Etiology of Pasteurella multocida Infections Associated Leukemia and Its Earlier Detection by Genetic Markers--A Quantitative Approach.
Review of Literature
Leukemia is the condition of cancer which is characterised by the increased number of White Blood Cells. There are two main types of Leukemia. They are lymphoblastic leukemia and myeloid leukemia, which may be acute or chronic, depending upon the stages of the cancer. There are many risk factors for development of leukemia which may be age, lifestyle changes which are environmental aspects, smoking and alcoholism and also ionising radiations. Apart from these above factors, according to the studies from Houlston et al., (2002), genetic inherited factors play a crucial role in the development of Leukemia. Few genes such as runxl, runxltl andmyhll act as a markers for inherited leukemia among children.
Molecular markers studies
Earlier studies from Giuseppe et al., (1998) in murine Splenocytes has observed that P. multocida porin possess the capacity to alter the release of cytokines and by modulating its gene expression. This study has recommended that 5mcg/ml of porin and 1 mcg/ml of LPS of PMT has increased IL-1[alpha], IL-6, and IL-12 expression. This study justified that P. multocida possess immunomodulatory effects over splenocytes.
Another important study from Dagmer et al., (2011) has justified that upon injection of PMT, primary toxin of P. multocida has stimulated the level of B-cells by enforcing the cytokines and growth factors to promote the osteoclastic differentiation by regulating the gene expression of TNF-[alpha], IL-[beta], IL-6 and RANKL. The study strongly conveys that osteoclastic properties of PMT has been a result of cross talk between cell-signalling pathways between osteoblasts and B-Lymphocytes, the susceptible object for P. multocida
From the basis of the above study, the present investigation was planned to investigate the effects of PMT on genetic Human acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia cell line model ARH-77 (ATCC[R] CRL-1621[TM]) is used in the study and to compare the effects normal Human B-Lymphoma cells 8E7 (ATCC[R] CRL-8795[TM])
The adverse effects of P. multocida infections in human were addressed in earlier studies. But extensive studies on effects of PMT, P. multocida toxin, in human leukemia cell line model, probing for the etiology behind the action of PMT on human leukemia cells and normal B cells well less understood. So, it was aimed to understand the mechanism of action of PMT on leukemia cells and also normal B cells regarding the alteration of gene expression on NFKB pathway by analyzing the mRNA and Protein expression of NF[kappa]B, IKB[alpha], IKK, IKB[alpha] and p50 protein.
Results were interpreted based on the analysis. The mRNA and protein expression up regulation may possess effect of PMT on leukemia. Many studies have associated the cell signalling pathway such JAK-STAT, PI3K, GPCR signalling for human Leukemia but relationship between PMT toxin and its molecular mechanism to stimulate the cell proliferation of leukocytes via NFKB pathway was not yet studied. So, this study was aimed to fill that research gap.
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(3.) Giuseppe, L. Pietro, P. Gabriella, C. Mariateresa, V. Marina, D. Antonella, M.. Role of Pasteurella multocida porin on cytokine expression and release by murine splenocytes. J Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 1998, 66: 391-404.
(4.) Harris, J & Osswald, MB. Pasteurella multocida epiglottitis: A review and report of a new case with associated chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Ear Nose Throat J., 2010; 89.
(5.) Houlston, RS. Catovsky, D and Yuille MR.. Genetic susceptibility to chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leukemia, J. 2002, 16: 1008-1014.
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Hayder Hamzah Ibrahim , Yahya Sabah Abdulameer  * and Hassan AL-Saffar 
 Technical Institute Babil, Al Furat Al-Awast Technical University, Iraq.
 Department of Animal and Poultry public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Al Qasim GreenUniversity, Babylon, Iraq.
(Received: 28 January 2018; accepted: 10 March 2018)
* To whom all correspondence should be addressed.
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|Author:||Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Abdulameer, Yahya Sabah; AL-Saffar, Hassan|
|Publication:||Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2018|
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