Printer Friendly

Evaluating the Relative Importance of Organizational Culture and Organizational Justice at Social security employee in Ardabil province.

INTRODUCTION

Like many social scientists, organizational researchers have been interested in the role of culture in organizational life and by some estimates have generated more than 4600 articles on the topic [15]. Significant debates emerged during the 1980's and 1990's as organizational culture became a management fad [1]. Academic debates focused on whether culture should be viewed from a materialist or ideational perspective, whether it is a unitary or distributed construct, and how it should be assessed and studied [28].

Culture has long been on the agenda of management theorists and it has been characterized by many authors as "something to do with the people and unique quality and style of organization", "the way we do things around here" or the "expressive non-rational qualities of an organization" [9].

There are a number of central aspects of culture:

* There is an evaluative element involving social expectations and standards; the values and beliefs that people hold central and that bind organizational groups.

* Culture is also a set of more material elements or artifacts. These are the signs and symbols that the organization is recognized by but they are also the events, behaviors and people that embody culture.

* The medium of culture is social interaction, the web of communications that constitute a community. Here a shared language is particularly important in expressing and signifying a distinctive organizational culture [26].

However, social scientists began to converge on an operational definition of culture as the attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors that are shared by a particular group of people [11,22,21] i.e. a definition that uses identifiable, measurable, and enduring behavioral components.

Attempts to define organizational culture have adopted a number of different approaches. Some focus on manifestations--the heroes and villains, rites, rituals, myths and legends that populate organizations. Culture is also socially constructed and reflects meanings that are constituted in interaction and that form commonly accepted definitions of the situation [26].

The major reason for the wider interest in organizational culture stems from the argument that certain organizational cultures lead to superior organizational financial performance [25]. Researchers found that cultural strength was significantly associated with financial performance both short term [10] and long term4. Culture also affects an organization's competitive position because of benefiting from having highly motivated employees dedicated to common goals [20], influencing the organizational performance [22], and developing organizational competences and obtaining competitive advantage. Overall, organizational culture can be the factor that sends an organization to greatness as its members are inspired to do their utmost to work hard to conceive and make goods and services that improve the welfare of their customers and hence develop organizational competences and obtain a competitive advantage [19]. This illustrates that organizational culture is a determinant of entrepreneurial orientation, which refers to all aspects related to processes, practices and decision and decision making activities, which lead to adopt or acquire the new venture creation [24]. There are three commonly accepted aspects of organizational culture, namely: bureaucratic; innovative; and supportive [30]. Bureaucracy is viewed as hierarchically structured, orderly, procedural, and highly regulated. Innovativeness is seen as creative, enterprising, risk-taking, and results-oriented. Supportiveness is characterized by equitable, sociable, trusting, and collaborative behaviors. Meanwhile, other researcher has outlined dimensions of organizational culture, which covered process-result oriented, open-closed system, tightly-loosely controlled, normative-pragmatic, and employee-job oriented [16].

Justice perceptions have long been explanatory variables in organizational research [2]. Organizational justice describes the individuals' (or groups') perception of the fairness of treatment received from an organization and their behavioral reaction to such perceptions [18]. A two-dimensional conceptualization of justice appears to have been widely adopted in the extant literature. Distributive justice refers to the perceived fairness of the outcomes employees receive, while procedural justice describes the perceived fairness of the means used to determine those outcomes. The latter is reflected in concerns about employee participation, consistency, impartiality, and rationality [7]. Both distributive and procedural justice are consistently found to be related to behaviors [14]. In general, findings in the extant justice literature indicate that distributive justice is more strongly related to personal outcomes (e.g. job satisfaction), while procedural justice is more strongly related to evaluation of institutions and employee contributions [23]. It also appears that when people receive unfavorable outcomes, negative affect and behavioral consequences tend to be mitigated when procedural justice is practiced [5,27].

Research has shown that employees appraise three families of workplace events. They examine the justice of outcomes (distributive justice), the justice of the formal allocation processes (procedural justice), and the justice of interpersonal transactions they encounter with others (interactional justice). These are shown in Table 1.

Distributive, procedural, and interactional justice tend to be correlated. They can be meaningfully treated as three components of overall fairness [3,4], and the three components can work together. However, if one's goal is to promote workplace justice, it is useful to consider them separately and in detail. This is because each component is engendered in distinct ways, arising from different managerial actions.

The main purpose of this study is evaluating the Relative importance of organizational culture constructs in the development of organizational justice at Social security employee in Ardabil province. To achieve this aims we try to find answer to this questions: Is there relationship between organizational culture and organizational justice? What is the relative importance/weight of each constructs of organizational culture influencing organizational justice?

Methodology:

There were two components to our research design. First, we updated the Organizational Culture Diana, C. Physey (2004) and used it to identify specific dimensions of organizational culture (task-oriented culture, support-oriented culture, achievement-oriented culture, power-oriented culture). Second, based on these results we focused on organizational justice dimension according to Colquitt et al [6]. We used informants from Social security employee in Ardabil province explore dimensions of organizational culture, organizational justice and test our hypothesis.

The data has collected from 172 employees of Social security employee in Ardabil province by a questionnaire with 29 items by study of variables and we can gather 150 questionnaire. All the reliability and validity of measures has examined. Questionnaire reliability was estimated by calculating Cronbach's Alpha via SPSS software that is
Table 2: Results of questionnaires reliability

Variables                 Cronbach's Alpha

organizational culture    0.716
organizational justice    0.894


We used Relative Importance method and Spearman Correlation to analyze the research hypothesis.

Regression analyses are typically conducted to capture people's decision policy. However, when inter-correlation among predictors exists (as is the case in this study), regression coefficients have long been judged inadequate to indicate the relative importance of a predictor because the impact of one predictor cannot be considered when holding the other predictors constant. Currently, there are two preferred methods for determining a predictor's relative importance: Budescu's dominance analysis and Johnson's (2000, 2001) relative weights. According to Johnson and LeBreton, both indices take a predictor's direct effect and its effect when combined with other predictors into account, and both yield importance weights that represent the proportionate contribution each predictor makes to [R.sup.2]. When they are used for analyzing the same data, both indices produce virtually the same results. Here, we computed Johnson's relative weights per rater (expressed as proportions of [R.sup.2]) because they are easier to compute than Budescu's dominance analysis.

Analysis and Results:

Descriptive Results:

The data gathered from questionnaires shows that, 70 percent are male and 30 are female. 43 percent are married and 57 are single. The responder's degree is 10 percent M.A, 57 percent BA, and 33 percent DA or under DA have degree. It means that the all of the employees have university degree. (Table 3)

Table 4 shows customers' age of the responders, from the precedence point of view about 20 percent of responders have less than 30 years' old, and 40 percent have between 31-40, 30 percent 41-50 and finally 10 percent have more than 51 years of managing experience.

Hypothetical Results:

In this paper we have four main hypothesis. The statistical way of analysis of hypotheses is two ways, [H.sub.1] is acceptance of hypothesis and [H.sub.0] is rejecting of hypothesis. In other words, it means that [H.sub.1] has positive meaning and [H.sub.0] has negative meaning.

Hypothesis 1: The relative importance/weight of each constructs of organizational culture in influencing to procedural justice is not the same.

Table 5, shows that the correlation coefficients between the independent (organizational culture) and dependent variable (Procedural justice).

The results of above table shows, that there is a correlation between the independent variables and also they have significant correlation dependent variable. Therefore, in such cases, using a method such as regression to find the organizational culture dimensions on the procedural justice is not suitable.

Given the correlation between the independent variables, we have calculated the combined effects and weighted share of organizational culture with four dimensions in influencing to procedural justice with used of relative importance technique.

The results show that four dimensions of organizational culture explained 55.1 present of procedural justice users changes. Support -oriented culture dimension has the highest priority and the power -oriented culture dimension has the lowest priority. Task-oriented culture have 14 present, power-oriented culture have 3 present, achievement-oriented culture have 33 present and support-oriented culture have 50 present relative weights.

Hypothesis 2: The relative importance/weight of each constructs of organizational culture in influencing to interactional justice is not the same.

Table 7, shows that the correlation coefficients between the independent (organizational culture) and dependent variable (interactional justice).

The results of above table shows, that there is a correlation between the independent variables and also they have significant correlation dependent variable. Therefore, in such cases, using a method such as regression to find the organizational culture dimensions on the interactional justice is not suitable.

Given the correlation between the independent variables, we have calculated the combined effects and weighted share of organizational culture with four dimensions in influencing to interactional justice with used of relative importance technique.

The results show that four dimensions of organizational culture explained 35 present of interactional justice users changes. Support -oriented culture dimension has the highest priority and the task-oriented culture dimension has the lowest priority. Task-oriented culture have 3.9 present, power-oriented culture have 4.4 present, achievement-oriented culture have 42.3 present and support-oriented culture have 79.3 present relative weights.

Hypothesis 3: The relative importance/weight of each constructs of organizational culture in influencing to distributive justice is not the same.

Table 9, shows that the correlation coefficients between the independent (organizational culture) and dependent variable (Procedural justice).

The results of above table shows, that there is a correlation between the independent variables and also they have significant correlation dependent variable. Therefore, in such cases, using a method such as regression to find the organizational culture dimensions on the distributive justice is not suitable.

Given the correlation between the independent variables, we have calculated the combined effects and weighted share of organizational culture with four dimensions in influencing to distributive justice with used of relative importance technique.

The results show that four dimensions of organizational culture explained 65.4 present of distributive justice users changes. Support -oriented culture dimension has the highest priority and the power -oriented culture dimension has the lowest priority. Task-oriented culture have 4 present, power-oriented culture have 0.6 present, achievement-oriented culture have 19.8 present and support-oriented culture have 75.6 present relative weights.

Hypothesis 4: The relative importance/weight of each constructs of organizational culture in influencing to informational justice is not the same.

Table 11, shows that the correlation coefficients between the independent (organizational culture) and dependent variable (informational justice).

The results of above table shows, that there is a correlation between the independent variables and also they have significant correlation dependent variable. Therefore, in such cases, using a method such as regression to find the organizational culture dimensions on the informational justice is not suitable.

Given the correlation between the independent variables, we have calculated the combined effects and weighted share of organizational culture with four dimensions in influencing to informational justice with used of relative importance technique.

The results show that four dimensions of organizational culture explained 52.3 present of procedural justice users changes. Achievement-oriented culture dimension has the highest priority and the power-oriented culture dimension has the lowest priority. Task-oriented culture have 20.3 present, power-oriented culture have 9.1 present, achievement-oriented culture have 62 present and support-oriented culture have 18.5 present relative weights.

Conclusion:

The main purpose of this study is evaluating the Relative Importance of Organizational Culture and Organizational Justice at Social security employee in Ardabil province. We designed two components to our research; first, we updated the organizational culture Diana, C. Physey and used it to identify specific dimensions of organizational culture (task-oriented culture, support-oriented culture, achievement-oriented culture, power-oriented culture). Second, based on these results we focused on organizational justice dimension according to Colquitt et al [6]. We used informants from Social security employee in Ardabil province explore dimensions of organizational culture, organizational justice and test our hypothesis.

The findings of research show that there is a relationship between organizational culture dimensions (task-oriented culture, power-oriented culture, achievement-oriented culture, support-oriented culture) and organizational justice dimensions (distributive justice, procedural justice, interactional justice, informational justice). And, also these dimensions have the most relative weight influence on organizational justice in comparison other organizational culture dimensions.

--The relative importance/weight of each constructs of organizational culture in influencing to procedural justice is not the same and four dimensions of organizational culture explained 55.1 present of procedural justice users changes.

--Hypothesis 2: The relative importance/weight of each constructs of organizational culture in influencing to interactional justice is not the same and four dimensions of organizational culture explained 35 present of interactional justice users changes.

--The relative importance/weight of each constructs of organizational culture in influencing to distributive justice is not the same and four dimensions of organizational culture explained 65.4 present of distributive justice users changes.

--The relative importance/weight of each constructs of organizational culture in influencing to informational justice is not the same four dimensions of organizational culture explained 52.3 present of procedural justice users changes.

Article history:

Received 1 September 2013

Received in revised form 25

November 20'3

Accepted 29 November 2013

Available online 4 January 2014

REFERENCES

[1] Abrahamson, E., 1996. Management fashion. Academy of Management Review, 21(1): 254-285

[2] Adams, S., 1965. Inequity in social exchange. In Advances in Experimental Ps ychology, 2: 267-299.

[3] Ambrose, M.L., & A. Arnaud, 2005. Are procedural justice and distributive justice conceptually distinct? In

[4] Ambrose, M.L., & M. Schminke, 2007. examining justice climate: Issues of fit, simplicity, and content. In F.

[5] Brockner, J., P.A. Siegel, J. Daly, T.R. Tyler, C. Martin, 1997. When trust matters: the moderating effect of outcome favorability. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42: 558-583.

[6] Colquitt, J.A., J.A Lepine and M.J. Wesson, 2009. "Organization Behavior: Improving performance and commitment in the work place", Mc Graw-hill International.

[7] Cropanzano, R., J. Greenberg, 1997. Progress in organizational justice: tunneling through the maze. International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 12: 150-372.

[8] Dansereau, & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.), Research in multilevel issues, 6: 397-413). Oxford, England: Elsevier.

[9] Deal, E. and A. Kennedy, 1982. Corporate cultures: the rites and rituals of organizational life. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA

[10] Dennison, R. and K.. Mishra, 1995. toward theory of organizational culture and effectiveness. Organizational Science, 6(2): 204-223.

[11] Deresky, H., 2006. International management: managing across borders and cultures (5th Ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education Internationa.

[12] Dirks, K.T., 1999. "The Effects of Interpersonal trust on Work Group Performance," Journal of Applied Psychology, 84: 445-455.

[13] Greenberg, J., 1996. The Quest for Justice on the Job: Essays and Experiments. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California.

[14] Greenberg, J., 1990. Organizational justice: yesterday, today and tomorrow. Journal of Managements, 6: 399-432.

[15] Hartnell, C.A., A.Y. Ou, & A. Kinicki, 2011. Organizational culture and organizational effectiveness: A meta-analytic investigation of the competing values framework's theoretical suppositions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96: 677-694.

[16] Hofstede, G., 1984. Cultural dimension in management and planning. Asia Pacific Journal of Management.

[17] Colquitt, J.A. & J. Greenberg (Eds.), Handbook of organizational justice, pp: 85-112. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence

[18] James, K., 1993. The social context of organizational justice: cultural, intergroup and structural effects on justice behaviors and perceptions. In Justice in the Workplace: Approaching Fairness in Human Resource Management, Cropanzano R (ed.). Erlbaum: Hillsdale, NT; 21-50.

[19] Jones, R., 2007. Organizational theory, design, and change (5th ed). Pearson Education International, NJ,

[20] Ke, W. and K. Wei, 2007. Organizational culture and leadership in ERP implementation. Decision Support System, pp: 208-210.

[21] Kessapidou, S. and C. Varsakelis, 2002. The impact of national culture on international business performance: the case of foreign firms in Greece. European Business Review, 14(4): 268-275.

[22] Lee, J. and K. Yu, 2004. Corporate culture and organizational performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 19(4): 340-359.

[23] Lind, E.A., T.R. Tyler, 1998. The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice. Plenum Press: New York.

[24] Lumpkin, T. and G. Dess, 1996. Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1): 135-172.

[25] Ogbonna, E., and C. Harris, 2000. Leadership style, organizational culture and performance: empirical evidence from UK companies. International Journal of Human Resource Management., 11(4): 766-88.

[26] Rahimi Gh. and Q. Vazifeh Damirchi, 2012. Organizational behavior, Islamic Azad University publisher, Ardabil, first edition

[27] Schaubroeck, J., D.R. May, F.W. Brown, 1994. Procedural justice explanations and employee reactions to economic hardship: a field experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79: 455-460.

[28] Schneider, B., 1987. The people make the place. Personnel Psychology, 40(3): 437-453.

[29] Solomon, R.C. and F. Flores, 2001. Building XXXXX in Business, Politics, Relationships, and Life, Oxford University Press,

[30] Wallach, E., 1983. Individuals and organisations: the cultural match. Training and Development Journal, 29-36.

[31] Wiklund, J. and D. Shepherd, 2005. Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: a configurationally approach. Journal of Business Venturing, 20: 71-91.

(1) Ahmad Behrou, (2) Mohammad Feizi (PhD), (3) Mohammad Hassanzadeh (PhD)

(1) Department of Management, Science and research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran

(2) Department of Management, Meshkin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Meshkin, Iran

(3) Assistant Professor, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

Correspondence Another: Ahmad Behrou, Department of Management, Science and research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran

E-mail: qadervazifeh@yahoo.com
Table 1: Components of Organizational Justice

Distributive Justice:      --Equity: Rewarding
Appropriateness of           employees based on their
outcomes.                    contributions.
                           --Equality: Providing
                             each employee roughly the
                             same compensation.
                           --Need: Providing a
                             benefit based on one's
                             personal requirements.
Procedural Justice:        --Consistency: All
Appropriateness of the       employees are treated the
allocation process.          same.
                           --Lack of Bias: No person
                             or group is singled out
                             for discrimination or ill
                             treatment.
                           --Accuracy: Decisions are
                             based on accurate
                             information.
                           --Representation of All
                             Concerned: Appropriate
                             stakeholders have input
                             into a decision.
                           --Correction: There is an
                             appeals process or other
                             mechanism for fixing
                             mistakes.
                           --Ethics: Norms of
                             professional conduct are
                             not violated.

Interactional Justice:     Interpersonal Justice:
Appropriateness of the       Treating an employee with
treatment one receives       dignity, courtesy, and
from authority figures.      respect.
                           Informational Justice:
                             Sharing relevant
                             information with
                             employees.

Table 3: Responders degree

Valid   Degree           Frequency   Percent

        PhD              0           0
        MA               50          10
        BA               85          57
        DA or Under DA   15          33
        Total            150         100

Table 4: customers' age of the responders

Valid                  Frequency   Percent

        Under 30       30          20
        31-40          60          40
        41-50          45          30
        More than 51   15          10
        Total          150         100.0

Table 5: correlation coefficients between the independent and
dependent variables

Research                                   Procedural   task-oriented
Variables                                  justice      culture

Procedural         Spearman Correlation    1.000
  justice          Sig
                   N                       150
task-oriented      Spearman Correlation    .38 **       1.000
  culture          Sig                     .000
                   N                       150          150
power-oriented     Spearman Correlation    .18 **       73 **
  culture          Sig                     .000         .000
                   N                       150          150
achievement-       Spearman Correlation    .58 **       .323 **
  oriented         Sig                     .000         .000
  culture          N                       150          150
support-oriented   Spearman Correlation    .68 **       .435 **
  culture          Sig                     .000         .000
                   N                       150          150

Research                                   power-oriented
Variables                                  culture

Procedural         Spearman Correlation
  justice          Sig
                   N
task-oriented      Spearman Correlation
  culture          Sig
                   N
power-oriented     Spearman Correlation    1.000
  culture          Sig
                   N                       150
achievement-       Spearman Correlation    .312 **
  oriented         Sig                     .000
  culture          N                       150
support-oriented   Spearman Correlation    .267 **
  culture          Sig                     .000
                   N                       150

Research                                   achievement-oriented
Variables                                  culture

Procedural         Spearman Correlation
  justice          Sig
                   N
task-oriented      Spearman Correlation
  culture          Sig
                   N
power-oriented     Spearman Correlation
  culture          Sig
                   N
achievement-       Spearman Correlation    1.000
  oriented         Sig
  culture          N                       150
support-oriented   Spearman Correlation    .760 **
  culture          Sig                     .000
                   N                       150

Research                                   support-oriented
Variables                                  culture

Procedural         Spearman Correlation
  justice          Sig
                   N
task-oriented      Spearman Correlation
  culture          Sig
                   N
power-oriented     Spearman Correlation
  culture          Sig
                   N
achievement-       Spearman Correlation
  oriented         Sig
  culture          N
support-oriented   Spearman Correlation    1.000
  culture          Sig                     .000
                   N                       150

Table6: Organizational culture dimensions relative
importance/weight to influence procedural justice with using
Johnson model

Organizational          Net weight           relative weight   N
culture                 of each              of each
dimensions              variable             variable with
                                             100% ([R.sup.2]
                                             /Net weight of
                                             each variable)

task-oriented           0.070                14%               150
  culture
power-oriented          0.015                3%                150
  culture
achievement-oriented    0.161                33%               150
  culture
support-oriented        0.251                50%               150
  culture
Total                   [R.sup.2] = 0.497    100%              150

Table 7: correlation coefficients between the independent
and dependent variables

Research Variables                              interactional
                                                justice

interactional           Spearman Correlation    1.000
justice                 Sig
                        N                       150
task-oriented           Spearman Correlation    .22 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150
power-oriented          Spearman Correlation    .21 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150
achievement-oriented    Spearman Correlation    54 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150
support-oriented        Spearman Correlation    .56 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150

Research Variables                              task-oriented
                                                culture

interactional           Spearman Correlation
justice                 Sig
                        N
task-oriented           Spearman Correlation    1.000
culture                 Sig
                        N                       150
power-oriented          Spearman Correlation    73 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150
achievement-oriented    Spearman Correlation    .323 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150
support-oriented        Spearman Correlation    .435 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150

Research Variables                              power-oriented
                                                culture

interactional           Spearman Correlation
justice                 Sig
                        N
task-oriented           Spearman Correlation
culture                 Sig
                        N
power-oriented          Spearman Correlation    1.000
culture                 Sig
                        N                       150
achievement-oriented    Spearman Correlation    .312 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150
support-oriented        Spearman Correlation    .267 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150

Research Variables                              achievement-oriented
                                                culture

interactional           Spearman Correlation
justice                 Sig
                        N
task-oriented           Spearman Correlation
culture                 Sig
                        N
power-oriented          Spearman Correlation
culture                 Sig
                        N
achievement-oriented    Spearman Correlation    1.000
culture                 Sig
                        N                       150
support-oriented        Spearman Correlation    .760 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150

Research Variables                              support-oriented
                                                culture

interactional           Spearman Correlation
justice                 Sig
                        N
task-oriented           Spearman Correlation
culture                 Sig
                        N
power-oriented          Spearman Correlation
culture                 Sig
                        N
achievement-oriented    Spearman Correlation
culture                 Sig
                        N
support-oriented        Spearman Correlation    1.000
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150

Table8: Organizational culture dimensions relative
importance/weight to influence interactional justice with
using Johnson model

Organizational          Net weight         relative weight   N
culture dimensions      of each variable   of each
                                           variable with
                                           100% ([R.sup.2]
                                           /Net weight of
                                           each variable)

task-oriented           0.014              3.9%              150
  culture
power-oriented          0.015              4.4%              150
  culture
achievement-oriented    0.148              42.3%             150
  culture
support-oriented        0.173              49.3%             150
  culture
Total                   [R.sup.2] = 0.35   100%              150

Table 9: correlation coefficients between the independent
and dependent variables

Research Variables                              distributive
                                                justice

distributive            Spearman Correlation    1.000
justice                 Sig
                        N                       150
task-oriented           Spearman Correlation    17 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150
power-oriented          Spearman Correlation    07 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150
achievement-oriented    Spearman Correlation    48 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150
support-oriented        Spearman Correlation    77 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150

Research Variables                              task-oriented
                                                culture

distributive            Spearman Correlation
justice                 Sig
                        N
task-oriented           Spearman Correlation    1.000
culture                 Sig
                        N                       150
power-oriented          Spearman Correlation    73 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150
achievement-oriented    Spearman Correlation    .323 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150
support-oriented        Spearman Correlation    .435 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150

Research Variables                              power-oriented
                                                culture

distributive            Spearman Correlation
justice                 Sig
                        N
task-oriented           Spearman Correlation
culture                 Sig
                        N
power-oriented          Spearman Correlation    1.000
culture                 Sig
                        N                       150
achievement-oriented    Spearman Correlation    .312 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150
support-oriented        Spearman Correlation    .267 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150

Research Variables                              achievement-oriented
                                                culture

distributive            Spearman Correlation
justice                 Sig
                        N
task-oriented           Spearman Correlation
culture                 Sig
                        N
power-oriented          Spearman Correlation
culture                 Sig
                        N
achievement-oriented    Spearman Correlation    1.000
culture                 Sig
                        N                       150
support-oriented        Spearman Correlation    .760 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150

Research Variables                              support-oriented
                                                culture

distributive            Spearman Correlation
justice                 Sig
                        N
task-oriented           Spearman Correlation
culture                 Sig
                        N
power-oriented          Spearman Correlation
culture                 Sig
                        N
achievement-oriented    Spearman Correlation
culture                 Sig
                        N
support-oriented        Spearman Correlation    1.000
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150

Table10: Organizational culture dimensions relative
importance/weight to influence distributive justice with
using Johnson model

Organizational          Net weight of       relative weight   N
culture dimensions      each variable       of each
                                            variable with
                                            100% ([R.sup.2]
                                            /Net weight of
                                            each variable)

task-oriented           0.026               4%                150
  culture
power-oriented          0.004               0.6%              150
  culture
achievement-oriented    0.129               19.8%             150
  culture
support-oriented        0.494               75.6%             150
  culture
Total                   [R.sup.2] = 0.654   100%              150

Table 11: correlation coefficients between the independent
and dependent variables

Research Variables                              informational
                                                justice

informational           Spearman Correlation    1.000
justice                 Sig
                        N                       150
task-oriented           Spearman Correlation    48 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150
power-oriented          Spearman Correlation    .38 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150
achievement-oriented    Spearman Correlation    .66 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150
support-oriented        Spearman Correlation    51 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150

Research Variables                              task-oriented
                                                culture

informational           Spearman Correlation
justice                 Sig
                        N
task-oriented           Spearman Correlation    1.000
culture                 Sig
                        N                       150
power-oriented          Spearman Correlation    73 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150
achievement-oriented    Spearman Correlation    .323 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150
support-oriented        Spearman Correlation    .435 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150

Research Variables                              power-oriented
                                                culture

informational           Spearman Correlation
justice                 Sig
                        N
task-oriented           Spearman Correlation
culture                 Sig
                        N
power-oriented          Spearman Correlation    1.000
culture                 Sig
                        N                       150
achievement-oriented    Spearman Correlation    .312 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150
support-oriented        Spearman Correlation    .267 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150

Research Variables                              achievement-oriented
                                                culture

informational           Spearman Correlation
justice                 Sig
                        N
task-oriented           Spearman Correlation
culture                 Sig
                        N
power-oriented          Spearman Correlation
culture                 Sig
                        N
achievement-oriented    Spearman Correlation    1.000
culture                 Sig
                        N                       150
support-oriented        Spearman Correlation    .760 **
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150

Research Variables                              support-oriented
                                                culture

informational           Spearman Correlation
justice                 Sig
                        N
task-oriented           Spearman Correlation
culture                 Sig
                        N
power-oriented          Spearman Correlation
culture                 Sig
                        N
achievement-oriented    Spearman Correlation
culture                 Sig
                        N
support-oriented        Spearman Correlation    1.000
culture                 Sig                     .000
                        N                       150

Table12: Organizational culture dimensions relative
importance/weight to influence informational justice with
using Johnson model

Organizational          Net weight of       relative weight   N
culture dimensions      each variable       of each
                                            variable with
                                            100% ([R.sup.2]
                                            /Net weight of
                                            each variable)

task-oriented           0.106               20.3%             150
  culture
power-oriented          0.048               9.1%              150
  culture
achievement-oriented    0.272               52%               150
  culture
support-oriented        0.097               18.5%             150
  culture
Total                   [R.sup.2] = 0.523   100%              150
COPYRIGHT 2013 American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2013 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Behrou, Ahmad; Feizi, Mohammad; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Author abstract
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Nov 1, 2013
Words:4431
Previous Article:Polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids and antioxidant activity of lupine (Lupinus termis L.) seeds affected by Vitamin c, Vitamin [B.sub.3] and...
Next Article:Organizational culture factors and entrepreneurship process at University of Mohaghegh Ardabili.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters