Evaluating the quality of a disturbed wetland in southwestern Indiana: a survey of native and exotic flora at Vectren Conservation Park.
Keywords: coefficient of conservatism, floristic quality index, invasive species, restoration, species diversity, wetlands
Ecosystem stability contributes to processes such as water purification, flood control, ground water recharge, and even maintenance of biodiversity. Anthropogenic degradation and destruction of natural habitats negatively impacts ecosystem stability (Pearson 1972; Van Auken 2000), which in turn threatens biodiversity and creates opportunities for colonization by invasive species (Burke & Grime 1996). In the United States, more than 50% of wetlands (Nichols 1988; McCorvie & Lant 1993) and up to 99% of prairies (Samson & Knopf 1994; Samson et al. 2004) have been destroyed or degraded, resulting in imperilment of native species.
Because so little high quality native habitat remains in Indiana, restoration of degraded habitats must be a priority. Efforts aimed at restoring degraded habits have become more widespread as awareness regarding the benefits of natural habitats has increased (Rood et al. 2003; Clark 2003). Restoration can reestablish ecosystem services in degraded habitats (Gratton & Denno 2006; Benayas et al. 2009), as well as enhance biodiversity. In turn, biodiversity can have a positive feedback on ecosystem function (Vernberg 1993; Lehman & Tilman 2000; Benayas et al. 2009). For example, diverse wetland plant communities purify water and provide flood control (Vernberg 1993; Benayas et al. 2009). Increasing diversity may also buffer against species invasions (Naeem et al. 2000; Kennedy et al. 2002, but see Foster et al. 2002; Eriksson et al. 2006).
After habitat destruction, biological invasions represent the second greatest threat to biodiversity (Vitousek et al. 1996; Knight & Reich 2005), so enhancing native diversity needs to be a priority when performing restoration ecology. Invasive species diminish biodiversity by outcompeting and excluding native species resulting in homogenization of habitats (Kaufman 1992). In some U.S. states, up to 47% of the flora is composed of exotic species. (Rejmanek & Randall 1994; Vitousek et al. 1997). In Indiana, invasive species pose a significant threat to the state's native flora (Weber & Gibson 2007), with approximately 39% of the 2800-plus species occurring in Indiana being categorized as non-native (Rothrock & Homoya 2005)
Special attention should be paid to biodiversity when restoring Indiana wetland habitat. First, wetlands are of particular interest when considering restoration because they support diverse habitats containing many rare species; in Indiana, wetlands lay claim to some of the highest levels of species diversity of any ecosystem type (Myers 1997). Second, more than 87% of Indiana's wetlands have been drained or destroyed (Dahl 1990; Miller & MacGowan 2004). Finally, wetland areas are especially susceptible to invasions; nearly 25% of the world's most invasive plants occur in wetlands (Zedler & Kercher 2004).
Vectren Conservation Park (VCP), a wetland next to the Wabash River in southern Indiana, may be a candidate for conservation or restoration. Comprised of abandoned agricultural fields and riparian forests, qualitative and quantitative surveys of native and exotic flora are necessary to evaluate the quality of the habitat in order to make conservation and restoration decisions for the site. One measure of plant diversity, species richness (i.e., the number of species in an area), provides a means to evaluate ecosystem quality. Examination of native versus exotic plants provides a second assessment tool. In this study, we performed a qualitative survey of the property to identify the plant species at the site, as well as conducting a quantitative study to determine the relative abundance of native and exotic species at the site. In addition, to provide metrics of floristic and ecological quality comparable to other Indiana sites, a floristic quality index (FQI) and a coefficient of conservatism (C) were generated for the site.
Study Site.--VCP is an l 118 acre property located in southwestern Indiana (38[degrees]17' N, 87[degrees]52'W) (Fig. 1). Found 6.75 miles north-northeast of the town of Griffin in Posey County, the property is approximately 380 feet above sea level. In 2007, Vectren Corporation provided the University of Evansville (UE) with a long-term lease to the property in order to provide a research site for undergraduate students and UE faculty. Surrounded on three sides by the Wabash River, VCP regularly floods, occasionally being entirely inundated with water. The soil composition of the site varies. (McWilliams 1989). The soils at the northern end of the property are characterized as frequently flooded silt loams, while the southern half of the property includes a wide range of frequently and occasionally flooded silt loams, silty clay loams, and fine sandy loams. The site consists of 157 acres of riparian forest, 454 acres of recently restored forest (see below for details), and 508 acres of meadow (Woodburn 2001). In addition, an operating agricultural field of 81 acres exists in the middle of the meadow. The remains of a levee erected by farmers follow the path of the river, and most of the mature riparian forest is bounded by the farmer's levee. The meadow resides in the interior of the site.
Based on U.S. census data, most of VCP was farmed from the early 1800's until 2001 when the Vectren Corporation purchased the property. In 2002, Vectren Corporation planted 454 acres with trees and shrubs, including five species of oak and three species of dogwood, as well as sycamore, black walnut, sweetgum, spicebush, and button bush (see Appendix 1 for a complete list of species planted and the number of each species planted). The trees and bushes were purchased from Vallonia State Nursery in Vallonia, Indiana. Of the trees planted by Vectren Corp., sweetgum, black walnut, and sycamore have had the most success establishing at the site. In addition to the 136,100 trees and shrubs that were planted, selected areas including roadway easements and the area surrounding the 81-acre agricultural field, were planted with warm and cool season grasses. Except for the 81-acre agricultural plot, the land has remained mostly unmodified by human activity after Vectren planted the trees, shrubs and grasses.
Plant Survey.--In 2007, we initiated a survey of the flora of VCP. On a semi-weekly basis from May to October in 2007 and 2009, trips were made to VCP to document the flora present, both in the meadow and the forest. The recently replanted forests were avoided in the surveys. During each visit to the site, surveyors collected, pressed, and later identified any previously unidentified plant that was observed. The collected species were identified using a variety of identification keys and field guides (Deam 1940; Steyermark 1963; Gleason & Cronquist 1991; Holmgren 1998; Yatskievych 1999, 2006; Yatskievych 2000). The nomenclature from Gleason and Cronquist (1991) is reported for all species. The voucher specimens are being held at UE's herbarium.
Using plant information from the survey, each species was rated for level of wetland habitat preference, with categories including obligate and facultative wetland plants, as well as categories related to preference for upland habitat (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1996; see Appendix 2 for more details). The wetness scale proposed by Swink and Wilhelm (1994) was used to calculate a mean wetness value for VCP. In this scale, OBL = -5, FACW = -2.5, FAC = 0, FACU = 2.5, and UPL = 5; a site with a mean wetness below 0 is considered predominantly to have wetland plants.
In addition, each species was given a coefficient of conservatism (C-value) for Indiana (Rothrock 2004). C-values range from zero to 10, with lower values representing plants that are highly tolerant of disturbance and higher values representing plants that are usually restricted to high quality plant community remnants. Introduced plants are often not categorized for C-values, but they can be considered to have C-values of zero. A mean C-value (Cav) was calculated for the native species at the site. In addition, a Car for the combined values of native species and introduced species was calculated (after attributing a C-value of zero to the introduced species). To provide a floristic quality index (FQI), the two Car's were multiplied by the square root of the number of plant species.
Plot Samples.--In addition to the qualitative survey, a study examining the relative abundance of native and exotic plants occurring in meadow and forest environments was conducted during the summer of 2007. Three 20 X 20 m plots were randomly selected both in the meadow and in the forest habitat. The plots were constructed at least 100 meters from any farmlands, tree plantings, or access roads to minimize the effects of adjacent small-scale habitats. Within each plot, 12 subplots (0.5 X 1.0 m) were randomly sampled. If the subplot chosen included a large tree (whether standing or fallen), the subplot was moved to the next 0.5 X 1.0 m location directly to the left. In the forest, if a randomly selected subplot contained high concentrations of Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy), the plot was moved to an area relatively free of this species. All forest plots were on the eastern edge of VCP. For all plots, ramet density was calculated by counting the number of stems of each plant species encountered in each subplot. Each species was identified as either native or non-native to the United States and to Indiana. Any species that could not be identified to species was identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible.
Plant Survey.--In total, 144 species from 109 genera within 54 families were collected from VCP (Appendix 2). Of the 144 species, 113 were native species and 31 were introduced species. Eight species were collected but identified only to genus because of a lack of morphological characteristics; these species were not classified as native or invasive. Seven additional species could not be identified to genus. Of those seven, one was a member of the Brassicaceae family, one was a member of the Poaceae family, and one was a member of the Apiaceae family. The final four species could not be attributed to a family because of a lack of identifying features.
Of the 113 native species at our site, twelve species (Asclepias incarnata, Senecio glabellus, Rorippa palustris, Rorippa sessiliflora, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Hibiscus laevis, Salix nigra, Phyla lanceolata, Forestiera acuminata, Amorpha fruticosa, Saururus cernuus, and Mimulus alatus) are almost always found in wetlands in our region. Overall, 42% of the species occur naturally at higher frequency in wetland habitat (FACW or OBL), and 36% are found equally as often in wetland habitats as in non-wetland habitats (FAC) (seed Appendix 2 for notation). The remaining 22% of native species are more commonly associated with upland habitats (FACU or UPL). The non-native species were plants less commonly associated with wetlands; 57% of the non-native species that had a wetland designation are more commonly found in upland habitat (FACU or UPL). Using Swink and Wilhelm's wetness scale (1994), the plants at VCP had a mean wetness value of -0.37, suggesting that the site is only weakly associated with wetland plants.
Few species had both high coefficients of conservatism (C-values of six or greater) and high fidelity to wetland habitats. The exceptions included Aristolochia tomentosa, Aster praealtus, Carex conjuncta, Celtis laevigata, and Forestiera acuminata (see Appendix 2 for details). Of the 107 native species with C-values, 49.5% had C-values of 0-2, and 43.9% had C-values of 3-5. The mean C-value ([C.sub.av]) for the native species was 2.5, and the [C.sub.av] for all species (native and non-native species combined) was 2.0. The FQI for native species was 26.6, while the FQI for all species was 23.5.
Plot Samples.--The composition of the three forest plots and the three meadow plots differed greatly. In general, woody species were more abundant in the forest plots, while the meadow plots were dominated by herbaceous species. In total, 17 families and 21 genera were represented in the forest plots, while 14 families and 26 genera of plants occurred in the meadow plots. Four families (Apiaceae, Cyperaceae, Poaceae, and Urticaceae) characterized the forest plots, accounting for over 91% of the species collected. The families characterizing the meadow plots differed from those of the forest; three families (Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae) accounted for over 88% of the species in the meadow. Of the 23 species collected in the forest plots, only one was introduced (although four species were unidentified). Of the 29 species collected in the meadow plots, eight species were introduced (although four species were identified only to genus, and thus not classified as native or introduced). In the meadow plots, invasive species accounted for the majority of the stems counted (59.8%) (Table 1A). Together, Medicago lupulina (black medic), Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover), Melilotus albus (white sweet clover), and Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass) accounted for almost all of the introduced stems counted in the meadow plots (98.4%).
In Meadow Plot I, native species accounted for almost all of the stems (98.1%). The plot was characterized by Aster praealtus (56.8% of the stems) and Elymus virginicus (25.6%). The majority of stems in Plot II belonged to introduced species, with Melilotus albus and Melilotus officinalis accounting for over 51% of the stems. The native species in Plot II primarily consisted of Aster praealtus (14.5% of the stems) and Solidago canadensis (15.7%). Plot III was largely characterized by introduced species, with Medicago lupulina accounting for over 70% of the stems. Oenothera biennis (10.2% of the stems) was the only native species commonly found in Plot III. Some species were found throughout all three plots, while others were clustered in one or two of the three plots. For example, all but one specimen of Medicago lupulina was found in Plot III, while most of the Melilotus stems were found in Plot II. Sorghum halepense was the only introduced species commonly found throughout the three meadow plots. The native species commonly found in all three plots included Aster praealtus, Solidago canadensis, and Elymus virginicus.
In contrast to the meadow plots, native species represented almost all of the species present in the forest plots. In fact, only two introduced specimens were found across the three plots--two specimens of Ipomea hederecea (ivy-leaved morning glory) in forest Plot I (Table 1B). Five species (Cryptotaenia canadensis (honewort), Carex grayi (globe sedge), Elymus virginicus (Virginia wildrye), Laportea canadensis (wood nettle), Pilea pumila (clear-weed), and Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)) accounted for more than 95% of the stems counted in the forest plots. The most common species in forest plots were fairly consistent across plots. Forest Plot I was represented by Cryptotaenia canadensis (40.5%), Elymus virginicus (28.8%), and Pilea pumila (18.6%). Elymus virginicus (55.3%), Cryptotaenia canadensis (17.9%), Carex grayi (12.8%) accounted for most of the stems found in forest Plot II. In Plot III, Elymus virginicus (43.9%), Carex grayi (24.6%), and Pilea pumila (23.9%) were the most common species.
Plant Survey.--The quality of habitat ([C.sub.av] = 2.5, FQI = 26.6) at VCP is relatively low compared to other wetland sites in Indiana. For example, Bennett Wetland Complex (BWC) in Henry County has a [C.sub.av] for native species of 3.8 (Ruch et al. 2009) and an FQI of 54.6. Turkey Run State Park in Parke County, Indiana also contains two habitats of higher quality. Two seep areas in the park are categorized as high quality habitats ([C.sub.av1] = 5.4, [FQI.sub.1] = 29.8, [C.sub.av2] = 5.1 [FQI.sub.2] = 32.1) (Rothrock & Homoya 2005). The [C.sub.av] of VCP fails to fall within the suggested range of values for a natural habitat (>3.5), indicating that few natural remnants remain at this site. Although the site is degraded, it is still capable of sustaining species that require a wetland habitat. This is evident by the presence of Aristolochia tomentosa, Aster praealtus, Carex conjuncta, Forestiera acuminaa, and Celtis laevigata, which all have C-values equal to or greater than six and are commonly found in wetlands.
Plot Samples.--The proportion of non-native species in the meadow and forest plots differed greatly. The meadow has been used for agricultural purposes as recently as 2001, so the higher the abundance of invasive species was expected because disturbance promotes colonization by non-native species (Burke & Grime 1996). Although the invasive species accounted for over 50% of stems present in meadow plots, the presence of some non-native species (e.g., Medicago lupulina and Melilotus spp.) was localized, suggesting that concentrated efforts to control these non-natives may be successful.
In contrast, the widespread presence of Johnson grass, which was found in all plots, represents a pressing concern. Johnson grass produces large quantities of viable seed, while also spreading rhizomatously (Oyer et al. 1959). Furthermore, the formation of rhizomes as early as 50 days after seed planting causes the plants to become increasingly difficult to control because the entire rhizomatous system must be eradicated as opposed to simply destroying the aerial foliage. In addition, large quantities of herbicide are generally required to control Johnson grass (Frans et al. 1991), and some biotypes of Johnson grass have become resistant to certain herbicides (Smeda et al. 1997). For these reasons Johnson grass presents a major challenge in site restoration.
Restoration efforts have demonstrated that reestablishing biodiversity and ecosystem services can be effective. While VCP is a degraded site, restoring this environment could lead to improved ecosystem function, enhanced biodiversity, and reduced abundance of non-native plants (Vernberg 1993; Lehman & Tilman 2000; Benayas et al. 2009). Waterways, such as the Wabash River that borders VCP, expedite the spread of invasive species by acting as corridors for dispersal (Thebaud & Debussche 1991; Parendes & Jones 2000). So yearly floods currently wash in invasive seed banks and receding waters export invasive seed from the property's established invasive populations. In addition to restoring the ecosystem of VCP, establishment of a stable native wetland should result in exportation of native seed instead of non-native seed. For example, a few recently discovered species (i.e., Rudbeckia laciniata and Vernonia gigantea) may have come from an attempted prairie planting in 2008, where floods swept the seeds far from the planting.
APPENDIX 1: Species planted by Vectren Corporation at Vectren Conservation Park in 2002. Family Scientific Name Caesalpiniaceae Cercis canadenses Cornaceae Cornus amomum Cornaceae Cornus florida Cornaceae Cornus racemosa Cornaceae Nyssa sylvatica Fagaceae Quercus alba Fagaceae Quercus imbricaria Fagaceae Quercus macrocarpa Fagaceae Quercus michauxii Fagaceae Quercus palustres Hamamelidaceae Liquidambar styraciflua Juglandaceae Carya illinoinensis Juglandaceae Juglans nigra Lauraceae Lindera benzoin Oleaceae Fraxinus pennsylvanica Plantanaceae Plantanus occidentales Rosaceae Crataegus phaenopyruin Rosaceae Physocarpus opulifoius Rubiaceae Cephalanthus occidentales Family Common Name Inds. Planted Caesalpiniaceae redbud 2300 Cornaceae silky dogwood 2000 Cornaceae flowering dogwood 2300 Cornaceae gray dogwood 2300 Cornaceae black gum 7000 Fagaceae white oak 20900 Fagaceae shingle oak 4600 Fagaceae bur oak 10000 Fagaceae swamp chestnut oak 4500 Fagaceae pin oak 10000 Hamamelidaceae sweetgum 20000 Juglandaceae pecan 10000 Juglandaceae black walnut 10000 Lauraceae spicebush 2300 Oleaceae green ash 10000 Plantanaceae sycamore 13000 Rosaceae Washington hawthorne 2300 Rosaceae ninebark 700 Rubiaceae buttonbush 1900 Total trees planted 136100
Species list of flora present at Vectren Conservation Park (arranged alphabetically by family). Each species report includes the following information: (1) scientific name based on Gleason and Cronquist (1991), (2) common name, (3) origin (native or introduced), (4) wetland indicator category (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1996), and (5) coefficient of conservatism (C-value) for Indiana (Rothrock 2004). For the wetland indicator categories, OBL represents obligate wetland plants (with plants almost always occurring in wetlands (>99%)), FACW represents facultative wetland plants (with plants usually occurring in wetlands (67%-99%)), FAC represents facultative plants (with plants being equally likely to occur in wetlands or non-wetlands (34%-66%)), FACU represents facultative upland plants (with plants usually occurring in non-wetlands (67%-99%)), and UPL represents Obligate Upland plants (with plants almost always occurring in non-wetlands in our region (>99%))(Reed 1996). NI represents plants with insufficient information available to determine indicator status. Signs (+/-) represent discrimination within categories, with a positive sign representing a greater frequency in that habitat and a negative sign representing a lower frequency). C-values range from zero to 10, with lower values representing plants that are highly tolerant of disturbance and higher values representing plants that are restricted to high quality plant community remnants. In addition to the species listed only to the level of genus, eight species were identified only at higher taxonomic levels; four specimens belonged to three families--Brassicaceae, Poaceae, and Asteraceae, and four were not placed to any family. Many introduced plants were neither categorized for wetland category nor for C-values. Still, introduced species are often given C-values of zero.
Acanthaceae (Acanthus Family) Ruellia strepens L.: Wild petunia; native; FAC+; 4
Aceraceae (Maple Family) Acer negundo L.: Boxelder; native; FACW-; 1 Acer saccharinum L.: Silver maple; native; FACW; 1
Amaranthaceae (Amaranth Family) Amaranthus sp.
Apiaceae (Carrot Family)
Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.) DC.: Honewort; native; FAC; 3
Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link: Field hedge-parsley; introduced, Europe
Apocynaceae (Dogbane Family)
Apocynum cannabinum L.: Indian hemp; native; FAC; 2
Araceae (Arum Family)
Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott: Green dragon; native; FACW; 5
Aristolochiaceae (Birthwort Family) Aristolochia tomentosa Sims: Pipe vine; native; FAC; 7
Asclepiadaceae (Milkweed Family)
Ampelamus albidus (Nutt.) Britton: Bluevine; native;--; 1
Asclepias incarnata L.: Swamp milkweed; native; OBL; 4
Asclepias syriaca L.: Common milkweed; native; NI; 0
Asteraceae (Aster Family)
Achillea millefolium L.: Yarrow; native; FACU; 0
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.: Common ragweed; native; FACU; 0
Ambrosia trifida L.: Giant ragweed; native; FAC+; 0 Aster praealtus Poir.: Veiny lined aster; native; FACW; 6
Aster pilosus Willd.: Heath aster; native; 0
Bidens comosa (A. Gray) Wiegand: Strawstem burmarigold; native;--; 1
Carduus nutans L.: Musk thistle; introduced, Europe
Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist: Horseweed; native; FAC-; 0
Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers.: Daisy fleabane; native; FAC-; 0
Erigeron philadelphicus L.: Philadelphia fleabane; native; FACW; 3
Eupatorium coelestinum L.: Mistflower; native; FACW; 2
Eupatorium serotinum Michx.: Late boneset; native; FAC+; 0
Iva annua L.: Rough marsh elder; native; FAC; 0
Lactuca serriola L.: Prickly lettuce; introduced, Europe; FAC; 0
Pyrrhopappus carolinianus (Walter) DC.: False dandelion; introduced; 2
Rudbeckia hirta L.: Black-eyed Susan; native; FACU; 2
Rudbeckia laciniata L.: Cutleaf coneflower; native; FACW; 3
Rudbeckia triloba L.: 3-lobed coneflower; native; FAC 3
Senecio glabellus Poir.: Butterweed; native; OBL; 0
Solidago canadensis L.: Common goldenrod; native; FACU; 0
Tragopogon dubius Scop.: Yellow salsify; introduced, Europe
Verbesina alternifolia (L.) Britton: Wingstem; native; FACW; 3
Vernonia gigantea (Walter) Trel.: Tall ironweed; native; FAC; 2
Bignoniaceae (Trumpet Creeper Family)
Campsis radicans (L.) Seem.: Trumpet creeper; native; FAC; 1
Catalpa speciosa Warder: Northern catalpa; native; FACU; 0
Brassicaceae (Mustard Family)
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.: Shepherd's purse; introduced, Europe; FAC-
Cardamine rhomboidea (Pers.) DC.: Springcress; native
Lepidium virginicum L.: Poor man's pepper; native; FACU-; 0
Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser: Common yellow cress; native; OBL; 2
Rorippa sessiliflora (Nutt.) Hitchc.: Southern yellow cress; native; OBL; 3
Caesalpiniaceae (Caesalpinia Family)
Cercis canadensis L.: Redbud; native; FACU; 3
Gleditsia triacanthos L.: Honey-locust; native; FAC; 1
Gymnoeladus dioicus Lam.: Kentucky coffee-tree; native; 3
Campanulaceae (Bellflower Family)
Campanula americana L.: Tall bellflower; native; FAC; 4
Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle Family) Symphoricarpos sp.
Caryophyllaceae (Pink Family) Dianthus armeria L.: Deptford pink; introduced, Europe; NI
Chenopodiaceae (Goosefoot Family) Chenopodium sp.
Convolvulaceae (Morning-glory Family)
Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br.: Hedge bindweed; native; FAC; 4
Ipomoea hederacea Jacq.: Ivy-leaved morning glory; introduced; FAC Ipomoea pandurata (L.) G.Mey.: Wild potato; native; FACU; 3
Cornaceae (Dogwood Family)
Cornus drummondii C. A. Mey.: Rough-leaved dogwood; native; FAC; 2
Cucurbitaceae (Gourd Family)
Sicyos angulatus L.: Bur cucumber; native; FACW-; 3
Cuscutaceae (Dodder Family)
Cuscuta gronovii Willd. Common dodder; native; 2
Cyperaceae (Sedge Family)
Carex conjuncta Boott: Green-headed fox sedge; native; FACW; 6
Carex cristatella Britton: Crested sedge; native; FACW+; 3
Carex digitalis Willd.: Slender woodland sedge; native; UPL; 7
Carex grayi J. Carey: Globe sedge; native; FACW+; 5
Carex muehlenbergii Schkuhr ex Willd.: Muehlenberg's sedge; native;--; 5
Cyperus strigosus L.: False nutsedge; native; FACW; 0
Elaeagnaceae (Oleaster Family)
Elaeagnus angustifolia L.: Russian olive; introduced, native of Eurasia; FACU-Fabaceae (Pea Family)
Amorpha fruticosa L.: False indigo; native; OBL; 3 Desmodium paniculatum (L.) DC.: Panicled tickclover; native; FACU; 2
Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don: Silky bushclover; introduced, Asia; UPL
Melilotus albus Medik: White sweet clover; introduced, Asia;
Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall.: Yellow sweet clover; introduced, Eurasia; FACU
Trifolium campestre Schreb.: Low hop clover; introduced, Eurasia and N. Africa
Fagaceae (Beech Family)
Quercus macrocarpa Michx.: Bur oak; native; FAC-; 5
Geraniaceae (Geranium Family)
Geranium carolinianum L.: Carolina crane's bill; native;--; 2
Juglandaceae (Walnut Family)
Juglans cinerea L.: Butternut; native; FACU+; 5 Juglans nigra L.: Black walnut; native; FACU; 2 Lamiaceae (Mint Family)
Lamium amplexicaule L.: Henbit deadnettle; introduced, Eurasia and Africa
Teucrium canadense L.: American germander; native; FACW-; 3
Liliaceae (Lily Family)
Allium vineale L.: Field garlic; introduced, native of Europe; FACU
Malvaceae (Mallow Family)
Hibiscus laevis All.: Smooth rose mallow; native; OBL; 4 Sida spinosa L.: Prickly mallow; native; FACU
Menispermaceae (Moonseed Family)
Menispermum canadense L.: Common moonseed; native; FAC; 3
Mimosaceae (Mimosa Family)
Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacMill.: Bundle-flower; native; FACU; 3
Moraceae (Mulberry Family)
Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid: Osage orange; native; FACU
Morus alba L.: White mulberry; introduced, Asia; FAC Morus rubra L.: Red mulberry; native; FAC-; 4
Oleaceae (Olive Family)
Forestiera acuminata (Michx.) Poir.: Swamp privet; native; OBL; 8
Fraxinus americana L.: White ash; native; FACU; 4
Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall: Green ash; native; FACW; 1
Onagraceae (Evening Primrose Family) Oenothera biennis L.: Common evening primrose; native; FACU; 0
Oenothera laciniata Hill: Ragged evening primrose; native; FACU; 2 Oenothera sp.
Oxalidaceae (Wood-sorrel Family)
Oxalis dillinii Jacq.: Southern yellow wood-sorrel; native; NI; 0
Phytolaccaceae (Pokeweed Family)
Phytolacca americana L.: American pokeweed; native; FAC-; 0
Plantaginaceae (Plantain Family)
Plantago rugelii Decne.: American plantain; native; FAC; 0
Platanaceae (Plane-tree Family)
Platanus occidentalis L.: American sycamore; native; FACW; 3
Poaceae (Grass Family)
Agrostis gigantea Roth: Redtop; introduced, Europe; FACW
Andropogon virginicus L.: Broomsedge; native; FAC-; 1
Arundinaria gigantea (Walter) Muhl.: Giant cane; native; NI, 5
Bromus racemosus L.: Bald brome; introduced, Europe
Chasmanthium latifolium (Michx.) H.O. Yates: Wild oats; native; FAC; 4
Dactylis glomerata L. Orchard grass; introduced, Europe; FACU
Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) P.Beauv.: Barnyard grass; introduced, Eurasia; FACW
Elymus canadensis L.: Canada wildrye; native; FAC-; 5
Elymus virginicus L.: Virginia wildrye; native; FACW-; 3
Festuca pratensis Huds.: Meadow fescue; introduced, Europe; FACUFestuca subverticillata (Pers.) E.B. Alexeev: Nodding fescue; native; FACU+; 4
Hordeumjubatum L.: Foxtail barley; native; FAC+ Hordeum pusillum Nutt.: Little barley; introduced, N. America; FAC; 0
Koeleria pyramidata (Lam.) P. Beauv.: Junegrass; native;--; 8
Lolium perenne L.: Perennial rye; introduced, Europe; FACU
Phleum pratense L.: Common timothy; introduced, Europe; FACU
Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv.: Green foxtail; introduced, Europe
Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench: Sorghum; introduced, Africa; UPL
Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.: Johnson grass; introduced, Europe and Africa; FACU
Polygonaceae (Smartweed Family)
Polygonum aviculare L.: Knotweed; native; FACPolygonum cuspidatum Siebold & Zucc: Japanese knotweed; introduced; Japan; FACU
Polygonum erectum L.: Erect knotweed; native; FACU; 0
Polygonum pennsylvanicum L.: Pinkweed; native; FACW+; 0
Polygonum persicaria L.: Spotted lady's thumb; introduced, Europe; FACW
Polygonum virginianum L.: Jumpseed; native; FAC; 3
Rurnex altissimus A. W. Wood: Pale dock; native; FACW-; 2
Rumex crispus L.: Curley dock; introduced, Europe; FAC+
Ranunculaceae (Buttercup Family)
Ranunculus micranthus Nutt.: Small-flowered crowfoot; native; FAC-; 4 Rosaceae (Rose Family)
Crataegus mollis (Torr. & Gray) Scheele: Downy hawthorn; native; FACW-; 2
Geum canadense Jacq.: White avens; native; FAC; 1 Potentilla norvegica L.: Rough cinquefoil, native; FAC; 0 Prunus sp.
Rubus sp. Rubiaceae (Madder Family)
Cephalanthus occidentalis L.: Common button-bush; native; OBL; 5
Salicaceae (Willow Family)
Populus deltoides Marshall: Cottonwood; native; FAC+; 1
Salix exigua Nutt.: Sandbar willow; native; FACW+; 1 Salix nigra Marshall: Black willow; native; OBL; 3
Saururaceae (Lizard's tail Family)
Saururus cernuus L.: Lizard's tail; native; OBL; 4
Scrophulariaceae (Figwort Family) Verbascum blattaria L.: Moth mullein; introduced, Eurasia; FACUMimulus alatus Alton: Sharpwing monkey-flower; native; OBL; 4
Smilacaceae (Catbriar Family)
Smilax herbacea L.: Smooth carrion flower; native; FAC; 4 Smilax sp.
Solanaceae (Nightshade Family)
Solanum carolinense L.: Horse-nettle; native; FACU-; 0
Ulmaceae (Elm Family)
Celtis laevigata L.: Southern hackberry; native; FACW; 7
Celtis occidentalis L.: Northern hackberry; native; FAC-; 3
Ulmus americana L.: American elm; native; FACW-; 3 Ulmus rubra Muhl.: Slippery elm; native; FAC; 3
Urticaceae (Nettle Family) Laportea canadensis (L.) Wedd.: Canada nettle; native; FACW; 2
Pilea pumila (L.) A. Gray: Clearweed; native; FACW; 2 Urtica dioica L. Stinging nettle; native; FACW-; 1
Valerianaceae (Valerian Family)
Valerianella radiata (L.) Dufr.: Beaked cornsalad; native; FAC; 1
Verbenaceae (Vervain Family)
Verbena urticifolia L.: White vervain; native; FAC+; 3
Phyla lanceolata (Michx.) Greene: Fogfruit; native; OBL; 2
Violaceae Viola sp.
Vitaceae (Grape Family)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.: Virginia creeper; native; FAC-; 2
Vitis aestivalis Michx.: Summer grape; native; FACU; 4
Vitis cinerea Engelm.: Sweet winter grape; native; FACW-; 4
Vitis riparia Michx.: Riverbank grape; native; FACW-; 1
Vitis vulpina L.: Winter grape; native; FACW-; 3
We thank Vectren Corporation for their generous support and creative thinking, which provided the land on which the study was conducted. We appreciate their gift and support for restoration at VCP. Thanks to Allen Rose and Randy Kron for assistance at VCP, Jack Barner and UE's development office for their assistance, Dr. Alan Kaiser for assistance with historical land use information, Dr. Ann Powell for assistance with plant identification, and Dr. Dale Edwards and Kayla Stilger for their comments on earlier drafts of this manuscript. This work has been supported by a Merck/AAAS Undergraduate Science Research grant, a UExplore grant from the Undergraduate Research Committee at the University of Evansville, and a Foundation for Sustainability and Innovation to CGH. We thank an anonymous reviewer for helpful guidance.
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Manuscript received 25 January 2011, revised 17 November 2011.
Jordon Lachowecki, Cris G. Hochwender *, Kristen Nolting, Abby Aldridge and Elizabeth Maurer: Department of Biology, University of Evansville, 1800 Lincoln Ave., Evansville, IN 47722
* Corresponding author. firstname.lastname@example.org, Department of Biology, University of Evansville, 1800 Lincoln Ave., Evansville, IN 47722, 812-488-2005, 812-488-1039 (fax)
Table 1.--Species encountered in (A) meadow and (B) forest plots at Vectren Conservation Park. Family, origin (native or introduced), scientific and common name, and number of stems are given. A dash in the origin column indicates uncertain origin; these species were not included in abundance calculations. A. Meadow Family Origin Scientific Name Aceraceae Native Acer saccharinum Anacardiaceae Native Toxicodendron radicans Apiaceae Introduced Torilis arvensis Asteraceae Native Ambrosia artemisifolia Asteraceae Native Ambrosia trida Asteraceae Native Aster praealtus Asteraceae -- Aster sp. 1 Asteraceae Native Cony--a canadensis Asteraceae Native Erigeron annuus Asteraceae Native Lactuca canadensis Asteraceae Introduced Lactuca serriola Asteraceae Native Pyrrhopappus carolinianus Asteraceae Native Solidago canadensis Asteraceae Native Taraxacum officinale Brassicaceae Introduced Capsella burla pastoris Convolvulaceae Native Calystegia sepium Chenopodiaceae -- Chenopodium sp. Fabaceae Introduced Lespedeza cuneata Fabaceae Introduced Medicago lupulina Fabaceae Introduced Melilotus albus and Mehlotus officinalis Fabaceae Introduced Trifolium campestre Onagraceae Native Oenothera biennis Oxalidaceae -- Oxalis sp. Polygonaceae -- Polygonum sp. Poaceae Native Andropogon virginicus Poaceae Native Elymus virginicus Poaceae Introduced Sorghum halepense Ulmaceae Native Ulmus rubra and U. americana Verbenaceae Native Verbena urticifolia B. Forest Family Origin Scientific Name Anacardiaceae Native Toxicodendron radicans Apiaceae Native Cryptotaenia canadensis Asteraceae Native Ambrosia trifda Asteraceae -- Aster sp. 2 Asteraceae -- Aster sp. 3 Asteraceae Native Solidago canadensis Bigoniaceae Native Campis radicans Convolvulaceae Introduced Ipomea hederacea Cyperaceae Native Carex grayi Menispermaceae Native Menispermum canadense Oleaceae Native Fraxinus pennsylvania Phytolaccaceae Native Phytolacca americana Polygonaceae Native Polygonum virginianum Poaceae Native Elymus virginicus Poaceae Native Festuca subverticillata Smilaceae Native Smilax herbacea Smilaceae --, but native Smilax sp. Solanaceae Native Solanum ptycanthum Ulmaceae Native Celtis laevigata Urticaceae Native Loportea canadensis Urticaceae Native Pilea pumila Vilaceae -- Viola sp. Vitaceae Native Parthenocissus quinquefolia A. Meadow Family Common Name Plot I Plot II Aceraceae Silver maple (sapling) 1 0 Anacardiaceae Poison ivy 1 0 Apiaceae Field hedge parsley 0 1 Asteraceae Common ragweed 0 1 Asteraceae Great ragweed 40 6 Asteraceae Veiny-line aster 870 328 Asteraceae Unidentified long-leaf aster 145 3 Asteraceae Horseweed 0 5 Asteraceae Daisy fleabane 1 0 Asteraceae Wild lettuce 0 11 Asteraceae Prickly lettuce 0 0 Asteraceae False dandelion 0 1 Asteraceae Common goldenrod 162 353 Asteraceae Common dandelion 11 41 Brassicaceae Shepherd's purse 0 1 Convolvulaceae Hedge bindweed 1 1 Chenopodiaceae Lamb's quarters 0 0 Fabaceae Silky bushclover 0 48 Fabaceae Black medic 1 0 Fabaceae Sweet clover 0 1159 Fabaceae Low hop clover 5 20 Onagraceae Biennial evening primrose 1 40 Oxalidaceae Woodsorrel 1 0 Polygonaceae Various smartweeds 0 0 Poaceae Broom sedge 22 0 Poaceae Virginia wildrye 392 79 Poaceae Johnson grass 23 156 Ulmaceae Elm (sapling) 0 4 Verbenaceae White vervain 1 0 B. Forest Family Common Name Plot I Plot II Anacardiaceae Poison ivy 16 14 Apiaceae Honewort 690 245 Asteraceae Great ragweed 2 0 Asteraceae Unidentified forest aster 1 42 0 Asteraceae Unidentified forest aster 2 27 3 Asteraceae Common goldenrod 0 0 Bigoniaceae Trumpet creeper 0 2 Convolvulaceae Ivy-leaved morning glory 2 0 Cyperaceae Globe sedge 22 175 Menispermaceae Common moonseed 0 0 Oleaceae Green ash 0 0 Phytolaccaceae American pokeweed 26 0 Polygonaceae Jumpseed 1 5 Poaceae Virginia wildrye 490 758 Poaceae Nodding fescue 0 0 Smilaceae Smooth carrion-flower 1 1 Smilaceae Unidentified smilax 3 13 Solanaceae Eastern black nightshade 0 0 Ulmaceae Sugarberry (sapling) 0 0 Urticaceae Wood nettle 97 112 Urticaceae Clearweed 317 14 Vilaceae Unidentified violet 3 12 Vitaceae Virginia creeper 38 44 A. Meadow Family Plot III Total Aceraceae 0 1 Anacardiaceae 18 19 Apiaceae 0 1 Asteraceae 16 17 Asteraceae 4 50 Asteraceae 87 1285 Asteraceae 1 149 Asteraceae 92 97 Asteraceae 0 1 Asteraceae 2 13 Asteraceae 8 8 Asteraceae 0 1 Asteraceae 55 570 Asteraceae 85 137 Brassicaceae 0 1 Convolvulaceae 2 4 Chenopodiaceae 519 519 Fabaceae 0 48 Fabaceae 3234 3235 Fabaceae 70 1229 Fabaceae 0 25 Onagraceae 466 507 Oxalidaceae 0 I Polygonaceae 8 8 Poaceae 0 22 Poaceae 155 626 Poaceae 274 453 Ulmaceae 0 4 Verbenaceae 3 4 B. Forest Family Plot III Total Anacardiaceae 17 47 Apiaceae 7 942 Asteraceae 0 2 Asteraceae 36 78 Asteraceae 0 30 Asteraceae 3 3 Bigoniaceae 1 3 Convolvulaceae 0 2 Cyperaceae 351 548 Menispermaceae 1 1 Oleaceae 1 1 Phytolaccaceae 0 26 Polygonaceae 0 6 Poaceae 627 1875 Poaceae 8 8 Smilaceae 1 3 Smilaceae 0 16 Solanaceae 4 4 Ulmaceae 5 5 Urticaceae 1 210 Urticaceae 342 673 Vilaceae 4 19 Vitaceae 59 141
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|Author:||Lachowecki, Jordon; Hochwender, Cris G.; Nolting, Kristen; Aldridge, Abby; Maurer, Elizabeth|
|Publication:||Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science|
|Date:||Jul 20, 2012|
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