Starch characteristics significantly influence the functionality and end-use quality of cereals and pseudo-cereals--non-grasses that are used in much the same way as cereals. Scientists examined the composition and properties of starch from 11 pure varieties and two commercial samples of quinoa in relationship to the texture of cooked quinoa. Nearly all starch properties and characteristics differed among these samples.
The researchers also investigated the gel texture, thermal properties and pasting properties of quinoa starches. Correlation analysis showed that the quinoa samples with higher amylose content tended to have a harder, stickier, more cohesive, gummier and chewier texture after cooking.
A higher degree of amylose-lipid complex and amylose leaching were associated with softer and less chewy cooked quinoa. Higher starch enthalpy correlated with a firmer, more adhesive, more cohesive and chewier texture.
The scientists concluded that starch plays a significant role in determining the texture of cooked quinoa. Their research can help breeders and food manufacturers to better understand the relationships among quinoa starch characteristics, cooked quinoa texture and the best use of different cultivars.
Contact: Craig F. Morris, USDA-ARS Western Wheat Quality Laboratory, E-202 Food Quality Building, Washington State University, Pullman, WA. Phone: 509-335-4062. Fax: 509-335-8573. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
You might consider using infrared heating to develop a more efficient roasting technology than traditional hot air roasting.
Sequential infrared and hot air processing (SIRHA) is a promising technology for producing dry-roasted pasteurized almonds. The technique involves applying a burst of infrared heat to the almonds, then roasting them in hot air in order to make the product safe for consumption.
Findings indicate that this chemical-free process is a simple, safe, energy-efficient and environmentally friendly way to reduce Salmonella enterica populations to levels that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). The technique should be readily amenable to scale-up for commercial use. The researchers' batch-based processes could be upgraded to a continuous-flow regime suited for the conveyor-belt-based processing that's standard at most almond packinghouses.
The researchers exposed almonds to a quick burst of infrared heat, allowing their surface temperature to drop. Then, they kept them at that temperature until the target kill rate for the specific bacteria was achieved.
According to results from volunteers who tested the treated almonds, infrared heating didn't detectably alter the product's mild taste, smooth texture, attractive appearance or other characteristics. The technology could find use in packinghouses.
Contact: Zhongli Pan, USDA-ARS Western Regional Research Center, Room 1111, 800 Buchanan St., Albany, CA 94710. Phone: 510-559-5861. Fax: 510-559-5851. Email: email@example.com.
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|Publication:||Emerging Food R&D Report|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2019|
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