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Experimental investigation of diesel engine fuelled with calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester blends.


The non edible oils play a vital role, because air pollutions are comparatively much reduced. K.P McDonnell et al [1] reported that the usage of rapeseed oil in a diesel engine directly. O.M.I Nwafor [2] reported that vegetable oil fuel has good potential as a substitute for diesel fuel. The fuel consumption of heated and unheated oil operations at high loads was similar and higher than diesel fuel operation. The viscous properties of oil highly influence the spray characteristics of oil in diesel engine. J. Blin et al [3] reported that, the fossil fuels used in engines and vegetable oils chemical compounds have similar fuel properties; hence they can be used as alternate for diesel. The advantages of these oils are no sulfur content avoids the environmental issues caused by sulphuric acid, renewability and local availability, less amount of aromatic content and high biodegradability. The disadvantages are high viscosity and low cetane number, requires some modifications in the vegetable oils to better suit for diesel engines.

John Tsaknis et al [4] pointed that Pumpkin seed oil was degummed by 50g of oil were put in 100 mL capacity Pyrex test tubes and then were immersed in a water-bath adjusted at 90[degrees]C. Afterwards, 3% (w/w) water at 80[degrees]C and 3% (w/w) phosphoric acid were added under continuous stirring. The mixture was stirred for 10 min, cooled, centrifuged for 5 min at 3000 rpm, and decanted to obtain degummed oil. Purification did not change the fundamental physical and chemical characteristics of the oil. The changes happened are referred to a reduction in acidity, colour, and unsaponifiable matter, as a result of degumming, neutralization and bleaching.

Leon M. Payawan Jr et al [5] reported that Degumming removes the phospholipids and other water soluble impurities from jatropha crude oil. The hydrated phospholipids and other hydrophilic impurities were then separated from the oil through centrifugation. Y. V. Hanumantha Rao et al [6] reported that Engine works smoothly on methyl ester of Jatropha oil with performance comparable to diesel operation. Methyl ester of Jatropha oil results in a slightly increased thermal efficiency as compared to that of diesel. The exhaust gas temperature is decreased with the methyl ester of Jatropha oil as compared to diesel.

Y.C Sharma et al [7] pointed that, Biodiesel is said to be carbon neutral as more of carbon dioxide is absorbed by the biodiesel yielding plants than what is added to the atmosphere when used as fuel. Transesterification is the process successfully employed at present to reduce the viscosity of biodiesel and improve other characteristics. Methanol being cheaper is the commonly used alcohol during transesterification reaction. Among the catalysts, homogeneous catalysts such as sulphuric acid, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide are commonly used at industrial level production of biodiesel. Another added advantage of biodiesel is that it is biodegradable in nature.

Murugesan et al [8] reported that Almost same power output was noticed in all (Methyl Ester of Pongamia, Ethyl Ester of Pongamia, and Ethyl Ester of Neem) blends with slightly reduced brake thermal efficiency because of reduced calorific values of bio diesel fuels. The engine performance with all three bio diesel up to B40 blend is nearly similar to that of diesel. Methyl/ethyl esters of Pongamia and Ethyl esters of Neem (B100) can be directly used as fuel for diesel engine without much modification for short term only because there is a drastic increase in smoke as compared to diesel fuel.

S. Savariraj et al [9] observed that at any given load condition, the brake thermal efficiency of neat Mahua biodiesel (B-100) and other blends (B-25, B-50, B-75) is lower than that of diesel operation. It can be seen that as the percentage of Mahua biodiesel in the blend increases, there is more decrease in brake thermal efficiency as compared to diesel fuel mode, ie., diesel operation. This lower Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) of Mahua biodiesel operation is due to the combined effect of higher viscosity, higher density and lower calorific value of Mahua biodiesel.

It is seen that brake-specific fuel consumption decreases when the load is increased for all operations of diesel and Mahua biodiesel and their blends. However, the rate of decrease in brake specific fuel consumption is more during lower loads up to 50% than that of higher loads (50 to 100%). K. Muralidharan et al [10] reported that, brake thermal efficiency of the blends increases with increase in applied load. The maximum brake thermal efficiency at full load is 38.46% for B40, which is 4.1% higher than that of diesel. SFC of the engine gradually decreases with increase in load.

C.L. Peterson et al [11] pointed that, Ethyl and methyl esters have almost the same heat content. Engine tests demonstrate that methyl esters produced slightly higher power output and torque than ethyl esters. Fuel consumption when using the two different esters is nearly identical. Recep Atlin et al [12] reported that, Compared to diesel fuel, a little amount of power loss happened with vegetable oil fuel operations. Vegetable oil methyl esters gave performance and emission characteristics closer to the diesel fuel. So, they seem to be more acceptable substitutes for diesel fuel. S.

Sivalaksmi et al [13] pointed that, At full load, peak cylinder pressure for Neem oil methyl ester (NOME) is higher as compared to diesel and Neem oil (NeO). The peak heat release rate during the premixed combustion phase and peak rate of pressure rise is lower for NeO and NOME as compared to diesel. Ignition delay is observed to be lower for NeO when compared with NOME and diesel over the entire engine operating conditions. Combustion duration is higher with NeO compared to that of NOME and diesel. The Brake thermal efficiency and Brake specific fuel consumption for NeO and NOME is lower than that of diesel at all loads.

Numbers of papers are published in the experimental investigation of non--edible oil such as jatropha, pungamia, corn, neem and pumpkin etc. As knowledge of the authors so far no paper has been published on the experimental investigation of Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester blends. So objective of this paper is to study the experimental investigation of Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester blends.


A. Extraction of Calophyllum Inophyllum seed oil:

The seeds of Calophyllum inophyllum were collected at the Kanyakumari district in the south side of Tamilnadu (India). The outer shells of the seed were removed and inner parts (kernel) pressed by mechanical expeller, and Crude Calophyllum inophyllum oil was collected in the storage vessel.

B. Degumming:

According to Oybek Zufarov et al [14] illustration, the CCIO was heated to 80[degrees]C and water solution of citric acid (30 %) added in amount of 2 % (by volume of the oil). The mixture was stirred for 20 minutes. The oil/acid mixture was kept at 80[degrees]C up to 15 min, cooled down to 25[degrees]C, mixed with water (1 %) and transferred to a holding vessel. After settling for 60 min the mixture was centrifuged for 20 min to separate acid degummed oil from its by-products. The separated oil is allowed for drying process to remove water content by heating the oil at 55[degrees]C continuously for one hour. After drying, the end of oil is called Degummed calophyllum inophyllum oil (DCIO).

C. Esterification:

Crude calophyllum inophyllum oil heated at a temperature of 60[degrees]C. The methanol (9:1 methanol to oil ratio) and H2SO4 catalyst (1 vol.%) were mixed together. The mixture was stirred constantly using an overhead stirrer with a constant speed of 1200 rpm for 2h. Later, the sample oil was transferred into a separation funnel for 4 h to remove the water and extra methanol. The upper layer is esterified oil while the water and extra methanol were at the lower layer.

D. Neutralisation:

Neutralization process is to purify the gum and organic particles present in the esterified oils. The degummed oil was neutralized by adding an alkali (sodium hydroxide solution). The mixture was then stirred and then heated at a regulated temperature of 75[degrees]C for 20 min to break the emulsions formed. Two layers were formed after centrifuging, oil and soap. The soap stock was then filtered off. Thus, neutralization is carried out to reduce the Free Fatty Acid (FFA) content.

E. Transesterification:

These processes are chemical reaction of a triglyceride molecule or a complex fatty acid with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst to produce fatty acid methyl esters and glycerine as by- products. The crude oil was measured and placed into a jacketed reactor. Then, crude oil was preheated to the temperature of 60[degrees]C by using a heating circulator. The exact quantity of alkali catalyst (NaOH) and methanol are mixed until all the NaOH has been dissolved. After that, the prepared mixtures of methanol and alkali catalyst (NaOH) were added into the preheated crude oil. The mixture was stirred constantly at 1200 rpm by an overhead stirrer during the transesterification process for 2 hours. In this process, the temperature was maintained at around 60[degrees]C.

After phase separation of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) was purified and washed gently with distilled water at 40[degrees]C to remove impurities. The mixture was allowed to settle under gravity for 3 h in a separating funnel. The lower layer consists of impurities were drained out. Finally, the product was evaporated at 65[degrees]C for 30 min to remove residual methanol and water.

F. Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel diesel blends:

In this study, Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel was blended with diesel at four different ratios which are 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of biodiesel at volume basic. The biodiesel blends are used to examine the effect of blending on study in engine performance characteristic.

G. Experimental setup:

Experiments have been conducted in a single-cylinder, four-stroke, naturally aspirated, direct injection Diesel engine shown in Figure 1.


The engine is coupled with an eddy current dynamometer which is used to control the engine torque. Engine speed and load are controlled by varying excitation current to the eddy current dynamometer using dynamometer controller. The engine is operated at varying speed conditions for all the tests. For all the tests, the engine is started with diesel fuel and allowed to stabilize for 45 minutes.

After the engine is warmed up, it is then switched to Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blends. At the end of test, the fuel is switched back to diesel and the engine is kept running for a while before shutdown to flush out the Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blends from the fuel lines and injection system. The performance parameter such as Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) and Brake Specific Fuel consumption (BSFC), Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT), are measured for diesel fuel, Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blends. Finally, the test results are analysed and compared.


1) Properties of CCIO and DCIO:

In this study, the fatty acid composition of crude Calophyllum inophyllum oil and degummed calophyllum inophyllum oil are analysed and shown in Table 2.

The physiochemical properties of CCIO and DCIO are analysed and shown in Table 3.

The CCIO contains higher amount of unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic) than saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic) and also contains gum such as phosphate, protein, carbohydrate, water residue and resin. Therefore, degumming process is required to separate oil from the gums in order to improve the oxidization stability of the oil. It is shown that density, viscosity, acid value and FFA value decreased after degumming process. Table 4 shows the physiochemical properties results of produced Calophyllum Inophyllum Methyl Ester (CIME) and compared with ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards.

All specified properties from CIME are in acceptable ranges according to ASTM D6571 standards. The kinematic viscosity and density of CIME are 3.45 [mm.sup.2]/s and 877.6 kg/[m.sup.3] respectively. Generally, biodiesel fuel has slightly higher density than diesel fuel. The obtained calorific value for CIME was 41.442 MJ/kg. The physicochemical properties of CIME blends with diesel fuel are summarized in Table 5.

The kinematic viscosity of Calophyllum inophyllum blends (CB) increases with the rising of biodiesel blending ratio. The calorific value of CB ranges from 40.1 MJ/kg to 42.5 MJ/kg. The observed flash point for CB10, CB20, CB30, CB40 and CB50 were 77.5[degrees]C, 79.5[degrees]C, 82.5[degrees]C, 83.1[degrees]C and 83.5[degrees]C respectively.

2) Performance analysis:

The performance test conducted by varying the engine speed at full throttle (full load) for Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel diesel blends (CB10, CB20, CB30, CB40 and CB50) and diesel fuel. The performance of the engine is explored by evaluating the parameters like BSFC, BTE and EGT. Based on the experimental results, the effects density, viscosity, calorific value and blending ration on CI engine performance are analysed in this section.

3.4.1. Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC):

Brake specific fuel consumptions of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel diesel blends (CB10, CB20, CB30, CB40 and CB50) are shown in Figure 2 and compared to diesel fuel. CB10 give quite satisfactory results in BSFC which is 302.9 g/kW h compared to diesel fuel (313.8 g/kW h) and CB50 (480.1 g/kW h) at 1900 rpm. CB10 shows slightly lower BSFC than diesel fuel due to the biodiesel has a relatively higher heat of vaporization than diesel, which affects the combustion. Besides, the BSFC of CB20, CB30, CB40 and CB50 higher than CB10 and diesel fuel due to the lower calorific value of CB20, CB30, CB40 and CB50. CB50 has highest BSFC of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel diesel blend which is 621.4 g/kW h at 1500 rpm.


At full load condition, the BSFC decreases with engine speed until a minimum value at 1900 rpm, then increasing again with an increase in engine speed. This is because the heat loss from the combustion chambers walls is proportionately greater at low speeds. Thus, combustion efficiency is poorer causing the higher fuel consumption for the power produced. However, the friction power increases at a rapid rate at higher speeds will cause in a slower increase in power than in fuel consumption with a slight increase in BSFC.

The decrease in BSFC is a result of better physical and chemical conditions for combustion at low engine speeds. In addition, the BSFC was decrease in proportion of CB10 compared to diesel fuel and the CB 10 is the optimum blending ratio for higher power and torque output with lower BSFC. This indicates that using CB10 increased oxygen content and higher combustion rate at the same engine power for various engine speeds.

3.4.2. Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE):

Brake thermal efficiency is the ratio between work output and the heat available introduced through fuel injection. The variation of brake thermal efficiencies using Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blends and diesel fuel is shown in Figure 3. It can be observed that the BTE values for CB10, Cb20, CB30, CB40 and CB50 were 23.3%, 22.4%, 21.2%, 20.8% and 20.6% compared to diesel fuel which was about 22.52% respectively.

The high thermal efficiency of CB10 has lower viscosity and increases the volatility compared to CB20, CB30, CB40 and CB50. This enhances the fuel atomization leading to improved air fuel mixing. Therefore, the thermal efficiency for CB20, CB30, CB40 and CB50 are lower than CB10.


This implies that fuel atomization characteristics are different in blends with higher ratios of biodiesel. It is clearly shown that BTE is inversely proportional to BSFC which as BSFC decreased the BTE values increased.

3.4.3. Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT):

The result for exhaust gas temperatures versus with the engine speed is shown in Figure 4.


This shows that the EGT increases as the speed increases for all fuels in CI engines. This is due to the fuel combustion amount in the combustion chamber within the unit time increases and consequently the heat energy produced increases as the engine speed rise. The CB10 shows slightly lower exhaust gas temperatures compare with all other fuels. Lower EGT (511[degrees]C) is an indication of good combustion of fuel in the combustion chamber for CB10 at 2400 rpm.

However, the highest EGT for CB20, CB30, CB40 and CIB50 were obtained at 519[degrees]C, 520[degrees]C, 524[degrees]C and 527[degrees]C, whereas the EGT for diesel fuel is 517[degrees]C at 2400 rpm. The higher EGT of CB20, CB30, CB40 and CB50 could be due to lower calorific value and higher viscosity which cause the poor atomization and not burnt properly in the combustion chamber. As a result, lengthen combustion duration is the reasons for high viscosity of biodiesel diesel blends (20-40%) to have higher exhaust gas temperatures. Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel diesel blends have higher EGT and it will increase BSFC compared to diesel fuel.


The Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel was produced via degummed, acid esterification, neutralization and base transesterification process. The results showed that degummed and neutralization process improved the fuel properties of the Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel. Calophyllum inophyllum methyl esters and the blends (CB10, CB20, CB30, CB40 and CB50) comply with ASTM biodiesel standard.

It has been found that CB10 gave good improvement in the engine performance with higher BTE from the engine performance test results. There is an improvement in fuel economy with lower BSFC and EGT by using CB10 compared to diesel fuel. The experimental results proved that Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel diesel blends is a potential alternative fuel which can be used effectively in diesel engine without modification.


[1.] McDonnell, K.P., S.M Ward and D.J Timoney, 1995. "Hot water degummed rapeseed oil as a fuel diesel engines" Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 60: 7-14.

[2.] Nwafor, O.M.I., 2004. "Emission characteristics of diesel engine running on vegetable oil with elevated fuel inlet temperature", Biomass and Bioenergy, 27: 507-511.

[3.] Blin, J. et al., 2013. "Characteristics of vegetable oils for use as fuel in stationary diesel engines--towards specifications for a standard in West Africa" Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 22: 580-597.

[4.] Tsaknis, John, Stavros Lalas, and Evangelos S. Lazos, 1997. "Characterization of crude and purified pumpkin seed oil." Grasasy Aceites 48(5) : 267-272.

[5.] Payawan Jr, Leon M., Jossana A. Damasco and K.W.E.S. Piecco, 2010. "Transesterification of oil extract from locally-cultivated Jatropha curcas using a heterogeneous base catalyst and determination of its properties as a viable biodiesel." Philippine Journal of Science, 139(1): 105- 116.

[6.] Hanumantha Rao., Y.V. et al., 2009. "Use of Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester and Its Blends as an Alternative Fuel in Diesel Engine" Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Science & Engineering, pp: 253-260.

[7.] Sharma, Y.C. et al., 2008. "Advancements in development and characterization of biodiesel: A review" Fuel, doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2008.01.014

[8.] Murugesan, A., et al., 2012. "Analysis on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of diesel engine fueled with methyl-ethyl esters" Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 4: 063116-12.

[9.] Savariraj, S. et al., 2011. "Experimental investigation of performance and emission characteristics of Mahua biodiesel in diesel engine" International Scholary Research Network, doi:10.5402/2011/405182.

[10.] Muralidharan, K. et al., 2011. "Performance, emission and combustion charecteristics of biodiesel fuelled variable compression ratio engine." Energy, 36: 5385-5393.

[11.] Peterson, C.L. et al., 1997. "Processing, characterization, and performance of eight fuels from lipids." Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 13: 71-79.

[12.] Recep Atlin et al., 2001. "The otential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines." Energy conversion and management, 42: 529-538.

[13.] Sivalaksmi, S. and T. Balusamy, 2001. "Experimental investigation on a diesel engine fuelled with neem oil and its methyl ester." Thermal science, 15: 1193-1204.

[14.] Zufarov, Oybek, S. Schmidt and Stanislav Sekretar, 2008. "Degumming of rapeseed and sunflower oils." Acta Chimica Slovaca, 1(1): 321-328.

(1) Rajan Prabhakar, (2) Raghavan Vijayan and (3) Arthanarisamy Murugesan, (4) Natesan Buvaneswari

(1) Department of Mechanical Engineering, V.M.K.V Engineering College, Salem- 636308, TN, India.

(2) Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government College of Engineering, Salem-636011, TN, India.

(3) Department of Mechatronics Engineering, K.S.R College of Technology, Tiruchengode--637215, TN, India.

(4) Department of Chemistry, V.M.K.V Engineering College, Salem--636308, TN, India.

Received 25 April 2016; Accepted 28 May 2016; Available 5 June 2016

Address For Correspondence:

Rajan Prabhakar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, V.M.K.V Engineering

College, Salem-636308, TN, India.

Tel: +91 9486761987; E-mail:
Table I: Specification of the engine

Particulars               Specifications

Make & model              Kirloskar-TV1
BHP & speed               5 hp at 1500 rpm
Type of engine            Direct injection and 4S
Compression ratio         16.5:1
Bore & stroke             80 mm and 110 mm
Type of loading           Eddy current dynamometer
Method of cooling         Water cooling
Inlet valve opening       4.5[degrees] BTDC
Inlet valve closing       35.5[degrees] ABDC
Exhaust valve opening     35.5[degrees] BBDC
Exhaust valve closing     4.5[degrees] ATDC
Injection timing          23[degrees] BTDC
Injection pressure        210 bar

Table 2: Comparision Of Fatty Acid For Ccio And Dcio

Fatty acid           Class       CCIO        DCIO

Caproic              C6:0        0.18        0.19
Caprylic             C8:0        0.03        0.04
Pelargonic           C9:0        0.02        0.019
Capric               C10:0       --          0.06 (a)
Lauric acid          C12:0       --          --
Myristic             C14:0       0.02 (b)    --
Palmitic acid        C16:0       35.2        29.32
Stearic acid         C18:0       8.7         14.8
Oleic acid           C18:1       2.3 (b)     --
Ricinoleic acid      C18:1       --          --
Linoleic acid        C18:2       36.8        38.2
Linolenic acid       C18:3       --          --
Eicosanoic acid      C20:0       --          --
Arachidic            C20:0       --          --
Behenic              C22:0       --          --
Erucic               C22:1       --          --
Lignoceric           C24:0       --          --

(a) Present only in DCIO ( Not detected in CCIO)

(b) Present only in CCIO (Not detected in DCIO)

Table 3: Physiochemical Properties Of Ccio And Dcio

Property                      CCIO         DCIO

Colour                        Dark green   Reddish Yellow

Viscosity at 40[degrees]C     53           43

FFA (%)                       29           21

Acid Value (mg KOH/g)         59.3         42.9

Flash point ([degrees]C)      195          188

Density (kg/[m.sup.3])        951          949

Table 4: Physiochemical Properties Of Cime

Property                     ASTM D6751   CIME    Test Method

Density (kg/[m.sup.3])       880          877.6   ASTM D127

Viscosity at 40[degrees]C    1.9-6.0      3.45    ASTM D445

Acid Value (mg KOH/g)        Max 0.5      0.34    ASTM D 664

Flash point ([degrees]C)     Min 130      165     ASTM D93

Calorific Value (MJ/kg)      --           41.42   ASTM D240

Table 5: Physiochemical Properties Of Cime Blends

Property                     Class       CB10     CB20

Density (kg/[m.sup.3])       ASTM D127   850.5    851.6

Viscosity at 40[degrees]C    ASTM D445   2.98     3.22

Acid Value (mg KOH/g)        ASTM D664   25.6     23.22

Flash point ([degrees]C)     ASTM D93    77.5     79.5

Calorific Value (MJ/kg)      ASTM D240   42.5     41.5

Property                     CB30     CB40     CB50

Density (kg/[m.sup.3])       853.8    854.5    857.9

Viscosity at 40[degrees]C    3.29     3.32     3.35

Acid Value (mg KOH/g)        19.27    18.87    18.26

Flash point ([degrees]C)     82.5     83.1     83.5

Calorific Value (MJ/kg)      40.4     40.2     40.1
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Author:Prabhakar, Rajan; Vijayan, Raghavan; Murugesan, Arthanarisamy; Buvaneswari, Natesan
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Date:May 30, 2016
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