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Evaluation of some physiological traits of winter canola varieties in drought stress conditions.

Introduction

Drought stress significantly limits plant growth and crop productivity. However, in certain tolerant adaptable crop plants, such as rape seed, morphological and metabolic changes occur in response to drought, which contribute towards adaptation to such unavoidable environmental constraints [18]. The fact that water stress effects on growth and yield are genotype-dependent is well known [2]. In Iran, water is a scarce resource, due to the high variability of rainfall. The effects of water stress depend on timing, duration, and magnitude of water deficiency [10]. Identification of the critical irrigation timing and scheduling of irrigation, based on a timely and accurate basis to the crop, is the key for conserving water and improving irrigation performance and sustainability of irrigated agriculture [9].

In arid and semi-arid environments, both efficient use of available water and a higher yield and quality of safflower are in demand [7,4,8]. Efficient management of soil moisture is important for agricultural production in the light of scarce water resources. Soil conditioners, both natural and synthetic, contribute significantly to provide a reservoir of soil water to plants on demand in the upper layers of the soil, where the root systems normally develop.

These polymeric organic materials and hydrogels, apart from improving the soil physical properties, also serve as buffers against temporary drought stress and reduce the risk of plant failure, during establishment [3,5].

This is achieved by means of reduction of evaporation through restricted movement of water from the sub-surface to the surface layer.

Brassica oilseed species now hold the third position among the oilseed crops and are an important source of vegetable oil [1]. The reaction of plants to water stress differs significantly, at various organizational levels, depending upon intensity and duration of stress, as well as plant species and its stage of development. Environmental stresses, including drought and temperature, affect nearly every aspect of the physiology and biochemistry of plants and significantly diminish yield [8]. Therefore, the primary objective of the present investigation was to examine the effect of water stress on the agronomic characters and physiological exchanges in leaves of rape seed. The work was also aimed at verifying whether a super absorbent polymer supply to plant might be a strategy for increasing the drought tolerance.

The effect of water stress on crop is a function of genotype, intensity and duration of stress, weather elongation conditions and developmental stages of rapeseed.

Material and methods

For appoint of resistance to drought stress two kinds of autumnal Rapeseed and survey of component of their function in conditions of treatment for examination drought stress and regular irrigation (witness), examination in case of split plot in form of complete basis project block in three repetitions that which the irrigation was the main factor in seven levels: consist of regular irrigation (witness), cutting irrigation in stage of tillering, cutting irrigation in stage of flowering, cutting irrigation in stage of fructify, cutting irrigation in stage of tillering and flowering, cutting irrigation in stage of tillering and fructify, and cutting irrigation in stage of flowering and fructify and also the accessory factor in two levels consist of Zarfam & Opera varieties. The experiment was carried out at the Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (35[degrees]59'N, 50[degrees]75'E, and altitude of 151 m above the sea level), in Karaj, Iran, in 2006-2007. This region has a semiarid climate (230 mm annual rainfall). The soil of the experimental site is a clay loam, with montmorillionite clay mineral, low in nitrogen (0.06-0.07%), low in organic matter (0.56-0.60%), and alkaline in reaction, with a pH of 7.9 and Ec = 0.66 dS m-1. The soil texture is sandy loam, with 10% of neutralizing substances.

In this survey all the stages of plant's phonology and various attributes such as length of the bush, number of the secondry branches in the bush, the sickness of the stem, the length of silique's main stem, secondry branch, the length of the silique, the number of the silique in the main stem and the secondary stem, number of the silique in the bush, the number of seed in the silique in main stem and secondary stem, the number of the seed in the silique, the weight of the thousand of seeds, function of the seed, biologic function of harvest's coefficient and the percentage of oil of the seed and the function of the seed's oil measured.

The experiment was organized in a randomized complete block design, with split plot arrangement, with three replications.

In order to better evaluate and determine the growth characteristics of canola growth in different treatments, growth analysis was performed. This requires accurate sampling is done. To measure and calculate indices of growth, from about 4 to 6 leaf stage of plant physiological interval of once every 14 days, all experimental plots, sampling was destructive, and leaf dry weight, total plant dry weight and speed plant growth was determined. In this study, instead of single days growing degree days (GDD) was used. Data matching statistical models split plot design in randomized complete block design was simple variance analysis and comparison of means using multiple range tests Duncan 5% level was performed. The simple correlation between test characteristics was calculated.

Results and discussion

The results of analysis of variance showed that cultivar traits such as yield, oil yield, seed oil (1 percent probability level) and seed weight (5 percent probability level) were significant. The interaction of irrigation and variety on grain number pod trait significant effect is exhibited.

The results of this study showed that a simple figure of 1% probability level on grain yield was significant. Mean levels Zarfam figures show that figure with the average 4192.2 kg ha maximum and average number Opera 3448.8 kg ha had the lowest yield.

Comparing different levels of irrigation also showed that grain yield with irrigation conditions in forming stems and flowering stages with mean 4769 kg/ ha respectively (Table 1).

Water shortages could affect deleterious effects on canola yield, but the effect of genotype and developmental stage of plant adaptation to drought depends. Canola ability to absorb water from the depths of the earth and need to be rain water in arid regions are among an advantage [11].

Simple interaction effects of irrigation and irrigation and variety on grain weight was not significant.

While the simple traits of 5 % probability level was significant. a simple comparison of traits revealed the highest seed weight associated with a mean traits Zarfam 3/85 g respectively.

In comparing the interaction of irrigation and genotype was found in drought stress conditions the highest seed weight traits Zarfam (4 g) cutting off the water in step stems forming and flowering found to have the least amount of this trait to traits Opera (4.3 g) and stress at flowering stage and was forming stem (Table 1). In the study of physiological drought tolerance in canola, expressed under drought conditions, significant differences in grain weight showed [15]. It seems that in this study, pod number per plant with the loss of drought stress, the remaining pod seeds maintain their weights have.

Analysis of variance of seed oil percent was shown in the traits of 1 per cent level of this trait were significant. Also compare the interaction of cultivar and irrigation control irrigation was found that the highest percentage of oil to average figure Zarfam 40.5 percent, and the highest oil content under drought stress conditions Zarfam figure (42.5) with a water cut conditions Flowering stage and pod forming is obtained (Table 1). Drought stress on seed oil content has no significant effect (Munoz and Fernandez, 1998).

Seeds per pod is an important traits in rapeseed yield is a very important role. Analysis of variance in seed number pod showed that the interaction of cultivar and irrigation at 5% this trait were significant. Comparison of means of irrigation and cultivar interactions in drought conditions, the highest number of seeds per pod about opera traits mean 20.6 is that the amount of irrigation in the forming stage is derived stem (Table 1).

Drought pollination stage and grain filling decrease in canola seeds per pod is (Niknam and Turner, 1999). In the present study observed that the number of seeds per pod of drought (Opera) has a low above results with the results of such research [11,16]. All of which reduce the number of seeds per pod of stress reported is in accordance.

Table of simple correlation between traits indicated that the number of seed oil seed pod and seed oil yield positive and significant correlation in the 5 percent level, and positively correlated with grain yield and level of significance has had a percentage, the performance Seed, a significant positive correlation in the 1 percent level seed oil and seed oil yield has had (Table 2).

References

[1.] Ashraf, M., T. Mcneilly, 2004. Salinity tolerance in some Brassica oilseed. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, London, 23(2): 157-174.

[2.] Bannayan, M. et al., 2008. Yield and seed quality of Plantago ovata and Nigella sativa under different irrigation treatments. Industrial Crops and Products, Amsterdam, 27(1): 11-16.

[3.] D.E. Boot, M., 1990. Application of polymeric substances as physical soil conditioners. In: DE Boot, M. et al. (Eds.). Soil colloids and their association in soil aggregates. London: Planum Publishing Corporation, pp: 580- 592.

[4.] Dordas, C.A., C. Sioulas, 2008. Safflower yield, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency response to nitrogen fertilization under rainfed conditions. Industrial Crops and Products, Amsterdam, 27(1): 75-85.

[5.] Johnson, M.S., R.T. Leah, 1990. Effect of superabsorbent polyacrylamide on efficacy of water use by crop seedlings. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, London, 52(3): 431-434.

[6.] Koutroubas, S.D., D.K. Papakosta, A. Doitsinis, 2008. Nitrogen utilization efficiency of safflower hybrids and open-pollinated varieties under Mediterranean conditions. Field Crops Research, 107(1): 56-61.

[7.] Lovelli, S., et al. 2007. Yield response factor to water (Ky) and water use efficiency of Carthamus tinctorius L. and Solanum melongena L. Agricultural Water Management, Amsterdam, 92(1/2): 73-80.

[8.] Munns, R., 2002. Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant, Cell and Environment, Camberra, 25(2): 239-250.

[9.] Ngouajio, M., G. Wang, R. Goldy, 2007. Withholding of drip irrigation between transplanting and flowering increases the yield of field-grown tomato under plastic mulch. Agricultural Water Management, Amsterdam, 87(3): 285-291.

[10.] Pandey, R.K., J.W. Maranville, A. Admou, 2001. Tropical wheat response to irrigation and nitrogen in a Sahelian environment. I. Grain yield, yield components and water use efficiency. European Journal of Agronomy, Amsterdam, 15 (2): 93-105.

[11.] Poma, I., G. Venezia and Gristina., 1999. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. var Oleifera D.C.) echophysiological and agronomical aspects as affected bysoil water availability. Proceedings of the 10th International Rapeseed Congress. Canberra. Australia: pp: 8.

[12.] Pritchards, F.M., R.M. Northon., H.A. Eagles. and M. Nicolas, 1999. The effect of environment on Victoriean Canola quality. 10th International oil crops.

[13.] Reddy, C.S. and P. Ruddy., 1998. Performance of mustard varieties onalfishoils of rayalasseema region of andhra pradesh. J.Oilseed Res., 15: 379-380.

[14.] Richards, R.A. and N. Thurling., 1978b. Variation between and within species of rapeseed (Brassica campestris and Brassica napus) in response to drought stress.II. Growth and development under natural drought stresses. Aust. J.Agri. Res. 29:479-490.

[15.] Sadaqat, H.A., M.H. Nadeem Tahir. and M. Tanveer Hussain., 2003. Physiogenetic aspects of drought tolerance in Canola (Brassica napus L.) Int. J. of Agric and Biology., 4: 611-614.

[16.] Sana, M.A. Ali., M. Asghar Malik., M. Farrukh Saleem and M. Rafiq., 2003. Comparative yield potential and oil contents of different canola cultivars (Brassica napus L.) Pak. J. Agron. 2(1): 1-7.

[17.] Styszko, L., 1990. Influence of environmental and cultivation factors on value of seed potatoes. Hodow.La. Rosline-I-Nasiennic. Poland., 1: 3-9

[18.] Wrigth, P.R., J. M. Morgan and R.S. Jessop., 1996. Comparative adaptation of canola (Brassic napus L.) and Indianmustard (Brassica juncea) to soil water deficits: plant water relations and growth. Field Crops Res., 49: 51-49.

[19.] Zaman, A., P.K. Das, 1991. Effect of irrigation and nitrogen on yield and quality of safflower. Indian Journal of Agronomy, New Delhi, 36(2): 177-19.

[20.] Zhang, J., M.B. Kirkham, 1996. Antioxidant response to drought in sunflower and sorghum seedlings. New Phytologist, 132(3): 361-373.

Hossein Bagheri

Young Researchers Club, Chaloos Branch, Islamic Azad University, Chaloos, Iran.

Corresponding Author

Hossein Bagheri, Young Researchers Club, Chaloos Branch, Islamic Azad University, Chaloos, Iran. Email: Bagheri_hm2000@yahoo.com
Table 1: Mean comparison the interaction of irrigation and
varity effect on some traits of colza.

Irrigation   Grain Yield               1000 SW

             Varity       Varit        Varity       Varit
             Opera        Zarfam       Opera        Zarfam

Regular      3996 abcd    5021 a       3.82ab       3.77 abc
Irrigation

Cutting      2971 bcde    3758 abcd    3.77 abc     3.8 abc
Irrigation
in Stage
of
Tillering

Cutting      2167 e       4108 abcd    3.61 bc      3.84 ab
Irrigation
in Stage
of
flowering

Cutting      2838 cde     4204 abcd    3.69 abc     3.78 abc
Irrigation
in Stage
of
fructify

Cut.Ir in    4404 abc     5133 a       3.45 c       4 a
Stage of
tellering
and
flowering

Cut.Ir in    3638 abcde   2625 de      3.66 abc     3.83 ab
Stage of
tellering
and
flowering

Cut.Ir in    4129 abcd    4496 ab      3.84 ab      3.92 ab
Stage of
tellering
and
flowering

Irrigation   Oil %                     N. Of grain in fructify

             Varity       Varit        Varity       Varit
             Opera        Zarfam       Opera        Zarfam

Regular      39.49 cd     40.57 bcd    19.5 c       16.2 abc
Irrigation

Cutting      39.63 bcd    40.5 bcd     20.6 a       13.3 c
Irrigation
in Stage
of
Tillering

Cutting      40.5 bcd     41.49 ab     13.6 c       17.6 abc
Irrigation
in Stage
of
flowering

Cutting      39.19 d      41.26 abc    15.3 abc     15.3 abc
Irrigation
in Stage
of
fructify

Cut.Ir in    39.85 bcd    42.52 a      14 bc        18.3 abc
Stage of
tellering
and
flowering

Cut.Ir in    38.75 bcd    41.23 abc    15 abc       19.6 ab
Stage of
tellering
and
flowering

Cut.Ir in    40.32 bcd    42.56 a      15 abc       16.3 abc
Stage of
tellering
and
flowering

Irrigation   Oil Yield

             Varity       Varit
             Opera        Zarfam

Regular      1582 abcd    2040 ab
Irrigation

Cutting      1173 cde     1509 bcde
Irrigation
in Stage
of
Tillering

Cutting      879.5 e      1716 abcd
Irrigation
in Stage
of
flowering

Cutting      1116 cde     1729 abc
Irrigation
in Stage
of
fructify

Cut.Ir in    1760 abc     2175 a
Stage of
tellering
and
flowering

Cut.Ir in    1409 bcd     1080 de
Stage of
tellering
and
flowering

Cut.Ir in    1666 abcd    1913 ab
Stage of
tellering
and
flowering

Means in each column having similar leter (S), are not
significantly different at the 5% leve (DMR-Test).

Table 2: Simple correlation cofficients among different
traits of rapessed cultivars.

                   Grain    1000 SW    Oil %      N. of      Oil
                                                  grain in   yield
                                                  fructify
                   yield
Grain yield        1        0.137 ns   0.202 **   0.163 ns   0.993 **
1000 Seed weight            1          0.446 **   0.104 ns   0.169 ns
Oil Percent                            1          0.356 *    0.308 *
N. of grain                                       1          0.203 ns
  in fructify
Oil yield                                                    1

ns, * and ** :Non significant at the 5 and 1% levels probability
respectively.
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Bagheri, Hossein
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Jun 1, 2011
Words:2555
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