Printer Friendly

Evaluation of Bio-Accumulation Stress in Chicken by Arsenite: A Haematological Case Study.

Byline: Luqman Rasul, Shahid Tufail and Hassan Rasool

Abstract

Broiler is consumed by human population in large quantities. Its brooding conditions are very important due to their linkage with the financial impacts involved in poultry industry. These brooding conditions are not only vital due to economic reasons but also extremely important due to health impacts on chickens and human population being terminal consumers. As (III) presence in the drinking water is resulted in bio-accumulation in chicks being brooded under otherwise similar conditions except drinking water. This bio-accumulation disturbs the eco-physiological and blood parameters.

Haematological studies of anti-coagulated and serum blood samples core parameters reveals that As (III) contamination in drinking water is the significant source of adverse disturbance of blood parameters of red blood cell, white blood cell, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, sodium, calcium, potassium ions, albumin, urea, creatinine and cholesterol, with a highly significant p value of 10 mgL-1 in contaminated drinking water may cause its toxicological impacts as reported elsewhere [20].

0.5 ml of each 2 ml blood sample was separated and taken into clean bijou bottles having anticoagulant solution. Remaining 1.5 ml of each sample was left for clotting at room temperature for 3 hours and then at 4degC for overnight. Blood in bijou bottles was used for red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV). Serum from blood was collected from clotted blood after centrifugation at 2000 rpm for 10 min at room temperature. Serum was stored at 20degC till the performance of tests in the sterile plastic tubes.

Brooding conditions

One day old chicken of 37 +- 2 (g) weight were given brooding conditions of 32degC [21] with controlled relative humidity of [greater than or equal to] 50% for a time span of 14 days. Two 100 Watt bulb were used permanently as light source. PS-500-020 digital thermo hygrometer by OMEGA was used for monitoring relative humidity. Two flocks were brooded simultaneously and were given same feed purchased from market. One flock was given mineral water for drinking and second flock was given As (III) contaminated drinking water.

Hemotological study

Anticoagulated blood samples and serum samples were used for examining parameters. Hemocytometer method was used for counting RBC's and WBC's. Cyanmethemoglobin method was used for measuring Hb level. Microhematocrit method was applied for determining PCV which is percentage of RBC in blood. Serum salts were found using flame photometry [22]. As (III) bioaccumulation was done by the method used in our previous study using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric technique [19]. Urea and creatinine were checked using SMA 12/60 analyzer following standard Technicon method [22]. Cholesterol level was checked by Cole method [23].

Statistical analysis

Mean of all the observed values taken after 1st, 7th and 14th brooding day were calculated for both the anti-coagulated and serum blood samples for the two flocks. Standard deviations were also calculated to apply unpaired t test to find out p-value. p-value is helpful to determine whether As (III) contaminated drinking water impacts were significant or not as compared to the normal mineral drinking water. If the two-tailed p-value is found to be near 0.0001 then this difference is known to be extremely statistically significant [22].

Results and Discussion

Anti-coagulated blood sample analysis

As has viable potential of bio-accumulation [24, 25]. Analysis of As (III) bio-accumulation in our recent study revealed adverse effects on the health conditions of birds since it results in decreased body weight, decreased feed consumption, decreased feed conversion, higher mortality rate and lowered core internal body temperature within first 14 days of brooding period [19]. Similar effects were reported in literature when brooding chicks were given heavy metals contaminated water [26, 27, 28]. The tested birds of flock 2 were under bio-accumulation stress of 25.8 ugL-1 after 14th day of brooding (Fig. 1). Anti-coagulated blood sample analysis captured RBC, count WBC, concentration Hb and PCV as core parameters.

The hematological parameters like count RBC, WBC, count concentration Hb and PCV of anti-coagulated blood sample analysis were found adversely effected in flock 2 gradually shown in Table 1 on the basis of statistical significance of two-tailed p values calculated by the application of unpaired t-test.

The resulted data of p values for RBC, WBC, Hb and PCV after 14th brooding day found as 0.0005, 0.0010, 0.0107 and 0.0004 respectively. However, after 1st brooding day, p values between the two flocks were found in the range of 0.17-0.81 and p significance was low. While, after 7th and 14 brooding days, p value was found in the range of 0.016-0.04 and 0.0004-0.0107 respectively.

Thus, after 7th and 14th brooding day p values were found to be significantly high (p < 0.001). This suggests that As (III) contaminated drinking water is highly significant in the administration of adverse effects.

Table 1. The variation in the level of clinical parameters of anti-coagulated blood samples of controlled and tested poultry birds of two flocks.

###RBC###WBC###Hb (mgdL-1)###PCV (%)

###Parameters###(103/L)###(109/L)

###Flock 1###Controlled Birds###Mean +-SD###2.50+-0.45###23.1+-1.53###11.1+-0.11###32.8+-0.86

After 1st

###Flock 2###Tested Birds###Mean +-SD###2.38+-0.69###24.8+-1.03###11.0+-0.38###33.2+-1.02

brooding day

###p-value (t-test)###0.81###0.17###0.65###0.62

###Flock 1###Controlled Birds###Mean +-SD###2.52+-0.19###23.0+-0.93###26.0+-1.06###32.90.92

After 7th###2.03+-0.21###11.2+-0.09###10.9+-0.11###30.1+-0.79

###Flock 2###Tested Birds###Mean +-SD

brooding day

###p-value (t-test)###0.040###0.022###0.027###0.016

###Flock 1###Controlled Birds###Mean +-SD###2.52+-0.19###23.0+-0.93###11.2+-0.09###32.9+-0.92

After 14th###2.03+-0.21###26.0+-1.06###10.9+-0.11###30.1+-0.79

###Flock 2###Tested Birds###Mean +-SD

brooding day

###p-value (t-test)###0.040###0.022###0.027###0.016

Serum blood sample analysis

Serum salts and other core parameters were studied in previous studies to evaluate the stress factors [22]. Serum blood parameters such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, albumin, urea, creatinine and cholesterol were checked for the two flocks and unpaired t-test was applied.. The resulted data revealed that the studied serum blood parameters of two flocks were found in the range of 0.57-0.86 (Table 2). These finding reflected that there is no significant difference between two flocks.

Whereas, this p value was found in the range of 0.020-0.049 and 0.0001-0.0178, after 7th and 14th brooding day, respectively. Statistically, this was evaluated that As(III) bioaccumulates in the serum blood samples. Thus, this study revealed that the bioaccumulation of As(III) was increased with respect to period of consumption of As(III) contaminated drinking water by poultry birds. Data of Table 2 suggests that As (III) contaminated drinking water is the significant factor that disturbed the serum blood core parameters. Heavy metals are toxic, non-degradable, and bio-accumulates in food chain and hence causes adverse effects [29]. This is also comparable to our previous study where As (III) bio-accumulation stress under same brooding conditions resulted in decreased body weight, decreased feed consumption, decreased feed conversion, higher mortality rate and lowered core internal body temperature [19].

Table 2. The variation in the level of clinical and biochemical parameters of serum samples of controlled and tested poultry birds of two flocks.

###Na+###K+###Ca2+###Albumin###Urea###Creatinine###Cholesterol

###Parameters###(molL-1)###(molL-1)###(molL-1)###(mgdL-1)###(mgdL-1)###(mgdL-1)###(mgdL-1)

###Controlled

###Flock 1###Mean +-SD###137+-2.46###4.20+-0.51###8.40+-0.86###2.79+-0.28###22.6+-1.25###0.94+-0.23###116+-3.70

###Birds

After 1st

brooding###Flock 2###Tested Birds###Mean +-SD###137+-2.79###4.3+-0.67###8.70+-0.34###2.93+-0.42###23.7+-2.80###0.98+-0.30###1145.90

day

###p-value (t-test)###0.78###0.85###0.60###0.66###0.57###0.86###0.57

###Controlled

###Flock 1###Mean +-SD###134+-3.60###4.30+-0.26###8.60+-0.49###2.890.15###21.7+-1.39###0.90+-0.11###112+-2.90

###Birds

After 7th

brooding###Flock 2###Tested Birds###Mean +-SD###143+-1.60###4.80+-0.17###7.40+-0.34###3.41+-0.28###24.8+-1.17###1.14+-0.09###120+-4.00

day

###p-value of (t-test)###0.020###0.049###0.025###0.047###0.041###0.043###0.049

###Controlled

###Flock 1###Mean +-SD###136+-2.12###4.00+-0.18###8.60+-0.34###2.850.16###23.7+-0.99###0.90+-0.13###115+-1.75

###Birds

After 14th

brooding###Flock 2###Tested Birds###Mean +-SD###164+-2.50###3.20+-0.22###6.80+-0.23###4.23+-0.17###28.9+-0.82###1.27+-0.10###127+-3.37

day

###p-value of (t-test)###0.0001###0.0078###0.0016###0.0005###0.0022###0.0174###0.0053

Conclusion

Hematological studies of chicken under bio-accumulation stress of As (III) in drinking water during the 14 days brooding period shows adverse impacts on anti-coagulated blood parameters; RBC, WBC, Hb and PCV and serum blood parameters; Na+, K+, Ca2+, albumin, urea, creatinine and Cholesterol. Bio-accumulation of 25.8 ugL-1 in the blood samples after 14 days of brooding suggests that all adverse impacts are due to As(III) contamination in drinking water.

Overall, this study suggests that drinking water should be checked for chickens as it impacts on the yield and quality of production in chicken.

References

1. S. W. Fowler, Mar. Environ. Res., 29 (1990) 1.https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-1136(90)90027-L

2. J. Burger, Environ. Research, 90 (2002) 33. https://doi.org/10.1006/enrs.2002.4381

3. R. Bargagli, R. Monaci, J. C. Sanchez-Hernandez and D. Cateni, Mar. Eco. Prog. Ser., 169 (1998) 65. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps169065

4. R. Scheifler, M. Gauthier-Clerc, C. L. Bohec, N. Crine, M. Coeurdassier and P. M. Badot, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 24 (2005) 125. https://doi.org/10.1897/03-446.1

5. K. A. Graeme and C. V. Pollack Jr, J. Emergen. Med., 16 (1998) 45.

6. M. Pattison, Poultry Diseases (Elsevier Limited, China) 6/e (2005).

7. J. Brinkel, M. H. Khan and A. Kraemer, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 6 (2009) 1609. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph6051609

8. P.L. Smedley, W.M. Edmunds and K. B. Pelig-Ba, In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health: with special reference to developing countries. (J. D. Appleton, R. Fuge and G. J. H. McCall, Eds) Geological Society Special Publication, London (1996) 163-181.

9. M. Ashraf, J. Tariq and M. Jaffar, Fish Res., 12 (1991) 355. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-7836(91)90018-B

10. Pak-EPA, Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan (2008).

11. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Fed. Reg., 40 (1975) 990.

12. World Health Organization, Arsenic Compounds, Environmental Health Criteria ( Geneva, Switzerland) 2/e (2001) 224.

13. P. L. Smedley and D. G. Kinniburgh, Appl. Geochem., 17 (2002) 517. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-2927(02)00018-5

14. A. Rahman, H. K. Lee and M. A. Khan, Environ. Monit. Assess., 44 (1997) 339. https://doi.org/10.1023/A: 1005747732104

15. D. J. Thomas, M. Styblo, and S. Lin, Toxicol. Appl. Pharma., 17 (2001) 127. https://doi.org/10.1006/taap.2001.9258

16. J.A. Baig, T.G. Kazi, A. Q. Shah, M. B. Arain, S. Khan, H. I. Afridi, G. A. Kandhro, N. F. Kolachi, Anal. Chim. Acta, 651 (2009) 57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2009.07.065

17. A.Q. Shah, T. G. Kazi, M. B. Arain, J. B. Baig, H. I. Afridi, G. A. Kandhro, S. Khan, M. K. Jamali, J. Hazard. Mater., 167 (2009) 511. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.01.03 1

18. A.Q. Shah, T.G. Kazi, J. A. Baig, H. I. Afridi, G.A. Kandhro, M. B. Arain, S. K. Wadhwa, N.F. Kolachi, Food Chem., 119 (2010) 840. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.08.0 41

19. L. Rasul, S. Tufail and H. Rasool, Asian J. Chem., 28 (2015) 1424.

20. J. K. Vodela, S. D. Lenz, J. A. Renden, W. H. Mcelhenney and B. W. Kemppainen, Poultry Sci., 76 (1997) 1493. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/76.11.1493

21. R. Muchacka and E. Herbut, In: Proceedings of 13th International Congress in Animal Hygiene (Tartu, Estonia) volume 1 (2007) 337.

22. L. A. Durotoye, M. O. Fadairo and A. K. Avwemorue, Afr. J. Biomed. Res., 3 (2000) 143.

23. E. H. Coles, Veterinary Clinical Pathology (W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, USA) (1986).

24. L. P. Ridgway and D. A. Karnofsky, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 55 (1952) 203. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1952.tb26536.x

25. M. Athar, and S. B. Vohora, Heavy Metals and Environment (New Age International (P) Limited Publishers, India) (1995).

26. F. W. Edens and J. D. Garlich, Poultry Sci., 62 (1983) 1757. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0621757

27. R. I. Bakalli, I. G. Pesti and W. L. Ragland, Vet. Hum. Toxicol., 37 (1995) 17.

28. P. R. Henry and M. D. Miles, Cienc. Anim. Bras., 2 (2001) 11.

29. N. Saha and M. R. Zaman, Environ. Monit. Assess., 185 (2013) 3867. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-2835-2
COPYRIGHT 2016 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2016 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry
Article Type:Case study
Date:Dec 31, 2016
Words:2483
Previous Article:Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activity of Mn(II)-Morin Complex.
Next Article:Epidemiological Studies of Potent Environmental Pathogen: Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters