Experimental Investigation of Ethanol-Diesel-Butanol Blends in a Compression Ignition Engine by Modifying the Operating Parameters.
The transportation sector has been exponentially growing over the years showing no reprieve. This has resulted in the rapid consumption of the fossil fuel reserves oping a rare question to its availability in the near future. This in turn catalyzed the researchers to double up on the search for an alternative fuel that would either replace the fossil fuel or reduce its consumption. Vegetable oil and alcohol are the two major available renewable fuels for deriving Biodiesel to reduce the dependency on diesel for fueling diesel engines . Many researchers have tried diesel-biodiesel blends as fuel for diesel engine and have reported that these blends showed an increase in the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Also, utilization of a large volume of biodiesel will lead to the scarcity of vegetables which are the major source for manufacturing biodiesel. Diesel with alcohol (diesohol) is an attractive fuel for replacing diesel for fueling diesel engine . Research on utilization of diesohol in diesel engines specifically was initiated since 1975 [3, 4]. Literature survey has shown the suitability of ethanol-diesel blends as a better fuel for the diesel engine due to its better properties such as higher octane number, oxygen content, and a renewable source and can be manufactured from biomass. However, blends containing higher volume of ethanol (more than 15% of ethanol by vol.) suffer phase separation. Rakopoulos et al. [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] studied the combustion and performance characteristics of ethanol-diesel blends and reported that the performance parameters were better than that of diesel, with less emission compared to diesel.
The present study is an experimental investigation to utilize optimal ethanol-diesel blend with normal butanol as cosolvent (for preventing the phase separation up to a temperature lower than 10[degrees]C) with and without modifying the engine operating parameters.
Significance of n-Butanol
As butanol contains more number of carbon atoms, phase separation of diesel ethanol blends can be suppressed. A temperature of 10[degrees]C is normally a reasonable temperature during winter through most parts of the world . When the ambient temperature decreases (less than 25[degrees]C), the surface tension of the liquid increases, and the decrease in pressure breaks the interfacial film, and the molecules of ethanol in the diesohol blends pass through, congregate, thereby resulting in the separation of ethanol from the blend. This triggered the researchers to look for additives to overcome this limitation for the utilization of a large amount of ethanol in ethanoldiesel blends . Huang et al.  studied the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with diesel-ethanol (99.0% pure and free from water) blends with butanol as additive for preventing the phase separation. The report is that the blend containing 30% ethanol and 5% butanol suffers phase separation after 11 days at temperature of 25[degrees]C. In an effort to extend this study at lower temperature and an increased utilization of ethanol content higher than 30%, an experimental investigation was conducted in a compression ignition (CI) engine fueled with diesohol blends containing butanol from 6% to 10% as additive for diesohol blends in the temperature range of 5[degrees]C to 25[degrees]C and above. The reports indicated that the blends containing 10% butanol did not separate for 20 days even for the ethanol content of 50% [13, 14]. Although it was reported that the stability of the diesel-ethanol blends was improved by the addition of cosolvent butanol, during the combustion the spray formation may result in the separation of diesel and ethanol . In order to prevent this, modification of operating parameters is essential to fuel higher volume of ethanol with diesel. Most researchers varied one or two engine operating parameters for utilizing the alternate fuel in diesel engine as fuel. For the modification of operating parameters, Taguchi method was utilized. This method is a power tool for the design of quality systems, and this provides a simple and efficient approach in optimizing the performance, quality, and cost . Hunter et al. [17, 18] optimized the design and operating parameters of a diesel engine and reported that the Taguchi method was found to be a useful technique for simultaneous optimization of engine parameters and exhaust emissions. George et al.  utilized Taguchi method for the optimization of parameters involved in peening and identified that this method was adequate in obtaining the optimal setting to arrive at an optimal output. Palani Murugan et al. [20, 21, 22] utilized the method of Taguchi for arriving at optimal parameters for cladding process and validated experimentally that the identified optimal parameters produced a significant improvement in the process.
Summary of literature survey done shows that there is a research gap for the utilization of higher volume of ethanol in diesel engine and on modification of parameters to fuel in diesel engine. Hence, the present study includes two stages:
1. To arrive at an optimal level of parameters such as injection timing (IT), injection pressure (IP), compression ratio (CR), and intake air temperature (IAT) by Taguchi method by using [L.sub.9] orthogonal array
2. Testing the optimal fuel blend with and without modifying the engine operating parameters under various load conditions and comparing the results with that of diesel
The results obtained from the study were compared with that of diesel.
2. Materials and Methods
Diesel used for the present study was procured from Shell Lubricants Limited; ethanol of 99.9% purity (free from water) and n-butanol of lab grade were procured from chemical feedstock. To start with, mixtures of diesel and normal butanol of various proportions were prepared. Then ethanol was added using the burette for specified percentage and stirred well in a closed container. Utmost care was taken to prevent the vaporization of ethanol during blending. The prepared blends were kept steady for 20 days under a controlled atmosphere of 5[degrees]C [13, 14]. The engine used was a 5HP Kirloskar engine (Figure 1) with water cooling. The engine was duly coupled with eddy-current dynamometer for proper loading, conforming to the Indian Standards IS: 11170-1985 . Detailed specifications of the engine are given in Table 1. The engine used for this experimental study is widely used for two wheelers, three wheelers, go-karts, marine applications and agricultural equipment, and stationary power sources such as prime mover. There is an increase in the sales of single-cylinder engine as the report published as historical data from 2013 to 2018 and forecast by 2023 . These can be utilized for any size of engine as the basic reading for any diesel engine is the incylinder pressure. The blends were tested under five different loading conditions. Data acquisition system of AVL make was used for capturing the combustion readings. Kistler piezoelectric transducer was installed for monitoring pressure variation supported and connected with an in-built charge amplifier. Pressure data was captured for 1[degrees] crank interval and for 100 consecutive cycles to compensate the variations between each cycle. Exhaust gases were measured by AVL Di gas analyzer 444 (Table 1) with autocalibration facility. Each test was repeated five times for performance and emission parameters, and the average was taken for analysis.
2.1. Taguchi Method
For obtaining the optimal parameters of IP, IT, CR, and IAT, three levels were chosen including the standard set of parameters. Three levels of parameters were chosen as IP 190, 200, and 210 bar; IT 23, 26, and 29[degrees] BTDC; CR 16, 17.5, and 19:1; and IAT 50, 75, and 100[degrees]C. These levels are selected one below and above the standard operating parameters except the IT (as the blends are volatile, advancing will give better results ; hence, only advancement is considered). As three levels and four parameters were involved, [L.sub.9] orthogonal array [20, 23] is suitable to find out the optimal parameters which is arrived as per the standard orthogonal array selector (Table 2). Standard levels of parameters used in diesel engine are IP, 200 bar; IT, 23[degrees] BTDC; CR, 17.5; and IAT (atmospheric temperature), 35[degrees]C.
2.2. [L.sub.9] Orthogonal Array
Orthogonal array is one of the methods which is efficient and low cost on the basis of design of experiment compared to other statistical methods for arriving at optimal level of factors in an experiment. Other methods require licensed software for analysis and to attain the result. Orthogonal array is the one which depicts the level of the factors and their combination to conduct the experiments. This includes mathematical analysis in the base of design of experiment. This has been done to reduce the non-value-added experiment which requires a lot of time to arrive at the optimal setting for each factor. The number 9 denotes the number of rows in the orthogonal array. This has been arrived at by calculation to take care of the degrees of freedom in the factors involved in the experiment. The calculation to arrive at an orthogonal array suitable for various levels and parameters is shown in Table 2. In this experiment, three set levels and four independent variables were considered, and hence the calculation works out to [L.sub.9] [20, 23] and shown in Table 3. The methodology includes the sequence of activities: (i) setting the levels of parameters, (ii) forming the [T.sub.9] orthogonal array, (iii) conduct of experiments and calculation of brake thermal efficiency (BTE), (iv) rank matrix for selection of optimal levels of parameters, and (v) conduct of experiment with modified engine operating parameters. The Rank Matrix (Table 4) lists a total of nine parameter levels that contributed to the effective output. Modification of IP was done by placing a washer of 0.2 mm thickness in the place between the nozzle and injector. To change the IT, another washer of 0.25 mm was placed in between the engine and the fuel pump. Variation in the CR was attained by using spacers of different thickness (calibrated by the manufacturers), which varies with respect to the clearance volume and thereby varies the CR of the engine. Air preheater was connected in the intake manifold which gives out hot air at a specified temperature. The preheater used was a coil type and deployed with two thermocouples in the inlet and outlet such that the temperature of the air can be monitored during the experiment.
[mathematical expression not reproducible] Eq. (1)
Uncertainty analysis was performed for the identification of errors in measurement during the experiment and for ensuring repeatability of the test. Combined uncertainty analysis of the performance test was done on the basis of Equation 1 from which total uncertainty was arrived at. The uncertainty varied from 0.05% to 0.15%. The principle of root-mean-square method was used for getting the realistic uncertainty limits for the computed result and also the magnitude of error given by Holman (1973) . Equation 1 was used for calculating the uncertainties.
3. Results and Discussion
An experimental investigation of performance analysis of diesel ethanol blends was conducted with and without modification of parameters, and the results are presented as follows.
3.1. Results of Performance Parameters
During the experiments, the specific fuel consumption, and brake power of the engine, were observed and recorded under various load conditions. From these observations, the BTE of the engine fueled with the blends was calculated and compared with that of diesel. Modifications of parameters were done with the input from the rank matrix attained from the nine experiments conducted as per the [L.sub.9] orthogonal array. Rank matrix of the level of parameters is presented (Table 4). From Table 4, optimal parameters were found to be as IP, 190 bar; IT, 29[degrees] BTDC; CR, 19; and IAT, 100[degrees]C (produced higher BTE compared to other combinations of operating parameters). The significance of this method is the sequence in conducting the experiments to arrive at an optimal setting of parameters. As BTE was the one performance parameter that controls the other parameters, this has been taken as the base for deciding the optimal parameters. The above table shows the average of five sets of readings, which represents the three levels of those parameters, that is, 190, 200, and 210 bar of IP, respectively. As the fuel blends are more volatile than diesel, the parameter IP was considered as the first dominant parameter and the orthogonal array was constructed. Similarly, parameters IT, CR, and IAT are given importance levels of 2, 3 and 4 respectively. To confirm the modified parameters, a final experiment was conducted and the results were compared. The optimal blend D45E45B10 was tested under the modified optimal parameters, and the results were compared with diesel.
3.1.1. Pressure Crank Angle Diagram Cylinder pressure diagram with respect to crank angle is an indication of effect of incylinder combustion in an engine. Generally, cylinder pressure of any engine depends on the volatility of the fuel used, time duration of combustion, rate of heat release, and energy content of the fuel. Figure 2 shows the variation of cylinder pressure with respect to crank angle for D45E45B10 and D45E45B10- MOP (12.9% higher) at rated power in comparison with diesel. It can be seen that there is a significant increase in incylinder pressure with the modification of parameters and there is shift of the start of pressure rise toward the top dead center. This was due to the increase in the rate of combustion offered by the increase in CR and IAT. Also, the change in IP and advancement of IT enhanced the fuel blend to atomize properly in the precombustion phase, which enhanced higher rate of heat release, and this dominated the suppression caused by the higher heat of vaporization of ethanol in the blend. It was observed that the blend D45E45B10-MOP produced higher incylinder peak pressure compared to D45E45B10 at all load conditions. This indicates that the modified parameters are found suitable for this blend. Also, an increasing trend of incylinder peak pressure (Figure 3) is observed with the increase in brake power, which is due to the increased thermal energy release at higher brake power condition. At rated power, the incylinder peak pressure is found nearer to that of diesel and less by 8% only.
3.3.2. Heat Release Rate Heat release rate is an indicator of combustion efficiency, and these parameters are helping for explaining the BTE, exhaust gas temperature (EGT), rate of pressure rise, emission parameters, and cylinder pressure. Figure 4 shows the variation of heat release rate (HRR) of D45E45B10 and D45E45B10-MOP at rated power compared with diesel. It is seen that there is a significant increase in HRR by the modification of parameters.
The percentage of increase in HRR by modification of parameters was found to be 57.5%. The increase in HRR was due to the release of complete heat energy by the suitability of modified parameters for D45E45B10. There was a shift in the start of combustion for D45E45B10-MOP compared to that of D45E45B10. This was due to the increase in the CR and increase in IAT, which improved the combustion. This resulted in the increase in HRR, and the HRR of D45E45B10-MOP was found closer to that of diesel. The ignition delays of the blends are as shown in Figure 5. It can be seen from Figure 5 that the increase in the volume of ethanol in the blend increases the ignition delay significantly; however, with increase in the brake power, a decreasing trend was observed. Maximum ignition delay was for the blend D45E45B10 at low load condition, and this was 55% higher than diesel. Figure 5 shows the ignition delay of D45E45B10 with and without modifying the engine operating parameters along with diesel. It can be seen that the modification of engine operating parameters reduced the ignition delay significantly in comparison with those without modification. This indicates the suitability of the modified parameters for the blend D45E45B10. Also, the increase in brake power reduced the ignition delay. The increase in ignition delay of D45E45B10-MOP was found to be only 3% higher than diesel, which indicates that the increase in the CR and the advancement in the ignition timing enhanced higher rate of thermal energy release, which overcame the dominance created by higher heat of vaporization.
3.3.3. Brake Thermal Efficiency Figure 6 shows the BTE of the fuel blends D45E45B10 and D45E45B10-MOP in comparison with diesel. The modified parameters enhanced better complete combustion resulting in the increase of BTE at rated power. The percentage of increase of BTE was found to be 4.1% for D45E45B10-MOP at rated power compared to those at standard operating parameters. The increase of BTE was due to the suitability of the modified operating parameters (MOP) for the optimal blend which led to a higher release of thermal energy . Also, ethanol in the blend led to better combustion which added up to the increase of BTE and lower heat losses. Figure 7 shows the EGT versus brake power of D45E45B10 and D45E45B10-MOP along with diesel. It was seen that the modification of engine operating parameters enhanced higher rate of combustion of D45E45B10 which resulted in higher incylinder temperature and higher EGT. The percentage of increase in EGT by the modification of parameters was found to be 11.2% at rated power. This was already shown in the HRR diagram at rated power which produced higher thermal energy release by the modification of engine operating parameters. The increase in the CR , increase in the time available for the fuel to combust in the precombustion phase, and the higher IAT enhanced this higher thermal energy release of D45E45B10 even though the cooling was created by the higher heat of vaporization of higher ethanol content. Also, it can be seen that the increase in EGT was proportional to the increase in brake power which was due to a higher rate of combustion that occurred at a higher brake power compared to low brake power.
3.4. Results of Emission Parameters
Emissions from the test engine were captured by a five-gas analyzer, which was capable of measuring the NOx, smoke opacity, hydrocarbon (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO) from the fuel blends. These results were presented in comparison with diesel versus brake power. Initially diesel was fueled in the test engine and the emissions at various load conditions were captured and taken as base readings. Following this, each fuel blend was fueled and the emission characteristics were captured. For each test, five readings were taken and the average was taken for analysis.
3.4.1. Oxides Of Nitrogen NOx emissions from any engine indicate complete combustion in the incylinder resulting from higher temperature. However, NOx emissions are pollutant to the atmosphere and this will lead to acid rain. As per the stringent emission norms, a reduction in NOx with enhanced efficiency is the real-time need. Figure 8 shows the variation of NOx emissions of D45E45B10 and D45E45B10-MOP versus brake power compared to diesel. NOx emissions produced by D45E45B10-MOP were found to be increased. The modified parameters enhanced better combustion resulting in higher heat energy dissipation, thereby increasing the temperature of the incylinder. This higher temperature results in the increase of NOx emissions. The increase in temperature is also represented in the increase of EGT. The percentage of increase in NOx emissions by the modification of parameters was found to triple when compared to those produced without modification. However, the presence of a higher volume of ethanol and butanol increased the heat of vaporization of the fuel blends, which suppressed the emissions of NOx from the fuel blends . This suppression dominated and produced lesser NOx as the incylinder temperature was lower compared to that of diesel. Finally, the increase of CR , the increase of IAT , and the advancement of IT  dominated the suppression of incylinder temperature and hence produced higher NOx emissions.
3.4.2. Smoke Emissions Smoke emissions from CI engine are also an indication of temperature of incylinder during combustion and the availability of oxygen for combustion of fuel. Figure 9 shows the smoke emissions of D45E45B10 and D45E45B10-MOP versus brake power under various loading conditions in comparison with diesel. The decreasing trend of D45E45B10-MOP was due to the leaner fuel burnt and the improved engine operating parameters. This also indicates the suitability of the MOP to the fuel blend (D45E45B10-MOP). The percentage of decrease in smoke emissions by the modification of parameters was found to be 23.5% compared to those without a modification.
3.4.3. CO Emissions Generally CO emissions are produced due to lack of oxygen and low average incylinder temperature which leads to incomplete combustion for any fuel for a CI engine. Figure 10 shows the variation of CO emissions versus brake power for the blend D45E45B10 with and without modification of parameters in comparison to diesel. CO emissions from any CI engine are an indication of lack of combustion, low temperature of the incylinder during combustion, less availability of oxygen for combustion, and self-ignition property of the fuel utilized in the engine. Majumdhar et al.  and Huang et al.  reported similar results. The modified parameters triggered improvement in combustion which resulted in a significant decrease in CO emissions. The percentage of decrease in CO emissions by the modification of parameters was found as 42.1% compared to those without modification. A lower emission from D45E45B10-MOP was due to the enhanced atomization rate resulting from the increased CR, advanced IT, and higher IAT . However, at lower load conditions, the higher heat of vaporization of the fuel blends dominated which produced higher CO emissions.
3.4.4. HC Emissions This emission from any CI engine is also an indication of incomplete combustion as the complete combustion is the one converting the available HC in the fuel to carbon dioxide and water as the products of complete combustion. As the ethanol content is increased in D45E45B10, the higher heat of vaporization in the blend leads to slower evaporation because of poor mixing of fuel and air resulting in higher HC emission. However, a decreasing trend was observed along with the increase of BTE. Figure 11 shows the HC emissions of D45E45B10 and D45E45B10-MOP with diesel as comparison at rated power. Similar results were reported by fueling diesel-ethanol blends by Rakopoulos et al. . The percentage of reduction of HC emissions for the blend D45E45B10-MOP was found as 18.1% lower compared to diesel at rated power. However, HC emissions were higher than diesel and lesser than D45E45B10 at lower loads.
The present study reveals that ethanol can be blended up to 45% into diesel with 10% butanol as cosolvent and can be utilized as fuel for CI engines by modified engine operating parameters. The performance of this fuel blend is carried out in a single-cylinder diesel engine under normal operating conditions as well as MOP. Although the study has been conducted in 5Hp engine, the results were analyzed and presented with respect to the brake power; hence, it can be easily deployed to any engine of any capacity. Taguchi method is employed to arrive at the number of experiments to be conducted, and from the experiments conducted, the optimum operating parameters (IT, 29[degrees] BTDC; IP, 190 bar; CR, 19:1; and IAT, 100[degrees]C) were derived. The test result shows that the fuel blends perform better under MOP and are discussed below.
HRR, incylinder peak pressure, BTDC, and the cylinder pressure of the D45E45B10-MOP were found closer to diesel at rated power. While employing optimum parameters, HRR, incylinder peak pressure, and BTE were found increasing by 57%, 12.9%, and 4.1%, respectively, and the ignition delay was found decreasing by 6% at rated power.
Smoke emissions, HC, and CO of D45E45B10 were reduced by 23.5%, 17.6%, and 42.6%, respectively, while operating the engine with optimum operating parameters at rated power. However, NOx emissions increase thrice when compared with normal operating conditions, but still it is less than that of diesel.
Hence, the study shows that D45E45B10 blend can be employed as a fuel under optimum operating conditions which exhibits almost the same performance and emission characteristics of diesel. Also, 55% of diesel proportion is replaced by alternatives in this blend. Future studies can be conducted to investigate the long-term durability of diesel engine when utilizing this blend as fuel.
The author sincerely thanks the staffmembers and lab technicians of the School of Mechanical Sciences, Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, for their support to carry out the research activity in a fruitful manner.
Abbreviations ABDC - After bottom dead center ATDC - After top dead center AVG. - Average B - Butanol BBDC - Before bottom dead center BTE - Brake thermal efficiency [degrees]CA - Degree crank angle CO - Carbon monoxide CR - Compression ratio D - Diesel E - Ethanol D45E45B10 - Diesel 45%, ethanol 45%, butanol 10% g/kW h - grams per kilowatt hour HC - Hydrocarbon hr. - Hour IAT - Intake air temperature IT - Injection timing IP - Injection pressure (nozzle opening pressure) J - Joules kw - Kilowatt MOP - Modified operating parameters SOI - Start of injection
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B. Prabakaran, Palanimuthu Vijayabalan, and M. Balachandar, Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science, India
Received: 25 Feb 2018
Revised: 15 Aug 2018
Accepted: 24 Sep 2018
e-Available: 31 Oct 2018
TABLE 1 Specification of engine and exhaust gas analyzer. Kirloskar oil engine TAF No. of cylinders One Type Four stroke, water cooled Bore and stroke 87.5mm and 110mm CR 17.5:1 Engine capacity 0.661liters Rated power 4.4kW @ 1500rpm Nozzle opening pressure 200-205 bar Start of injection 23 degree BTDC IVO 4.5 degree BTDC IVC 35.5 degree ABDC EVO 35.5 degree BBDC EVC 4.5 degree ATDC Kirloskar oil engine TAF AVL Di gas 444 No. of cylinders Power supply Type Warm-up time Bore and stroke Connector gas in CR Response time Engine capacity Operating temperature Rated power Storage temperature Nozzle opening pressure Relative humidity Start of injection Dimension IVO Interfaces IVC EVO EVC Kirloskar oil engine TAF No. of cylinders 110-220 V [approximately equal to] W Type [approximately equal to]7min Bore and stroke 60-140 l/h max CR [t.sub.95][less than or equal to]15 s Engine capacity 5-45[degrees]C Rated power 0-50[degrees]C Nozzle opening pressure [less than or equal to]95% non-condensing Start of injection 270 x 320 x 85 [mm.sup.3] IVO RS 232 C, pickup, oil IVC temperature probe EVO EVC TABLE 2 Orthogonal array selector table. Number of parameters (P) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 L4 L4 L8 L8 L8 L8 L12 L12 L12 Number 3 L9 L9 L9 L18 L18 L18 L18 L27 L27 of levels 4 L'16 L'16 L'16 L'16 L'32 L'32 L'32 L'32 L'32 5 L25 L25 L25 L25 L25 L50 L50 L50 L50 Number of parameters (P) 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 L12 L16 L16 L16 L16 L32 L32 L32 L32 L32 L32 L32 Number L27 L27 L27 L36 L36 L36 L36 L36 L36 L36 L36 L36 of levels L50 L50 Number of parameters (P) 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 L32 L32 L32 L32 L32 L32 L32 L32 L32 Number L36 of levels TABLE 3 Layout of [L.sub.9] orthogonal array and the values of parameters. Experiment IP IT CR IAT 1 190 23 16 50 2 190 26 17.5 75 3 190 29 19 100 4 200 23 17.5 100 5 200 26 19 50 6 200 29 16 75 7 210 23 19 75 8 210 26 16 100 9 210 29 17.5 50 TABLE 4 Rank matrix ([L.sub.9] orthogonal array). Experiment no. IP IT CR IAT 1 2 3 4 5 AVG 1 190 23 16 50 29.6 30.2 29.8 29.7 29.8 29.8 2 190 26 17.5 75 31.2 31.6 31.8 31.4 31.5 31.5 3 190 29 19 100 32.6 31.8 32.4 31.9 32.3 32.3 4 200 23 17.5 50 31.2 31.6 31.4 31.5 31.6 31.4 5 200 26 19 50 32.3 32.6 32 32.4 32.5 32.3 6 200 29 16 75 29.6 30.1 30 29.7 29.8 29.9 7 210 23 19 50 31.6 31.9 31.4 31.7 31.9 31.6 8 210 26 16 100 32.6 32.1 32.2 32.5 32.4 32.3 9 210 29 17.5 50 29.2 29.6 29.3 29.4 29.4 29.4
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|Author:||Prabakaran, B.; Vijayabalan, Palanimuthu; Balachandar, M.|
|Publication:||SAE International Journal of Engines|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2018|
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