Printer Friendly

Evidencia de fresnedas fluvio-riberenas en la Galicia meridional (noroeste de Espana).

Evidence of riverside ash tree forests in southern Galicia (northwester Spain)

INTRODUCTION

Galicia is well known for its numerous watercourses with important examples of riverside forests. All the phytosociological studies dealing with the forests in any part of Galicia have provided evidence of the occurrence of this kind of relatively well-preserved woodlands associated with a watercourse (Casaseca, 1959; Mato, 1963; Bellot, 1968; Dalda 1972; Castroviejo, 1972; Amigo, 1984; Ortiz, 1986; Silva-Pando, 1990; Romero, 1993; Pulgar, 1999; Ro DRIGUEZ-GUITIAN, 2004.

The Galician riverside tree communities consist mostly of alder tree forests and, only in the case of a few rivers in eastern Galicia, poplar tree forests. Not surprisingly the phytosociological references applied by the pioneer researchers in this field in Galicia associated them with the Alnetalia glutinosae order or, in the case of the poplar forests, with Populetalia albae. In both cases these communities were seen as subunits belonging to the Alnetea glutinosae class. It was not until the 1980s that the distinction between the alluvial alder tree forests growing along the edge of running water and belonging to the Querco-Fagetea class and the swampy alder tree forests, genuinely defined for the Alnetea glutinosae class, began to become clearer. From Amigo & al. (1987) onwards the two main alder tree forest associations distinguishable along the Galician rivers were already acknowledged and some years later (Amigo & al., 2004) the floristic features and peculiarities of the Galician dystrophic alder tree forests, genuinely belonging to Alnetea glutinosae, were clearly defined.

Although alder tree forests are frequent and easily found and recorded, ash tree forests have until recently been much rarer and, consequently, little known. Since Diaz & Fernandez-Prieto (1994) described for the Lacian-Ancarensean territories a kind of mixed supratemperate, riparian forest (which they called Festuco giganteae-Fraxinetum excelsioris) with no trace of alder trees, the existence of mesophytic, riparian ash tree forests ascribable to Alno-Padion came to light. These forests are usually found alongside watercourses in sites where, alder tree forest communities cannot survive because of steep riverbanks or an extreme supratemperate climate. Some years later in their comprehensive study on the woody vegetation of Galicia Izco & al. (1999) included the Festuco-Fraxinetum excelsioris association as probably occurring in the territory, although there was no published evidence of this at the time. The first published releves of Galicia came a little later and confirmed that those forests, always dominated by Fraxinus excelsior, could also grow at lower altitudes, practically in the mesotemperate belt (RODRIGUEZ-GUITIAN & al., 2001). This same conclusion, together with the confirmed occurrence of mesotemperate ash tree forests all along the Galician-Asturian northern subsector (in the biogeographical scheme by Rivas-Martinez, 2007) was clearly shown in the extensive monograph by Rodriguez-Guitian (2004).

It took many years to detect and acknowledge the occurrence of riverside ash tree forests in Galicia and they were eventually studied in the less deforested territories (eastern mountains of Lugo, in the Lacian-Ancarensean Sector, and the northern mountains of the Galician-Asturian Sector). However, to recognise of the occurrence in Galicia of ash tree forests dominated by the mediterranean ash tree (Fraxinus angustifolia) it has taken even longer. This species occurs extensively in the alder tree forests of the Galician-Portuguese Sector but is completely absent in the Lacian-Ancarensean and Galician-Asturian sectors (the Navia river is the sole exception). This absence has been one of the criteria used to discriminate the two main communities of the Galician riverside alder tree forests: Valeriano pyrenaicae-Alnetum (of Alno-Padion, with Fraxinus excelsior) and Senecioni bayonnensis-Alnetum (of Osmundo-Alnion, with Fraxinus angustifolia)

In the case of the Galician territory belonging to the Galician-Portuguese Sector, we have to take into account two other relevant factors concerning the hydrographic network. Firstly, there is the temperate Submediterranean bioclimatic subtype, significantly present in this sector but absent in the two other chorological sectors (Rodriguez-Guitian & Ramil Rego, 2007). This bioclimate correlates with hydrological regimes with larger fluctuations, i. e., with greater contrasts between autumn-winter and spring-summer rainfall rates. Secondly, the sector has the longest and largest rivers in the sector occur under these bioclimatic conditions, with stretches running through wide valleys and flood plains and, as a result, alluvial forests may sometimes develop along a strip of land parallel to but not right next to the river, giving rise to a meadow forest [bosque de vega].

This kind of vegetation, a riverside forest which is rarely flooded, occurs widely in other places on the Iberian Peninsula with a mediterranean bioclimate. Since they are dominated by phreatophiles such as Fraxinus angustifolia or Ulmus minor, they correspond to ash or elm tree forests. Some authors refer to them as "Mediterranean meadow ash tree forests" (Lara & al., 2004). Phytosociological studies have described a number of associations for them ascribed to different chorological units. variations not only involve the hardness of the water but also the different bioclimatic belts, from thermo- to meso-Mediterranean (Rivas-Martinez & al., 1980), supra-Mediterranean (DIAZ & al., 1987; Fernandez-Gonzalez & Molina, 1988) and even territories beyond the range of a mediterranean macrobioclimate, e.g., with a meso-Mediterranean /mesotemperate distribution (Biurrun, 1999; Gesti & al., 2003). We have found similar cases in Galicia and they are the subject of this paper.

METHODOLOGY

In our initial field research, the mapping of vegetation series in Galicia revealed some evidence of ash tree meadow forests not only in the Bajo Mino but also in the basins of both the Cabe and the Lor rivers. We later explored other areas of the river network in Galicia where the valley geomorphology, flow intensity and the river course through geologically recent areas of accumulation could give rise to meadow forests. In areas where there were reasonably well-preserved signs of human exploitation (e. g., the Cabe Valley, in Terra de Lemos, the Sil valley in valdeorras and the Tamega valley in verin), we sampled the ash tree forests by means of the phytosociological methods suggested by Braun-Blanquet (1979). Later updated by Gehu & Rivas-Martinez (1981). We omitted both the formations of excessively young trees (copses that were growing back again) and lines of trees used as boundaries for farmland.

As far as the botanical nomenclature is concerned, we used the usual reference works (Flora Iberica, Flora Europaea) and for syntaxonomical systematics we followed Rivas-Martinez & al. (2001).

RESULTS

In southern Galicia there is an ash tree forest community which we consider to be a new association. We have named this community, whose floristic composition is shown in Table 1, Hedero hibernicae-Fraxinetum angustifoliae Rivas-Martinez ex Amigo, Pulgar & Izco (holotypus, Table 1, rel. 3, designated here, next page)

This is a meadow forest usually developed as a second forest strip, occasionally hygrophilous and in chain-like succession with alder tree forests, mostly of Senecioni bayonnensis-Alnetum, but also of Valeriano pyrenaicae-Alnetum beyond the reach of its optimum territory, and even with alder and poplar forests of Salici neotrichae-Populetum nigrae. These forests are dominated by the thin-leaved ash tree, which, under optimal conditions, is accompanied by elm trees (Ulmus minor) and, with a lower frequency and cover rate, by sycamore maples (Acer pseudoplatanus), black willows (Salix atrocinerea) and common oaks (Quercus robur).

In their floristic composition there are not only numerous geophytes and hemicryptophytes peculiar to Populetalia albae (Brachypodium sylvaticum, Polystichum setiferum, Arum italicum, Iris foetidissima, Ornithogalum pyrenaicum), but also a notable percentage of lianas (Tamus communis, Bryonia cretica subsp. dioica, Lonicera periclymenum subsp. hispanica, Humulus lupulus). We have used the most abundant of these lianas (Hedera hibernica) to compose the name of the syntaxon. Although some years ago Sahuquillo & al. (2001) had already confirmed the massive presence of Hedera hibernica in the NW of the Peninsula, we took great care to verify that these ivies actually belong to this taxon, and not to Hedera helix, as has been traditionally interpreted all over Galicia. A marked presence of species belonging to RhamnoPrunetea and a profusion of herbaceous species belonging to Galio-Urticetea, Querco-Fagetea and Trifolio-Geranietea complete the floristic round-up.

The distribution of the new association is very restricted, since it has been massively exiled from the fertile soils on which it usually grows due to their use for farming purposes. All the positively recorded samples and those taken in the potentially ascribed surface are located either in temperate, sub-Mediterranean areas (thermo- and mesotemperate belts), or in the area of Galicia with a Mediterranean climate (meso-Mediterranean belt). See Figure 1.

DISCUSSION

We consider that the new association represents, in the NW of the Iberian Peninsula, that group of riverside forests belonging to Fraxino-Ulmenion minoris, which have been widely acknowledged all over the peninsular Mediterranean areas. As far as we know, this suballiance has diversified into some ten associations in the Iberian Peninsula, some of which have been described in the last decade.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

The floristic composition of this kind of meadow forests tends to be very rich in species: 27 species per releve in the new Hedero-Fraxinetum. For this reason, there are enough floristic arrangements to permit easy discrimination from other vicariant communities for which they could be mistaken. In Table 2 (next page) we show how to discriminate easily between the association suggested here and those geographically most closely related: the Carpetan-Leonese Querco pyrenaicae-Fraxinetum angustifoliae, the Castilian-Leonese Aro cylindracei-Ulmetum minoris, the CastilianCantabrian and Navarrean-Alavese Viburno lantanaeUlmetum minoris, and the Ampurdanese Rusco aculeati-Fraxinetum angustifoliae. Strictly following the distribution maps suggested by Garcia-Fuentes & al. (1998), the eastern Galician samples appeared to belong to the first of these associations. However our data led us to dismiss the occurrence of Querco pyrenaicae-Fraxinetum angustifoliae in Galicia.

Since, the potential domain of the Hedero hibernicae-Fraxinetum ash tree forest has largely been deforested and used for farming, as mentioned earlier, it is not easy to reconstruct the vegetation series of the new association. The substitution stage most closely relate to this riverside forest consists of a thorny scrubland ascribable to Pruno-Rubion ulmifolii, species of which are often found within these groves as a remnant of a relatively recent past in which the area covered by this ash tree forest was even smaller than today. The best samples of these areas with thorny bushes and brambles that we recorded are located in the territory of Terra de Lemos and had previously been typified as belonging to Rubo ulmifolii-Rosetum corymbiferae subass. daphnetosum gnidii (Gimenez de Azcarate & al., 1996).

It is important to note that the optimum stage of Hedero hibernicae-Fraxinetum angustifoliae sometimes occurs in areas with a considerable population of elm trees. As can be seen in some of the tables with releves of the Fraxino-Ulmenion communities, this phenomenon is not uncommon. It takes place basically in associations growing between Mediterranean and Eurosiberian border territories. In these cases, instances of ash tree forest associations with a higher rate of Ulmus minor can be found. Conversely, instances of elm tree associations with a higher rate of Fraxinus angustifolia (see for example Biurrun 1999: table 8; Gesti & al., 2003: table 2) can also be found. Cases like these led to the identification of some elm tree groves located in Terra de Lemos (Lugo) as belonging to an "Aro maculati-Ulmetum minoris" association (Romero, 1993: table 7). Nowadays there is no doubt that they must be ascribed to this new Hedero hibernicae-Fraxinetum angustifoliae association.

Although the expression "meadow forest" leads us to locate the Hedero hibernicae-Fraxinetum angustifoliae association topographically as inevitably occurring on the flood plains of broad river valleys, it is important to bear in mind that some of the best samples of these ash tree forests have been found on steep slopes (see Table 1, rel. 6, 9, 11, 12, 13 or 16). This is not surprising, since the loamy deposits associated with former river valleys (e. g., the Sil river and its tributaries: the Lor and the Bibei) and even lake deposits (e. g., the Cabe River valley in Terra de Lemos) are suitable places for the association to thrive in. Despite deforestation and exploitation in valley areas (Figures 2 and 3), the accumulation of this kind of substrates, although suffocating, also tends to retain a considerable amount of edaphic water, and has consequently contributed to the preservation of some good samples of Hedero hibernicae-Fraxinetum on slopes.

Although the surface currently covered by these ash groves is extremely small in Galicia, the occurrence of shrubs belonging to the genus Rosa, from the Section Synstylae DC. (Rosa arvensis, Rosa sempervirens), the occurrence of elm trees in the hedges separating farming plots, and even of small European nettle tree groves (Celtis australis), this latter with very few examples in Galicia outside the Sil-Mino river axis, can be taken as possible bioindicators for the potentiality of these forests. For this same reason, we have found scarcely any traces of possible occurrences of these ash tree forests in other river networks in Galicia

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We would like to thank our friend Prof. Salvador Rivas-Martinez who helped us discover this new community during some very fruitful days of field research. Also our thanks to Gomez orellana for his illustrative catenae.
SYNTAXONOMICAL APPENDIX

Salici purpureae-Populetea nigrae (Rivas-Martinez & Canto ex
   Rivas-Martinez, Bascones, T.E. Diaz, Fernandez-Gonzalez &
   Loidi 1991) Rivas-Martinez & Canto 2002
  Populetalia albae Br.-Bl. ex Tchou 1948
     Alnion incanae Pawlowski in Pawlowski, Sokolowski & Wallisch 1928
        Hyperico androsaemi-Alnenion glutinosae Amigo, J. Guitian & F.
          Prieto 1987
          Festuco giganteae-Fraxinetum excelsioris F. Prieto & Bueno in
             T.E. Diaz & F. Prieto 1994
          Valeriano pyrenaicae-Alnetum glutinosae Amigo, J. Guitian & F.
             Prieto 1987
   Populion albae Br.-Bl. ex Tchou 1948
       Populenion albae Rivas-Martinez 1975
          Salici neotrichae-Populetum nigrae T.E. Diaz & Penas ex
             Rivas-Martinez & Canto 2002
       Fraxino angustifoliae-Ulmenion minoris Rivas-Martinez 1975
          Aro cylindracei-Ulmetum minoris T.E. Diaz, Andres, Llamas, L.
            Herrero & D. Fernandez 1987 corr. Rivas-Martinez,
          T.E. Diaz, Fernandez-Gonzalez, Izco, Loidi, Lousa & Penas 2002
          Quercopyrenaicae-Fraxinetum angustifoliae Rivas Goday 1964
             corr. Rivas-Martinez, Fernandez-Gonzalez & A. Molina
             in Fernandez-Gonzalez & A. Molina 1988
          Viburno lantanae-Ulmetum minoris Biurrun & Garcia-Mijangos
             2002
           Rusco aculeati-Fraxinetum angustifoliae Gesti, J. Font & Ll.
             Vilar 2003
           Hedero hibernicae-Fraxinetum angustifoliae Rivas-Martinez ex
              Amigo, Pulgar & Izco ass. nova hoc loco
    Osmundo-Alnion (Br.-Bl., P. Silva & Rozeira 1956) Dierschke &
      Rivas-Martinez in Rivas-Martinez 1975
           Senecioni bayonnensis-Alnetum glutinosae Amigo, J. Guitian
              & F. Prieto 1987
Alnetea glutinosae Br.-Bl. & Tuxen ex Westhoff, Dijk & Passchier 1946
Querco-Fagetea sylvaticae Br.-Bl. & Vlieger in Vlieger 1937
Rhamno-Prunetea Rivas Goday & Borja ex Tuxen 1962
   Prunetalia spinosae Tuxen 1952
      Pruno-Rubion ulmifolii O. Bolos 1954
         Rosenion carioti-pouzinii Arnaiz ex Loidi 1989
             Rubo ulmifolii-Rosetum corymbiferae Rivas-Martinez &
             Arnaiz in Arnaiz 1979


Recibido: 24 noviembre 2008

Aceptado: 29 diciembre 2008

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Trifolio-Geranietea Muller 1962

Galio-Urticetea Passarge ex Kopecky 1969

Amigo, J.--1984--Estudio de los matorrales y bosques de la Sierra del Caurel (Lugo)--Mem. Doc. (ined.). Fac. Farmacia Univ. Santiago de Compostela.

Amigo, J., Guitian, J. & Fernandez-Prieto, J.A.--1987--Datos sobre los bosques riberenos de aliso (Alnus glutinosa) cantabro-atlanticos ibericos--Publ. Univ. La Laguna. Serie Informes 22:159-176.

Amigo, J., Izco, J. & Romero, M. I.--2004--Swamp alder woodlands in Galicia (NW Spain): phytosociological interpretation. Ecological and floristic contrast to western European swamp woodlands and delimitation versus riparian alder woodlands in southern Europe and northern Africa--Phytocoenologia 34(4): 613-638.

Bellot, F.--1968--La vegetacion de Galicia--An. Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 24: 3-306.

Braun-Blanquet, J.--1979--Fitosociologia. Bases para el estudio de las comunidades vegetales--H. Blume Ediciones. 820 pp.

Biurrun, I.--1999--Flora y vegetacion de los rios y humedales de Navarra--Guineana, 5: 1-338.

Casaseca, B.--1959--La vegetacion y flora del termino municipal de Santiago de Compostela--Bol. Univ. Compostelana, 67: 297-349.

Castroviejo, S.--1972--Flora y cartografia de la vegetacion de la Peninsula de Morrazo (Pontevedra)--Mem. Doct. (ined.), Fac. Ciencias. Univ. Complutense de Madrid.

Dalda, J.--1972--Vegetacion de la cuenca del rio Deo (cuenca alta del Mandeo).--Monogr. Univ. de Santiago de Compostela. 14: 1-158.

Diaz, T.E., Andres, J., Llamas, F., Herrero L. & Fernandez D.--1987--Datos sobre las olmedas y alisedas mediterraneas de la provincia de Leon (NW de Espana)--Publ. Univ. La Laguna. Serie Informes 22: 177-198.

Diaz T.E. & Fernandez-Prieto J.A.--1994--La vegetacion de Asturias--Itinera Geobot. 8: 243-528.

Fernandez-Gonzalez, F. & Molina A. -1988- Datos fitosociologicos sobre las fresnedas guadarramicas--Acta Bot. Malacitana 13: 217-228.

Garcia Fuentes, A.; Torres, J.A.; Pinto, C.; Leite, A.; Salazar, C.; Melendo, M.; Nieto, J. & Cano, E.--1998--Fresnedas del sur y occidente de la Peninsula Iberica--Itinera Geobot. 11: 299-314.

Gehu, J.M. & Rivas-Martinez, S.--1981--Notions fondamentaux de phytosociologie--In: Dierschke H. (Ed.). Syntaxonomie. Pp. 5-53.--J.Cramer. Vaduz.

Gesti, J., Font, J. & Vilar, L.--2003--Rusco aculeati-Fraxinetum angustifoliae, una nova associacio forestal de ribera del territori ruscinic--Acta Bot. Barcinon. 48: 57-66.

Gimenez de Azcarate, J., Romero, M.I. & Amigo, J.--1996--Los espinales de la Pruno-Rubion ulmifolii en Galicia--Lazaroa, 16: 89-104.

Izco, J., Amigo, J. & Garcia-San Leon, D.--1999--Analisis y clasificacion de la vegetacion lenosa de Galicia (Espana)--Lazaroa 20: 29-47.

Lara, F., Garilleti R. & Calleja J.A.--2004--La vegetacion de ribera de la mitad norte de Espana--Publ. Mo Fomento. Madrid. 536 pp.

Mato, M.C.--1963--Estudio de la vegetacion del partido judicial de Caldas de Reyes--Mem. Doc. (ined.). Fac. Farmacia. Univ. Santiago de Compostela.

Ortiz, S.--1986--Series de vegetacion y su zonacion altitudinal en el macizo de Pena Trevinca y Serra do Eixo--Mem. Doc. (ined.). Fac. Biologia. Univ. Santiago de Compostela.

Pulgar, I.--1999--La vegetacion de la Baixa Limia y Sierras del entorno--Mem. Doc. (ined.). Fac. Farmacia. Univ. Santiago de Compostela.

Rivas-Martinez, S.--2007--Mapa de series, geoseries y geopermaseries de vegetacion de Espana. [Memoria del mapa de vegetacion potencial de Espana]. Parte I--Itinera Geobot. 17: 5-435

Rivas-Martinez, S., Costa, M., Castroviejo S. & Valdes-Bermejo E.--1980--Vegetacion de Donana (Huelva, Espana) Lazaroa 2: 5-189.

Rivas-Martinez S., Fernandez-Gonzalez, F., Loidi, J., Lousa, M. & Penas, A.--2001--Syntaxonomical checklist of vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal to association level--Itinera Geobot. 14: 5-341.

Rodriguez-Guitian, M.A.--2004--Aplicacion de criterios botanicos para a proposta de modelos de xestion sustentable das masas arborizadas autoctonas do Subsector Galaico-Asturiano Septentrional--Mem. Doc. (ined.). Esc. Politec. Sup. de Lugo. Univ. Santiago de Compostela.

Rodriguez-Guitian, M.A., Amigo, J., Romero-Franco, R.--2001--Aportaciones sobre la interpretacion, ecologia y distribucion de los bosques supratemplados navianoancarenses--Lazaroa 21: 51-71.

Rodriguez-Guitian, M.A. & Ramil Rego P.--2007--Revision de las clasificaciones climaticas aplicadas al territorio gallego desde una perspectiva biogeografica--Recursos Rurais 3: 31-53.

Romero, M.I.--1993--La vegetacion del valle del rio Cabe (Terra de Lemos, Lugo)--Mem. Doc. (ined.). Fac. Biologia. Univ. Santiago de Compostela.

Sahuquillo, E., Cajade, D. & Fraga, M.I.--2001--Taxonomic revision of Hedera L. species from the NW Iberian peninsula--Bol. Soc. Brot., ser. 2 70: 89-100.

Silva-Pando, F.J.--1990--La flora y vegetacion de la Sierra de Ancares: base para la planificacion y ordenacion forestal--Mem. Doc. (ined.). Univ. Complutense de Madrid.

Javier Amigo, Inigo Pulgar & Jesus Izco (*)

* Laboratorio de Botanica. Facultad de Farmacia. Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. E-15782 Santiago de Compostera. Galicia, Espana. E-mail: javier.amigo.vazquez@usc.es
Table 1

Hedero hibernicae-Fraxinetum angustifoliae Rivas-Martinez ex Amigo,
Pulgar & Izco ass. nova hoc loco (Fraxino angustifoliae-Ulmenion
minoris, Populion albae, Populetalia albae, Salici purpureae-Populetea
nigrae)

Altitude (m.a.s.l.)                 20    270    300    430    370
Slope ([grados])                    0      15     0      0      0
Aspect                              -      NE     -      -      -
Maximum height [E.sub.1]            22     15     19     12     15
Plot area ([m.sup.2])              250    100    200    400    400
No of species                       23     29     32     42     34
N.                                  1      2      3      4      5

Association & upper levels characteristic species

Fraxinus angustifolia               3      5      5      5      4
Hedera hibernica                    4      4      4      3      .
Brachypodium sylvaticum             1      1      2      .      .
Polystichum setiferum               2      1      +      .      .
Tamus communis                      2      1      2      1      .
Ruscus aculeatus                    2      3      1      1      .
Quercus robur (* = seedling)        .      .     + *    1 *    1 *
Ulmus minor                         .      .      1      1      .
Salix atrocinerea                   .      .      1      1      1
Bryonia cretica subsp. dioica       .      .      +      +      1
Euphorbia amygdaloides              .      .      .      r      +
Prunus avium                        .      .      .      .      .
Arum italicum                       .      +      .      .      .
Acer pseudoplatanus                 .      .      +      .      .
Iris foetidissima                   .      .      +      .      .
Hyacinthoides non-scripta           .      .      .      .      .
Ornithogalum pyrenaicum             .      .      .      .      .
Solanum dulcamara                   1      .      .      r      r
Rhamno-Prunetea species
Crataegus monogyna                  2      1      2      +      .
Lonicera periclymenum hispanica     1      2      2      1      .
Rubus ulmifolius                    3      2      +      .      +
Rosa canina                         .      .      +      +      1
Prunus spinosa                      .      .      +      .      .
Prunus insititia                    1      .      1      r      +
Rubus sect. corylifolius            .      .      2      .      +
Rosa corymbifera                    .      .      .      .      .
Frangula alnus                      .      .      .      1      .
Cornus sanguinea                    .      .      .      .      .
Companion species
Geum urbanum                        2      .      1      .      1
Teucrium scorodonia                 +      2      .      +      .
Viola riviniana                     .      .      +      r      .
Lampsana communis                   .      1      +      r      +
Alliaria petiolata                  .      .      .      r      +
Geranium lucidum                    .      .      .      .      .
Asplenium onopteris                 .      .      .      .      .
Pteridium aquilinium                3      1      .      +      .
Geranium purpureum                  .      1      .      +      .
Oenanthe crocata                    .      .      .      .      1
Rubia peregrina                     +      1      .      .      .
Urtica dioica                       2      .      .      +      2
Castanea sativa                     3      .      .      r      .
Erica arborea                       .      r      .      r      .
Quercus pyrenaica (* = seedling)    .      .      .     r *     .
Rumex acetosa                       .      .      .      .      .
Laurus nobilis                      2      1      .      .      .
Polypodium interjectum              +      .      .      .      .
Vitis vinifera                      +      .      .      .      .
Chelidonium majus                   .      .      .      r      .
Dactylis glomerata                  .      .      .      r      +
Stellaria neglecta                  .      .      .      .      .
Stellaria holostea                  .      .      .      .      .
Rumex obtusifolius + crispus        .      .      .      .      .
Torilis cf. arvensis                .      .      .      .      .
Asplenium trichomanes               .      .      .      .      .
Luzula forsteri                     .      .      .      .      .

Altitude (m.a.s.l.)                400    300    310    310    350
Slope ([grados])                    20     0      15     20     0
Aspect                              E      -     NNW     E      -
Maximum height [E.sub.1]            8      20     14     14     15
Plot area ([m.sup.2])              125    100    120    150    300
No of species                       26     28     24     23     31
N.                                  6      7      8      9      10

Association & upper levels characteristic species

Fraxinus angustifolia               3      5      4      5      4
Hedera hibernica                    1      1      1      2      2
Brachypodium sylvaticum             1      4      1      1      r
Polystichum setiferum               .      +      2      2      .
Tamus communis                      +      .      1      3      1
Ruscus aculeatus                    .      .      +      2      1
Quercus robur (* = seedling)        1      1      1      .      3
Ulmus minor                         .      3      .      .      1
Salix atrocinerea                   1      .      1      1      .
Bryonia cretica subsp. dioica       .      .      2      .      .
Euphorbia amygdaloides              .      .      .      .      .
Prunus avium                        .      .      .      .      +
Arum italicum                       .      1      .      .      +
Acer pseudoplatanus                 .      .      1      .      .
Iris foetidissima                   .      .      .      +      +
Hyacinthoides non-scripta           .      1      .      +      +
Ornithogalum pyrenaicum             .      2      .      .      +
Solanum dulcamara                   .      .      .      .      .
Rhamno-Prunetea species
Crataegus monogyna                  1      .      1      3      1
Lonicera periclymenum hispanica     +      .      1      1      1
Rubus ulmifolius                    1      1      .      1      .
Rosa canina                         .      .      .      1      +
Prunus spinosa                      .      .      .      1      1
Prunus insititia                    .      .      .      .      2
Rubus sect. corylifolius            .      .      4      .      1
Rosa corymbifera                    .      +      .      1      .
Frangula alnus                      1      .      .      +      .
Cornus sanguinea                    .      .      .      .      3
Companion species
Geum urbanum                        .      2      1      .      +
Teucrium scorodonia                 +      .      .      +      .
Viola riviniana                     .      1      .      .      1
Lampsana communis                   .      .      .      .      .
Alliaria petiolata                  .      2      2      1      .
Geranium lucidum                    .      1      1      2      .
Asplenium onopteris                 .      .      .      +      .
Pteridium aquilinium                2      .      .      .      .
Geranium purpureum                  .      .      +      .      .
Oenanthe crocata                    .      .      .      +      3
Rubia peregrina                     +      .      .      .      .
Urtica dioica                       .      .      .      .      .
Castanea sativa                     .      .      .      .      .
Erica arborea                       1      .      .      .      .
Quercus pyrenaica (* = seedling)    .      .      .      .      2
Rumex acetosa                       .      1      .      .      1
Laurus nobilis                      .      .      .      .      .
Polypodium interjectum              .      .      .      r      .
Vitis vinifera                      .      .      .      .      .
Chelidonium majus                   .      +      .      .      .
Dactylis glomerata                  .      .      +      .      .
Stellaria neglecta                  .      1      2      1      .
Stellaria holostea                  .      1      .      .      .
Rumex obtusifolius + crispus        .      .      +      r      .
Torilis cf. arvensis                .      .      .      .      .
Asplenium trichomanes               .      .      .      .      .
Luzula forsteri                     .      .      .      .      .

Altitude (m.a.s.l.)                280    350    530    270    350
Slope ([grados])                    35     35     40     0      0
Aspect                              N      N      NE     -      -
Maximum height [E.sub.1]            10     18     18     18     15
Plot area ([m.sup.2])              120    150    200    120    200
No of species                       24     22     22     30     23
N.                                  11     12     13     14     15

Association & upper levels characteristic species

Fraxinus angustifolia               5      5      3      4      5
Hedera hibernica                    5      1      3      2      1
Brachypodium sylvaticum             1      1      2      1      r
Polystichum setiferum               2      4      4      1      +
Tamus communis                      .      1      1      .      .
Ruscus aculeatus                    1      .      .      1      1
Quercus robur (* = seedling)        .      .      .      .      .
Ulmus minor                         .      .      5      4      r
Salix atrocinerea                   .      .      .      .      .
Bryonia cretica subsp. dioica       .      .      .      +      .
Euphorbia amygdaloides              r      .      .      +      .
Prunus avium                        3      2      +      +      .
Arum italicum                       .      .      .      .      .
Acer pseudoplatanus                + *     1      .      .      .
Iris foetidissima                   .      .      .      .      .
Hyacinthoides non-scripta           .      .      .      .      .
Ornithogalum pyrenaicum             .      .      +      .      .
Solanum dulcamara                   .      .      .      .      .
Rhamno-Prunetea species
Crataegus monogyna                  2      +      .      1      .
Lonicera periclymenum hispanica     1      .      .      +      1
Rubus ulmifolius                    2      3      1      .      2
Rosa canina                         .      .      .      +      .
Prunus spinosa                      +      .      1      .      .
Prunus insititia                    .      .      .      .      .
Rubus sect. corylifolius            .      .      .      .      .
Rosa corymbifera                    .      +      .      .      .
Frangula alnus                      .      .      .      .      .
Cornus sanguinea                    .      +      .      .      .
Companion species
Geum urbanum                        .      .      +      1      2
Teucrium scorodonia                 1      .      +      .      .
Viola riviniana                     .      .      +      .      .
Lampsana communis                   .      2      .      .      +
Alliaria petiolata                  .      .      .      .      .
Geranium lucidum                    +      .      +      .      r
Asplenium onopteris                 3      2      1      .      +
Pteridium aquilinium                .      .      .      .      .
Geranium purpureum                  1      +      .      .      .
Oenanthe crocata                    .      .      .      .      1
Rubia peregrina                     2      .      .      .      .
Urtica dioica                       .      .      .      .      .
Castanea sativa                     1      1      .      .      .
Erica arborea                       .      .      .      .      .
Quercus pyrenaica (* = seedling)    .      .      .      1      .
Rumex acetosa                       .      1      .      .      r
Laurus nobilis                      .      .      .      1      .
Polypodium interjectum              1      .      .      .      .
Vitis vinifera                      .      .      .      .      +
Chelidonium majus                   .      .      .      r      .
Dactylis glomerata                  .      .      .      .      .
Stellaria neglecta                  .      .      .      .      .
Stellaria holostea                  .      .      .      .      .
Rumex obtusifolius + crispus        .      .      .      .      r
Torilis cf. arvensis                +      .      +      .      .
Asplenium trichomanes               1      +      +      .      .
Luzula forsteri                     .      1      +      .      .

Altitude (m.a.s.l.)                630    320
Slope ([grados])                    45     5
Aspect                              NW     E
Maximum height [E.sub.1]            12     12
Plot area ([m.sup.2])              150    120
No of species                       21     26
N.                                  16     17     18

Association & upper levels characteristic species

Fraxinus angustifolia               5      5      17
Hedera hibernica                    1      4      16
Brachypodium sylvaticum             1      1      15
Polystichum setiferum               1      +      13
Tamus communis                      +      2      12
Ruscus aculeatus                    .      1      11
Quercus robur (* = seedling)        .     r *     8
Ulmus minor                         .      .      7
Salix atrocinerea                   .      .      6
Bryonia cretica subsp. dioica       .      .      5
Euphorbia amygdaloides              .      +      5
Prunus avium                        .      .      5
Arum italicum                       .      .      4
Acer pseudoplatanus                 .      .      4
Iris foetidissima                   .      +      4
Hyacinthoides non-scripta           .      1      4
Ornithogalum pyrenaicum             .      1      4
Solanum dulcamara                   .      .      3
Rhamno-Prunetea species
Crataegus monogyna                  1      3      13
Lonicera periclymenum hispanica     +      2      13
Rubus ulmifolius                    2      .      12
Rosa canina                         2      .      7
Prunus spinosa                      1      1      7
Prunus insititia                    .      .      5
Rubus sect. corylifolius            .      .      4
Rosa corymbifera                    .      2      4
Frangula alnus                      .      .      3
Cornus sanguinea                    .      +      3
Companion species
Geum urbanum                        .      +      10
Teucrium scorodonia                 +      .      8
Viola riviniana                     +      2      8
Lampsana communis                   .      +      7
Alliaria petiolata                  .      .      6
Geranium lucidum                    .      .      6
Asplenium onopteris                 +      .      6
Pteridium aquilinium                .      .      5
Geranium purpureum                  .      .      5
Oenanthe crocata                    .      .      5
Rubia peregrina                     .      .      4
Urtica dioica                       .      .      4
Castanea sativa                     .      .      4
Erica arborea                       1      .      4
Quercus pyrenaica (* = seedling)    .      +      4
Rumex acetosa                       .      .      4
Laurus nobilis                      .      .      3
Polypodium interjectum              .      .      3
Vitis vinifera                      .      .      3
Chelidonium majus                   .      .      3
Dactylis glomerata                  .      .      3
Stellaria neglecta                  .      .      3
Stellaria holostea                  .      1      3
Rumex obtusifolius + crispus        .      .      3
Torilis cf. arvensis                .      +      3
Asplenium trichomanes               .      .      3
Luzula forsteri                     .      +      3

Other species: Salici-Populetea, Querco-Fagetea & Rhamno-Prunetea
characteristics: Dryopteris filix-mas 1 in 2, + in 7; Rubus sp. 2
in 4, 1 in 14; Populus nigra 1 in 3, 1 in 5; Picris echioides + in
3, r in 6; Clematis vitalba 1 in 3, 1 in 14; Rosa micrantha + in 3,
2 in 15; Cucubalus baccifer + in 4, 1 in 5; Scrophularia scorodonia
+ in 4, + in 5; Humulus lupulus r in 5, + in 14; Sambucus nigra r
in 8, + in 17; Circaea lutetiana + in 2; Fraxinus angustifolia x
excelsior, Fraxinus excelsior, Ligustrum vulgare and Salix fragilis
+ in 3; Crepis lampsanoides, Dryopteris affinis and Quercus x
andegavensis r, Omphalodes nitida + in 4; Salix x secalliana r, Alnus
glutinosa, Salix neotricha and Salix salviifolia 1 in 5; Ilex
aquifolium and Osmunda regalis +, Pyrus cordata 1 in 6; Stachys
officinalis r, Primula acaulis +, Polygonatum odoratum and Populus
tremula 1, Rosa arvensis 2 in 10; Rosa sempervirens 1 in 11; Hypericum
androsaemum r, Carex remota, Melica uniflora, Moehringia trinervis and
Phyllitis scolopendrium +, Rosa nitidula 1 in 14.Companion species:
Heracleum sphondylium + in 1, 1 in 8; Holcus mollis 1 in 2, r in 4;
Helleborus foetidus 1 in 2, r in 16; Geranium robertianum + in 3, 2 in
14; Prunella vulgaris r in 4 and 15; Ranunculus repens r in 4, + in 6;
Pentaglottis sempervirens r in 4, + in 7; Lamium maculatum r in 4, 1
in 8; Silene latifolia r in 4 and 8; Chaerophyllum temulum r in 4, +
in 17; Daphne gnidium r in 5, + in 6; Lythrum salicaria + in 5, r in
15; Centaurea nigra r in 6, + in 7; Carex grex muricata + in 7 and 12;
Glechoma hederacea 1 in 7, 2 in 14; Potentilla sterilis + in 7 and 17;
Galium aparine + in 13, r in 15; Arundo donax + in 1; Agrimonia
eupatoria, Genista falcata and Ulex europaeus r, Geranium columbinum
and Osyris alba +, Bromus sterilis, Brachypodium pinnatum subsp.
rupestre and Robinia pseudoacacia 1 in 2; Picris hieracioides + in 3;
Campanula cf. lusitanica and Digitalis purpurea r in 4; Anthoxanthum
odoratum, Bidens frondosa, Malva sylvestris, Phytolacca americana and
Polygonum lapathifolium r, Agrostis cf. castellana and Lycopus
europaeus 1, Polygonum hidropiper 2 in 5; Carex elata subsp.
reuteriana, Melittis melissophyllum, Cytisus striatus and Ulex minor +,
Arbutus unedo 1 in 6; Vincetoxicum nigrum +, Ceratocapnos claviculata
1 in 7; Anthriscus sylvestris + in 12; Carex flacca and Myosotis
scorpioides + in 10; Juglans regia r, Smyrnium olusatrum + in 11;
Myosotis gr. stolonifera + in 12; Origanum virens + in 13; Eupatorium
cannabinum + in 14; Gaudinia fragilis, Holcus lanatus and Juncus
effusus r in 15; Sanguisorba minor subsp. magnolii, Sedum forsterianum
and Festuca elegans r, Clinopodium vulgare and Cytisus scoparius +
in 16.

Locations (Lu = Lugo; Ou = Ourense; Po = Pontevedra): 1: Po, Salvaterra
de Mino, Oleiros, Between the railway and the Mino river banks, 29T
NG4359; 2: Lu, Quiroga, Casti de Lor, Near the bottom of the valley,
very close to Lor river, 29T PH3606; 3: Lu, Monforte de Lemos, As
Barrioncas, Close to Cabe river, 29T PH2212, (Holotypus); 4: Or,
Monterrei, Enfesta, Compact ash woodland near a small stream, 29T
PG2347; 5: Or, Verin, S, Pedro, Tamega river banks, 29T PG2841; 6: Or,
Lobios, Santa Eufemia, Corga do Toucedo, 29T NG7434; 7: Lu, Monforte de
Lemos, Distriz, 29T PH1806; 8: Lu, Monforte de Lemos, Pacios, close to
Cabe river, 29T PH2211; 9: Lu, Monforte de Lemos, As Barrioncas, on
slope position, 29T PH2212; 10: Lu, Monforte de Lemos, Baamorto, 29T
PH2013; 11: Lu, San Clodio, towards Sequeiros Dam, 29T PH4301; 12:
Ou, O Barco de Valdeorras, Arnado, 29T PG6296; 13: Ou, Out of Larouco
towards P, de Trives, 29T PG5089; 14: Lu, Quiroga, Sta, Andrea, between
N-120 road and Lor river, 29T PH3603; 15: Ou, Petin, Freixido d'Abaixo,
Arroyo de Pontones, 29T PG5392; 16: Ou, O Bolo, O Vao, Regada stream,
29T PG5279; 17: Lu, Monforte de Lemos, Cinsa towards Seoane, 29T
PH1912; 18: Frequency of species.

Table 2

Floristic discrimination between the new association Hedero
hibernicae-Fraxinetum angustifoliae and the main ash-elm forest
associations acknowledged in the north and centre of Spain.

Aro cylindracei-Ulmetum               Hedero hibernicae - Fraxinetum
minoris                               angustifoliae

Arum cylindraceum                     Arum italicum
Populus alba                          Quercus robur
Colchicum autumnale              vs   Hedera hibernica
Ficaria ranunculoides                 Polystichum setiferum
Viburnum opulus                       Ornithogalum pyrenaicum
Helleborus viridis                    Solanum dulcamara
  occidentalis

Querco pyrenaicae - Fraxinetum        Hedero hibernicae - Fraxinetum
angustifoliae                         angustifoliae

Hedera helix                          Hedera hibernica
Populus alba                          Quercus robur
Arum cylindraceum                vs   Arum italicum
Colchicum multiflorum                 Polystichum setiferum
Rhamnus catharticus                   Ruscus aculeatus
Acer monspessulanum                   Acer pseudoplatanus

Viburno lantanae-Ulmetum              Hedero hibernicae - Fraxinetum
minoris                               angustifoliae

Hedera helix                          Hedera hibernica
Viburnum lantana                 vs   Quercus robur
Buxus sempervirens                    Hyacinthoides non-scripta
Lonicera xylosteum                    Ornithogalum pyrenaicum
Acer campestre                        Teucrium scorodonia

Rusco aculeati-Fraxinetum             Hedero hibernicae - Fraxinetum
angustifoliae                         angustifoliae

Hedera helix                          Hedera hibernica
Equisetum telmateia                   Quercus robur
Asparagus acutifolius            vs   Ornithogalum pyrenaicum
Quercus humilis                       Solanum dulcamara
Acer campestre                        Salix atrocinerea
COPYRIGHT 2009 Universidad Complutense de Madrid
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2009 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Amigo, Javier; Pulgar, Inigo; Izco, Jesus
Publication:Lazaroa
Article Type:Report
Date:Jan 1, 2009
Words:5075
Previous Article:Contribucion al conocimiento de la Biota Liquenica Macaronesica.
Next Article:Revision de la sintaxonomia de los hayedos del occidente de la Cordillera Cantabrica (Noroeste Iberico) mediante analisis multivariante.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters