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Evaluating, screening of post-parturient cows for ketosis and its clinical manifestation.

Introduction

At the onset of lactation, dairy cow must accommodate the tremendous increase in energy demand by mammary gland for milk production. This is realized partly by increasing feed intake and partly by fat mobilization from adipose tissue. However, excessive fat mobilization can induce an imbalance in hepatic carbohydrate and fat metabolism characterized by elevated concentrations of ketone bodies called hyperketonemia (Haelst et al., 2008).

High incidence of clinical and sub clinical ketosis in dairy cattle has been reported from India and abroad (Bhuin and Chakrabarti, 1993; Duffield et a/., 1997; Geishauser et al., 1998). The frequency of clinical cases has increased sharply in the recent past because of steep increase in milk production of individual cows. The pathogenesis of the condition has been a subject of controversy (Baird, 1982) and has not been fully elucidated. Ketosis was described as being a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism (Kreb, 1966), deficiency of Cobalt and Vitamin [B.sub.12] (Hungerford, 1990), impaired metabolism of volatile fatty acids (Sarode et al., 1981), high protein diet, over feeding in late pregnancy (Baird et al., 1974), excessive intake of butyrate in silage (Mills et al., 1986), hepatic insufficiency (Radostitis et al., 2000), dysfunction of adrenal and thyroid gland (Huszenicza et al., 2006). The disease may itself is being secondary to other diseases (Schultz, 1968, Han and Kim, 2005)

Materials and Methods

Urine samples of 350 post-parturient cows belonging to college dairy farm, outdoor patients brought for treatment and individual animals shown by owners at their holdings were examined for prevalence of ketosis during 2010-2011. These cows were screened for ketosis using modified Rothera's test and urine Diastix.

Results and Discussion Prevalence

In the present investigation, a total of 350 post parturient cows having history of anorexia and drop in milk yield were included. These cows were screened for ketosis using modified Rothera's test and urine Diastix. Based upon test results 40 cows were diagnosed as ketotic. The results have been presented in Table 1.

Prevalence of clinical ketosis in 40 cows with respect to age, parity, stage of lactation and month of year was studied. The overall prevalence of ketosis amongst post-parturient cows was found to be 11.42 percent. The disease emerged after parturition and prevalence was higher mainly in (a) colder months, (b) during first and second month after parturition, (c) second to fifth parity, and (d) cows aged up to 9 years.

The present study is in agreement with previous findings of Gupta (1999), Bihani (2001), Sharma (2006), Sahoo et al. (2009) and Thirunavukkarasu et al. (2010) who reported an overall prevalence of 12.50, 9.90, 10.20, 16.80 and 9.38 percent, respectively. However, Yameogo et al. (2008) recorded low incidence rate of 4.40 and 6.43 percent and Ziauddin et al. (1992), Duffield (2000) and Pourjafar and Heidari (2003) recorded higher incidence 30.33, 34 and 38 percent, respectively in ketotic cows. The incidence can vary depending upon breed, management practices and feeding regimens opted.

Analysis of agewise prevalence of ketosis showed that it was highest in cows in 8-9 years of age (35 percent) followed by 7-8 (22.50 per cent), <6 (20 percent), 6-7 (17.50 percent) and >9 (5 percent) years of age. Similar findings were previously reported by Singh (1994), Gupta (1999), Mir and Malik (2002), Bihani (2001), Sharma (2006), who reported the highest prevalence of cows in age group of 8-9 years.

Paritywise prevalence of ketosis was highest in 3rd and 4th parity (25 percent), followed by 2nd and 5th (20 percent) and 1st and 6th (5 percent). The present investigation is in agreement with Bihani (2001), Sharma (2006), who reported highest prevalence in 3rd and 4th parity.

Stage of lactationwise prevalence of ketosis between 0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4 and 4-5 month after parturition was 37.50, 45, 10, 5 and 2.50 percent, respectively. Similar findings were given by Gupta (1999), Chakrabarti (2006), Sharma (2006), Teli and Ali (2007), Radostitis et al. (2007) and Nazifi et al. (2008), who have reported maximum cases within one month after parturition. These figures suggested that prevalence of clinical ketosis among lactating cows were maximum in first two months of lactation, when the animals are in peak phase of production. One of the reason is that at this stage there is maximum physiological stress due to post-parturient depletion of body reserves and lactational stress due to high milk production.

Monthwise prevalence of ketosis was highest in January (25 percent), followed by February (20 percent), March (15 percent), May and June (13.50 percent) and April (13 percent). The present study is in agreement with Bihani (2001), Sharma (2006), and Radostitis et al. (2007) who have reported highest prevalence in winter months because animals have to divert a part of its energy to combat the low temperature to maintain body temperature. Bhuin and Chakrabarti (1993) observed the highest incidence of ketosis from September to December months.

Clinical Manifestations

All forty ketotic cows were reported to be sick from last 3 to 6 days with additional history of cessation of feeding on concentrate (cotton seed cake and ground pulse mix), decreased consumption of fodder, marked decrease in milk yield, change in taste of milk and loss of body condition. The clinical examination of these animals revealed loss of elasticity of skin, grinding of teeth, absence of rumination, mucous coated faeces and acetone like odour in urine. Clinical manifestations recorded in the present study are in agreement with those reported by Gupta (1999), Bihani (2001), Singh (2002), Mir and Malik (2003), Sevinc et al. (2004), Chakrabarti (2006), Teli and Ali (2007), Youssef et al. (2010), Sahinduran et al.(2010) and Elitok et al. (2010).

Rectal temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate, ruminal movement and milk yield

The Mean [+ or -] SE value of temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate, ruminal movements and milk yield in ketotic cows are presented in Table 2, 3 and 4 for group A, B and C respectively. The Mean [+ or -] SE value of temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate, ruminal movements and milk yield in ketotic cows in group A, B and C were (101.48 [+ or -] 0.15, 101.44 [+ or -] 0.20 and 101.48 [+ or -] 20[degrees]F), (56.27 [+ or -] 1.02, 55.80 [+ or -] 0.73 and 56.30 [+ or -] 1.11 per min.), (19.27 [+ or -] 0.63, 19.33 [+ or -] 0.57 and 19.30 [+ or -] 0.84 per min.), (1.60 [+ or -] 0.19, 1.60 [+ or -] 0.13 and 1.50 [+ or -] 0.22 per two min.) and (5.58 [+ or -] 0.15, 5.33 [+ or -] 0.22 and 5.37 [+ or -] 0.28 lt. per day), respectively. Corresponding Mean [+ or -] SE values for normal healthy cows are given in Table 2. The Mean [+ or -] SE value of temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate, ruminal movements and milk yield in healthy cows were 101.26 [+ or -] 0.23 [degrees]F, 55.60 [+ or -] 1.76 per min., 19.90 [+ or -] 0.90 per min., 2.90 [+ or -] 0.18 per two min. and 15.50 [+ or -] 1.04 lt. per day respectively.

Comparison of the results showed non significant elevation in temperature and pulse rate but mild decrease in respiration rate in all groups (A, B and C). Ruminal movement and milk yield were highly significant decreased (P<0.01) in all three groups (A, B and C) as compared to healthy values. The present study is in agreement with Sharma (2006).

Similar findings were reported by Mir and Malik (2003). Panda (2003) reported 40.28 percent reduction in milk yield in ketotic cows. Panda (2003) and Singh (2001) reported temperature, pulse rate and respiration rate were in normal physiological ranges. Ruminal movements and milk yield were reduced significantly (P<0.01).

The Mean [+ or -] SE value of temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate, ruminal movements and milk yield after treatment are presented in Table 2, 3 and 4 for group A, B and C.

The Mean [+ or -] SE value of temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate, ruminal movements and milk yield after treatment in all three groups (A, B and C) were (101.51 [+ or -] 0.11, 101.53 [+ or -] 0.15 and 101.64 [+ or -] 0.18 [degrees]F), (56.47 [+ or -] 0.77, 56.13 [+ or -] 0.81 and 56.60 [+ or -] 0.98 per min.), (19.87 [+ or -] 0.53, 19.33 [+ or -] 0.63 and 19.70 [+ or -] 0.87 per min.), (2.13 [+ or -] 0.09, 2.73 [+ or -] 0.12 and 2.50 [+ or -] 0.17 per two min.) and (8.77 [+ or -] 0.32, 9.35 [+ or -] 0.32 and 8.87 [+ or -] 0.41 lit/day), respectively. There was no significant variation in temperature, pulse and respiration rate, but there was highly significant increase (P < 0.01) in ruminal movement (per two min.) and milk yield (lt. per day) in treated cows of group A, B and C (2.13 [+ or -] 0.09 and 8.77 [+ or -] 0.32), (2.73 [+ or -] 0.12 and 9.35 [+ or -] 0.32) and (2.50 [+ or -] 0.17 and 8.87 [+ or -] 0.41), respectively, as compared to its pretreatment level (1.60 [+ or -] 0.19 and 5.58 [+ or -] 0.15), (1.60 [+ or -] 0.13 and 5.33 [+ or -] 0.22) and (1.50 [+ or -] 0.22 and 5.37 [+ or -] 0.28), respectively.

Acknowledgement

Authors are thankful to Dean, CVAS, Bikaner for providing necessary facilities to carry out the present work.

References

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Sandeep Kumar (1), D.K. Bihani (2), Naveen Kumar Singh (3) and Mahesh Nehara (1)

Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Ethics and Jurisprudence College of Veterinary and Animal Science Rajasthan Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (RAJUVAS) Bikaner--334001(Rajasthan)

(1.) Veterinary Officer

(2.) Professor

(3.) Assistant Professor, TVCC, C.V.Sc.&A.H., NDUAT,

Kumarganj, Faizabad and Corresponding author.

E-mail: vetnaveen@gmail.com
Table 1: Prevalence of ketosis in cows

Occurrence of ketosis                 No. of         Percent
                                   ketotic cows     prevalence

Age of cows in years
<6                                       8            20.0
6-7                                      7            17.50
7-8                                      9            22.50
8-9                                     14            35.0
>9                                       2             5.0
Parity of cows
First                                    2             5.0
Second                                   8            20.0
Third                                   10            25.0
Fourth                                  10            25.0
Fifth                                    8            20.0
Sixth                                    2             5.0

Stage of lactation (in month)
First (0-1)                             15            37.50
Second (1-2)                            18            45.0
Third (2-3)                              4            10.0
Fourth (3-4)                             2             5.0
Fifth (4-5)                              1             2.50

Months of year
January                                  6            25.0
February                                 5            20.0
March                                   10            15.0
April                                    6            13.0
May                                      8            13.50
June                                     5            13.50

Table 2: Mean [+ or -] SE value of clinical parameters in ketotic
cows (before and after treatment with Isoflupredone acetate
(Group-A)

S.No.   Parameters                             Healthy cows (n=10)

1       Body Temperature ([degrees]F)        101.26 [+ or -] 0.23 (a)
2       Pulse Rate/min                        55.60 [+ or -] 1.76 (a)
3       Respiration Rate/min                  19.90 [+ or -] 0.90 (a)
4       Ruminal Movement/2 min (**)            2.90 [+ or -] 0.18 (c)
5       Milk Yield (in lit.) per day (**)     15.50 [+ or -] 1.04 (c)

S.No.   Before treatment (n=15)     After treatment (N=15)

1       101.48 [+ or -] 0.15 (a)   101.51 [+ or -] 0.11 (a)
2        56.27 [+ or -] 1.02 (a)    56.47 [+ or -] 0.77 (a)
3        19.27 [+ or -] 0.63 (a)    19.87 [+ or -] 0.53 (a)
4         1.60 [+ or -] 0.19 (a)     2.13 [+ or -] 0.09 (b)
5         5.58 [+ or -] 0.15 (a)     8.77 [+ or -] 0.32 (b)

(*) (P<0.05) (**) (P<0.01) Means with different superscripted letters
in the same row differ significantly.

Table 3: Mean [+ or -] SE value of clinical parameters in ketotic
cows (before and after treatment with Decadurabolin) (Group-B)

S.No   Parameters                           Healthy cows (n=10)

1      Body Temperature ([degrees]F)        101.26 [+ or -] 0.23 (a)
2      Pulse Rate/min                        55.60 [+ or -] 1.76 (a)
3      Respiration Rate/min                  19.90 [+ or -] 0.90 (a)
4      Ruminal Movement/2 min (**)            2.90 [+ or -] 0.18 (b)
5      Milk Yield (in lit.) per day (**)     15.50 [+ or -] 1.04 (c)

S.No   Before treatment (n=15)    After treatment (N=15)

1      101.44 [+ or -] 0.20 (a)   101.53 [+ or -] 0.15 (a)
2       55.80 [+ or -] 0.73 (a)    56.13 [+ or -] 0.81 (a)
3       19.33 [+ or -] 0.57 (a)    19.33 [+ or -] 0.63 (a)
4        1.60 [+ or -] 0.13 (a)     2.73 [+ or -] 0.12 (b)
5        5.33 [+ or -] 0.22 (a)     9.35 [+ or -] 0.32 (b)

(*) (P<0.05) (**) (P<0.01) Means with different superscripted
letters in the same row differ significantly.

Table 4: Mean [+ or -] SE value of clinical parameters in ketotic
cows  (before and after treatment with Insulin) (Group-C)

S.No   Parameters                             Healthy cows (n=10)

1      Body Temperature ([degrees]F)        101.26 [+ or -] 0.23 (a)
2      Pulse Rate/min                        55.60 [+ or -] 1.76 (a)
3      Respiration Rate/min                  19.90 [+ or -] 0.90 (a)
4      Ruminal Movement/2 min (**)            2.90 [+ or -] 0.18 (b)
5      Milk Yield (in lit.) per day (**)     15.50 [+ or -] 1.04 (c)

S.No   Before treatment (n=15)     After treatment (N=15)

1      101.48 [+ or -] 0.20 (a)   101.64 [+ or -] 0.18 (a)
2       56.30 [+ or -] 1.11 (a)    56.60 [+ or -] 0.98 (a)
3       19.30 [+ or -] 0.84 (a)    19.70 [+ or -] 0.87 (a)
4        1.50 [+ or -] 0.22 (a)     2.50 [+ or -] 0.17 (b)
5        5.37 [+ or -] 0.28 (a)     8.87 [+ or -] 0.41 (b)

(*) (P<0.05) (**) (P<0.01) Means with different superscripted
letters in the same row differ significantly.
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Title Annotation:Clinical Article
Author:Kumar, Sandeep; Bihani, D.K.; Singh, Naveen Kumar; Nehara, Mahesh
Publication:Intas Polivet
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jan 1, 2016
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