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Evaluating the relationship between use of satellite television and political culture type among the citizens of Isfahan Province.

INTRODUCTION

As community subjective-objective notion and its role in political and social development in general and sense of social and political behavior of actors in particular emerge, the role of communication and mass media is the most important factor in shaping public opinion and social-political beliefs. In fact, as complexity of the information society development increases, the importance of communication in the political dimension increases in great manner. Through dominating public opinion, as well as controlling and directing it, mass media play serious role in politics.

In the contemporary era, known as information technology and communication era, large part of political socialization occurs through media and influence of the media is so high that theorists believe that the media determine mental, behavioral, and even individual's lifestyle priorities. The impressive aspects affected by media are culture and norms of a society in which the political culture is one of the cultural dimensions of media. Although participatory political culture is an essential element in the transition to democracy in nondemocratic countries and the strengthening of democratic countries, however, there is no doubt that they originate from different roots and bases characterized with strengths or weakens. Economic, religious approaches, socio-economic classes and other factors are recognized as basis for political culture evolvement. Given the importance of the mass media as an integral component in the development of modern society, to identification effects of mass media on political culture and media can benefit from tools that positive and negative effects on the quality of education and increasing awareness of potential users is the result. From this viewpoint, the most important step is to understand the media for utilize maximum capacity in the interests of the community. This chapter examines the implications of the study of political culture, Persian political culture and theories about media impacts.

Theoretical framework: the persuasion theory:

To understand the true nature of the soft war we must understand the persuasion process. In the persuasion, the person is convinced without any conflict to act according to our desire. Convincing or persuading is one of the social influence forms, aiming to change the beliefs, attitudes and human behavior. Since early twentieth century, persuasion was emerged in social psychology as an attempt to change behavior and the first works on persuasion date backs to Howland and Kelly [4], inspired from communication model, i.e. Lasswell model, which brought first the research. Attitudes and persuasion are among social behavior keywords. Persuasion occurs when one person wants to change other person; change can be both internal aspects and behavioral aspects. The inner spiritual system consists of beliefs, goals, plans general terms, attitudes and values. Mental system is an interrelated network of beliefs, goals, plans general terms, attitudes and values, mental systems are correlated, such acts of persuasion forward to beliefs or orientation and persuasion is a form of social influence. This is the process by rational and symbolic meanings; one or more persons are convinced to comply with certain ideas, attitudes or behaviors. According to this theory, communications are based on persuasive approaches, in other words, every communicator relies on on elements such as attractiveness, type of message, attractions of courage and fear, one-side and two-sided messaging, attitude change, source of inquiry, destination of the message, type of feedback. In World War II, "Carl Howland" in cooperation with "Frank Capra" constructed seven-part film series "Why fight?" to satisfy its soldiers and motivate them to expedite the battlefield. Later, Howland and Mozafar Sharif' conducted persuasive examinations as the dependent variables. After that, "Richard Petty" and "Casio John Poe" as the old students of the school extended theory and enriched literatures. The theory of persuasion is one of the most classic theories of mass communication which theoretically is originated from needle insertion pattern. Narrative tradition of rhetorical theory is psychological and semiotic. Mac Guiro describes the process of persuasion by a matrix. In this table the factors related to media serve as independent variable and behavioral phases serve as dependent ones [1]. Elements of persuasion are as below:

1-Mean or plan, usually persuade a target to do, but we can randomly persuade an individual. People usually interact due to their changed attitudes.

2 Coercion; occurs when the behavior has changed, but none of the internal psychological structures do not change, even if it could be more robust attitude towards the opposite persuasion.

3-Context, modified behavior can act in a particular manner.

4-Multiplicity, many people simply can be persuaded even itself cannot persuaded. Presence must be established in relation to the physical presence to persuasion of others, or made by phone or writing letters.

5-attend, must establish a physical presence to convince others, or communicate with toll or the writing of letters.

6-Media communication and persuasion can also be done through a variety of media.

Influence tools are as follow:

1-Reciprocity, i.e., people tends to be more pro or be in partisan categories.

2-Commitment and persistence, is when the people commitment orally or written to what they think true, since in this case seems to come with more dignity, even if the motivation or incentive for commitment, the commit is violated.

(3) The social symptoms, people do things that they see, for example, if a person look at the sky spontaneously, other people also look at the sky in the same manner.

4-Authority, people tend to follow authority figures, even if they have been asked to conduct in realistic manner.

5-To be in contact, people are easily persuaded by those they like them.

6-scarcity, lack of an object create a demand in community, if a thing be less little, it be more valuable. In general, persuasion is ultimate aim of satisfying all kinds of communicative behaviors. Successful and effective communication as a means of persuasion can cause the desired result. In this case it is called the transcendent connection [2]. I send my messages and when audience get message, three types of reactions occur: Exclusion and rejection, indifference and neutrality, acceptance and satisfaction (charge, 1384, 147). When the reception mode occurs, it can be said that the receiver and the audience are persuaded. Persuasion is defined as a communication process in which the evidences and the results are discussed to overcome on recipient and it's changing [5]. In persuasive theory, one-side and two-sided messages are presented with a message to be interpreted as pros and cons. The question whether persuasion is one-side or two-sided messaging relats to fallacy effect as an advertising methods was introduced by advertisement agency analysis. Howland's research revealed that one-side message is the most effective on people who would agree on the message, and also shows that two-sided messages is case for those who initially opposed. Also, those characterized with lower and higher education, the messages unilateral and bilateral message are more effective respectively. One advantage of the interactive message is that following persuasive efforts is more effective.

The sample size:

The population included all residents of Isfahan province in 2014, equivalent to the statistics reported by 1,796,967 people. Cochran's formula n = [N[z.sup.2]pq/N[d.sup.2] + [z.sup.2]pq] was used to calculate sample size which was 384.

Results:

Culture * Satellite Cross tabulation
                                       satellite               Total

                                       I don't have   I have

Culture   limited         Count        51             65       116
                          % within     28.2%          37.4%    32.7%
                          satellites
          consequential   Count        87             83       170
                          % within     48.1%          47.7%    47.9%
                          satellites
          participative   Count        43             26       69
                          % within     23.8%          14.9%    19.4%
                          satellites
Total                     Count        181            174      355
                          % within     100.0%         100.0%   100.0%
                          satellites


The above table and graph present a comparison of limited political culture, consequential and participatory between people who do not use satellites and who use it. Using frequencies assigned to either column, indicates the distribution of the percentages of people who use satellite media and those do not in limited the political culture in different classes, consequential and participatory are compared. In light of the above findings, 28 percent of those who do not use the satellite showed limited cultures while the same for those who used it was equaled to 37 percent. Also, 48 percent of those who do not use the satellite were consequential cultures while the same among those who used the satellite is equal to 47 percent. Finally, 23% of those who do not use the satellite showed participatory culture while the rate among those who used the satellite was estimated equal to 14 percent.

Chi-Square Tests
                               Value       df    Asymp. Sig.
                                                 (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square             5.836 (a)   2     .05
Likelihood Ratio               5.882       2     .05
Linear-by-Linear Association   5.688       1     .01
N of Valid Cases               355

(a.) 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum
expected count is 33.82.


The above table illustrates the chi-square test to deal with whether is there a relationship between two variables (using and not-using satellite) with political culture. In this table, several chi-square tests such as Pearson, maximum likelihood and etc. are considered.

In this regard, the chi-square value is 0.95 and is significant with a confidence level error is less than 0.05. So there is a relation between both variables. The hypothesis H0 is rejected and hypothesis H1 is accepted. In other words, this means that frequencies differ significantly.

Symmetric Measures
                                  Value   Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal   Phi          .12     .05
                     Cramer's V   .12     .05
N of Valid Cases                  355


The foregoing table shows relationship rate between two variables using and non- using satellite to the kind of political culture. As it can be seen in the table, the values of Phi and Cramer's coefficient are determined. When the table class was 2 x 2 Phi coefficient and Cramer's coefficient were used and nonetheless, the opposite is case. Since the f correlation equals to 0.12 and is significant in level less than 0.05, so we can say that there is a weak relationship between having satellite political culture but significant. Hence it can be noted that the participatory political culture is much more among those who do not use the satellite than those do. On the other hand, people who use the satellite media tend to limited political culture more than people who do not use that.

Concluding Remarks:

As mentions above, the participatory political culture is much more prevalent among those who do not use the satellite than those who use it. On the other hand, people who use the satellite media tend to limit political culture more than people who do not use that. So it seems that in terms of quantitative and qualitative diversities, satellites isolate the people from the so far as he/she does show no reaction to the foreign and domestic policies which are set by their rulers. Thus, it isolates the human spirit and human sacrifice, compassion and a sense of responsibility to the community and others, and especially political affairs in general appear as nonsense matter.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 12 October 2014

Received in revised form 26 December 2014

Accepted 1 January 2015

Available online 20 February 2015

REFERENCES

[1] Severine and C. Tankard, 2002. Theories of Communication--Translations A. Dehghan--Tehran University of Tehran Press

[2] Motevali, K., 2005. public thoughts and persuasion affairs tactics, Tehran.

[3] Cacioppo, J.T., and R.E. Petty, 1980. Persuasiveness of communications is affected by exposure frequency and message quality: A theoretical and empirical analysis of persisting attitude change. In J. H. Leigh & C. R. Martin ~Eds.!, Current issues and research in advertising ~pp. 97-122!. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press

[4] Hovland, C.I., I.L. Janis and H.H. Kelley, 1953. Communication and persuasion: Psychological studies of opinion change. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

[5] Mason, L., 2001. Teaching as persuasion: A commentary. In P.A. Alexander (Ed.), Persuasion in the classro om: Implications for theory, research, and practice, International Journal of Educational Research, 35(7-8): 715-729.

(1) Ahmadreza Hamsian, (2) Hussein Masoudnia, (3) Amir masood Shahram Nia, (4) Abbas Hatami

(1) Department of Political science, Esfahan University, Esfahan, Iran

(2) Department of Political science, Esfahan University, Esfahan, Iran

(3) Department of Political science, Esfahan University, Esfahan, Iran

(4) Department of Political science, Esfahan University, Esfahan, Iran

Corresponding Author: Ahmadreza Hamsian, Department of Political science, Esfahan University, Esfahan, Iran
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Author:Hamsian, Ahmadreza; Masoudnia, Hussein; Nia, Amir masood Shahram; Hatami, Abbas
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Dec 1, 2014
Words:2045
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