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Exploring Dimensions of Deviant Behaviour in Adolescent Boys.

Byline: Shahnila Mushtaq and Rukhsana Kausar

The present study explored the dimensions of deviant behaviour in adolescent boys through an indigenous developed deviant behaviour scale, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual's (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) classification of behavioural problems. The data was collected from 612 adolescents of grade 9th to 12th, of age range 13-19 years (M= 16, SD= 1.40) from different government schools and colleges in Lahore. The list of the schools and colleges was taken from District Education Officer (DEO) of city Lahore, Pakistan. A Self constructed Deviant Behaviour Scale (Mushtaq and Kausar, 2012) comprising 76 items was used. Data was analyzed by using Principal component analysis and reliability analysis to examine the psychometric properties of the scale.

The analysis identified three factors of deviant behaviour scale ([alpha]=.87) naming conduct disorder (CD; [alpha]=.96), intermittent explosive disorder (IED; [alpha]=.95) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD; [alpha]=.93). The results were compared and discussed in accordance to the Pakistani culture and adolescents behavioural patterns.

Keywords: Deviant behaviour, conduct disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, opposition defiant disorder, adolescents

Deviance is an umbrella term which includes abnormal, unexpected, unusual, non-standard or out of the ordinary behavior (Vadera, Pratt, and Mishra, 2013). It also refers to behavior that separates considerably from norms set for people in social statuses in their respective societies, which violates institutionalized, legitimate, shared, and recognized expectation within a social system (Clinard and Meier, 2011, 2015; Hagan, 2010; Steffgen, 2009). Some of the behaviours are considered unhealthy, or at least socially prohibited, such as reckless driving, smoking, excessive drinking, drug abuse, disobeying rules and regulations and even cheating on assignment (Rodgers and Bard, 2003).

There are multiple causes of deviant behaviour in boys as compared to girls, supported by the research too, including biological (Loke, and Mak, 2013; Luthar and Barkin, 2012; Paus, 2005), sociological (Berns, 2012; Carter, 2010; Evans, and Kim, 2013; Heinzen, Koehler, Smeets, Hoffer, and Huchzermeier, 2011; Parke and Buriel, 2008; Rocheleau and Chavez, 2015) and psychological such as personality (Benning et al., 2003), psychopathology (Cooke, Michie, Hart, and Clark, 2004; Williams et al., 2009) etc. (Antonaccio and Tittle, 2007; Brown, Kasser, Ryan, Linley, and Orzech, 2009; Cherry, 2010; Crossman, 2013; Racz, McMahon, and Luthar, 2011; Simons et al., 2007; Smallbone, 2006).

Demographic variables, such as education of the parents (Battin-Pearson, et al., 2000), monthly income of the parents (Brody et al., 2001), number of friends (Adray, 2008; Brody et al., 2001), deviant peers (Claes, 2005; Hobbs, 2006), substance use (Belendiuk, Molina and Donovan, 2010) and family, such as parenting (Chung and Steinberg, 2006), bonding (Claes, 2005) etc. (Loeber, 1990; Molina, Donovan, and Belendiuk, 2010; Prinstein, Boergers, and Spirito, 2001) can also be considered as causes of deviant behaviours. Deviance is more evident in adolescence because it is a transitional stage of bodily and intellectual human development generally occurring between 10 to 20 years (Kieling et al., 2011; WHO, 2011) or puberty and legal adulthood but largely characterized as beginning and ending with the teenage phase. Puberty has been heavily associated with teenagers and the onset of adolescent growth (Choudhury, Blakemore, and Charman, 2006).

Focusing on the transition in the adolescents' behaviour, Cervone and Pervin (2015) discussed multiple theories of deviant behavior such as psychodynamic theory which emphasizes the early childhood experiences and unmet desire (Freud, 1959), social development theory about developmental stages (Erikson, 1956), social learning theory about role modeling learned through imitation from society (Bandura, 1977), cognitive and moral development theory based on formation of schema and thinking patterns about right and wrong, good and bad (Gilligan, 1982; Kohlberg, 1984; Piaget, 1983), strain theories about the social stressors (Cohen, 1955; Merton, 1938; Messnerand Rosenfeld, 1994), theory of differential association which guides to make different types of associations and ability to differentiate between them.

Labeling theory on self-fulfilling prophecy (Tannenbaum and Becker, 1963), and problem behaviour theory dealing with the behaviour which disturbs the functioning of the society (Cervone and Pervin, 2015; Smetana, and Villalobos, 2009). There are pre-existing scales to study deviant behavior but they are very old and they focus less on the delinquent and criminal behaviour (Elliott, Huizinga, and Ageton, 1985; Nye, Short, and Olson, 1958). Deviance in Pakistani adolescents is increasing day by day, specifically boys have been reported to be more prone to antisocial behaviors than girls (McEvoy, and Welker, 2000; Moffitt, and Caspi, 2001). Therefore a scale was required to identify and measure such behaviour in Pakistani context.

Objective

Keeping in view above mentioned theories and their connection with the deviant behaviour, this study was planned to develop an indigenous scale to assess deviant behaviour in adolescents in Pakistani society.

Method

Sample

Cross sectional strategy was adopted to collect data on deviant behaviour scale from (N=612) male adolescents only. The age range was from 13 to 19 years (M=16, SD=1.4) and were between 9th to 12th class. Stratified random sampling technique was used to collect data. The list of schools and colleges was taken from the District Education Officer (DEO) secretariat and from each administrative division of Lahore; at least two schools and colleges were selected from each division. Furthermore, from each school and college, almost 40 students were drawn for participation, who were included in the above given age range and grade in the research.

Table 1 Demographic Characteristics of Adolescent Boys (N=612)

Variable###f###%###M###SD

Age(Years)###16.17###1.4

Birth order

###First born###167###27.3

###Middle born###235###38.4

###Last born###190###31.0

###Only child###20###3.3

Class

###9th###78###12.7

###10th###255###41.7

###11th###102###16.7

###12th###177###28.9

Subject of Study

###Arts/ Commerce###104###16.9

###Computer science###28###4.6

###Science###480###78.4

Residence Status

###City###516###84.3

###Village###96###15.7

Is your father alive

###Yes###564###92.2

###No###48###7.80

Fathers education(Years)###14.50###2.25

Father's monthly income(PKR)###30414.22###39932.61

Father works in

###Out of city###60###9.80

###Out of country###22###3.60

###Same city###482###78.80

Mother alive

###Yes###584###95.40

###No###28###4.60

Mothers education

(Years)###8.50###5.43

Working status of mother

###Working###39###6.37

###House wife###573###93.63

Mothers monthly income###19806.45###11522.21

Parents live together

###Yes###547###89.4

###No###65###10.6

Family system

###Nuclear###238###38.9

###Joint###374###61.1

Number of participants###50###8.2

work part-time

Participants have friends

###Yes###572###93.5

###No###40###6.5

Number of friends

###1-5###225###36.76

###6-10###127###20.75

###11-15###59###9.64

###16-20###10###1.63

###21 and more###21###3.43

###No reply###170###27.78

Number of hours per day

spent with friends

###1-3###311###50.82

###4-6###115###18.79

###7-9###40###6.54

###10 and more###12###1.96

###No reply###134###21.90

Categories of activities with friends

###Sports/Game###181###29.6

###Movie/Fun###132###21.6

###Discussion###110###18.0

###Study###67###10.9

###No Reply###122###19.9

Restriction of timing to

stay out of home

###Yes###220###35.9

###No###392###64.1

Measures

Demographic Information Sheet. It included the information about the participants such as age, education, family system, information about the family members, residence, type of educational institute, etc.

Deviant Behaviour Scale. The scale was developed by the researchers, based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) for behavioural problems, in three different domains in which the adolescent interact, that is, at home, at school and with friends. The standardized steps to develop a scale were followed. Items were generated from the diagnostic criteria of DSM-5 (2013) behavioural problems, under the supervision of supervisor and two practicing clinical psychologists. After pilot study, proper review of the responses given by the participants in pilot study, the questionnaire was revised in the light of the suggestions made by the students and final version of the questionnaire was prepared. This final version was used for collect data and to prepare an indigenous research scale to measure deviant behavior in adolescents. The alpha reliability of the measure was reported as .87.

The questionnaire was bilingual, that is, in both English and Urdu language, for the convenience and understanding of the participants. All the steps given by MAPI were used to translate the statements of the questionnaire into Urdu. There were altogether 76 statements in the questionnaire. The response was required on scale ranging from 1= almost never; 2= sometimes; 3= often; 4= almost always. The participants took almost 10 minutes to complete the questionnaire.

Procedure

Ethical approval to conduct the study was taken from Advanced Studies and Research Board (ASRB), University of the Punjab, Lahore Pakistan. An authority letter was taken from the Institute, duly signed by the supervisor and Director of the Institute of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, to collect data from different public schools and colleges of Lahore. Written permission was taken from the principals of the schools and colleges on the permission letter and time was taken from them to collect the data on the questionnaire from the students. The principal of the respective school was asked to take written permission from the parents too. Only those students were included whose parents gave consent to participate. Written consent was taken from the participants and they were briefed about the purpose of the study. The participants were assured about the privacy and confidentiality of the information taken from them.

Overall, 620 male adolescents fulfilling the inclusion criteria were contacted and asked to fill the questionnaires. Eight of them returned incomplete questionnaires which were discarded. Hence the response rate was 99%. The participants approximately took 10 minutes to fill the questionnaire. At the end researcher thanked the participants on providing data.

Results

Data Screening

The data were screened for missing values, which were replaced by the mean value. The minimum number of data for factor analysis was satisfied, with a final sample size of 612, with the ratio of almost 8 cases per variable, which is considered as very good (Comrey and Lee, 2013; Hogarty, 2005; Mundfrom, Shaw, and Ke, 2005).

Exploratory Factor Analysis

In order to assess the underlying factor structure of the self-constructed scale, measuring deviant behaviour in adolescents, Principal component analysis and reliability analysis were conducted. The assumptions for Principal component analysis were assessed, that is, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy, the Bartlett's test of Sphericity for significance, the diagonals of the anti-image correlation matrix, the communalities of items and tapering of the scree plot. After fulfilling all the assumptions, principal component analysis was considered to be suitable with all 76 items to identify and compute composite scores for the factors underlying the deviant behaviour scale. Initially, the factorability of the 76 items was examined. Several well recognized criteria for the factorability of a correlation were used. First, it was observed that all 76 items correlated at least 0.3 with 49 items on more than one other item, suggesting reasonable factorability.

Second, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was .96, above the commonly recommended value of .6, is considered meritorious, and Bartlett's test of Sphericity was significant (I2 (36185.93) = 2850, p .70) suggesting that the items of the total scale and its three factors are measuring the same thing.

Table 4 Inter-correlation between Deviant Behaviour Scale and its Sub-Scales in Adolescents (N=612)

Factor###2###3###4

1. Deviant behavior###.96***###.92***###.89***

2. Conduct disorder###.84***###.77***

3. Intermittent explosive disorder###.72***

4. Opposition defiant disorder

The inter-correlation shows that all the subscales are highly correlated with each other.

Discussion

The deviant behaviour scale developed in current study identified the three main factors including conduct disorder (CD), intermittent explosive disorder (IED) and opposition defiant disorder (ODD). The three main factors fitted DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) criteria, which was given for the deviant behaviour and the behavioural problems in adolescents (Dishion, Nelson, and Bullock, 2004; McGue, and Iacono, 2005; Roza et al., 2003). Some age-atypical dysfunctions and aggression was found on high score in all the three domains of behavioural problems in adolescents (Loeber et al., 2000; Shaw, and Gross, 2008). The reliability of the scales show high internal consistency. Adolescents with behavioural problem show deviance in all the three domains, specified by DSM-5, that is, at home, in school and with friends. Showing aggression, physical fighting, disobedience to the authority are some of the common behavioural issues of conduct and opposition defiant problems.

The research during the past decade, on ODD and CD (Pardini, Frick, and Moffitt, 2010; Rowe et al., 2002) discussed the difficulty involved in recognizing the primary risk factors and developmental pathways to disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). The identification of the relationship between the most significant risk factors from multiple domains is making this issue more important. Research also provides evidence for the behavioural or deviant problem due to CD (Maughan et al., 2004) and ODD (Coid, 2003; Edwards et al., 2007; Farrington and Coid, 2003; Fergusson, Horwood, and Ridder, 2005; Hutchings, Lane, and Kelly, 2004; Rowe et al., 2002), which later develops into antisocial personality disorder in adolescents (Fergusson, Boden, and Horwood, 2010). These findings support the identified factors of deviant behaviour scale.

The scale can be administered on larger sample to develop its norms. It was only administered on boys, so it is suggested to be used on girls too. However, each of the factor could be strengthened through revision. This is an indigenous scale based on theory so this scale will be helpful for researchers to identify the deviant behaviour of adolescents in Pakistani context.

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