Printer Friendly

Evaluation of FSP (fermented soy protein) to replace soybean meal in weaned pigs: growth performance, blood urea nitrogen and total protein concentrations in serum and nutrient digestibility.

ABSTRACT : A total of one hundred and forty four weaned pigs with an average BW of 8.09[+ or -]0.05 kg were used in a 28 day study to investigate the effects of fermented soy protein on growth performance, blood urea nitrogen and total protein concentrations in serum and nutrient digestibility in weaner pigs. Pigs were blocked by initial body weight and randomly allocated to one of four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. There were six replications per treatment. Dietary treatments included: SBM (corn-soybean meal basal diet), F 5, 10 and 15 (fermented soy product was used at 5, 10 and 15% to replace soybean meal in basal diet, respectively). ADG (average daily gain) and ADFI (average daily feed intake) were not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments during the entire 4-wk study period. There were linear increments in feed efficiency (p<0.01) as the dietary FSP level increased during the entire feeding period. No significant differences were observed for dry matter and nitrogen digestibility during the experimental period (p>0.05). Digestibilities of histidine, lysine and methionine were increased as the FSP level increased (linear effect, p<0.05, p<0.01). Among non-essential amino acids, alanine, glutamic acid, serine, tyrosine and total non essential amino acid digestibilities were increased linearly (p<0.05, p<0.01). There were quadratic effects in protein digestibility (p<0.05). Total amino acid digestibility of the F15 diet was improved compared with the F5 diet (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in fecal consistency score among the treatments (p>0.05). At the end of experiment, BUN (blood urea nitrogen) concentration was increased as the FSP level increased (linear effect, p<0.01) and total protein concentration was lowest (p<0.05) for pigs fed the SBM diet among treatments. In conclusion, the feeding of 10 or 15% FSP to nursery pigs improved feed efficiency, amino acid digestibility and blood urea nitrogen and total protein concentrations in blood. (Key Words : Fermented Soy Protein, Nutrient Digestibility, Weaned Pigs)

INTRODUCTION

Protein source is a very important factor for nursery pigs growth, because poor amino acid and protein nutrition have a profound effect on physiology health status and growth factor of pigs. As animal protein sources, milk, fish and blood products have been generally utilized for weaned pigs diets. On the other side, soybean meal is most widely used as protein source in swine diets and has high quality amino acids profile. However, soybean meal contains several antinutritional factors, in particular, trypsin inhibitors and some of oligosaccharides which depress growth rate and decrease efficiency of nutrient utilization when fed to swine (Anderson et al., 1979).

There were a number of studies that compared fermented soy protein (FSP) with conventional protein sources in early-weaned or nursery pigs (Kim et al., 2005; Yun et al., 2005). Specially, fermented soy protein (FSP) has a higher proportion of small peptide and lower anti-nutritional factors than soybean meal produced by microbial fermentation. Also, trypsin inhibitor was decreased after fermentation of soybean meal (Kim, 2004). Min et al. (2004) reported that FSP showed higher growth performance and nitrogen digestibility in weaned pigs than soybean meal. Kim et al. (2005) demonstrated that fermented soy protein can be used up to 10% in nursery pigs diet, successfully replacing the use of dried skim milk when the lactose content was matched. Min (2006) reported that pigs fed the FSP diet decreased backfat thickness and improved loin percentage, meat color and the protein and amino acid concentration in loin muscle.

Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the effects of fermented soy protein to replace soybean meal on growth performance, blood urea nitrogen and total protein concentrations in serum and nutrient digestibility in weaning pigs.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Experimental design, animals and diets

A total of one hundred and forty four weaned pigs with an average BW of 8.09[+ or -]0.05 kg (21 days) were used in a 28 days study to investigate the effects of fermented soy protein on growth performance, blood urea nitrogen, nutrient digestibility and total protein concentrations in serum in weaning pigs. Pigs blocked by initial body weight and allocated to one of four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. There were six replications per treatment. Dietary treatments included: SBM (corn-soybean meal basal diet), F 5, 10 and 15 (fermented soy product was used by 5, 10 and 15% in basal diet, respectively). The experimental diets were formulated to meet or exceed the nutrient requirements recommended by NRC (1998). Pigs room temperature was maintained at 32[degrees]C for the first week, and then decreased by 1 to 2[degrees]C every week until 26[degrees]C was reached.

Producing fermented soy protein

Common soybean meal was fermented by inoculating Aspergillus Oryzae GB-107 under anaerobic conditions for 48 h. FSP was produced by solid fermentation techniques.

Sampling and measurements

Pigs were allowed to consume feed and water ad libitum from self-feeder and nipple waterer. Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were measured on d 14 and 28 and gain/feed ratio was also calculated. Chromic oxide (Cr2O3) was added at 0.20% of diets as a digestible marker on day-21 and at the end of experiment (d 28), fresh feces samples were collected by massaging the anus. Feed and feces samples were analyzed for DM and N concentrations (AOAC, 1995). Chromium was determined by UV absorption spectrophotometry (Shimadzu, UV-1201, Japan) and apparent digestibilities of DM and N were calculated using the indirect methods. Amino acids digestibility of the experimental feed was determined, following acid hydrolysis with 6 N HCl at 110[degrees]C for 24 h, using an amino acids analyzer (Biochrom 20, Pharmacia Biotech, England). Sulfur-containing amino acids were analyzed after cold performic acid oxidation overnight and subsequent hydrolysis.

Fecal consistency scoring was based on the following index used by Sherman et al. (1983): 0, nomal (feces firm and well formed); 1, soft consistency (feces soft and formed); 2, mild diarrhea (fluid feces, usually yellowish); and 3, severe diarrhea (feces watery and projectile).

Blood samples were obtained by jugular venipuncture on d 28 from two randomly selected pigs in each pen, samples were measured using the automatic biochemistry analyzer (HITACHI 747, Japan) for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total protein concentrations.

Statistical analyses

In this experiment, all the datas were analyzed as a randomized complete block design using GLM procedures of SAS (1996). Dietary treatments were compared to each other by the polynomial regression (Peterson, 1985) method to determine linear and quadratic effects. Also, data was compared the means of treatments by the Duncan's multiple range test (Duncan, 1955).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Growth performance

ADG and ADFI were not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments during the entire 4-wk study period (Table 2). There were linear increments in feed efficiency (p<0.01) as the dietary FSP level increased during entire feeding period. Kiers et al. (2003) demonstrated that piglets fed fermented soya beans (for Rhizopus and Bacillus) showed increased feed efficiency 3 and 8%, respectively. This result was likely because of the extensive hydrolysis of protein resulting in readily available free amino acids and peptides which is a major characteristic of these fermentations (Steinkraus, 1996; Sarkar et al., 1997; Kiers et al., 2000). Also, Min (2006) demonstrated that FSP in his experiment had no effect on feed intake, therefore, it might lead to improving feed efficiency. This result is in agreement with our experimental results.

DM and N digestibilities

No significant differences were observed for dry matter and nitrogen digestibility during experimental period (p>0.05) (Table 3). DM and N digestibilities in FSP treatments were not affected compared to SBM treatment. Min (2006) reported that FSP did not affect DM digestibility, however, N digestibility was higher as FSP levels was increased. Also, there were no significant differences in DM and N digestibilities between the adding of FSP in simple diet and non adding FSP in the complex diet (Min, 2006). In the other side, fermentation of soybean meal using Aspergillus oryzae decreased trypsin inhibitor about 84% (Hong et al., 2004) and the researchers demonstrated that FSP diet had higher DM and N digestibilities than the SBM diet (Min et al., 2004; Yun et al., 2005). Because FSP has a high proportion of small peptide and low anti-nutritional (trypsin inhibitor, oilgosaccharides level) factors by microbial fermentation (Aspergillus oryzae and Bacillus sp.), we looked forward to improving nutrition digestibility. However, our study did not identify FSP effect on DM and N digestibilities for young pigs.

Amino acid digestibility

The essential and nonessential amino acid digestibilities are presented in Table 4. Digestibilities of Histidine, Lysine and Methionine were increased as the FSP level increased (linear effect, p<0.05, p<0.01). Among non-essential amino acids, Alanine, Glutamic acid, Serine, Tyrosine and total non essential amino acid digestibilities were increased linearly (p<0.05, p<0.01). There were quadratic effect in Pro digestibility (p<0.05). Total amino acids digestibility of F15 diet was improved compared with F5 diet (p<0.05). Min (2006) reported that individual essential amino acids digestibility of FSP diet was improved compared with SBM diet because FSP had a high amount of small peptide by microbial fermentation (Kim, 2004) that presented to the mucosa in short-chain peptide bound form (Rerat et al., 1992). Also, researchers demonstrated that young pigs fed FSP were similar to pigs fed other protein sources (whey protein, fish meal, SPC, ISP and DSM) on the apparent amino acids digestibility (Shon et al., 1994; Yun et al., 2005). These datas partially agreed with our research on non-essential amino acids digestibility.

Fecal consistency score

Fecal consistency score of pigs fed experimental diet is presented in Table 5. There was no significant difference in fecal consistency score among the treatments (p>0.05). Fecal consistency score was lowed in all treatments because our nursery room has all-in all-out system to control disease. Kim et al. (2007) reported that the villous height, crypt depth and villous height to crypt depth ratio were not affected by fermented soy protein. Also, Kelly et al. (1991) and Vente-Spreeuwenberg et al. (2004) reported that villous height and crypt depth were positively related to feed intake. Although diarrhea is highly affected by various factors, intestinal morphology is considered as a primary factor to diarrhea.

Blood profiles

At the end of experiment, BUN concentration was increased as the FSP level increased (linear effect, p<0.01) and total protein concentration was lowest (p<0.05) for pigs fed SBM diet among treatments (Table 6). These results showed that total protein and BUN concentrations were affected by FSP diet. Min (2006) reported that total protein concentration in blood was not affected by the FSP level in diets, however, BUN concentration on the final day of experiment was greater in FSP 2.5% diet. This result is inconsistent with our result on total protein concentration. Plasma protein is affected by protein intake and many researchers (Eggum, 1970; Orok and Bowland, 1975; Bassily et al., 1982) demonstrated that BUN is connected with protein type, intake and quality. Because of high utility value of FSP, we can detect the effect of FSP on plasma protein concentration in nursery pigs.

In conclusion, the feeding of 10 or 15% FSP to nursery pigs diet improved feed efficiency, amino acids digestibility and blood urea nitrogen and total protein concentrations in blood. Therefore, it is suggested that FSP (fermented soy protein) can be used to replace soybean meal in diets for weaned pigs.

Received May 9, 2007; Accepted July 22, 2007

REFERENCES

AOAC. 1995. Official method of analysis. 16th Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC. USA.

Anderson, R. L., J. J. Rackis and W. H. Tallent. 1979. Biologically active substances in soy products (Ed. H. L. Wilcke, D. T. Hopkins and D. H. Waggle) Soy Protein and Human Nutrition. pp. 209-233. Academic Press, New York.

Bassily, J. A., K. G. Michael and A. K. Saild. 1982. Blood urea content for evaluating dietary protein quality. Br. J. Nutr. 24:983.

Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F test. Biometrics. 11:1-42.

Eggum, B. O. 1970. Blood urea measurement as a technique for assessing protein quality. Br. J. Nutr. 24:983.

Hong, K. J., C. H. Lee and S. W. Kim. 2004. Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 fermentation improves nutritional quality of food soybeans and feed soybean meals. J. Med. Food. 7:430.

Kelly, D., J. A. Smyth and K. J. McCracken. 1991. Digestive development in the early weaned pig. I. Effect of continuous nutrient supply on the development of the digestive tract and on changes in the digestive enzyme activity during the first week post-weaning. Br. J. Nutr. 65:169-180.

Kiers, J. L., A. E. A. van Laeken, F. M. Rombouts and M. J. R. Nout. 2000. In vitro digestibility of bacillus fermented soya bean. Int. J. Food. Micobiol. 60:163.

Kiers, J. L., J. C. Meijer, M. J. R. Nout, F. M. Rombouts, M. J. A. Nabuurs and J. van der Meulen. 2003. Effect of fermented soya beans on diarrhea and feed efficiency in weaned piglets. J. Appl. Microbiol. 95:545.

Kim, Y. C. 2004. Evaluation of availability for fermented soybean meal in weanling pigs. Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Animal Resources and Science, Seoul, Korea.

Kim, S. W., R. D. Mateo and F. Ji. 2005. Fermented soybean meal as a protein source in nursery diets replacing dried skim milk. J. Anim. Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):116.

Kim, Y. G., J. D. Lohakare, J. H. Yun, S. Heo and B. J. Chae. 2007. Effect of feeding levels of microbial fermented soy protein on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology in weaned piglets. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:399-404.

Min, B. J., J. W. Hong, O. S. Kwon, W. B. Lee, Y. C. Kim, W. T. Cho and I. H. Kim. 2004. The effect of feeding processed soy protein on the growth performance and apparent ileal digestibility in weanling pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:1271-1276.

Min, B. J. 2006. Nutritional value of fermented soy protein (FSP) and effect of FSP on performance and meat quality of pigs. Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Animal Resources and Science, Seoul, Korea.

NRC. 1998. Nutrient requirement of pigs (10th Ed.) National Research Council, Academy Press. Washington, DC., USA.

Orok, E. J. and J. P. Bowland. 1975. Rapeseed, peanut and soybean meal as protein supplements: plasma urea concentrations of pigs on different feed intakes as indices of dietary protein quality. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 55:347-360.

Peterson, R. G. 1985. Design and analysis of experiments. Marcel Dekker, Inc., NY.

Rerat, A., C. Simones-Nunes. F. Mendy, P. Vaissade and P. Vaugelade. 1992. Spalnchnic fluxes of amino acids after duodenal infusion of carbohydrate solutions containing free amino acids or oligopeptides in the non-anaesthetizes pig. Br. J. Nutr. 68:111-138.

Sarkar, P. K., L. J. Jones, G. S. Craven, S. M. Somerset and C. Palmer. 1997. Amino acid profiles of kinema, a soybean-fermented food. Food Chem. 59:69.

SAS. 1996. SAS user's guide. Release 6.12 edition, SAS Institute. Inc Cary, NC, USA.

Sherman, D. M., S. D. Acres, P. L. Sadowski, J. A. Springer, B. Bray and T. J. L. Raybould and C. C. Muscoplat. 1983. Protection of calves against fatal enteric colibacillosis by orally administered Escherichia coli K99-specific monoclonal antibody. Infect. Immun. 42:656-658.

Shon, K. S., C. V. Maxwell, D. S. Buchanan and L. L. Southern. 1994. Improved soybean protein for early-weaned pigs: I. Effects on performance and total tract amino acids digestibility. J. Anim. Sci. 72:622-630.

Steinkraus, K. H. 1996. Handbook of ingredients fermented foods. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.

Vente-Spreeuwenberg, M. A. M., J. M. A. J. Verdonk, J. F. J. G. Koninkx, A. C. Beynen and M. W. A. Verstegen. 2004. Dietary protein hydrolysates vs. the intact proteins do not enhance mucosal integrity and growth performance in weaned piglets. Livest. Prod. Sci. 85:151-164.

Yun, J. H., I. K. Kwon, J. D. Lohakare, J. Y. Choi, J. S. Yong, J. Zheng, W. T. Cho and B. J. Chae. 2005. Comparative efficacy of plant and animal protein source on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, morphology and caecal microbiology of early-weaned pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1285-1293.

J. H. Cho, B. J. Min, Y. J. Chen, J. S. Yoo, Q. Wang, J. D. Kim (1) and I. H. Kim*

Department of Animal Resource & Sciences, Dankook University, #29 Anseodong, Cheonan, Choongnam, 330-714, Korea

* Corresponding Author: I. H. Kim. Tel: +82-41-550-3652, Fax: +82-41-553-1618, E-mail: inhokim@dankook.ac.kr

(1) CJ Feed Co. Inc. Incheon, Korea.
Table 1. Diet composition (as-fed basis)

Ingredient (%) SBM (1) F5 (1)

Expended corn 44.35 45.21
Soybean meal (Local) 30.00 24.50
FSP -- 5.00
Soy oil 4.10 3.80
Limestone 0.20 0.20
MCP 1.00 1.00
Salt (Flower salt) 0.27 0.27
Calprona P4 1.00 1.00
Saccharin 0.08 0.08
Fine sugar 3.00 3.00
Whey (Lactalis France) 13.75 13.75
Yeasture 0.50 0.50
DL-met 0.25 0.23
L-lysine-HCl 0.40 0.37
Threonine 0.16 0.15
Zinc oxide 0.30 0.30
Choline chl 50% 0.10 0.10
Perfactia 0.11 0.11
Neomycin sulfate 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (2) 0.10 0.10
Trace mineral premix (3) 0.18 0.18
Coliloc (org) 0.05 0.05
Chemical composition (4)
 NE (kcal/kg) 2,642 2,638
 Crude protein (%) 20.24 20.51
 Crude fat (%) 7.25 6.91
 Lysine (%) 1.42 1.43
 Methionine (%) 0.54 0.53
 Met+cys (%) 0.87 0.87
 Calcium (%) 0.75 0.75
 Phosphorus (%) 0.74 0.75

Ingredient (%) F10 (1) F15 (1)

Expended corn 46.98 45.98
Soybean meal (Local) 18.10 14.90
FSP 10.00 15.00
Soy oil 3.45 3.10
Limestone 0.20 0.20
MCP 1.00 1.00
Salt (Flower salt) 0.27 0.27
Calprona P4 1.00 1.00
Saccharin 0.08 0.08
Fine sugar 3.00 3.00
Whey (Lactalis France) 13.70 13.70
Yeasture 0.50 0.50
DL-met 0.23 0.22
L-lysine-HCl 0.36 0.35
Threonine 0.14 0.14
Zinc oxide 0.30 0.30
Choline chl 50% 0.10 0.10
Perfactia 0.11 0.11
Neomycin sulfate 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (2) 0.10 0.10
Trace mineral premix (3) 0.18 0.18
Coliloc (org) 0.05 0.05
Chemical composition (4)
 NE (kcal/kg) 2,642 2,643
 Crude protein (%) 20.50 20.51
 Crude fat (%) 6.59 6.23
 Lysine (%) 1.43 1.43
 Methionine (%) 0.53 0.53
 Met+cys (%) 0.87 0.88
 Calcium (%) 0.75 0.75
 Phosphorus (%) 0.75 0.75

(1) SBM: corn-soybean meal basal diet; F 5, 10 and 15: fermented soy
protein was used at 5, 10 and 15% in basal diet, respectively.

(2) Provided per kg diet: 20,000 IU of vitamin A; 4,000 IU of vitamin
D3; 80 IU of vitamin E; 16 mg of vitamin K3; 4 mg of thiamine; 20
mg of riboflavin; 6 mg of pyridoxine; 0.08 mg of vitamin B12; 120
mg of niacin; 50 mg of Ca-pantothenate; 2 mg of folic acid and 0.08
mg of biotin.

(3) Provided per kg diet: 140 mg of Cu; 179 mg of Zn; 12.5 mg of Mn;
0.5 mg of I; 0.25 mg of Co and 0.4 mg of Se.

(4) Calculated value.

Table 2. Effects of fermented soy protein on growth performance in
nursery pigs (1) (n = 6)

Items SBM (2) F5 (2) F10 (2)

0-14 days
 ADG (g) 203 209 213
 ADFI (g) 269 290 284
 Gain/feed 0.755 0.721 0.75
14-28 days
 ADG (g) 569 589 604
 ADFI (g) 858 889 839
 Gain/feed4 0.663 (b) 0.663 (b) 0.720 (ab)
0-28 days
 ADG (g) 386 399 409
 ADFI (g) 564 590 562
 Gain/feed (4) 0.684 (bc) 0.676 (c) 0.728 (ab)

Items F15 (2) SE (3)

0-14 days
 ADG (g) 216 13
 ADFI (g) 279 14
 Gain/feed 0.774 0.039
14-28 days
 ADG (g) 611 24
 ADFI (g) 828 27
 Gain/feed4 0.738 (a) 0.019
0-28 days
 ADG (g) 414 14
 ADFI (g) 554 17
 Gain/feed (4) 0.747 (a) 0.014

(1) 144 pigs with initial average BW 8.09 [+or -] 0.05 kg.

(2) SBM: corn-soybean meal basal diet; F 5, 10 and 15: fermented soy
protein was used at 5, 10 and 15% in basal diet, respectively.

(3) Pooled standard error. 4 Linear effect (p<0.01). (a, b, c) Means
in the same row with different superscripts differ (p<0.05).

Table 3. Effects of fermented soy protein on dry matter and nitrogen
digestibility in nursery pigs (1) (n = 12)

Items SBM (2) F5 (2) F10 (2) F15 (2) SE (3)

28 days
 DM 78.54 81.57 80.82 81.51 1.45
 N 73.34 74.91 74.53 75.71 1.87

(1) 48 pigs with initial average BW 8.09[+ or -] 0.05 kg.

(2) SBM: corn-soybean meal basal diet); F 5, 10 and 15: fermented soy
protein was used at 5, 10 and 15% in basal diet, respectively.

(3) Pooled standard error.

Table 4. Effects of fermented soy protein on amino acids digestibility
in nursery pigs (1) (n = 12)

Items SBM (2) F5 (2) F10 (2)

28 days
Essential amino acid
 Arginine 85.54 84.43 86.70
 Histidine (4) 68.13 (b) 67.70 (b) 73.92 (a)
 Isoleucine 71.34 68.25 70.85
 Leucine 73.75 71.94 75.42
 Lysine (4) 77.75 77.72 81.62
 Methionine (5) 70.98 (b) 69.95 (b) 74.61 (ab)
 Phenylalanine 74.95 73.02 76.28
 Threonine 70.51 69.45 73.11
 Valine 70.89 67.69 71.00
Total essential amino acid 73.76 72.24 75.95
Non essential amino acid
 Alanine4 67.43 (ab) 66.33 (b) 71.04 (ab)
 Aspartic acid 74.46 73.59 77.10
 Cysteine 69.32 65.70 71.11
 Glutamic acid (4) 77.52 76.90 80.20
 Glycine 73.07 71.40 75.45
 Proline6 78.80 (ab) 75.42 (b) 77.82 (ab)
 Serine4 75.37 (ab) 74.76 (b) 78.87 (ab)
 Tyrosine5 70.49 (b) 70.14 (b) 74.02 (ab)
Total non essential 73.30 (ab) 71.78 (b) 75.70 (ab)
 amino acid (4)
Total amino acid 73.54 (ab) 72.02 (b) 75.83 (ab)

Items F15 (2) SE (3)

28 days
Essential amino acid
 Arginine 87.1 0.88
 Histidine (4) 73.65 (a) 1.79
 Isoleucine 73.46 1.93
 Leucine 76.83 1.54
 Lysine (4) 81.68 1.39
 Methionine (5) 76.24 (a) 1.56
 Phenylalanine 77.23 1.50
 Threonine 74.51 1.70
 Valine 72.88 1.97
Total essential amino acid 77.06 1.54
Non essential amino acid
 Alanine4 72.66 (a) 1.88
 Aspartic acid 77.95 1.54
 Cysteine 71.35 1.84
 Glutamic acid (4) 81.03 1.30
 Glycine 76.34 1.64
 Proline6 79.90 (a) 1.21
 Serine4 79.21 (a) 1.33
 Tyrosine5 76.03 (a) 1.54
Total non essential 76.81 (a) 1.51
 amino acid (4)
Total amino acid 76.94 (a) 1.52

(1) 48 pigs with initial average BW 8.09 [+ or -] 0.05 kg.

(2) SBM: corn-soybean meal basal diet; F 5, 10 and 15: fermented soy
protein was used at 5, 10 and 15% in basal diet, respectively.

(3) Pooled standard error. (4) Linear effect (p<0.05). 5 Linear effect
(p<0.01). 6Quadratic effect (p<0.05).

(a, b) Means in the same row with different superscripts differ
(p<0.05).

Table 5. Effects of fermented soy protein on fecal scores in nursery
pigs (1) (n = 36)

Items SBM (2) F5 (2) F10 (2) F15 (2)

No. of pigs 36 36 36 36
2 days 2 (0.9) 2 (0.9) 3 (0.9) 1 (0.8)
4 days 2 (0.7) 2 (0.8) 1 (0.6) 2 (0.5)
8 days 1 (0.5) 1 (0.6) 1 (0.4) 1 (0.4)
14 days 0 (0.3) 0 (0.2) 0 (0.2) 0 (0.2)

(10 144 pigs with initial average BW 8.09[+ or -] 0.05 kg.

(2) SBM: corn-soybean meal basal diet; F 5, 10 and 15: fermented soy
protein was used at 5, 10 and 15% in basal diet, respectively.

Table 6. Effects of fermented soy protein on BUN and total protein
concentrations of blood in nursery pigs (1) (n = 12)

Items SBM (2) F5 (2) F10 (2)

28days
 BUN (4) 10.87 (b) 13.65 (a) 13.77 (a)
 Total protein 5.10 (b) 5.17 (ab) 5.58 (a)

Items F15 (2) SE (3)

28days
 BUN (4) 14.55 (a) 0.49
 Total protein 5.32 (ab) 0.15

(1) 48 pigs with initial average BW 8.09 [+ or -] 0.05 kg.

(2) SBM: corn-soybean meal basal diet; F 5, 10 and 15: fermented soy
protein was used at 5, 10 and 15% in basal diet, respectively.

(3) Pooled standard error. 4Linear effect (p<0.01).

(a, b) Means in the same row with different superscripts differ
(p<0.05).
COPYRIGHT 2007 Asian - Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2007 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Cho, J.H.; Min, B.J.; Chen, Y.J.; Yoo, J.S.; Wang, Q.; Kim, J.D.; Kim, I.H.
Publication:Asian - Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9SOUT
Date:Dec 1, 2007
Words:4258
Previous Article:Effects of dietary metabolizable energy and lysine on carcass characteristics and meat quality in Arbor Acres broilers *.
Next Article:Effects of replacing soy-oil with soy-lecithin on growth performance, nutrient utilization and serum parameters of broilers fed corn-based diets *.
Topics:

Terms of use | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters