually considered as National Agenda Setters. These newspapers enjoy a great prestige not only among the general readers but also among the elites including the policy makers.

Slant

Slant has very important standings in research studies involving Content Analysis because it reveals that how an issue has been treated in media. In this study, the Slant refers to writer's attitude in story towards government's handling of the situation of IDPs. Slant was categorized into 'favorable to the government', 'unfavorable to the government' and 'neutral'. The definitions and explanations of three categories of Slant are provided below:

Favourable

Slant for a story was coded as 'favourable', when the story was emphasising on good governance and good handling of Internally Displaced People and crisis by government of Pakistan.

Un-favourable

When the story was criticising the government or its institutions for its bad governance and mismanagement, the story was coded as 'unfavourable'.

Neutral

The story with no clear emphasis on either favourable to the government or unfavourable to government aspects was coded as 'Neutral'. If a story was found with an equal number of favourable and unfavourable paragraphs, then the story was also coded as 'Neutral'.

Frames

Frame is the parameter within which a journalist outlines a story. In this study, three Frames have been identified and each Frame is having two values. Frames have been recognized from the contextual point of view in the whole news item. The detail of the Frames of the study is as under:

a. Frame A has following two values:

1. IDPs as Burden

This Frame exposes the IDPs as a burden on the national economy and they are identified as responsible for all the financial and economic problems in the country.

2. IDPs as Co-Citizens

This Frame places emphasis on IDPs as Co-Citizens and promotes the theme of brotherhood among the nation. This frame treats IDPs equal to other citizens of country in respect to their basic human rights without any discrimination.

b. Frame B has following two values:

1. War on Terrorism as an Issue

This Frame exposes the War on Terrorism as a problem and main threat to our national sovereignty and territorial integrity. This frame considers War on Terror as responsible for unleashing a wave of terror in the society, loss of men and material. Furthermore, this frame also emphasises on War on Terror as responsible for all national ills and problems in the country.

2. War on Terrorism as Solution

This Frame calls the War on Terrorism as a solution to all the ills and problems within the country. The War on Terrorism is called as a patriotic motion and movement and it is hoped that this war will solve the problems and sufferings of the people and will bring good law and order situation and equality in the society.

c. Frame C has following two values:

1. Taliban as Foe

This Frame exposes Taliban and the phenomenon of Talibanization as the main threat to our national sovereignty and territorial integrity. The role of Taliban in challenging the writ of the state government and unleashing a wave of terror in society is highlighted through the use of this frame. The stories about ignorance of societal values by Taliban and making Taliban responsible about all the national ills and problems in the country also come under this umbrella.

2. Taliban as Friend

This Frame depicts the Pakistani Taliban as patriotic people and emphasises on the phenomenon of Talibanization as a normal ideology that would solve the problems and sufferings of the people. Furthermore, their achievements would be highlighted through the use of this frame.

RESULTS

This research study looks at the differences in the framing of the Internally Displaced Persons from Swat in the most prestigious English language newspapers of Pakistan, i.e. Daily Dawn, Daily The News, and Daily The Nation. The data was analyzed using SPSS, which generated the results as discussed in detail in the following paragraphs.

Sample of the Study

The total number of stories and editorials analyzed in the study is 270, which constitutes the whole sample of the study. A total of 84 stories were published in Dawn, which comprises 31.1% of the total population. The News published a total of 101 stories, which comprises 37.4% of total population of study. Similarly The Nation gave space to 85 stories, which is 31.5% of total population of study. In this way, we can observe that The News published the largest number of stories while Dawn published the smallest number of stories. A total of 219 News Stories appeared in sample newspapers which is 81.1% of total sample stories, while 51 Editorials appeared, which comprises 18.9% of the total sample stories published in three newspapers during the study period.

Coverage in Newspapers by Type of Stories, Source, Placement and Pictures

To answer the question that what was the comparative treatment of sample newspapers with the coverage of Internally Displaced Persons with respect to Type of Story, Source of Story, Placement of Story and Pictures with the story, we may refer to the Table 1 below, which gives a clear picture about the above-mentioned categories with respect to newspapers.

Coverage in Newspapers by Type of Stories

As seen in the Table 1, Daily Dawn published 66 News Stories, Daily The News published 81 News Stories and Daily The Nation published total 72 News Stories. So, in this way The News published the largest number of News Stories.

Similarly, when we talk about Editorials published by newspapers, we see that again The News published the largest number of Editorials i.e 20 in number. So, The News overall gave space to the maximum number of News Stories and Editorials by publishing a total of 101 stories.

Table 1: Coverage in newspapers by type of stories, source, placement and pictures

Variable###Categories###Newspaper ID###Total

###Dawn###News###Nation

Type of###News Story###66 (78.6)###81 (80.2)###72 (84.7)###219 (81.1)

Story

###Editorial###18 (21.4)###20 (19.8)###13 (15.3)###51 (18.9)

Source###Official###27 (32.1)###31 (30.7)###23 (27.1)###81 (30.0)

###Unofficial###57 (67.9)###63 (62.4)###59 (69.4)###179 (66.3)

###Others###0 (0.0)###7 (6.9)###3 (3.5)###10 (3.7)

Placement###Leading News on Front###11 (13.1)###3 (3.0)###6 (7.1)###20 (7.4)

###Page

###Front Page Upper###25 (29.8)###23 (22.8)###17 (20.0)###65 (24.1)

###Front Page Lower###11 (13.1)###12 (11.9)###14 (16.5)###37 (13.7)

###Back Page Upper###16 (17.9)###30 (29.7)###21 (25.9)###67 (24.8)

###Back Page Lower###3 (3.6)###13 (12.9)###14 (15.2)###30 (11.1)

###Editorial###18 (21.4)###20 (19.8)###13 (15.3)###51 (18.9)

Picture###Yes###17 (20.2)###18 (17.8)###19 (22.4)###54 (20.0)

###No###67 (79.8)###83 (82.2)###66 (77.6)###216 (80.0)

Coverage in Newspapers by Source of Stories

About the 'Sources of Stories' published in sample newspapers, Table 1 tells us that Dawn published 27 news items from official sources while The News published 31 and The Nation published 23 news items originated from official sources. So, in this way the largest number of news items originated from 'official sources' was published by The News, while Dawn published the second largest and The Nation has given space to least number of stories originated from 'official sources'. When we talk about news items published by 'Unofficial' sources, we see that Dawn published 57 news stories from 'Unofficial' sources, The News published 63 stories while The Nation published 59 such news stories that were initiated from 'Unofficial' sources.

Coverage in Newspapers by Placement of Stories

Regarding the placement of news stories in sample newspapers, Table 1 shows that Dawn published 11 news items as 'Leading News on Front Page'. The News gave space to 03 news items and The Nation published 6 stories as 'Leading News on Front Page'. So, Dawn published the largest number of news items as 'Leading News on Front Page'. Similarly, Dawn published 25 news items on 'Front Page Upper. While The News published 23 stories and The Nation published least number of stories i.e. 17 on 'Front Page Upper'.

A total of 11 stories were published by Dawn on 'Front Page Lower', while The News published 12 news stories and The Nation published 14 news items on 'Front Page Lower'. Daily Dawn published 16 stories on 'Back Page Upper', The News published 30 while The Nation published 21 stories on 'Back Page Upper'. Similarly, Dawn published 03, The News published 13 and The Nation published 14 news items on 'Back Page Lower'. When we talk about the number of Editorials, we see that The News published the largest number of Editorials i.e. 20, while Dawn published 18 Editorial and The Nation has given the minimum space to Editorial about IDPs i.e. it published 13 editorials in its editorial page.

Coverage in Newspapers by Pictures with the Stories

A total of 54 news items were carrying pictures with them, while rest of news items were published without pictures. When we make a detailed look on the appearance of the pictures in three newspapers along with the news items, we see that Dawn published 17 stories with pictures while 67 stories without any picture. The News published 18 news items with pictures and 83 without pictures. Similarly The Nation published 19 stories with pictures while 66 news items without any picture. So, in this way we see that the difference between the three newspapers in publishing news stories with pictures is very minor.

With respect to 1st research question a indicated in Table 1, Dawn published 66 new stories and 18 editorials, The News published 81 news stories and 20 editorials and The Nation gave space to 72 news stories and 13 editorials. Similarly, Dawn published 11, The News published 03 and The Nation published 06 stories as 'Leading News on Front Page'. While Dawn published 25 news items, The News published 23 stories and The Nation published 17 stories on their 'Front Page Upper'. Furthermore, Dawn published 11, The News published 12 and The Nation published 14 news items on 'Front Page Lower'. Furthermore, Dawn published 16 stories, The News published 30 and The Nation published 21 stories on 'Back Page Upper'. Dawn published 3, The News published 13 and The Nation published 12 stories on 'Back Page Lower'.

Similarly, Table 1 elaborates that The News published the largest number of Editorials i.e. 20, while Dawn published 18 Editorials and The Nation has given minimum space to Editorial i.e. 13.

Dawn published 17 stories with pictures, The News published 18 news items with pictures and The Nation published 19 stories with pictures.

Coverage in Newspapers by Slant of Story

The Table 2 gives the detailed information about the Slant of Stories published in sample newspapers. Dawn published a total of 27 news items with slant 'Favorable to the Government', while The News and The Nation published 27 and 22 news items respectively carrying the slant 'Favorable to the Government'.

Table 2: Coverage in the newspapers by Slants

Variable###Categories###Newspaper ID###Chi-Square

###Dawn###News###Nation

Slant###Favorable###27 (32.1)###27 (26.7)###22 (25.9)###4.143; p=.387

###Unfavorable###37 (44.0)###37 (36.6)###38 (44.7)

###Neutral###20 (23.8)###37 (36.6)###25 (29.4)

On the other hand, a total of 37 news stories were published by Dawn with slant 'Unfavorable to the Government' and at the same time The News also published 37 stories with slant 'Unfavorable to the Government' while The Nation published 38 news stories with slant 'Unfavorable to the Government'. Similarly, a total of 20 news items were published by Dawn with 'Neutral' slant, while at the same time The News published 37 stories and The Nation published 25 news items with the slant 'Neutral'.

Concluding, we can say that Dawn and The News used slant 'Favorable to the Government' in equal number of stories i.e. 27 while The Nation used the same slant in less number of stories i.e. 22. Contrary to this, The Nation used the slant 'Unfavorable to the Government' in greater number of stories i.e. 38 while Dawn and The News again used the 'Unfavorable' slant in equal number of stories i.e. 37. The News published largest number of stories with 'Neutral' slant while The Nation stood second and Dawn published the minimum number of stories with 'Neutral' slant.

In case of research question 2, the table 2 indicates that Dawn published 27 news items with slant 'Favorable to the Government'. The News published 27 while The Nation published 22 news items about IDPs with slant 'Favorable to the Government'. Similarly, Daily Dawn published a total of 37 stories with slant 'Unfavorable to the Government' and Daily The News also published 37 stories with slant 'Unfavorable to the Government' while Daily The Nation published 38 stories with slant 'Unfavorable to the Government'. A total of 20 stories were published by Dawn with 'Neutral' slant, while The News published 37 stories with 'Neutral' slant and The Nation published 25 stories with 'Neutral' slant. Results in the table 2 indicated that there is no significant difference in Slants given by three newspapers to the coverage of the IDPs. (Chi-Square = 4.143, p = 0.387) so, the Hypothesis 1 is not supported.

Coverage in Newspapers by Frames

Three Frames, each having two categories were identified in the study and the treatment of the sample newspapers with the coverage of the Internally Displaced Persons from Swat by applying different frames is apparent in Table 3. As shown in the Table 3, Dawn applied frame 'IDPs as Burden' in 03 stories, while The News and The Nation applied the same frame in 05 and 03 stories respectively. Thus The News used the first category of Frame A in largest number of stories while Dawn and The Nation used this frame in equal number of stories. The second category of Frame A i.e. 'IDPs as Co-Citizens' was applied in 32 stories by Dawn, in 50 stories by The News and The Nation used this frame in 35 stories. So, The News used this category of Frame A in largest number of stories while Dawn used the frame in minimum number of stories.

The treatment of the sample newspapers with the news items in applying Frame B can also be seen in Table 3, which shows that Dawn used first category of Frame B i.e. 'War on Terror as Problem' in 11 news items, The News used in 22 stories while The Nation used the same frame in 28 news stories. Thus The News used the said frame in largest number of stories while the Dawn used it in minimum number of stores. Similarly, about second category of Frame B i.e. 'War on Terror as Solution', it can be seen that only Dawn used this frame in 02 publications while The News and The Nation did not use the frame in any story.

Table 3: Coverage in the newspapers by Frames

Variable###Categories###Newspaper ID###Chi-Square

###Dawn###News###Nation

Frame A###IDPs as Burden###3 (8.6)###5 (9.1)###3 (7.9)###0.041; p=.980

###IDPs as Co-Citizens###32 (91.4)###50 (90.9)###35 (92.1)

Frame B###War on Terror as Problem###11 (84.6)###22 (100)###28 (100)###7.945; p=.019

###War on Terror as Solution###2 (15.4)###0 (0.0)###0 (0.0)

Frame C###Taliban as Foe###24 (100)###20 (95.2)###18 (100)###2.032; p=.362

###Taliban as Friend###0 (0.0)###1 (4.8)###0 (0.0)

The application of Frame C can also be observed in Table 3, which shows that the category of Frame C 'Taliban as Foe' was applied in 24 stories by Dawn, while The News and The Nation applied this category of Frame C in 20 and 18 stories respectively. Regarding second category of Frame C 'Tabliban as Friend', the Table 3 tells us that it was only used by The News in 01 news item while Dawn and The Nation did not apply this frame in any of the news item.

In response to research question 3 the Table 3 explained the details about the Frames used by newspapers to portray the issue of IDPs. We can observe that Dawn used frame 'IDPs as Burden' in 03 stories, while The News and The Nation applied this frame in 05 and 03 stories respectively. The second category of Frame A i.e. 'IDPs as Co-Citizens' was applied in 32 stories by Dawn, in 50 stories by The News and The Nation used this frame in 35 stories. Similarly, about Frame B, Table 3 shows that Dawn used first category of Frame B i.e. 'War on Terror as Problem' in 11 news items, The News in 22 stories and The Nation in 28 stories. While talking about second category of Frame B i.e. 'War on Terror as Solution', it can be seen that only Dawn used this frame in 02 publications while The News and The Nation did not use the frame in any story.

When we observe the application of Frame C, it is evident that the frame 'Taliban as Foe' was applied in 24 stories by Dawn, while The News and The Nation applied this category of Frame C in 20 and 18 stories respectively. Similarly, the frame 'Tabliban as Friend' was used by The News in 01 news item while Dawn and The Nation did not apply this frame in any of the news items.

Results in the table 3 indicated that there is no significant difference in applying two categories of Frame A by sample newspapers. (Chi-Square = 0.041, p = 0.980). Similarly Table 3, also indicated that The Nation framed 'War on Terror as Problem' more (28) than The News (22) and Dawn (11). (Chi-Square = 7.945, p = 0.019) and there is no significant difference in applying the two categories of Frame C by the three newspapers. (Chi-Square = 2.032, p = 0.362) so, the Hypothesis 2, 3 and 4 are not supported.

DISCUSSION

The content analysis of stories on Front and Back pages and editorials of the sample newspapers regarding the Internally Displaced Persons for a period of three months w.e.f. May 1, 2009 to July 31, 2009 has explored many interesting results and facts about the slants and frames used by the newspapers.

The total number of stories and editorials analyzed in the study was 270, out of which, 219 were News Stories while 51 Editorials were published in three newspapers. A total of 84(31.1) stories were published by daily Dawn. The News published a total of 101(37.4) stories, while The Nation published 85 (31.5) stories. In this way, we can observe that The News gave the largest coverage to the issue while Dawn published the smallest number of stories. Similarly, The News published the largest number of Editorials i.e 20, Dawn published 18 Editorials while The Nation published total 13 editorials. So, The News overall gave space to the maximum number of News Stories and Editorials by publishing a total of 101 stories. A total of 81(30.0)Stories were published through 'Official' sources while a total of 179(66.3) stories were generated through 'Un-Official' sources. However, only 10(3.7) stories appeared through 'Others' category of the source.

So, the largest number of stories were published through 'Un-Official' sources.

The maximum stories appeared on 'Back Page Upper' portion of newspapers, then on 'Front Page Upper', third largest number of stories appeared in shape of 'Editorials'. Fourth largest number of stories were published on 'Front Page Lower', fifth on 'Back Page Lower', while minimum number of news items got place as 'Leading News on Front Page'. This shows that much importance was given to the issue of Internally Displaced Persons from Swat. Similarly, majority of the stories were not supported or supplemented with pictures.

About the Slant used in the coverage, we see that Dawn and The News used slant 'Favorable to the Government' in equal number of stories i.e. 27 while The Nation used the same slant in less number of stories i.e. 22. Contrary to this, The Nation used the slant 'Unfavorable to the Government' in greater number of stories i.e. 38 while Dawn and The News again used the 'Unfavorable to Government' slant in equal number of stories i.e. 37. The News published largest number of stories with 'Neutral' slant, then comes the turn of The Nation while Dawn published minimum number of stories with 'Neutral' slant.

The Frame 'IDPs as Burden' was used in 11 news stories and Frame 'IDPs as Co-Citizens' was found in 117 news items. Similarly, 61 news items were published with Frame 'War on Terror as Problem' and only 02 news items were found with Frame 'War on Terror as Solution'. The situation with Frame C is also similar, as a total of 62 news stories were found to be incorporating the Frame 'Taliban as Foe' while only 01 news item appeared with Frame 'Taliban as Friend'. So, the Frame used in the largest number of stories was 'IDPs as Co-Citizens', the second is 'Taliban as Foe', third is 'War on Terror as Problem', fourth is 'IDPs as Burden', fifth is 'War on Terror as Solution' and the Frame which was found in minimum number of stories is 'Taliban as Friend' with only one news story.

Going into the detail, we see that Dawn applied frame 'IDPs as Burden' in 03 stories, while The News and The Nation applied the same frame in 05 and 03 news items respectively. Thus The News used the first category of Frame A in the largest number of stories. The second category of Frame A i.e. 'IDPs as Co-Citizens' was applied in 32 stories by Dawn, in 50 stories by The News while The Nation used this frame in 35 stories.

The treatment of newspapers with the Frame B is as follows. Dawn used first category of Frame B i.e. 'War on Terror as Problem' in 11 news items, The News used in 22 stories while The Nation used the same frame in 28 news stories. Thus The Nation used the said frame in the largest number of stories. Similarly, only Dawn used the second category of the Frame B i.e. 'War on Terror as Solution' in 02 stories while The News International and The Nation did not apply this frame in any news item. Similarly, the category of Frame C 'Taliban as Foe' was applied in 24 stories by Dawn, while The News and The Nation sued this frame in 20 and 18 stories respectively. While The News used the second category of Frame C 'Taliban as Friend' in only one news item while Dawn and The Nation did not apply this frame in any news item. So, the study shows that the newspapers applied various Frames and Slants in the coverage of the IDPs from Swat in line with Framing Theory.

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Title Annotation:Internally Displaced Persons
Author:Hussain, Shahid; Siraj, Syed Abdul
Publication:Journal of Gender and Social Issues
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Jun 30, 2016
Words:6976
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