Exhibiting the Shoah: a curator's viewpoint.
Almost six million Jews were murdered during the Holocaus. (1) Entire communities and families were murdered, their property confiscated and looted, many of their names erased from the pages of history. Despite the intensive collection of names over several decades, the database of names at Yad Vashem, The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority, Jerusalem, contains only about 4.2 million names. (2) There is little chance of finding additional names, and a gap will always remain between the number of Jews known to be living before World War II and those identified by name as having been murdered. (3) This gap also characterizes our information on other subjects as well. A comprehensive study over recent years by the International Institute for Holocaust Research at Yad Vashem, Jerusalelm, Israel, listed relatively more ghettos than known in the past, based on documents in newly-opened archives in Eastern Europe. (4) We may assume that some ghettos, from the approximately 1,000 that existed, still will be discovered, but we will never have any information on many. New topics for academic research are now being studied in depth, such as the role of women in the Holocaust, with new information added continuously. (5) The story of children in the Holocaust is an important issue yet to be researched in depth?
All exhibitions dealing with the Holocaust, whether permanent or temporary, must address two issues which have become more acute in the almost seventy years since the end of World War II: historical data and research studies are increasing over the years, while the original artifacts and materials which can be used in exhibitions, never numerous to begin with, are disappearing, or being destroyed as time passes. (7)
In general, there are few means for exhibiting what the German Nazis and their collaborators did to the Jews, but the materials are relatively extant. The Nazis documented some of the processes and events in writing (less relevant to museum exhibitions), photographs and film footage, and even encouraged the process. Photographs were taken mainly until the German invasion of the USSR, when an order was issued to cease photographing the killings. (8) Almost no concrete evidence remains of four of the death camps (Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka and Chelmno), except for some buried elements, since the Nazis razed them to the ground. However, many buildings and objects remain--both murderers' and victims'--mainly in Majdanek, but also in Auschwitz-Birkenau. The same holds true for additional sites officially declared historical sites, or museums; despite wear and tear over the years, there is still concrete evidence of genocide. Conversely, a process of destruction and disappearance is taking place due to reasons such as natural erosion or real estate development in places not declared official sites, and not destroyed by the end of the war, such as other types of camps, or death pits. The museums at the remaining sites have lent out objects to other museums throughout the world, such as parts of crematoria, Zyklon B gas canisters, parts of the blocks, prisoners' clothing and other relics of life in the concentration camps, and possessions of Jews taken to the gas chambers. With the increased awareness of the need for preservation, and legislation prohibiting sending objects out of the country for more than a short time, many difficulties have arisen regarding loans.
The lack of materials for exhibitions is especially prominent in exhibitions engaged in the Jewish story. The Jews were not able to document themselves, except for a few notable exceptions. Besides rare archival material, such as the Oyneg Shabbes archives from the Warsaw Ghetto (9) or various Judenrat materials, community ledgers, and diaries and letters by isolated individuals, there are very few existing visual materials. Photographs by Nazis in no way reflect the Jewish viewpoint, but show the victims through the murderers' eyes, depicting the Jews as anonymous, humiliated, in a desperate physical and mental state, and often looking sub-human.
Consequently, everyone who attempts to mount a permanent or temporary exhibition on the Holocaust must address the issue of how to provide visual expression to the historical narrative. The means to do so have undergone profound changes.
The current article discusses two permanent exhibitions created by personnel from Yad Vashem, in which I was involved: the Holocaust History Museum at Yad-Vashem, Jerusalem, Israel, inaugurated in 2005; and the "New Permanent Exhibition 'SHOAH,' Block 27, the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum," Poland, inaugurated in June 2013. I also discuss two of the exhibitions curated by the Museum's Division of Yad Vashem during these years: "'Spots of Light': To be a Woman in the Holocaust" opened in 2007; and the exhibition on the Righteous Among the Nations--"I am My brother's Keeper," Fifty Years of Honoring Righteous Among the Nations (June 2013).
Based on these four exhibitions, I shall attempt to present conclusions on the philosophical and museological trends that have developed over the past decade, and the unique place of visual imagery projected in Holocaust museums. As we know, visual imagery makes an important contribution to creating collective memory and building myths which shape identity.
THE HOLOCAUST HISTORY MUSEUM AT YAD VASHEM, JERUSALEM, ISRAEL
As long as survivors were establishing the museums and exhibitions, the lack of materials was less crucial. The museum founded at Yad Vashem in the 1960s by Holocaust survivors, curator Dr. Yitzhak Arad, and designer Shmuel Grundman, with its changes and expansions over the years, reflected the survivors' desire to show what the German Nazis and their collaborators perpetrated on the Jews. Consequently the exhibition was comprised mainly of enlarged photographs taken by the murderers, with relevant documents. Several models were built to depict the process of genocide in the death camps, but there were no individual Jewish names or material reflecting a Jewish viewpoint. One exception was the work by artist-survivor Naftali Bezem, "From Holocaust to Rebirth," which opened the exhibition. (10) The exhibition began with two objects--a single boy's shoe and a torn Torah scroll (Scroll of the Law). Only at later stages of the exhibition, when the need was felt to include the Jewish viewpoint, were two slide shows introduced: one described Jewish pre-war life, (11) and towards the end of the Museum there was a film on the "illegal" immigration to Eretz Israel. During a certain period there were also slide presentations on life in the camps (12) and on Jewish partisans, but the presentations were removed at some stage. According to Dr. Robert Rozett, who was in charge of one of the renovations, the plan was to have more films, but none were produced because funds ran out. (13)
In 1994, a steering committee at Yad Vashem, whose members had not personally gone through the Holocaust (except for Yad Vashem's Chief Historian Prof. Israel Gutman) began meeting regularly to formulate the concept for a new museum of Holocaust history. The process took about a year and a half, at the end of which we issued a conceptual and architectural program constuting the basis for establishing the Museum. (14) The change in approach was dramatic, but can be summed up in a single sentence: from a museum attempting to show what the Nazis and their collaborators did to the Jews during the Holocaust, the new museum would show the Jewish viewpoint, with the processes determined by the Nazis and their collaborators as the framework for the main narrative.
We wanted to personify the Holocaust and give expression to people, both Jews and murderers, not as a mass, but as individuals. Our statement was that the Holocaust was perpetrated by human beings on other human beings, and that individual conscience and morality played a large part in events.
From a curatorial viewpoint, we had barely any visual materials with which to present the Jewish viewpoint, and so began work in several directions simultaneously. We started out by establishing a collection of artifacts belonging to Jews during the Holocaust, and concentrated on documenting the narrative each object represented. We greatly expanded the art collection (15) with as many works as possible created by Jewish artists during the Holocaust, and integrated the artworks into the historical exhibition. The staff conducted wide-ranging research of the photographs and film footage and attempted to identify as many of the people depicted as possible. We also obtained objects from the camps and murder sites to illustrate the sites and means used for genocide, built numerous models, integrated maps and texts, and introduced poetry and extracts from diaries and letters. Fifty testimonies of men and women survivors were added, as were short films on various themes, such as antisemitism, and 100 individual stories, shown on about 100 screens and panels scattered throughout the exhibition. All of the elements came together to make up the overall exhibition. Despite the curatorial choice of idea and themes, the multiplicity and variety of exhibition elements gives some freedom to the visitor.
Visitors walking through the museum are able to create insights for themselves out of all the elements, suited to their personality and perceptions, as active--not passive--spectators. However, most of the visitors to the Museum wish to be guided, or arrive in a guided framework: 73% come in groups, including educational groups. Out of the 23% families and individuals, about one quarter use the audio guide. (16)
In addition to the films and testimonies, the Museum has two works of video art. "Living Landscape'" by internationally renowned Israeli artist Michal Rovner is screened onto a triangular wall almost 43 ft. high (13m.). The approximately 11 minute film is composed of archival footage, sound recordings and original photographs from Jewish life before World War II, seen against the background of an original map of Europe in Yiddish. The view to the other side of the exhibition hall is the Jerusalem landscape, a look to the future and hope.
The second video art, "Epilogue--Facing the Loss" by Uri Tzaig, is projected near the exit. The work is based on original written statements during the Holocaust. Thus, viewers experience artworks upon entering and leaving the Museum, adding to and complementing the museum experience and the feeling of the relevance of the Holocaust. Almost all of the elements can still stand alone as both works of art, films or testimonies.
The Museum has close to 900,000 visitors annually.
"SPOTS OF LIGHT: TO BE A WOMAN IN THE HOLOCAUST"
Research focused specifically on women in the Holocaust began only in the late 1980s, many years after the end of WWII, which has implications for the mode of the exhibition. l found myself weaving the information on women from delicate, thin strands of information. I had personal stories which I began to gather around 10 themes to reflect the lives of women in the Holocaust: Love, Motherhood, Caring for Others, Womanhood, Partisans and Underground, Everyday Life, Friendship, Faith, Food and Arts. (17) On the surface, the most banal issues constituted the corpus representing women's lives during the Holocaust; however, we could not find representative information and visual material on them.
Comprehensive research yielded photographs of the women about whom I had informative data. We had pre-war photographs of the women who did not survive, and photographs of the survivors taken a short time after the war. The designer, Chanan de Lange, said to me after a look at the curatorial brief that actually there was no way to construct a "conventional" museum exhibition from these materials. All we had were fragments of stories, a few photographs, one original piece of film footage, and a few objects. He suggested digitizing all of the material, which would then be screened. The idea at first seemed too revolutionary, and other options were considered. Days passed, filled with discussions, until we finally understood we had no other choice. We had all of the materials digitized and sent to the editing room. The results were screened on 18 projectors hung near the ceiling for a 360[degrees] projection on all walls. The entire space looks like a huge Internet page, constantly moving. One single large bench was installed in the center of the space.
Keep in mind this was 2007. We had no idea how such an exhibit would look or how it would work until the moment the computers and projectors were switched on. When it was finally screened, a few days before opening, we found that the photographs of the women had to be enlarged, some taking up an entire wall. When visitors entered the exhibition, they would see photographs of women looking their best, with only the text narrating their stories during the Holocaust. The dissonance between the positive image and the text imbued the exhibit with great intensity.
The music in the exhibition space was original music from before the Holocaust, played by Alma Rose (Mahler's niece, who conducted the women's orchestra at Auschwitz-Bikenau, and was murdered there). At the end of the exhibit were several isolated, small glass display cases with a few original objects which in effect emphasized the "missing presence" of tangible materials.
Two smaller spaces were adjacent to the large space, one for a library of books on women in the Holocaust and a computer monitor with the Diary of Etty Hillesum (murdered in Auschwitz-Birkenau); the second space was designed for Michal Rovner's video art, "To Be a Human Being," created especially for this exhibition. The artist interviewed 10 women survivors about their actions during the Holocaust, transformed into beautiful, selfless moments of giving.
The exhibition at Yad Vashem was in English and Hebrew, presenting a challenge in terms of scope of materials.
Later, we created three single-language versions, (18) which became traveling exhibitions in the world, on show at museums of art, history and Holocaust. As the projected exhibitions are without the original objects, they travel very easily: no problem to ship, no insurance, and no problems with original materials. They have infinite possibilities, and can be suited to any space or size. (19) The exhibit looks contemporary but different in each space, and it is moving and surprising to see how each new installation integrates into its new space. (21) Holocaust museums usually add original materials from their collection or from members of the community to create a local connection. I sent a proposal to one of the film festivals whose organizers wanted to screen the film on one wall as a linear film, though this did not come to pass. "Spots of Light" overcame the constraints of the paucity and problematic aspects of the material through its design solution; projection of images became an advantage which reinforced the conceptual aspects of the exhibition and generated a fundamental change in exhibitions on the Holocaust.
THE "NEW PERMANENT EXHIBITION 'SHOAH', BLOCK 27, THE AUSCHWITZ-BIRKENAU STATE MUSEUM," POLAND
The original exhibition in the Jewish Pavilion was built in the late 1960s, and revamped in 1978. The new exhibition, unveiled in June 2013, was initiated and financed by the Israeli government (with the assistance of the Claims Conference, and in coordination with the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum) which charged Yad Vashem with the curatorship and production. The Pavilion is an original block of two floors used to house prisoners (not Jewish) in Auschwitz I during WW II, and had to undergo comprehensive, expensive conservation work. It is located among other national pavilions in the area of the State Museum at Auschwitz.
Several considerations dictated the philosophical idea behind the exhibition and the ways selected to present it. First, the visit to the Pavilion is part of the overall visit to the Museum, the national pavilions and the site of the Birkenau death camp. Second, except for a short, general introductory film about WWII at the Visitors' Center, visitors receive a great deal of information about the site only. Third, most of the visitors come in organized groups, and have only about 20-30 minutes for the Pavilion (Individual visitors have more time).We therefore decided that the exhibit would present the Holocaust of the Jews of Europe and North Africa in its entirety, instead of referring only to Auschwitz-Birkenau.
Another decision arose from the very problematic issue of maintenance. Except for a security guard on site, there would be no one to care for original materials; hence the decision not to exhibit original material.
These decisions led to the realization that we needed a curatorial approach which would distill and crystallize both content and materials. The option chosen as the main means of exhibition in the Pavilion was projection (rear and front) of images, films and stills by various means, besides the maps and thematic texts. In the area where the extermination of the Jews is shown, there would be a projection in real time from the Birkenau site (to emphasize that the murder took place there).
The only areas without projections are the two commemoration spaces, one designed by artist Michal Rover in memory of the murdered children, and "The Book of Names" for those murdered, as well as the Reflections space and the educational space of the "Big Questions," which are not part of the usual visitors' route.
All of the contents are accompanied by extremely short texts, or iconic
quotations or statements. The visitor thus receives prepared messages on the major themes. The idea was that viewers would create an integrated experience by connecting the various messages and issues on display to arrive at a basic understanding of the overall event of the Holocaust. Such an understanding would also enable the viewer to put the site into context, as well as the exhibitions outside of the Jewish Pavilion, which addressed Auschwitz-Birkenau exclusively. (20) All labels in the Pavilion had to be trilingual, in English, Polish and Hebrew, forcing us to minimize and shorten the texts even more.
Approximately 1.5 million visitors see the Auschwitz-Birkenau Museum each year, the greater majority from Europe, with a total of about 60,000 visitors annually from Israel, groups and individuals.
"I AM MY BROTHER'S KEEPER": 50 YEARS OF RECOGNITION OF THE RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS
This exhibition engages in the pure goodness of being human. It is difficult to describe anything more positive than the actions of people awarded the distinction of Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem in official recognition of saving Jewish lives during the Holocaust, while risking their lives and the lives of their families.
If the Holocaust was mainly the story of human evil, expressed in the greatest moral decline imaginable by nations and individuals, we may say that the approximately 25,000 Righteous are the rays of light illuminating the darkness cast by the millions of perpetrators and bystanders. They show that it was possible to behave otherwise, even at risk to what was most precious to them. These people are the hallmarks of humanity.
But how best to express this in a "Holocaust exhibition"? It was clear that we had to choose only a few stories of rescuers, because we could not show all of them. As in the subject of the women, the visual materials were mainly photographs and documents--and there were very few of them.
The curator's solution was to write the concise essence of five stories and present each as a seven-minute film. Designer Chanan de Lange proposed building five "hills," places in which humanity rose above evil, and project the films onto them. Visitors could sit around the "hills" alone or with another person, and view the films. In between the projected stories, a short multimedia presentation of floating letters glittering in the dark, slowly line up into a sentence reflecting heroic acts by the rescuers. The design calls for an opening section where photographs of the rescuers are projected, integrated with their statements explaining why they saved Jews. The concluding section describes the Righteous Among the Nations project established by Yad Vashem 50 years ago. This section, too, is a projection of texts on the wall, and not written panels.
The exhibit (open June 2013) largely integrates the approach developed in the "Spots of Light" exhibition and in the "Jewish Pavilion at the Auschwitz State Museum." It summarizes the issue hi its most concise form, distills it, and presents it in a design to reflect the content to the visitor. One might say that the exhibition can be viewed as a video art installation.
What we have now is a change in perception from a conservative exhibition, as may be seen in the Holocaust History Museum, in which film and audiovisual media are only one of the components of the display, (22) to exhibitions comprised exclusively of cinematic, audiovisual elements.
"The projection approach" provides the solution to having only shreds of information and few concrete objects for exhibit, as well as the opposite situation of a plethora of materials, by building a coherent whole, a well-put together, tight structure. It is innovative, using a rapid, young language suited to an audience accustomed to texting, tweeting and other online media, contributing greatly to the dissemination of knowledge on the Holocaust.
The change in the museological approach is reflected to the greatest extent by the fact that the narrative of the Holocaust, by its very complex nature, is seeking new ways to express itself. In the conservative exhibitions of the past, visitors had to build the narrative for themselves out of the components presented, requiring time and effort. The contemporary viewer prefers information "pre-packaged" and, I dare say, "predigested," such as in Wikipedia. This may also be seen in the way people visit museums, usually opting for a guided tour in groups, or, alternatively, to have an audio guide. They want the real or virtual docent to mediate between them and the exhibition and select information and materials on their behalf. An audience accustomed to earphones or a guide mediating the experience frequently denies itself the vital, primary contact with the original object.
Another important element in this approach is the increased significance of curatorship. No museum or exhibition is "neutral" in how it presents materials: every exhibition is a visual reflection representing the philosophy of those responsible for the exhibit. No exhibit is mounted without a concept behind it. (2)
Projecting a digitized exhibit simultaneously maximizes and minimizes choice: minimizing by presenting the material in tightly orchestrated flashes of light and strong visual means, so that it is "well done." It is based on data, but touches the emotions directly through the quality of contemporary means of presentation, "serving it up." On the other hand, the projected exhibition method maximizes the options to present an almost infinite amount of data and its context, which might confuse and overload the viewer, but nevertheless can provide more choices, (23) and also facilitates updating the screened material.
Although we saw the many benefits of the "projection approach," questions arise: Are museums being transformed into movie theatres in which visitors stride through a film instead of being seated to watch it unfold? Are museums losing their uniqueness as places in which the original object and creative artwork are "the main event" which people come to see up close? Are we approaching a point at which there will no longer be a need to come to a museum's physical plant since exhibitions will be online only? Are our "modern cathedrals"--the museums--going to become "white elephants"? Will the unique human tie created between museumgoers disappear? Is there not a possibility here for the dominance of curators? Will the museum become just another SMS or YouTube clip, with its impact dissipating as it becomes part of the information overload? Or will exhibitions become video-art installations, with the curators/designers seeing themselves as artists who creates art, while the historical narrative becomes just one means among other resources? The answers will probably become clear over the next few years. Let us hope that in the museum world there will be room for many approaches, and along with films, videos, the use of technology and new media, the power of the original artwork and artifact will continue to enrich our lives.
The Holocaust History Museum at Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, Israel
Chief Curator: Avner Shalev. Curator in Charge: Yehudit Inbar. Historical Consultant: Prof. Israel Gutman. Designer: Dorit Harel. Architect: Moshe Safdie. Senior Curator for Artifacts: Haviva Peled Carmeli. Senior Photography Curator: Nina Springer Aharoni. Senior Art Curator: Yehudit Shendar.
"Spots of Light: To be a Woman in the Holocaust," Yad Vashem
Curator: Yehudit Inbar. Deputy Curator: Rinat Pavis. Design: Studio Chanan de Lange Ltd.
The New Permanent Exhibition 'Shoah,' Block 27, "The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum," Poland
Executive Director and Exhibition Curator: Avner Shalev. Senior Curator: Yehudit Kol-Inbar. Curator: Rinat Harris-Pavis. Historian: Dr. Avraham Milgram. Project Manager: Ishai Amrami. Architecture and Design: Studio de Lange LTD.Hanan de Lange, Tal de Lange, Shirley Marco. Visual Communication Design: Adi Stern, Yael Burstein, Ori Succary." ani Ma'amin, I believe Prayer" Video Installation: Hagit Shimoni. "Jewish life between the two World wars," "Return to Life": Multimedia installations, Niv Ben David, produced by SND, Music--Moshe Baavour, sound design--Chen Nevo. "Nazi Antisemitic Ideology" Sound design--Ishai Adar. "how Jews coped during the Holocaust" Directed by Noemi Schory, Belfi films. "Traces of Life" wall drawings and voices: Michal Rovner. "The book of Names,' design: Hanan de Lange.
"I Am My Brother's Keeper": 50 years of Recognition of the Righteous Among the Nations, Yad Vashem
Curator: Yehudit Shendar. Substance Consultant: Irena Steinfeld. Film Director: Gavriel Bibliovitz. Production: Shula Spiegel and Dana Ariel. Script: Oren Ne'eman. Multimedia production: Udi Morag. Design: Studio Chanan de Lange Ltd.
Caption: Life in Germany in the 1930s (partial view), The Holocaust History Museum, Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, 2005. Photo: Courtesy of Yad Vashem
Caption: Survivor Rabbi Yisrael Meir Lau (former Chief Rabbi of Israel) looks at the photograph of his murdered mother in the exhibition "Spots of Light." Photo: Courtesy of Yad Vashem.
Caption: Michael Rovner, "Living Landscape," The Holocaust History Museum, Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, 2005. Photo: Courtesy of Yad Vashem.
Caption: Survivor Rudolfine Fini Steindling, visiting "Spots of Light: To be a Woman in the Holocaust," Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, 2007. Photo: Courtesy of Yad Vashem.
Caption: "Spots of Light," Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Dresden, 2008. Photo: Courtesy of Dresden Museum.
Caption: "Spots of Light," Museo de la Memoria de Andalucia, Granada, 2010. Photo: Courtesy of Yad Vashem.
Caption: "Ideology" room. (Photo by Pawel Sawicki). Photo: Courtesy of Yad Vashem.
Caption: "Geography of Murder, Extermination Camps and Killing Sites" room. (Photo by Pawel Sawicki). Photo: Courtesy of Yad Vashem.
Caption: "Interlude Sentences." Photo: Courtesy of Yad Vashem.
Caption: The numbers of the "Righteous Among the Nations." Photo: Courtesy of Yad Vashem.
Della Pergola, Sergio. "Jewish Demography: Population Growth, 1700-1939," in Dan Diner (ed.), Encyclopedia of Jewish History and Culture. 87-94.
Diner, Dan (ed.), Encyclopaedia of Jewish History and Culture/Enzyklopaedie juedischer Geschichte und Kultur. 7 vols., published on behalf of the Saxonian Academy of Sciences. Stuttgart and Weimar: Verlag J.B. Metzler, 2011.
Hacker, B.C. and M. Vining (eds.). A Companion to Women's Military History. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2012.
Inbar, Yehudit. (1988). Writing Museum Programs. Jerusalem: The Museum Council, Ministry of Education and Culture, 1-16. [Hebrew]
--. (2002). '"Power and Fragility': The History of the Art Collection at Yad Vashem," in D. Mickenberg, C. Granof, and P. Hayes (Eds.), Last Expression: Art from Auschwitz: The Museum at Auschwitz, 1941-1945. The Mary and Leigh Block
Museum, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.
--. (2007). Spots of Light: To Be a Woman in the Holocaust, catalog of an exhibition at the Yad Vashem Museum, Jerusalem.
Kol-Inbar, Yehudit. (2010). "On Museums, Programs and Magic," in H. Taragan and N. Gal, Assaph: Studies in Art History, 13-14 (Ramat Aviv: Tel Aviv University, 2010), 55-74. [Hebrew].
Miron, G. and S. Shulhani (eds.). (2009). Encyclopedia of the Ghettos during the Holocaust. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 2009. Hebrew online encyclopedia posted on the Yad Vashem website January 2013.
Ofer, A. (2013) Haaretz (January 25, 2013): 18. [Hebrew[
Shalev, A. and Inbar, Y. (2008) "At Eye Level--the New Holocaust Historical Museum at Yad Vashem," in Massuah Yearbook, 35 (2008) Islands of Memory: Holocaust Museums in the 21st Century. Kiryat-Ono, Israel: Massuah Institute for Holocaust Studies/Ministry of Defense. 65-74.
SHOAH: The New Permanent Exhibition in Block27 at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum. Ed. L. Goldstein. Special Issue, Vad Yashem Magazine (June 2013), 8 pp.
(1) The figure is now estimated at 5.7 million Jews murdered. See n. 3.
(2) The number is based on over 2.5 million Testimony Pages furnished to Yad Vashem, which have the validity of legal documents, plus various lists of those murdered found in different archives.
(3) Based mainly on census figures from the 1920s. See Sergio Della Pergola, "Jewish demography: Population growth 1700-1939," in Dan Diner (ed.), Encyclopedia of Jewish History and Culture, 5-6, 17.
(4) From the Yad Vashem Encyclopedia of the Ghettos during the Holocaust, Guy Miron and Shlomit Shulhani (eds.), (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 2009), and the Hebrew online encyclopedia posted on the Yad Vashem website January 2013. See also Aderet Ofer, Haaretz (January 25, 2013), 18.
(5) Beginning mostly from the 1980s. See Yehudit Kol-Inbar, "Not for three lines in History," in A Companion to Women's Military History, Barton C. Hacker and Margaret Vining (eds.), (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2012), 542.
(6) The Yad Vashem Museums Division is preparing a comprehensive exhibition on children in the Holocaust, planned for 2014.
(7) "Gathering the Fragments," the national campaign initiated by Yad Vashem to rescue personal items from the Holocaust period, generated about 2,000 objects. It seems that there are only isolated items remaining, mostly held by families.
(8) About one month after the invasion, an order of July 22, 1941, was issued by General Otto Woehler, commander of the sector in which the Einsatzgruppe D were active. The order prohibited photography in the field, ghettos and camps, and ordered the confiscation of all photographs of murdered bodies
(9) Underground archives established in Warsaw by Dr. Emanuel Ringelblum, who collected documents, diaries and research studies on the life of the Jews of Warsaw and elsewhere in Poland. Only part of it was found after the war.
(10) Naftali Bezem (b. 1924), cast aluminum relief, 3.7 x 11.8m., collection of the Yad Vashem Museum of Art, Jerusalem. Donated by the Chirurg Family in memory of Pinchas and Hannah Gershovsky. The piece was transferred to the wall facing the entrance to the space of the temporary exhibitions.
(11) At the end of the 1930s in Europe; located at the end of the first hall.
(12) Along with models of the camps in the third hall.
(13) E-mails from Dr. Rozett and from Dr. David Silberklang, February 2, 2013.
(14) Avner Shalev and Yehudit Inbar, "At Eye Level: the New Holocaust Historical Museum at Yad Vashem," in Massuah Yearbook, 35, "Islands of Memory: Holocaust Museums in the 21st Century. Kiryat-Ono, Israel: Massuah Institute for Holocaust Studies/Ministry of Defense Publishers, 2008.
(15) The biggest collection in the world, containing about 9,000 works of art, mostly from the time of the Holocaust, see: Y. Inbar, "Power and Fragility: The History of the Art Collection at Yad Vashem," in The Last Expression: Art and Auschwitz, Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art, Northwestern University (Evanston, 2002).
(16) Labels in the Museum are in Hebrew and English only, while the audio guide offers Hebrew, English, French, Russian, Arabic, Spanish or German.
(17) See also Yehudit Inbar, Spots of Light: To Be a Woman in the Holocaust, catalog of an exhibition at the Yad Vashem Museum, Jerusalem (2007), 7-9.
(18) In English, German, and Spanish.
(19) By removing projectors, or combining programs from two projectors into one.
(20) See also Avner Shalev, "Shoah" in Yad Vashem Magazine (June 2013): 2-3, and L. Goldstein, "Designing the Exhibition: The Challenges and the Solution" in Yad Vashem Magazine (June 2013): 4. The latter is an interview with the designer, Professor H. De-Lange.
(21) It was exhibited in various types of spaces, such as an ancient cellar in Vienna and a new space in the museum in Grenada, and elsewhere.
(22) In addition to elements such as objects, documents, reconstructions, and more.
(23) See also Yehudit Kol-Inbar, "On Museums, Programs and Magic," in H. Taragan and N. Gal, Assaph, 13-14 (Racnat Aviv: Tel Aviv University, 2010), 55-58; see also: Yehudit Inbar, Writing Museum Programs, The Museum Council, Ministry of Education and Culture, 1988), 1-16.
(24) See also The Role of Holocaust Museums: Achieving a Balance Between Scholarship and Remembrance, Stockholm International Forum of the Holocaust (January 2000), 204, 205, 209.
Please note: Illustration(s) are not available due to copyright restrictions.
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