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Evaluation of the trophic benthic diatom index in some main rivers of Thailand.

INTRODUCTION

The classification of river health based on the diatom index has been developed and widely used in many countries. Currently the array of indices used include the Specific Polluosensitivity Index (SPI) [2], the Saprobity Index (SI) [35], the Diatom Assemblage Index for organic pollution (DAIpo) [47], Generic Diatom Index (GDI) [33], the European Economic Community index (EEC) [3], the Trophic Index of van Dam [44], the Trophic Diatom Index (TDI) [13], the Saprobic Index of Rott [32] and the standardized Biological Diatom Index (BDI) [23]. Nevertheless, all of these indices have only been used in European countries.

In Asia, a few studies have focused on the benthic diatom index. Juttner et al. [10] used diatoms as indicators of stream quality assessment in the Kathmandu Valley and the Middle Hills of Nepal and India. Tang et al. [41] investigated the use of epilithic diatom communities to assess the ecological conditions of the Xiangxi River and developed the River Diatom Index (RDI) in the rivers of China. In Thailand there only three diatom indexes have been recorded, for the first index, twenty-five species of diatoms were scored and listed in the Mae Sa Diatom Index by Pekthong [28]. The second index, Kunpradid [20] proposed the use of 25 selected species of diatoms for the index establishment in the Ping and Nan Rivers. Regarding the third index, 29 species were the most abundant sources of benthic diatoms and were listed in the Mekong Diatom Index and the index by Suphan [40].

The results of this study showed the preparation of benthic diatoms index which was used to assess the trophic staus in rivers of Thailand.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The samples were collected from the main rivers in 6 regions of Thailand. The Ping River (northern region), the Tha Chin River (central region), the Chi River (northeastern region), the Kwai River (western region), the Chanthaburi River (eastern region) and the Tapee River (southern region) were selected under the criteria of geological and land use differences (Fig. 1). The water and the benthic diatoms samples were collected from the upper, middle and lower parts of each river, some physical and chemical parameters were studied in the summer, rainy and cool dry seasons from March 2008-January 2009. Benthic diatom samples were cleaned by the concentrated acid digestion method and were prepared on the permanent slides [14, 22,31]. The samples were identified and counted according to Krammer and Lange-Bertalot [16, 17,18, 19], Lange-Bertalot [21], and Kelly and Haworth [15].

The methods used to prepare the Thailand Index were applied Kelly and Whitton [13] and Kelly [12]. The estimation of indicator values was based on a weighted averages approach (WAs). Was were calculated based on water quality variables and abundance of organisms from each site. The major environment factors including BOD5, nitrate nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and SRP were classified to seven classes (Table 1) according to Lorraine and Vollenweider [24], Wetzel [48], Peerapornpisal et al. [27], Jones and Medrano [8] and Pollution Control Department [29]. Indicator values were averaged from 4 major environment factors and compared with the trophic status in table 1. WAs were calculated from the formula (1) below:

[WA.sub.jk] = [n.summation over (i=1)]([X.sub.ij] x [Y.sub.ik])/[n.summation over (i=1)][X.sub.ij]

Where [WA.sub.jk] = the weighted average or taxon j for water quality factor k

[X.sub.ij] = the the persent relative of taxon j at site i

[Y.sub.ik] = the kth water quality factor at site i

n = the number of sites at which the jth taxon was present

Calculate the sample index from the formula (2) below:

Sample index = [SIGMA] Relative Abundant X Average Indicator values/[SIGMA] Relative Abundant (2)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A total of 214 species of benthic diatoms were found [22] and total of 104 species of benthic diatoms were selected to establish a benthic diatoms Index which was more than other indexes of Thailand [20, 28, 40] (Table 2). This was because this study selected species with a high relative abundance (>1%) in each site which followed the reports of Kelly and Whitton [13] and Kelly [12]. In that study, 23 species were found in the other Thailand index with no more difference found in indicator value. The ranges of indicator values were between 2.3-4.8. Aulacoseira granulata, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Diadesmis confervacea, Diploneis elliptica, Gomphosphenia tenerrima, Luticola permuticoides, Navicula cryptocephaloides, Navicula recens, Navicula subminuscula, Navicula viridula, Nitzschia palea, Pinnularia microstauron, Pinnularia sp.3 and Pleurosigma salinarum were shown in high values which was similar to that which was reported by Palmer [26], Whitmore [49], Gomez [6], Guttinger and Straub [7], Juttner et al. [10], Stenger-Kovacs et al. [38], Duong et al. [4] and Garcia et al. [5]. They all reported the finding of these species indicated that they were tolerant to organic pollution. Cymbella amphicephala, Cymbella subaequalis, Cymbella japonica, Fallacia insociabilis and Synedra acus were found at low values which was similarly to that which was reported by Chen and Wu [1], Wan Maznah and Mansor [45], Lobo et al. [23], Sahun [34], Stenger-Kovacs et al. [38], Wang et al. [46] and Juttner et al. [11]. They reported that these species could be the oligo-mesotrophic indicator species.

Twenty-nine species were found in other international indexes [32, 44] and some species have no more difference in indicator value such as Cymbella amphicephala, Gomphonema parvulum, Navicula symmetrica, Nitzschia dissipata, Nitzschia palea, Sellaphora pupula. Moreover, Achnanthes oblongella, Eunotia bilunaris and Navicula cryptotenella showed a high difference of indicator value which was similar to Stoermer and Smol [39], Soininen et al. [37], Soininen and Kononen [36], Townsend and Gell [42] and Poulickova et al. [30] who reported that these species seem to be tolerant of a wide range of stream water qualities and are common, cosmopolitan freshwater pennate diatoms. However, these species showed no more difference in indicator value, which differs from many reports published out of Asia [9, 10, 20, 25, 28, 40, 43, 50].

The comparison of indicator values of the Thailand Diatoms Index with other Thailand indexes [20, 28, 40] showed no more difference in indicator value but showed a high difference of indicator value when compared with other the indexes of other foreign countries [32, 44] thus, the Thailand Diatoms Index is considered appropriate to indicate the trophic status for rivers of Thailand.

Conclusion:

A total of 104 species of benthic diatoms from the 6 main rivers of Thailand were scored and listed in the Thailand diatom index. This could be used to indicate the trophic status for other rivers of Thailand and differs from other indexes in Thailand. The Thailand diatom index is appropriate for specific rivers and regions and this conclusion is similar to that found in the previous reports of Yusano et al. [51], who suggested that the usefulness of the index should be developed from the organisms in that area. However, this index was calculated from data covering a year and produced a model of the Thailand diatom index. Thus, the process of producing the Thailand diatom index should be considered a long-term investigation and more intensive research would be necessary for both its development and accuracy.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors would like to thank the Biodiversity Research and Training Program (BRT), the Center of Excellence on Environmental Health, Toxicology and Management of Chemicals (ETM) and the Graduate School, Chiang Mai University for providing financial support.

REFERENCES

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(1) Pongpan Leelahakriengkrai and (2) Yuwadee Peerapornpisal

(1) Biology Section, Department of Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chiang Mai Rajabhat University, Chiang Mai 50300, Thailand

(2) Microbiology Section, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 15 December 2013

Received in revised form 14

February 2014

Accepted 20 February 2014

Available online 1 March 2014

Corresponding Author: Pongpan Leelahakriengkrai, Biology Section, Department of Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chiang Mai Rajabhat University, Chiang Mai 50300, Thailand. E-mail: bank_2525@hotmail.com

Table 1: The seven classes include BOD, ammonium nitrogen,
nitrate nitrogen, SRP and the scores for calculating the
Thailand Index.

Scores               1          2           3           4

BOD                <0.5      0.5-1.0     1.0-2.0     2.0-4.0
(mg x [l.sup.-1])
Nitrate -N         <0.01    0.01-0.19   0.20-0.39   0.40-0.79
(mg x [l.sup.-1])
Ammonium-N         <0.01    0.01-0.19   0.20-0.39   0.40-0.59
(mg x [l.sup.-1])
SRP                <0.01    0.02-0.04   0.05-0.06   0.07-0.19
(mg x [l.sup.-1])
Trophic             hyper-      oligo-       oligo-       meso-
Status               oligo      trophic       meso       trophic
                    trophic                  trophic

Scores                  5            6            7

BOD                 4.0-10.0     10.0-20.0       >20
(mg x [l.sup.-1])
Nitrate -N          0.80-1.90    2.0-10.0       >10.0
(mg x [l.sup.-1])
Ammonium-N          0.60-0.99     1.0-5.0       >5.0
(mg x [l.sup.-1])
SRP                 0.20-0.99     1.0-3.0       >3.0
(mg x [l.sup.-1])
Trophic               meso-      eutrophic     hyper-
Status              eutrophic                 eutrophic

Source: Modified from Lorraine and Vollenweider [24],
Wetzel [48], Peerapornpisal et al. [27], Jones and
Medrano [8] and Pollution Control Department [29].

Table 2: Benthic diatoms taxa showed wighted averages (WA) and
indicator values (IV) used for calculating the trophic status
in the rivers of Thailand.

Taxa                           WA       WA          WA          WA
                              (BOD)   (N[O.sub.3]  (N[H.sub.4]  (SRP)
                                        -N)        -N)

Achnanthes exigua              3.2      0.3        0.36         0.21
Achnanthes oblongella          2.7     0.43        0.18         0.09
Achnanthidium jackii           2.3     0.47        0.15         0.31
Achnanthidium minutissimum      3      0.09        0.66         0.63
Achnanthidium saprophilum      2.5     0.11        0.96         0.53
Adlafia sp.1                    2      0.33        0.13         0.04
Amphora montana                2.2     0.38        0.22         0.14
Aulacoseira granulata          4.4     0.34        0.41          0.4
Brachysira neoexilis           3.9     0.15        0.14         0.11
Brachysira vitrea              3.3     0.27        0.17         0.09
Cocconeis placentula           2.8     0.29        0.15         0.09
Craticula molestiformis        3.4     0.22        0.22         0.29
Cyclotella pseudostelligera    3.6     0.11        0.46         0.95
Cyclotella meneghiniana        4.5     0.37        0.57         0.49
Cymbella affinis                3      0.16        0.15         0.12
Cymbella amphicephala          0.3     0.27        0.05         0.12
Cymbella helvetica              2      0.75        0.46         0.14
Cymbella japonica             0.48     0.33        0.09         0.06
Cymbella leptoceros            2.8     0.18        0.13         0.19
Cymbella minuta                1.9     0.29         0.1         0.12
Cymbella subaequalis           3.8     0.23        0.09         0.04
Cymbella tumida                1.6     0.33        0.26         0.06
Cymbella turgidula             3.3      0.2        0.26         0.12
Diadesmis confervacea          5.6     0.51        0.71         0.44
Diadesmis contenta             2.4     0.33        0.12         0.15
Diploneis elliptica            5.2     0.29        0.61         0.52
Encyonema gracile              1.8     0.17        0.13         0.29
Encyonema mesianum             2.6      0.4        0.19         0.22
Encyonema minutum              1.8      0.3        0.17          0.2
Encyonopsis krammeri           2.6     0.13        0.23          0.1
Encyonopsis microcephala        3      0.26        0.18         0.06
Encyonopsis minuta            2.73     0.32         0.2         0.04
Eunotia bilunaris              1.9     0.37        0.21         0.21
Eunotia camelus                 2      0.22        0.15         0.24
Eunotia naegelii               2.1     0.19        0.18          0.3
Fallacia insociabilis          0.5     0.27        0.07         0.13
Fragilaria capucina            3.5     0.46        0.34         0.26
Fragilaria crotonensis         2.5     0.48         0.2         0.28
Fragilaria fasciculata         3.9     0.18        0.12         0.08
Frustulia rhomboides            2      0.29        0.12         0.25
Gomphonema affine              2.7     0.59        0.16         0.11
Gomphonema clavatum            2.6     0.38         0.4         0.16
Gomphonema clevei              2.6     0.25        0.06         0.05
Gomphonema gracile             2.2     0.26        0.17         0.14
Gomphonema hebridense          1.9     0.22        0.16          0.2
Gomphonema helveticum          1.4     0.36        0.12         0.17
Gomphonema lagenula            2.6     0.33        0.33         0.19
Gomphonema parvulum            2.1     0.38        0.26         0.05
Gomphonema pumilum             0.7     0.68        0.32         0.07
Gomphonema sp.1                2.6     0.38        0.34         0.15
Gomphosphenia tenerrima        4.2     0.26        0.38         0.48
Hippodonta lueneburgensis      3.4     0.17        0.41         0.14
Luticola goeppertiana          3.2     0.25        0.27         0.18
Luticola mutica                2.7     0.33         0.2         0.04
Luticola permuticoides         4.7     0.39        0.56         0.25
Mayamaea atomus                1.4     0.19        0.49         0.07
Navicula angusta               2.8     0.35        0.12         0.18
Navicula capitatoradiata       4.1     0.22        0.16         0.12
Navicula cryptocephaloides     5.2     0.26        0.56         0.48
Navicula cinctaeformis         2.5      0.4         0.4         0.16
Navicula cryptocephala         2.9     0.49        0.15         0.13
Navicula cryptotenella         3.9     0.23        0.14         0.09
Navicula erifuga               3.2     0.21        0.36         0.26
Navicula germainii              3      0.47        0.32         0.19
Navicula minima                1.8     0.29        0.22         0.12
Navicula novaesiberica         3.6     0.26        0.18         0.13
Navicula phyllepta             2.6     0.32        0.29         0.16
Navicula radiosa               1.6     0.23        0.17          0.2
Navicula radiosafallax         0.6      0.8        0.37         0.06
Navicula recens                5.3     0.27        0.44         0.57
Navicula rhynchocephala        2.8     0.45        0.13         0.17
Navicula rostellata            3.4     0.35        0.35         0.21
Navicula subminuscula          3.2     0.65        0.69         0.26
Navicula symmetrica            2.6     0.32        0.26         0.12
Navicula viridula              5.4     0.44        0.65         0.31
Navicula sp.01                 5.1     0.24        0.15         0.13
Navicula sp.02                 2.4     0.29         0.1          0.1
Naviculadicta                  2.4     0.47        0.28         0.14
  nanogomphonema
Nitzschia amphibia             3.3      0.2         0.1          0.1
Nitzschia clausii              2.4     0.32        0.27         0.12
Nitzschia dissipata            1.8     0.34        0.27         0.09
Nitzschia draveillensis        3.5     0.32        0.22         0.08
Nitzschia intermedia           1.4     0.26        0.19         0.11
Nitzschia palea                3.3      0.4        0.51         0.27
Nitzschia scalpelliformis      3.7     0.36        0.48         0.15
Nitzschia sinuata var.         3.8     0.24        0.17          0.1
  tabellaria
Nitzschia subcohaerens         3.5     0.37        0.24         0.21
Nitzschia sp.1                 2.5     0.32        0.19         0.08
Nitzschia sp.2                 2.1     0.26        0.56          0.2
Pinnularia microstauron        5.5     0.34        0.72         0.55
Pinnularia mesolepta           1.8     0.12        0.11         0.32
Pinnularia sp.3                5.1     0.41        0.48         0.28
Planothidium lanceolatum       2.5     0.42        0.42         0.17
Pleurosigma salinarum          4.6     0.39        0.46         0.46
Rhopalodia gibba               2.9     0.08        0.22         0.05
Rhopalodia gibberula           3.1     0.06        0.22         0.04
Sellaphora pupula              3.4     0.39        0.67         0.43
Sellaphora seminulum           2.7      0.3        0.25         0.24
Seminavis strigosa             3.7     0.38        0.38         0.28
Surirella angusta               1      0.61        0.33         0.05
Synedra acus                   2.1     0.16        0.16         0.04
Synedra ulna                   1.4     0.34        0.11         0.09
Synedra ulna var. aequalis     2.3     0.26        0.13         0.04
Thalassiosira weissflogii      2.3      0.2        0.14         0.11

Taxa                           IV       IV             IV
                              (BOD)   (N[O.sub.3]-N)   (N[H.sub.4]-N)

Achnanthes exigua               4        3               4
Achnanthes oblongella           4        4               3
Achnanthidium jackii            4        4               3
Achnanthidium minutissimum      4        2               5
Achnanthidium saprophilum       4        2               5
Adlafia sp.1                    3        3               3
Amphora montana                 4        3               4
Aulacoseira granulata           5        3               5
Brachysira neoexilis            4        2               3
Brachysira vitrea               4        3               3
Cocconeis placentula            4        3               3
Craticula molestiformis         4        3               4
Cyclotella pseudostelligera     4        2               5
Cyclotella meneghiniana         5        3               5
Cymbella affinis                4        2               3
Cymbella amphicephala           1        3               2
Cymbella helvetica              3        4               5
Cymbella japonica               1        3               2
Cymbella leptoceros             4        2               3
Cymbella minuta                 3        3               3
Cymbella subaequalis            4        3               2
Cymbella tumida                 3        3               4
Cymbella turgidula              4        3               4
Diadesmis confervacea           5        4               5
Diadesmis contenta              4        3               3
Diploneis elliptica             5        3               5
Encyonema gracile               3        2               3
Encyonema mesianum              4        4               3
Encyonema minutum               3        3               3
Encyonopsis krammeri            4        2               4
Encyonopsis microcephala        4        3               3
Encyonopsis minuta              4        3               4
Eunotia bilunaris               3        3               4
Eunotia camelus                 3        3               3
Eunotia naegelii                4        2               3
Fallacia insociabilis           2        3               2
Fragilaria capucina             4        4               4
Fragilaria crotonensis          4        4               4
Fragilaria fasciculata          4        2               3
Frustulia rhomboides            3        3               3
Gomphonema affine               4        4               3
Gomphonema clavatum             4        3               5
Gomphonema clevei               4        3               2
Gomphonema gracile              4        3               3
Gomphonema hebridense           3        3               3
Gomphonema helveticum           3        3               3
Gomphonema lagenula             4        3               4
Gomphonema parvulum             4        3               4
Gomphonema pumilum              2        4               4
Gomphonema sp.1                 4        3               3
Gomphosphenia tenerrima         5        3               5
Hippodonta lueneburgensis       4        2               5
Luticola goeppertiana           4        3               4
Luticola mutica                 4        3               4
Luticola permuticoides          5        4               5
Mayamaea atomus                 3        2               5
Navicula angusta                4        3               3
Navicula capitatoradiata        5        3               3
Navicula cryptocephaloides      5        3               5
Navicula cinctaeformis          4        4               5
Navicula cryptocephala          4        4               3
Navicula cryptotenella          4        3               3
Navicula erifuga                4        3               4
Navicula germainii              4        4               3
Navicula minima                 3        3               4
Navicula novaesiberica          4        3               3
Navicula phyllepta              4        3               4
Navicula radiosa                3        3               3
Navicula radiosafallax          2        5               4
Navicula recens                 5        3               5
Navicula rhynchocephala         4        4               3
Navicula rostellata             4        3               4
Navicula subminuscula           4        4               5
Navicula symmetrica             4        3               4
Navicula viridula               5        4               5
Navicula sp.01                  5        3               3
Navicula sp.02                  4        3               3
Naviculadicta                   4        4               4
  nanogomphonema
Nitzschia amphibia              4        3               3
Nitzschia clausii               4        3               4
Nitzschia dissipata             3        3               4
Nitzschia draveillensis         4        3               4
Nitzschia intermedia            3        3               3
Nitzschia palea                 4        4               5
Nitzschia scalpelliformis       4        3               5
Nitzschia sinuata var.          4        3               3
  tabellaria
Nitzschia subcohaerens          4        3               4
Nitzschia sp.1                  4        3               3
Nitzschia sp.2                  4        3               4
Pinnularia microstauron         5        3               5
Pinnularia mesolepta            3        2               3
Pinnularia sp.3                 5        4               5
Planothidium lanceolatum        4        4               5
Pleurosigma salinarum           5        3               5
Rhopalodia gibba                4        2               4
Rhopalodia gibberula            4        2               4
Sellaphora pupula               4        3               5
Sellaphora seminulum            4        3               4
Seminavis strigosa              4        3               4
Surirella angusta               2        4               4
Synedra acus                    4        2               3
Synedra ulna                    3        3               3
Synedra ulna var. aequalis      4        3               3
Thalassiosira weissflogii       4        3               3

Taxa                           IV     Average
                              (SRP)

Achnanthes exigua               5        4
Achnanthes oblongella           4       3.8
Achnanthidium jackii            5        4
Achnanthidium minutissimum      5        4
Achnanthidium saprophilum       5        4
Adlafia sp.1                    2       2.8
Amphora montana                 4       3.8
Aulacoseira granulata           5       4.5
Brachysira neoexilis            4       3.3
Brachysira vitrea               4       3.5
Cocconeis placentula            4       3.5
Craticula molestiformis         5        4
Cyclotella pseudostelligera     5        4
Cyclotella meneghiniana         5       4.5
Cymbella affinis                4       3.3
Cymbella amphicephala           4       2.5
Cymbella helvetica              4        4
Cymbella japonica               3       2.3
Cymbella leptoceros             4       3.3
Cymbella minuta                 4       3.3
Cymbella subaequalis            2       2.8
Cymbella tumida                 3       3.3
Cymbella turgidula              4       3.8
Diadesmis confervacea           5       4.8
Diadesmis contenta              4       3.5
Diploneis elliptica             5       4.5
Encyonema gracile               5       3.3
Encyonema mesianum              5        4
Encyonema minutum               5       3.5
Encyonopsis krammeri            4       3.5
Encyonopsis microcephala        3       3.3
Encyonopsis minuta              2       3.3
Eunotia bilunaris               5       3.8
Eunotia camelus                 5       3.5
Eunotia naegelii                5       3.5
Fallacia insociabilis           4       2.8
Fragilaria capucina             5       4.3
Fragilaria crotonensis          5       4.3
Fragilaria fasciculata          4       3.3
Frustulia rhomboides            5       3.5
Gomphonema affine               4       3.8
Gomphonema clavatum             4        4
Gomphonema clevei               3        3
Gomphonema gracile              4       3.5
Gomphonema hebridense           5       3.5
Gomphonema helveticum           4       3.3
Gomphonema lagenula             4       3.8
Gomphonema parvulum             3       3.5
Gomphonema pumilum              4       3.5
Gomphonema sp.1                 4       3.5
Gomphosphenia tenerrima         5       4.5
Hippodonta lueneburgensis       4       3.8
Luticola goeppertiana           4       3.8
Luticola mutica                 2       3.3
Luticola permuticoides          5       4.8
Mayamaea atomus                 4       3.5
Navicula angusta                4       3.5
Navicula capitatoradiata        4       3.8
Navicula cryptocephaloides      5       4.5
Navicula cinctaeformis          4       4.3
Navicula cryptocephala          4       3.8
Navicula cryptotenella          4       3.5
Navicula erifuga                5        4
Navicula germainii              4       3.8
Navicula minima                 4       3.5
Navicula novaesiberica          4       3.5
Navicula phyllepta              4       3.8
Navicula radiosa                5       3.5
Navicula radiosafallax          3       3.5
Navicula recens                 5       4.5
Navicula rhynchocephala         4       3.8
Navicula rostellata             5        4
Navicula subminuscula           5       4.5
Navicula symmetrica             4       3.8
Navicula viridula               5       4.8
Navicula sp.01                  4       3.8
Navicula sp.02                  4       3.5
Naviculadicta                   4        4
  nanogomphonema
Nitzschia amphibia              4       3.5
Nitzschia clausii               4       3.8
Nitzschia dissipata             4       3.5
Nitzschia draveillensis         4       3.8
Nitzschia intermedia            4       3.3
Nitzschia palea                 5       4.5
Nitzschia scalpelliformis       4        4
Nitzschia sinuata var.          4       3.5
  tabellaria
Nitzschia subcohaerens          5        4
Nitzschia sp.1                  4       3.5
Nitzschia sp.2                  5        4
Pinnularia microstauron         5       4.5
Pinnularia mesolepta            5       3.3
Pinnularia sp.3                 5       4.8
Planothidium lanceolatum        4       4.3
Pleurosigma salinarum           5       4.5
Rhopalodia gibba                3       3.3
Rhopalodia gibberula            2        3
Sellaphora pupula               5       4.3
Sellaphora seminulum            5        4
Seminavis strigosa              5        4
Surirella angusta               3       3.3
Synedra acus                    2       2.8
Synedra ulna                    4       3.3
Synedra ulna var. aequalis      2        3
Thalassiosira weissflogii       4       3.5
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Author:Leelahakriengkrai, Pongpan; Peerapornpisal, Yuwadee
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9THAI
Date:Jan 1, 2014
Words:5213
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