Exercise and antidepressants improve fibromyalgia.
* Fibromyalgia is diagnosed based on a patient's report of widespread pain of 3 months' duration or longer, and identification of 11 of 18 possible tender points (C).
* Fibromyalgia is functionally disabling and diminishes well-being; therefore, supportive care and evidence-based interventions should be offered (C).
* Aerobic exercise and antidepressants have been shown to moderately relieve symptoms of fibromyalgia in the short term (A).
When patient complains of pain "all over, consider fibromyalgia, which typically causes a well-documented pattern of pain and characteristic points of tenderness observable on physical exam. Once alternative diagnoses have been ruled out, offer the patient a 2-pronged therapeutic regimen that has proven successful at moderately relieving symptoms.
* FIRST RULE OUT CONCOMITANT OR MIMICKING DISORDERS
Consider the differential diagnosis carefully. (1) A person who meets the criteria for fibromyalgia may have yet another cause of chronic pain, such as rheumatoid arthritis, or may instead have a different treatable condition that mimics fibromyalgia.
Drug-induced myopathy. Pain suggestive of fibromyalgia should prompt a review of the patient's medicines. Drug-induced myopathy may occur in persons taking colchicine, statins, corticosteroids, or antimalarial drugs.
Connective tissue, autoimmune, and rheumatologic disorders. Consider this group of disorders next. In 1 study, one fourth of persons referred to a rheumatology clinic with presumed fibromyalgia instead had a spondyloarthropathy. (2)
Dermatomyositis and polymyositis may present with muscle pain and tenderness but, unlike fibromyalgia, cause proximal muscle weakness.
Systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and polymyalgia rheumatica can also lead to widespread pain.
Blood tests such as antinuclear antibody (ANA), C-reactive protein, or erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) may prove helpful when a patient has a history of unexplained rashes, fever, weight loss, joint swelling, iritis, hepatitis, nephritis, or inflammatory back pain (onset before age 40, insidious onset, present for more than 3 months, associated with morning stiffness, improvement with exercise). (3) In the absence of these signs, ANA, rheumatoid factor, and ESR testing in persons with fatigue and diffuse musculoskeletal pain have low positive predictive value. (4) The rate of false-positive ANA results may be as high as 8% to 11%, especially at low titers. (5,6)
Hypothyroidism. Widespread musculoskeletal pain has also been associated with hypothyroidism (level of evidence [LOE]: 2, case-control design), (7,8) supporting the inclusion of a thyroid-stimulating hormone in the work-up of fibromyalgia (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B). More recent research suggests that musculoskeletal pain is more related to thyroid microsomal antibodies than to hypothyroidism, (9) but there has been no further evaluation of antithyroid antibodies in persons with fibromyalgia.
* DIAGNOSIS: MOSTLY BY CLINICAL JUDGMENT
Persons with fibromyalgia have widespread pain, often worst in the neck and trunk. (1) Additional symptoms include fatigue, morning stiffness, waking unrefreshed, paresthesias, and headache. (1,10-15) (See "The toll of fibromyalgia.")
The diagnosis of fibromyalgia is based on 2 criteria:
1. A patient's report of widespread pain (right and left sides of the body, above and below the waist, and including the axial skeleton) persisting for at least 3 months
2. The clinician's identification of at least 11 of 18 potential tender points as specified in the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1990 Criteria for the Classification of Fibromyalgia (Figure) (LOE: 3, case-control design, nonindependent reference standard). (1)
These criteria do not exclude persons with rheumatic diseases or other chronic pain conditions. (1,37-39)
Caveats with the criteria
Despite these well-defined criteria, the diagnosis is not as clear-cut as it may appear. In 1990, the ACR convened a panel of 24 experts to define and standardize the diagnosis of fibromyalgia. The basis for this consensus was a group of 293 patients with fibromyalgia, each of whom had been assessed by one of the expert investigators according to "his or her usual method of diagnosis." (1)
The investigators determined the unique characteristics of fibromyalgia by comparing the 293 cases to 265 controls who had other chronic pain conditions (eg, low back pain syndromes, neck pain syndromes, regional tendonitis, possible systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis). The investigators considered a multitude of symptoms and signs including sleep disturbance, morning stiffness, paresthesias, irritable bowel syndrome, fatigue, and anxiety. Their conclusion was that widespread pain and tender points were the most sensitive (88.4%) and specific (81.1%) distinguishing criteria for fibromyalgia. (1)
No reference standard. However, these calculations of sensitivity and specificity are less meaningful than in studies where an independent reference standard or gold standard is available. The ACR expert panel derived the criteria in a circular way using a nonindependent reference standard--ie, patients thought to have fibromyalgia compared with control patients thought not to have fibromyalgia. The expert panel essentially set the specificity of the criteria at 100%, since the specificity is based on the rate of false positives.
Furthermore, because there was no objective gold standard for determining who truly had fibromyalgia (and we do not yet have an independent biologic "test" for this condition), this panel could not determine whether additional symptoms or signs that should be considered in the diagnosis of fibromyalgia.
Biases, dubious representation? Unknown elements in this analysis are 1) how closely the reference population used to develop these criteria represents the true population of persons with fibromyalgia, and 2) the biases of the ACR experts. Finally, the positive and negative predictive values of these criteria will depend on the prevalence of fibromyalgia and other similar conditions.
Morbidity not predicted by criteria. In addition, the 1990 ACR criteria assume the number of tender points and degree of pain are directly proportional to overall morbidity; however, a person with fewer than 11 tender points may experience significant morbidity, indicating that the sensitivity of the criteria may be low. (40-42) As suggested by Wolfe in 1997, "the tender point count functions as a sedimentation rate for distress" in persons with chronic pain. (42) Thus, the authors of the 1990 ACR study stated that ACR criteria should not be applied rigidly in diagnosing and treating fibromyalgia, (42) leaving a large role for clinical judgment.
Subjective factors. A final difficulty with the diagnosis of fibromyalgia is its dependence on patient report and examiner technique. (1) In the 1990 ACR criteria, tender points were defined as a complaint of pain (or any more dramatic response) when an examiner applied 4 kg of pressure with the pulp of the thumb or first two or three fingers, calibrated with a dolorimeter (a device that can measure the amount and rate of pressure applied over a specified surface area). (1) It has been shown that practitioners require training to apply 4 kg of force with regularity. (43)
However, applying exactly 4 kg of pressure may not be clinically important. Other studies have shown that finger palpation or dolorimetry identifies tender points with equal accuracy (LOE: 3, case-control design with non-independent reference standard). (44-45)
A controlled study of manual palpation was conducted to standardize the tender point survey described in the Figure. (46) This method compares well with the ACR 1990 method, with a sensitivity of 88.6% and a specificity of 71.4%. (46)
To speed up the examination, a particular sequence of palpating survey points was established, with the patient positioned as outlined in the Figure. Using the thumb pad of his/her dominant hand, each examiner applied 4 kg of pressure, at a rate of 1 kg per second, just once at each survey point. Examiners learned to apply the proper amount of pressure by standing a patient on a scale and watching the scale while pressing down perpendicularly on the trapezius survey point.
The examinee was seated throughout the exam, except when lying on the side for palpation of the trochanter and lying supine for palpation of the knee. A tender point was identified when the patient rated the pain resulting from palpation at least 2 out of 10 (0, no pain; 10 worst pain) (LOE: 3, case-control design, nonindependent reference standard). (46)
Until a firm biologic basis for fibromyalgia is discovered and a true gold standard for testing is developed, the diagnosis of fibromyalgia will remain a matter of clinical judgment and convention (SOR: C).
A diagnosis of fibromyalgia alone may result in health benefits. In a year-long study published in 1986, Cathey et al reported that among 81 persons diagnosed with fibromyalgia, hospitalization rates decreased in the year following diagnosis (LOE: 2, case-control design). (47)
Treatments for fibromyalgia are numerous, ranging from balneotherapy (bathing) to low-energy laser therapy, and studies of interventions are often poorly designed, based on small numbers of patients, report nonstandardized outcomes, and yield conflicting results. (48)
Two interventions--aerobic exercise and antidepressant therapy--appear to improve fibromyalgia.
Though pain relief is insignificant with aerobic exercise, other positive effects are significant (SOR: A). A 2003 Cochrane review identified 7 high-quality studies of aerobic training, defined as: 1) frequency of 2 days per week; 2) intensity sufficient to achieve 40% to 85% of heart rate reserve, or 55% to 90% of predicted maximum heart rate; 3) duration of sessions 20 to 60 minutes, either continuously or intermittently throughout the day, using any mode of aerobic exercise; and 4) a total exercise period of at least 6 weeks (Table 1). (49)
Improved functioning, tender-point threshold.
Study subjects engaged in aerobic dancing, whole-body aerobics, stationary cycling, and walking. Persons who exercised improved in global well-being, physical function, and aerobic fitness (by about 17%), and raised the pain threshold of tender points (by about 35%). (49) Four of the studies were similar enough to be combined for meta-analysis, showing a statistically robust but modest reduction in tender-point threshold (LOE: 1).
Although it seems likely that pain or fatigue might increase at least initially with exercise, participants in the exercise groups were not deterred; the researchers pointed out that reporting of adverse effects of aerobic exercise appeared incomplete, but there was no significant difference in drop-out rates between the exercise (25.1%) and control groups (12.5%). (49)
In the long-term studies (>6 months), improvements were noted up to 1 year after treatment ended but not after 4.5 years. (49) This Cochrane review further supports aerobic exercise as bring beneficial for persons with fibromyalgia. (50,51)
Additional improvement measures. A similar systematic review concluded that although studies were too heterogeneous to draw final conclusions, preliminary data supported aerobic exercise (LOE: 2, with heterogeneous studies). (50) In another comprehensive meta-analysis of all treatments for fibromyalgia, heterogeneous treatment studies ranging from exercise to physical therapy were identified as physically-based treatments. The analysis revealed a positive effect on physical status (including tender-point index, grip strength, and physician global rating of pain symptoms), fibromyalgia symptoms (including self-reported fatigue and pain using visual analog scales), and psychological status (including measurements of the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales), with no effect on daily functioning (including outcome measures such as the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire [FIQ]) (LOE: 2, with heterogeneous studies). (51)
The authors noted that the magnitude of the positive effects of physically-based treatments on fibromyalgia were comparable with drug treatment judged effective for arthritis. (51)
Less certain nonpharmacologic therapies Other nonpharmacologic treatments for fibromyalgia are educational interventions, relaxation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and acupuncture. These therapies have undergone rigorous analysis, but studies have been too heterogeneous to allow for strong conclusions across the studies. (50)
A recent Cochrane review concluded that although physical training plus education had a positive effect at long-term follow up, evidence is insufficient to recommend multidisciplinary rehabilitation, defined as the care of a physician plus psychological, social, and vocational interventions (SOR: C). (52)
In contrast, other investigators have concluded that multidisciplinary treatment incorporating physically and psychologically based treatments was more successful than treatment with a single modality. (51) A systematic review of acupuncture identified only 1 high-quality randomized controlled trial (Table 2), which did show some improvement in symptoms (SOR: C). (53)
Therapy with antidepressants
Of all pharmacologic treatments, antidepressants have undergone the most thorough study. Although the optimal role of medications in fibromyalgia has not been delineated, 3 meta-analyses have reported that antidepressants, most commonly amitriptyline, reduce symptoms during treatment of a few months duration (SOR: A) (Table 3). (54,55)
Any antidepressants. Pooled results from 13 studies (8 of tricyclics, 3 of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, 2 of s-adenosyl-methionine) revealed a moderate effect on pain, sleep, and global well-being, and a mild effect on fatigue and number of trigger points. (54) The authors calculated that persons with fibromyalgia treated with antidepressants were 4 times more likely to improve than persons treated with placebo (number need to treat [NNT]=4). Adverse effects appeared insignificant but were poorly reported in the individual studies.
Tricyclics only. In another meta-analysis, 9 high-quality studies of tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, dothiepin, clomipramine, maprotiline and cyclobenzaprine--classified by the authors as a tricyclic antidepressant) were analyzed for 7 outcomes (patient self-rating of pain, fatigue, stiffness, and sleep; the patient and physician global assessment of improvement; and tenderness of tender points). Significant responses were observed in 25% to 37% of patients. On meta-analysis, outcome measures improved moderately overall with tricyclic treatment, mostly in sleep and global assessment, least in stiffness and tenderness. Long-term safety (more than 8 weeks) and efficacy of tricyclic therapy for fibromyalgia have not been demonstrated. (55)
Combined trials. A third meta-analysis demonstrated improvement when trials of different antidepressants were combined. (51) By pooling studies of antidepressants (amitriptyline, dothiepin, fluoxetine, citalopram, and S-adenosylmethionine) improvements in physical status, fibromyalgia symptoms, and psychological status were found, with no improvement in daily functioning. (51) Although the effect was smaller than physically-based treatments, the effect size was still comparable to drug treatment for arthritis. (51)
Muscle relaxants (primarily cyclobenzaprine) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories have been studied, with no evidence of a positive effect. (51) Thus, the best evidence currently supports the use of aerobic exercise and antidepressants, particularly tricyclics, for the treatment of fibromyalgia.
* INSTRUCTIONS TO PATIENTS, MANAGEMENT FOLLOW-UP
Persons with fibromyalgia should know that although specific symptoms, particularly pain, may be not be dramatically reduced with treatment, aerobic exercise and tricyclic antidepressants alleviate some symptoms with minimal adverse effects (SOR: A). Emphasize that these treatments have been shown to improve one's ability to cope with fibromyalgia symptoms. The best-studied antidepressant for treating fibromyalgia is amitriptyline, usually given at 25 to 50 mg, nightly.
Exercise. Prescribe aerobic exercise, at least twice per week for 20 to 60 minutes, targeting a heart rate of 55% to 90% of the predicted maximum (180 beats per minute-age) (SOR: A). One caveat: aerobic exercise in the literature was usually supervised, so the ideal exercise regimen might be a fibromyalgia-specific program.
Medication. Consider a trial of amitriptyline, 25 to 50 mg every night, for up to 6 weeks (SOR A). A caveat: tricyclic antidepressants may also have significant side effects, which could outweigh moderate benefits. Moreover, treatment effectiveness beyond 2 months has not been proven. Therefore, longitudinal measurement of outcomes should be part of ongoing care.
Follow-up. Studies have not determined which measures are best to follow (see "Assessing treatment efficacy"), but they might include the following (SOR: C):
1. Pain (eg, visual analogue scale, pain drawings)
2. Number of tender points, and tenderness
3. Physical function (eg, cardiorespiratory fitness, self-reported physical function measured by the physical-impairment subscale of the FIQ, (56) strength)
4. Global well-being or perceived improvement (eg, physician-rated change, FIQ total score)
5. Self-efficacy (eg, Arthritis Self-efficacy Questionnaire)
6. Fatigue and sleep (eg, FIQ fatigsubscale, sleep visual analogue scale)
7. Psychological function (eg, FIQ subscales for depression and anxiety)
8. Ability to work
9. Health care consumption and costs. (47,50)
Education or psychological coping strategies may also contribute positively to overall patient and family well-being. Consider education/ psychological counseling (SOR: C) and acupuncture (SOR: B).
TABLE 1 Aerobic exercise for fibromyalgia: the evidence Aerobic exercise (SOR: A) Study (LOE) Treatment specifics Results Busch et al (49) Supervised aerobic trai- Benefits over controls: (1) ning--eg, aerobic dancing, improvements in stationary cycling, aerobic performance, walking: 1) frequency of tender points, and 2 days per week, global well-being. 2) intensity sufficient to achieve 40%-85% of heart Adverse effects: rate reserve or 55%-90% poorly reported. predicted maximum heart rate, 3) duration of sessions of 20-60 minutes duration, either conti- nuously or intermittently throughout the day, and using any mode of aerobic exercise, 4) total time period of at least 6 weeks, maximum 1 year in these studies. Sim et al (50) Not standardized, but 3 Benefits over controls: (2) studies set exercise preliminary evidence intensity at 60%-75% of for improvements in max. heart rate. Duration symptoms. 6 weeks to 20 weeks. Adverse effects: not reported. Rossy et al (51) Loosely defined and Benefits over controls: (2) heterogeneous, including improvement in "exercise, strengthening, physical status, walking, stretching, pool fibromyalgia therapy, cycling, swim- symptoms, and ming, and aerobics." psychological status with effectiveness comparable with pharmacologic treatment for arthritis pain. Adverse effects: not reported. Study (LOE) Comments Busch et al (49) 4 high-quality aerobic (1) training studies included in meta- analysis. No significant improvements in pain intensity, fatigue, sleep, and psycho- logical function. Sim et al (50) Heterogeneous (2) studies. Rossy et al (51) Heterogeneous (2) studies. No improvement in daily functioning. SOR, strength of recommendation; LOE, level of evidence. For an explanation of these ratings, see page 268. TABLE 2 Alternative nonpharmacologic therapies for fibromyalgia: the evidence Multidisciplinary rehabilitation (physician and psychological, social, or vocational interventions) (SOR: C) Study (LOE) Treatment specifics Results Karjalainen Education plus physical Benefits over controls: et al (52) (2) training vs education; not significant. education plus cogni- tive treatment vs Adverse effects: education and group not reported. discussion; behavioral therapy vs education; stress management vs aerobic exercise. Acupuncture (SOR: B) Berman et al (53) Systematic review. Benefits over placebo: (2) improvements in pain, stiffness, global improvement. Adverse effects: pain with needle insertion. Study (LOE) Comments Karjalainen Heterogeneous et al (52) (2) studies. No high-quality randomized controlled trials identified. Acupuncture (SOR: B) Berman et al (53) Only 1 randomized (2) controlled trial. No long-term results. SOR, strength of recommendation; LOE, level of evidence. For an explanation of these ratings, see page 268. TABLE 3 Antidepressant therapy for fibromyalgia: the evidence Antidepressants (SOR: A) Study (LOE) Treatment specifics Results Arnold et al (55) Tricyclic antidepres- Benefits over placebo: (1) sants: significant response Amitriptyline 25-50 mg in 25%-37% of patients daily (n=4 trials) with moderate Dothiepin 75 mg daily improvements in sleep, (n=1) pain, and global Cyclobenzaprine 10-40 assessment by patient mg daily (n=4) and physician, and Clomipramine 75 mg modest improvements in daily (n=1) fatigue tenderness and Maprotiline 75 mg stiffness. daily (n=1) O'Malley et al (54) Amitriptyline 50 mg Benefits over placebo: (2) daily (n=8 trials) number needed to treat S-adenosylmethionine of 4 with moderate 200-800 mg daily improvements in sleep, (n=2) overall well-being, Cyclobenzaprine 20 mg and pain severity. daily (PM), 10 mg Mild improvements in daily (PM) (n=1) fatigue and number Fluoxetine 20 mg daily of tender points. (n=2) Citalopram 20 mg daily (n=1) Clomipramine 75 mg once daily (n=1) Rossy et al (51) Amitriptyline (n=7 Benefits over placebo: (2) trials) improvement in Dothiepin (n=1) physical status and Fluoxetine (n=2) fibromyalgia symptoms Citalopram (n=1) with effectiveness 5-hydroxytryptophan comparable with (n=1) pharmacologic treatment for Arthritis pain. Adverse effects: not reported. Study (LOE) Comments Arnold et al (55) Studies short-term, (1) most less than 6 weeks. In the only trial of 26 weeks, by the end of the study, the effectiveness of amitriptyline and cyclobenzaprine were no greater than placebo. O'Malley et a1 (54) Combined effects (2) from heterogeneous classes of antidepressants. Rossy et al (51) Heterogeneous (2) studies. No effect on daily functioning or psychological status. SOR, strength of recommendation; LOE, level of evidence. For an explanation of these ratings, see page 268.
The authors would like to express their appreciation to Cheryl Mongillo, Peggy Lardear, and Brian Pellini for their assistance in preparing the manuscript as well as Dolores Moran and Diane Wolf for their library assistance, and to James Newman, MD, rheumatologist, for his expert suggestions. Funding for this project was provided by a grant from the Delaware Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health of Health and Social Services, Division of Public Health.
(1.) Wolfe F, Smythe HA, Yunus MB, et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 33:160-172.
(2.) Fitzcharles MA, Esdaile JM. The overdiagnosis of fibromyalgia syndrome. Am J Med 1997; 103:44-50.
(3.) Dougados M, van der Linden S, Juhlin R, et al. The European Spondylarthropathy Study Group preliminary criteria for the classification of spondylarthropathy. Arthritis Rheum 1991; 34:1218-1227.
(4.) Suarez-Almazor ME, Gonzalez-Lopez L, Gamez-Nava JI, Belseck E, Kendall CJ, Davis P. Utilization and predictive value of laboratory tests in patients referred to rheumatologists by primary care physicians. J Rheumatol 1998; 25:1980-1985.
(5.) Al-Allaf AW, Ottewell L, Pullar T. The prevalence and significance of positive antinuclear antibodies in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: 2-4 years' follow-up. Clin Rheumatol 2002; 21:472-477.
(6.) Yunus MB, Hussey FX, Aldag JC. Antinuclear antibodies and connective tissue disease features in fibromyalgia syndrome: a controlled study. J Rheumatol 1993; 20:1557-1560.
(7.) Delamere JP, Scott DL, Felix-Davies DD. Thyroid dysfunction and rheumatic diseases. J R Soc Med 1982; 75:102-106.
(8.) Carette S, Lefrancois L. Fibrositis and primary hypothyroidism. J Rheumatol 1988; 15:1418-1421.
(9.) Aarflot T, Bruusgaard D. Association between chronic widespread musculoskeletal complaints and thyroid autoimmunity. Results from a community survey. Scand J Prim Health Care 1996; 14:111-115.
(10.) White KP Speechley M, Harth M, Ostbye T. The London Fibromyalgia Epidemiology Study: comparing the demographic and clinical characteristics in 100 random community cases of fibromyalgia versus controls. J Rheumatol 1999; 26:1577-1585.
(11.) Wolfe F, Hawley DJ. Evidence of disordered symptom appraisal in fibromyalgia: increased rates of reported comorbidity and comorbidity severity. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1999; 17:297-303.
(12.) Leventhal LJ. Management of fibromyalgia. Ann Intern Med 1999; 131:850-858.
(13.) Gedalia A, Garcia CO, Molina JF, Bradford NJ, Espinoza LR. Fibromyalgia syndrome: experience in a pediatric rheumatology clinic. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2000; 18:415-419.
(14.) Yunus MB, Masi AT. Juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome. A clinical study of thirty-three patients and matched normal controls. Arthritis Rheum 1985; 28:138-145.
(15.) Tayag-Kier CE, Keenan GF, Scalzi LV, et al. Sleep and periodic limb movement in sleep in juvenile fibromyalgia. Pediatrics 2000; 106:E70.
(16.) Wolfe F, Ross K, Anderson J, Russell IJ, Hebert L. The prevalence and characteristics of fibromyalgia in the general population. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38:19-28.
(17.) Buskila D, Press J, Gedalia A, et al. Assessment of nonarticular tenderness and prevalence of fibromyalgia in children. J Rheumatol 1993; 20:368-370.
(18.) Mikkelsson M. One year outcome of preadolescents with fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol 1999; 26:674-682.
(19.) Clark P, Burgos-Vargas R, Medina-Palma C, Lavielle P, Marina FR Prevalence of fibromyalgia in children: a clinical study of Mexican children. J Rheumatol 1998; 25:2009-2014.
(20.) Henriksson C, Liedberg G. Factors of importance for work disability in women with fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol 2000; 27:1271-1276.
(21.) White KP, Speechley M, Harth M, Ostbye T. Comparing self-reported function and work disability in 100 community cases of fibromyalgia syndrome versus controls in London, Ontario: the London Fibromyalgia Epidemiology Study. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42:76-83.
(22.) Kaplan RM, Schmidt SM, Cronan TA. Quality of well being in patients with fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol 2000; 27:785-789.
(23.) Wolfe F, Anderson J, Harkness D, et al. A prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study of service utilization and costs in fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40:1560-1570.
(24.) Swezey RL, Adams J. Fibromyalgia: a risk factor for osteoporosis. J Rheumatol 1999; 26:2642-2644.
(25.) ter Borg EJ, Gerards-Rociu E, Haanen HC, Westers P. High frequency of hysterectomies and appendectomies in fibromyalgia compared with rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study. Clin Rheumatol 1999; 18:1-3.
(26.) Forseth KO, Forre O, Gran JT. A 5.5 year prospective study of self-reported musculoskeletal pain and of fibromyalgia in a female population: significance and natural history. Clin Rheumatol 1999; 18:114-121.
(27.) Wolfe F, Anderson J, Harkness D, et al. Health status and disease severity in fibromyalgia: results of a six-center longitudinal study. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40:1571-1579.
(28.) Kennedy M, Felson DT. A prospective long-term study of fibromyalgia syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39:682-685.
(29.) Waylonis GW, Perkins RH. Post-traumatic fibromyalgia. A long-term follow-up. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1994; 73:403-412.
(30.) Baumgartner E, Finckh A, Cedraschi C, Vischer TL. A six year prospective study of a cohort of patients with fibromyalgia. Ann Rheum Dis 2002; 61:644-645.
(31.) Mengshoel AM, Haugen M. Health status in fibromyalgia--a followup study. J Rheumatol 2001; 28:2085-2089.
(32.) Poyhia R, Da Costa D, Fitzcharles MA. Pain and pain relief in fibromyalgia patients followed for three years. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 45:355-361.
(33.) Makela M, Heliovaara M. Prevalence of primary fibromyalgia in the Finnish population. BMJ 1991; 303:216-219.
(34.) Buskila D, Neumann L, Hershman E, Gedalia A, Press J, Sukenik S. Fibromyalgia syndrome in children--an outcome study. J Rheumatol 1995; 22:525-528.
(35.) Siegel DM, Janeway D, Baum J. Fibromyalgia syndrome in children and adolescents: clinical features at presentation and status at follow-up. Pediatrics 1998; 101:377-382.
(36.) Jason LA, Taylor RR, Kennedy CL. Chronic fatigue. Psychosom Med 2000; 62:655-663.
(37.) Hedenberg-Magnusson B, Ernberg M, Kopp S. Presence of orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorder in fibromyalgia. A study by questionnaire. Swed Dent J 1999; 23:185-192.
(38.) Buskila D, Odes LR, Neumann L, Odes HS. Fibromyalgia in inflammatory bowel disease. J Rheumatol 1999; 26:1167-1171.
(39.) Goldenberg DL. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of fibromyalgia. UpToDate [computer database]. Wellesley, Mass: UpToDate; 2001.
(40.) Croft P, Schollum J, Silman A. Population study of tender point counts and pain as evidence of fibromyalgia. BMJ 1994; 309:696-699.
(41.) Croft P, Burt J, Schollum J, Thomas E, Macfarlane G, Silman A. More pain. more tender points: is fibromyalgia just one end of a continuous spectrum? Ann Rheum Dis 1996; 55:482-485.
(42.) Wolfe F. The relation between tender points and fibromyalgia symptom variables: evidence that fibromyalgia is not a discrete disorder in the clinic. Ann Rheum Dis 1997; 56:268-271.
(43.) Smythe H. Examination for tenderness: learning to use 4 kg force. J Rheumatol 1998; 25:149-151.
(44.) Tunks E, McCain GA, Hart LE, et al. The reliability of examination for tenderness in patients with myofacial pain, chronic fibromyalgia and controls. J Rheumatol 1995; 22:944-952.
(45.) Jacobs JW, Geenen R, van der Heide A, Rasker JJ, Bijlsma JW. Are tender point scores assessed by manual palpation in fibromyalgia reliable? An investigation into the variance of tender point scores. Scand J Rheumatol 1995; 24:243-247.
(46.) Okifuji A, Turk D, Sinclair J. Starz T, Marcus D. A standardized manual tender point survey. I. Development and determination of a threshold point for the identification of positive tender points in fibromyalgia syndrome. J Rheumatol 1997; 24:377-383.
(47.) Cathey M, Wolfe F, Kleinheksel S, Hawley D. Socioeconomic impact of fibrositis. A study of 81 patients with primary fibrositis. Am J Med 1986; 81:78-84.
(48.) Bandolier. Fibromyalgia: diagnosis and treatment. Bandolier 2001; 110:90-92.
(49.) Busch A, Schachter CL, Peloso PM, Bombardier C. Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002; 3:CD003786.
(50.) Sim J, Adams N. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of nonpharmacological interventions for fibromyalgia. Clin J Pain 2002; 18:324-336.
(51.) Rossy LA, Buckelew SP, Dorr N, et al. A meta-analysis of fibromyalgia treatment interventions. Ann Behav Med 1999; 21:180-191.
(52.) Kazjalainen K, Malmivaara A, van Tulder M, et al. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation for fibromyalgia and musculoskeletal pain in working age adults. The Cochrane Library 2003(1).
(53.) Berman BM, Ezzo J, Hadhazy V, Swyers JR Is acupuncture effective in the treatment of fibromyalgia? J Fam Pract 1999; 48:213-218.
(54.) O'Malley PG, Balden E, Tomkins G, Santoro J, Kroenke K, Jackson JL. Treatment of fibromyalgia with antidepressants: a meta-analysis. J Gen Item Med 2000; 15:659-666.
(55.) Arnold LM, Keck PE, Welge JA. Antidepressment treatment of fibromyalgia. A meta-analysis and review. Psychosomatics 2000; 41:104-113.
(56.) Burckhardt C, Clark S, Bennett R. The fibromyalgia impact questionnaire: development and validation. J Rheumatol 1991; 18:728-733.
The toll of fibromyalgia
In community-based studies, 2% of Adults (16) and 1.2% to 6.2% of school-age children screened positive for fibromyalgia. (17-19) Females are at higher risk than males, and risk increases with age, peaking between 55 and 79 years.
Morbidity associated with fibromyalgia is considerable. (16,20,21) In one report, persons with fibromyalgia scored lower on a well being scale than persons with rheumatoid arthritis or advanced cancer. (22)
Persons with fibromyalgia use an average of 2.7 drugs at any one time for related symptoms, and they make an average of 10 outpatient visits per year and are hospitalized once every 3 years. (23)
Fibromyalgia has been associated with Osteoporosis. (24) Compared with other rheumatic diseases, fibromyalgia results in a high rate of surgery, including hysterectomies, appendectomies, back and neck surgery, and carpal tunnel surgery. (23,25) Among adults who seek medical attention, fewer than 30% have been reported to recover from fibromyalgia within 10 years of onset. (26-29)
However, symptoms tend to remain stable (27) or lessen over time, (28,30-32) with no increase in 10-year mortality. (33) Children appear much more likely to recover from fibromyalgia, with complete resolution in more than 50% by 2 to 3 years in several studies. (13,18,34,35)
Compared with other rheumatologic conditions, persons with fibromyalgia more often suffer from comorbid conditions, (23) including chronic fatigue syndrome, migraine headaches, irritable bowel syndrome, irritable bladder symptoms, temporomandibular joint syndrome, myofascial pain syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and affective disorders. (23,36,37)
Assessing treatment efficacy: Outcome tools online
The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire: myalgia.com/Paintools/fibromyalgia_impact_questionnair1.htm
Visual analogue pain scale: www.outcomesassessment.org/QVAS%20Form.pdf
Arthritis Self-Efficacy Questionnaire: patienteducation.stanford.edu/research/searthritis.pdf
DRUG BRAND NAMES
Amitripyline * Elavil
Citalopram * Celexa
Clomipramine * Anafranil
Cyclobenzaprine * Flexeril
Dothiepin * Prothiaden
Fluoxetine * Prozac
Maprotiline * Ludoimil
Corresponding author: Anna Quisel, MD, c/o Cheryl Mongillo, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Christiana Care Health Systems, 1401 Foulk Road, Wilmington, DE 19803. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Title Annotation:||New Research Findings That Are Changing Clinical Practice|
|Author:||Quisel, Anna; Gill, James; Walters, Dene|
|Publication:||Journal of Family Practice|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2004|
|Previous Article:||Painful and swollen hands.|
|Next Article:||Hepatitis A: matching preventive resources to needs.|