Exotic oils, butters & waxes: an array of natural materials from Asia, Africa and the Amazon provide some exciting options for formulators of skin care products.
Wax is a general term used to refer to the mixture of long-chain, non-polar lipids forming a protective coating on plant leaves, fruits and stems and also in animals (Table 2). The formulation of many of these natural ingredients in skin care products that can meet demanding consumer expectations for product performance and strict criteria for product stability pose challenges to marketers and formulators alike.
Mango butter is obtained from deshelled fruit kernels of the mango tree, Mangifera indica, native to sub-continental India and the tropics. It has emollient properties, high oxidative ability, and affects a wrinkle-reducing silky smooth skin feel. It is a soft solid with a sweet scent, and an excellent replacement for paraffin-based emollients in skin care lotions, massage creams and hair products. Kokum butter is obtained from the fruit kernel of Garcinia indica, which grows in the savanna parts of the Indian subcontinent. It has very high content of stearic-oleic-stearic triglycerides. It is one of the most stable and hardest exotic butters with a melting point of 38-40[degrees]C. Kokum butter has been used as an astringent, suitable for applications in skin, hair, and acne care products. Illipe butter is the fat obtained from the nuts of Shorea stenoptera, a wild crop in the jungles of Southeast Asia. It has recently been introduced as a cosmetic raw material and is used in various skin care preparations such as nourishing night creams, sun products, hair masks and lip balms. It is the exotic butter that comes closest to matching cocoa butter. Sal butter is obtained from the kernels of the Sal tree, Shorea robusta, a tree growing wild in the forests of north, east and central India. Sal is used locally for cooking and soap production. It is comparable to cocoa butter in physical properties and is used in some similar applications. Like mango butter, it combines good emolliency properties with superior oxidative stability. It is solid at room temperature with a melting point of 34-38[degrees]C.
It is used in skin and hair products, stick products, hair pomades and dry skin lotions. Mafura butter is often used in the manufacture of high quality soaps. Africans apply it to both the body and hair. It is used in skin creams and is useful in soothing skin irritation. This butter, rich in essential fatty acids, is nourishing and reportedly restructures the epidermis for age reversal formulations. Murumuru butter is an excellent emollient. It helps the skin to retain water by creating a protective film--ideal for dry skin. It is a unique skin barrier protector with excellent hydration proven by in-vivo efficacy tests. Due to its fatty acid composition, murumuru butter helps to restore the natural hydrolipidic layer. It promotes hair shine (proven by a glossmeter test), emolliency and hydration, and provides protection to the hair. It is highly recommended for Afro-ethnic hair care products.
Red raspberry seed, containing 83% essential fatty acids, is another new EFA. Raspberry seed oil has applications as an emollient, lubricant and conditioner and creates a lipid barrier to protect skin and improve moisture retention. This oil has UV absorptive properties in all three ranges beneficial for photoprotection. It contains high concentrations of mixed tocopherols, tocotrienols and carotenoids. The oil has a mild raspberry flavor and aroma. Sea buckthorn seed oil supports healthy skin due to its high polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, and beta-carotene content. Kalahari melon oil has moisturizing, regenerating and restructuring properties due to its high content of essential fatty acids (50-70% linoleic acid). Kalahari melon oil plays a role in the regulation of hydration and restructuring of the epidermis. Mongongo nut oil has hydrating, skin regenerating and restructuring properties. Due to the presence of eleostearic acid, mongongo nut oil forms a film over the hair fiber, protecting it from environmental aggressions. Marula oil may be used in body and hair care products. In particular it is used in baby care products and eye area treatments, emollient creams for normal and dry skin and shampoos for dry, damaged and fragile hair. When used for body massage it softens the skin.
Sumac wax, called Urushi wax in Japan, is extracted from the fruit peel of Sumac verniciflua. The wax has excellent smoothness and cohesiveness characteristics. Chinese tree wax is a vegetable lipid extracted from the fruit of Chinese tallow tree. Rice Wax is a vegetable wax extracted from rice bran while extracting rice bran oil. As a by product of rice bran oil refinement, it is an important wax resource in East Asia where rice is one of the most important crops. This wax has no odor and can be bleached to a light color. It is mainly composed of [C.sub.22-24]. DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) testing indicates that when the rice wax melts, the peak of each part is very steep; indicating that rice wax possesses a high degree of crystallization. Sugarcane wax is the by-product extracted from sugarcane in the sugar refining industry. The wax exists on the surface of the sugarcane stem and can be easily extracted. After proper refining, it is comparable to carnauba wax with a high retentiveness on skin.
This article offers practical solutions for formulating exotic natural butters, oils and waxes in skin care products that do not feel oily and provide consumer appreciated sensory and functional benefits. These formulation guidelines are also applicable in general for other popular butters, oils and waxes (Table 3) in topical products. It is anticipated that other exotic oils that may become available in the near future (Table 4) may utilize these formulation guidelines. Manufacturers and suppliers of exotic oils should pursue these opportunities as well. The Jamun tree, for example, is a very common, yet beautiful, large evergreen tree of the Indian subcontinent. Its habitat starts from Myanmar and extends to Afghanistan. It is generally cultivated as a roadside avenue tree as well. It tends to grow an umbrella-like crown with dense foliage. The jamun fruit is called Indian blackberry in English. The seed, as well as the bark, have several applications in Ayurveda, Unani and Chinese medicine. The seed oil has not been commercialized yet. Sitaphal, another exotic fruit, is known by many names such as ata, sharifa, seethaphalam, custard apple, cherimoya and sugar apple. It is the most famous of the annonas family of fruits that grows in India, China, Mexico and the west coast of the U.S.
The fruit is brown or green in color with small, yellowish eye-like bulges. The pulp is juicy and creamy, and has a delicate buttery flavor. The fruit has black seeds that yield oil. Jackfruit, another exotic tree, originated in the rain forests of the Western Ghats of India. Now it can be found in Southeast Asia, the East Indies and the Philippines. It is also planted in central and eastern Africa and is fairly popular in Brazil, Surinam and Hawaii. Jackfruit is the largest tree-borne fruit in the world, reaching 80 pounds in weight and is up to 36 inches long and 20 inches in diameter. The seed is 3/4 to 1-1/2 inches long and 1/2 to 3/4 inches thick and is white and crisp within. There may be 100-500 seeds in a single fruit that contain some oil.
Natural oils, butters, and waxes contain a mixture of triglycerides or esters of fatty acids that typically range from a chain of 6-40 carbon atoms with 0-3 double bonds. The carbon chain range from 12-22 is most prevalent. The formulation of these ingredients in emulsions requires skill, emulsifiers and technology. As a general rule, the higher the amount of oil, butter and wax in the formulation, the greater the material requirement for emulsifiers. Formulating emulsions containing 20-40% of natural oils and butters with popular emulsifiers; for example glyceryl stearate or PEG-100 stearate, may require 5-15% of such emulsifiers. This complicates the consumer perception of resulting formulations in most cases, as increased amounts of emulsifiers thus utilized also tend to alter skin feel attributes significantly. Formulators want to use increasing amounts of such natural ingredients. Consumers want quick absorption and a non-oily skin feel. This becomes an oxymoron-marketing dilemma, as both natural oils and emulsifiers tend to render an oily skin feel. The quest for new emulsifiers that can perform their function in very small amounts has recently resulted in new innovations, for example, Inulin lauryl carbamate. 3
Inutec SP 1(INCI: Inulin lauryl carbamate), an emulsifier and emulsion stabilizer obtained from bonding inulin (chicory root) and lauryl alcohol moieties via a carbamate linkage, can emulsify high amounts of natural oils, butters and waxes either alone or in complex mixtures in typically less than 1% quantity. Another advantage in that the pH does not need adjustment in order to be activated. Popular emulsi tiers, such as sodium stearyl phthalamate, acrylates/[C.sub.10-30] alkyl acrylate crosspolymer and carbomer require such pH adjustment. Microemulsions can be readily obtained, which provide both improved skin feel and faster absorption through stratum corneum. (3)
Formulation guidelines with Inutec SP1 can be summarized as follows:
* No pre-hydration;
* Require small quantity (0.2-1%);
* No pH adjustment;
* Effective at pH4-9;
* High liphophile loading, including silicones;
* Electrolyte (salt) tolerant;
* No effect on emulsion viscosity;
* Rheology modifier compatible;
* Cold processable;
* Co-emulsifier compatible and
* Not sensitive to heat.
Here's one way to use Inutec in a body butter formula:
Skin Smoothing Body Butter Formula Ingredients: % wt. Phase A Deionized water to 100 Inutec SP1 0.8 Polyglycerol-10 laurate 0.2 Polyglycerol-10 stearate 0.1 Glycerin 3.0 Magnesium aluminun silicate 10.0 (as 5% in deionized water) Xanthan gum 0.15 Preservative (Phenochem) 0.7 Phase B Cyclopentasiloxane cyclohexasiloxane 9.0 Shea butter 12.0 Olive butter 10.0 Isopropyl palmitate 6.0 Pentaerythrityl tetracaprylate/caprate 1.5 Rice wax 0.4 Cetearyl alcohol 4.0 Glyceryl stearate PEG-100 stearate 2.0 Phase C Fragrance 0.3 Phase D Marantha starch 5.0
Mix phase A and heat at 80-90[degrees]C. Mix and heat Phase B at 80-90[degrees]C. Add B into A with mixing at 80-90[degrees]C. Homogenize with standard homogenizer. Cool slowly to 35-40[degrees]C. Add C and D and mix.
Synthetic emollient ingredients (8, 11, and 12) can be replaced with other natural oils and butters. It is advised that the stability of such modified formulations should be checked. For additional custom formulation concepts, please contact the authors,
(1.) Shyam Gupta, Ph.D., Bioderm Research, 5221 E. Windrose Drive, Scottsdale, AZ 85254, USA. Phone: (602) 996-9700. E-mail: email@example.com
(2.) Karl Booten, Business Manager, Orafti-Bio Based Chemicals, Aandorenstraat 1, 3300 Tienen, Belgium. Phone: 32 16 801 275. Fax: 32 16 801 496. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. USA Distributor Contact: Sharon Martin, Enhancers, LLC, 9 Storm Road, Lincroft, NJ 07738. Phone 732-212-1763. Fax 732-212-0563. E-mail: email@example.com.
(3.) S. Gupta and K. Booten, Nature Based Emulsifiers from Inulin and their Applications in Cosmetic & Personal Care Products, Happi, 66 (March 2004); C.V. Stevens et al., Polymeric Surfactants based on Inulin, a Polysaccharide Extracted from Chicory.
Table 1: Exotic Natural Butters and Oils Common Name INCI or Botanical Name Albarakka oil Nigella Sativa Seed Oil Andiroba oil Carapa Guaianensis Seed Oil Argane Oil Argania spinosa Artemisia Oil Artemisia sphaerocephala Baobab seed oil Adansonia digitata Black Currant Seed oil Ribes nigrum Brazil Nut oil Bertholletia excelsa Buriti oil Mauritia Flexuosa Camelina oil Camelina sativa Chaulmoogra Oil Theobroma cacao Coffee Butter Coffea arabica Copaiba oil Copaifera Officinalis Cranberry Seed Oil Vaccinium Macroparpon (Cranberry) Seed Oil Cupua butter Theobroma grandiflorum Dhupa butter Vateria Indica Echium Seed Oil Echium plantagineum Elderberry Seed oil Sambucus Nigra Seed Oil Illipe butter Shorea Stenoptera Seed Butter Kalahari melon oil Citrillus Lanatus (Kalahari Melon) Seed Oil Kokum buter Garcinia Indica Seed Butter Mafura butter Trichilia Emetica (Mafura Fruit) Butter Mango Esters Mangifera Indica (Mango) Esters Mango butter Mangifera Indica (Mango) Seed Butter Manketti Nut Oil Ricinodendron rautanenii Maracuja (Passion Fruit) oil Passiflora edulis Marula oil Sclerocarya birrea (Marula) Kernel Oil Mongongo oil Schinziophyton Rautanentii (Mongongo) Seed Oil Moringa Oil Moringa pterygosperma Morinda (Noni) oil Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) Seed Oil Mowrah butter Madhuca Latifolia Seed Butter Murumuru butter Astrocaryum Murumuru Butter Neem Esters Melia azadirachta Ngali Nut Oil Canarium spp. Ootanga Oil Citrullus vulgaris Papaya Seed Oil Carica papaya Parinari oil Parinari Curatellifolia (Parinari) Seed Oil Phulwara butter Madhuca Butyraceae Raspberry Seed Oil Rubus idaeus Sal butter Shorea Robusta Seed Butter Seabuckthorn Oil Hippophae rhamnoides Sisymbrium Irio Oil Sisymbrium irio Shorea Robusta Butter Shorea robusta Tamanu oil Calophyllum inophyllum Ucu butter Virola surinamensis Ximenia oil Ximenia Americana (Ximenia) Seed Oil Butters from hydrogenated oils or admixtures excluded. Table 2: Exotic Natural Waxes Common Name INCI or Botanical Name Apple wax Pyrus malus Bayberry (Myrtle) wax Myrica cerifera Chinese wax Fraxinus chinensis Chinese Tallow wax Sapium sebiferum Esparto wax Stipa tenacissim Ilex Wax Ilex paraguariensis Japan wax Cotinus Coggygria Orange Peel wax Citrus Aurantium Dulcis (Orange) Peel Wax Ouricouri wax Syagrus coronata Rice Bran wax Oryza sativa Sugar Cane wax Saccharum spp. Sumac wax Sumac Verniciflua Does not include hydrogenated or admixed compositions. Table 3: Popular Natural Butters and Oils Common Name INCI or Botanical Name Apricot Kernel oil Prunus Armeniaca (Apricot) Kernel Oil Avocado oil Persea Gratissima (Avocado) Oil BabaHu oil Orbignya Oleifera (Babassu) Seed Oil Borage oil Borago Officinalis (Borage) Seed Oil Cashew Nut oil Anacardium occidentale Castor oil Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil Cocoa Butter Theobroma Cacao (Cocoa) Seed Butter Corn oil Zea Mays (Corn) Oil Coconut oil Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Oil Cotonseed oil Gossypium Herbaceum (Cotton) Seed Oil Evening Primrose oil Theobroma Cacao (Cocoa) Seed Butter Grapeseed oil Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Seed Oil Hemp oil Cannabis Sativa (Hemp) Seed Oil Jojoba oil Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) Seed Oil Kiwi Seed oil Actinidia Chinensis (Kiwi) Seed Oil Kukui Nut oil Aleurites Moluccana Seed Oil Neem oil Melia Azadirachta (Neem) Oil Palm oil Elaeis guinensis Passionfruit Seed oil Passiflora Edulis (Passionfruit) Seed Oil Olive Oil Olea Europaea (Olive) Fruit Oil Peanut oil Arachis hypogaea (Peanut) Oil Pecan Nut oil Carya illinoensis Plum Kernel oil Prunus domestica Pistachio Nut oil Pistacia Vera Seed Oil Poppy Seed oil Papaver Orientale (Poppy) Seed Oil Pumpkin Seed oil Cucurbita Pepo (Pumpkin) Seed Oil Macadamia Nut oil Macadamia Ternifolia Seed Oil Meadowfoam oil Limnanthes Alba (Meadowfoam) Seed Oil Shea Butter Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea Butter) Safflower oil Carthamus Tinctorius (Safflower) Seed Oil Sweet Almond oil Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis (Sweet Almond) Oil Sesame Seed oil Sesamum Indicum (Sesame) Seed Oil Walnut Oil Juglans Regia (Walnut) Oil Beeswax Beeswax (Cera Alba) Shellac wax Shellac Candelilla wax Euphorbia Cerifera (Candelilla) Wax Carnauba wax Copernicia Cerifera (Carnauba) Wax Table 4: Future Exotic Natural Oils Common Name INCI or Botanical Name Litchi (Lychee) Seed oil Nephelium litchi Lotus Seed oil Nelumbo nucifera Jamun Seed oil Eugenia jambolana Cherimoya Seed oil Annona cherimola Jackfruit Seed oil Artocarpus heterophyllus Loquat Seed oil Eriobotrya japonica Magnolia Seed oil Magnolia soulangiana Sapote Seed oil Calocarpum (Pouteria) zapota Watermelon Seed oil Citrullus vulgaris
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|Author:||Gupta, Shyam; Booten, Karl|
|Publication:||Household & Personal Products Industry|
|Date:||Aug 1, 2005|
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