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Ethnoveterinary practices among folk medicinal practitioners of three randomly selected villages of Dinajpur district, Bangladesh.

Introduction

Bangladesh is a developing country and the economy is still primarily dependent on agriculture. Because of the high density of population, the land holdings of most farmers are small, and there are a substantial number of rural persons who own practically no land beside their homesteads. Most cultivators, being poor, cannot afford modern agricultural implements, and plowing is still done by the small and marginal land holders with cows, bullocks or buffaloes. The average farmer may maintain one or two heads of cattle, essentially for plowing purposes, but sometimes for the production of milk, which is sold to retailers for some additional income. Some households may also raise a few goats, primarily for selling, and secondarily for consumption on rare festive occasions. The living conditions of the cattle thus maintained are not up to modern standards; consequently, cattle frequently suffer from diseases from poor living conditions, malnutrition, or overwork. Modern veterinarians are not a common feature in rural Bangladesh; moreover, modern medicines or vaccines of cattle are pricey and not easily available. As a result, the small cattle holders most often rely on traditional medicines dispensed by traditional medicinal practitioners, otherwise known as Kavirajes.

Reliance on traditional medicines for treatment of cattle diseases by small or marginal farmers is not limited to Bangladesh, but is quite widespread among the cultivators and the nomadic people of the world. For the former, the practice happens usually because of financial inability on the part of farmers to meet cattle disease treatment costs with modern medicines, and for the latter, the nomadic existence does not allow proper visitation to veterinarians for needed cattle vaccines or treatments, even if the particular nomadic cattle owner can bear such costs. There are a number of reports in the scientific literature on such traditional treatments for cattle or livestock diseases. The ethnoknowledge of the Bukusu community on livestock tick prevention and control in Bungoma district of Western Kenya has been reported (Wanzala et al., 2012). Ethnoveterinary practices and the medicines used have been reported for the Province of Granada in Andalusia, Spain (Benltez et al., 2012). Medicinal animals are reportedly used in ethnoveterinary practices of the 'Cariri Paraibano', NE Brazil (Souto et al., 2011). Traditional veterinary systems of Argentina use medicinal plants for cattle disease treatment (Martinez and Lujan, 2011). 45 plant species are reportedly used by the Nu people in Gongshan County of China to treat 35 animal conditions (Shen et al., 2010). Dromedary camel herders in the Suleiman Mountainous Region in Pakistan are known to rely on ethnoveterinary practices to treat camel diseases, particularly mange and trypanosomosis (Raziq et al., 2010). Animals are also used to treat animal diseases in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil (Confessor et al., 2009).

Although cattle treatment with medicinal plants and other ingredients are practiced throughout rural Bangladesh by Kavirajes, such practices have not been well documented. We have previously published two reports on ethnoveterinary practices in Bagerhat and Netrakona districts of the country (Harun-or-Rashid et al., 2010; Rahmatullah et al., 2010). However, to get a comprehensive picture of ethnoveterinary practices in Bangladesh, it is necessary to document the practices of other Kavirajes throughout the country, because available evidence from Bagerhat and Netrakona districts showed considerable differences among the medicinal plants used by the Kavirajes of the two districts for treatment of cattle diseases. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnoveterinary survey among the Kavirajes of three randomly selected adjacent villages of Dinajpur district, which is in the northern part of Bangladesh. The Kavirajes of the present survey treated cattle diseases exclusively, and not human ailments.

Materials and Methods

The present survey was conducted among the Kavirajes of three adjacent villages of Dinajpur district, Bangladesh during 2011. The district is one of the northernmost districts of the country, the people mostly are dependent on agriculture for their living, industrial infrastructure is absent, a substantial number of the people are poor, and moreover modern medical facilities, whether be it for human or cattle, is for the most part absent. The rural homesteads maintained one or two heads of cattle per family, and in general was observed to visit the practicing Kavirajes within their villages for treatment of cattle diseases. The three villages surveyed were Laxmipur, Panchbari, and Gopalganj Hat. Each village had one practicing cattle Kaviraj, respectively named, Khoka Ram (Kaviraj 1, age 65 years), Tochir Uddin (Kaviraj 2, age 75 years), and Niyuananda Basak (Kaviraj 3, age 55 years). In between themselves, the three Kavirajes had cumulative practicing experiences of more than 100 years.

Informed consent was initially obtained from the three Kavirajes to publish their names and any given information, both nationally and internationally. Interviews were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire, guided dialogue techniques (Bachaya et al., 2009), and the guided field-walk method of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, the Kavirajes took the interviewers on field-walks through areas from where they obtained their medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. Plant specimens were photographed and collected on the spot, dried, and brought back to Dhaka for identification by Mr. Manjur-Ul-Kadir Mia, ex-Curator and Principal Scientific Officer of the Bangladesh National Herbarium. Voucher specimens were deposited with the Medicinal Plant Collection Wing of the University of Development Alternative. The three Kavirajes were interviewed separately. Interviews were conducted in Bengali, the language spoken by both the Kavirajes as well as the interviewers. Following day-time field-walks, further information was gathered as well as day-time information re-checked in evening sessions with the Kavirajes.

Results and Discussion

The three Kavirajes used a total of 57 plants distributed into 37 families in the 37 formulations that they prescribed for treatment of a variety of cattle diseases. Among the various families of plants, the Fabaceae family contributed the maximum number of four plants. Of the various plant parts used in the formulations, leaves constituted 42.4% of total uses, followed by whole plants at 15.2%. Barks, fruits, tubers, seeds, stems, and rhizomes, respectively, contributed 9.1, 10.6, 1.5, 10.6, 7.6 and 3% of total uses. The results are shown in Table 1.

The Kavirajes differed as to the number of formulations provided. Kaviraj 1 provided 16 formulations, Kaviraj 2 provided 14 formulations, and Kaviraj 3 provided 7 formulations. The various cattle ailments treated by Kaviraj 1 included shannipat jor (see Table 1 for symptoms of diseases for which Kaviraj term has been used), diarrhea, skin diseases, swallowing of placenta by cattle, influenza, bhuri basanta, chamriya basanta, swellings of various parts of body, stoppage of urine and fecal excretion, loss of appetite, body lice, coughs, and bloating. Kaviraj 2 treated in cattle ailments like body pain, rheumatism, foot and mouth disease, diarrhea, mucus, loss of appetite, constipation, pneumonia, fever, and swellings. Although some cattle ailments were the same as treated by both Kaviraj 1 and Kaviraj 2 like diarrhea, swellings, fever, and loss of appetite, the cattle ailments treated by the two Kavirajes were more conspicuous by the differences rather than similarities. This suggests that some sort of specialization exists between Kavirajes, somewhat on the model of allopathic doctors, who may specialize in disorders of individual or certain organs of the body. The above conclusion is more evident when the cattle ailments treated by Kaviraj 3 are taken into account; Kaviraj 3 treated only bone fractures, cuts and wounds, burns, breaking of horns, and kaur gha. None of these ailments were treated by Kavirajes 1 or 2. When queried about this 'difference in ailment treatment' factor, the Kavirajes attributed it to three things: their initial training under a 'guru' Kaviraj (the guru is usually different between Kavirajes), their knowledge gained from practical experiences (which was derived from trial and error methods, practiced on cattle), and partly also from a need to avoid competition from Kavirajes of adjacent villages.

The various formulations mentioned by the Kavirajes were usually complex, i.e. utilizing a number of plants for treatment of a given ailment. A simple formulation, e.g. for cuts and wounds was just topical application of juice obtained from leaves of Tagetes erecta (see Serial Number 13). On the other hand for treatment of shannipat jor, plant parts from three plants, namely, Cassia sophera, Justicia adhatoda and Piper nigrum were used (see Serial Number 1). A more complex formulation was for treatment of diarrhea in cattle where barks from six plants, namely, Psidium guajava, Mangifera indica, Lannea coromandelica, Syzygium cumini, Diospyros peregrina and Ficus religiosa were not only used, but the preparation process consisted of boiling the barks in water prior to usage, the decoction then being fed to cattle (see Serial Number 4). Kaviraj 1 used a complex formulation containing plant parts or whole plants of 5 plants to treat a multitude of diverse diseases including bhuri basanta, mohua, influenza, basanta, tutua fola, navishal, and sadharon mohua (see Serial Number 12).

Seeds of three plants were used in multiple formulations; seeds of P. nigrum were used in 8 formulations, seeds of Carum copticum were used in 5 formulations, and seeds of Nigella sativa were used in 5 formulations. Notably, all three seeds are spices used in Bangladesh cuisine on a fairly regular basis. According to the Kavirajes, the seeds had at least two effects; first, it promoted appetite and digestion in cattle, which in turn helped cattle to recover from a disease more quickly, and secondly, the seeds had therapeutic effects individually or in combination. It is to be noted that seeds of P. nigrum were used for treatment of shannipat jor --an ailment whose symptoms included loss of appetite (see Serial Number 1); seeds of both C. copticum and N. sativa were used for treatment of influenza, an ailment characterized by shivering and loss of appetite, and bhuri basanta, an ailment whose symptoms also included loss of appetite (see Serial Number 12). The seeds of all three plants mentioned above were used in combination for treatment of fever and mucus in cattle (see Serial Number 15); it is a well-known fact that both humans as well as cattle suffer from loss of appetite during fever, especially if body temperatures run high.

An interesting use of dried fruits of three plants--Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula was observed in two formulations given by Kaviraj 2. The combination of fruits was orally administered following boiling in water containing molasses for treatment of diarrhea; the same combination, mixed with cold water was fed to cattle for treatment of constipation (see Serial Number 16). It is noteworthy that the combination of fruits from specifically the same three plants is very well known in Ayurvedic medicine as Triphala, and is reputed to have remarkable medicinal properties, including anti-microbial effects particularly against enteric bacterial pathogens (Tambekar and Dahikar, 2011).

It appeared that for topical applications, the Kavirajes had a good knowledge of the value of using oil along with medicinal plant ingredients. For treatment of pain, mustard oil (oil obtained from seeds of Brassica napus) was used in combination with plant parts from eight other plants (see Serial Number 2). For treatment of skin diseases, ash from burnt fruit skins of Mangifera indica was topically applied with coconut oil (oil obtained from fruit pulp of Cocos nucifera, see Serial Number 5). Oil acts as an effective emollient, helps in distribution of ingredients evenly over the applied area, and can further help in absorption of lipid-soluble phytochemicals through the skin. Expertise among the Kavirajes in the use of ingredients can also be observed in the case of use of macerated naphthalene for treatment of foot and mouth disease along with leaves of Annona squamosa, which following maceration is applied to hooves of cattle (see Serial Number 6). Naphthalene can serve as a "non-detergent wetting agent" as well as a fumigant. Since one of the clinical manifestations of foot and mouth disease is formation of blisters on the feet of cattle that may rupture, use of naphthalene will repel insects from any open wounds and save the diseased animal from insect infestations and any insect-borne diseases.

Besides oral or topical administrations, there were two unusual uses of plant parts in treatment. Kaviraj 2 used the leaves and stems of Stephania japonica for treatment of foot and mouth disease. In his treatment, the leaves and stems were tied like garland around a diseased cattle's neck (see Serial Number 30). According to the Kaviraj, the blisters and infections associated with the disease also dried up as the garland dried up with the passage of days. Also the same Kaviraj, for treatment of swellings of body, face and eyes in cattle, placed a smoke-emitting pot containing fruits of Capsicum frutescens and seeds of Oryza sativa (heated over a low flame) before the nostrils of cattle in such a way that the cattle had to inhale the smoke (see Serial Number 42). From a cursory view point, the pungent odor of C. frutescens would cause frequent sneezing in cattle while the smoke is inhaled, but whether such treatment can reduce facial or body swellings remain to be scientifically determined.

Overall, the Kavirajes (mainly Kavirajes 1 and 2) showed a remarkable divergence in their treatment methods, as demonstrated when they were treating the same cattle disease(s). The differences can be observed in cases like treatment of diarrhea (Serial Number 4, Kaviraj 1 versus Serial Number 8, Kaviraj 2), fever (Serial Number 15, Kaviraj 1 versus Serial Number 19, Kaviraj 2), loss of appetite (Serial Number 29, Kaviraj 1 versus Serial Number 30, Kaviraj 2), and fula rogh or swellings (Serial Number 14, Kaviraj 1 versus Serial Number 42, Kaviraj 2). To cite in details just one instance of such divergency, while Kaviraj 1 treated fula rogh with a mixture of Bombax ceiba, C. copticum, N. sativa, P. nigrum, Heliotropium indicum and Scoparia dulcis, Kaviraj 2 treated the same disease with C. frutescens and O. sativa. Even while treating the same disease like foot and mouth disease or diarrhea, Kaviraj 2 used two different formulations. The observations suggest a remarkable divergence existing between Kavirajes of even adjacent areas (where the same plant species exist), and strongly argues for a comprehensive survey of all Kavirajes of the country to obtain a clear picture of the manifold ways of cattle disease treatments.

Modern veterinarians have a tendency to dismiss the treatment methods of the Kavirajes as 'mere quackery'. Yet these Kavirajes have been practicing for years, and since their knowledge is being passed on from generation to generation, the treatment methods have possibly existed for centuries. Ancient or traditional medicinal practices could not have survived for centuries, if at least some benefits have not been obtained from these practices. Instead of dismissal, modern science can benefit to a strong extent from observation and documentation of these medicinal practices and the ingredients, particularly medicinal plants involved in the treatments. The analgesic effects of Leucas aspera and Polygonum hydropiper (used by Kaviraj 2 for treatment of pain, see Serial Number 2), as well as other Polygonum species has been amply demonstrated (Rahman et al., 2007; rahman et al., 2002; Han et al., 2012; Mazid et al., 2010a,b). Similarly, the beneficial effects of Zingiber officinale extracts on experimental rheumatoid arthritis have been reported (notably rhizomes of this plant are used by Kaviraj 2 for treatment of rheumatism in cattle, see Serial Number 3) (Funk et al., 2009). Taken together, the medicinal plants observed to be used by the Kavirajes for treatment of various cattle diseases in the present study merit further research for their strong potential in the discovery of newer, efficacious, and more affordable drugs.

References

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Wanzala, W., W. Takken, W.R. Mukabana, A.O. Pala and A. Hassanali, 2012. Ethnoknowledge of Bukusu community on livestock tick prevention and control in Bungoma district, western Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 140: 298-324.

Md. Ariful Islam, Marina Yeasmin, Mohammed Rahmatullah

Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.

Corresponding Author: Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor and Dean, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, House 78, Road 11A, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh Telephone: 88-02-9136285; Fax: 88-02-8157339; E-mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com
Table 1: Formulations used by three Kavirajes for treatment
of cattle diseases in three adjacent villages of Dinajpur
district, Bangladesh.

Serial   Scientific        Family Name        Local Name
Number   Name

1        Justicia          Acanthaceae        Harbox,
         adhatoda L.                          Bashok

2        Ruellia           Acanthaceae        Chotchotia
         tuberosa L.

3        Aloe vera         Aloaceae           Ghritokumari

         (L.) Burm.
         f.

4        Lannea            Anacardiaceae      Jiga
         coromandelica
         (Houtt.) Merr.

5        Mangifera         Anacardiaceae      Aam
         indica L.

6        Annona            Annonaceae         Mewa,
         squamosa                             Ata
         L.

7        Colocasia         Araceae            Kalo
         esculenta                            kochu
         (L.)
         Schott

8        Areca             Arecaceae          Supari
         catechu
         L.

9        Cocos             Arecaceae          Narkel
         nucifera
         L.

10       Chromolaena       Asteraceae         Bug jhar
         odorata (L.)
         R. M. King
         &  H. Rob.

11       Cotula            Asteraceae         Hanchia
         hemisphaerica
         (Roxb.) Wall.
         ex C. B.
         Clarke

12       Launaea           Asteraceae         Mina
         asplenifolia                         gach
         Hook. f.

13       Tagetes           Asteraceae         Ganda
         erecta
         L.

14       Bombax ceiba L.   Bombacaceae        Shimul

15       Heliotropium      Boraginaceae       Hatishura
         indicum L.

16       Terminalia        Combretaceae       Bohera
         belerica
         (Gaertn.)
         Roxb.

17       Terminalia        Combretaceae       Horitoki
         chebula
         Retz.

18       Brassica          Cruciferae         Shorisha
         napus L.

19       Trichosanthes     Cucurbitaceae      Potol
         dioica Roxb.

20       Diospyros         Ebenaceae          Gaab
         peregrina
         (Gaertn.)
         Gurke.

21       Pedilanthus       Euphorbiaceae      Kiccha
         tithymaloides
         (L.) Poit.

22       Phyllanthus       Euphorbiaceae      Amloki
         emblica L.

23       Caesalpinia       Fabaceae           Nata
         bonduc (L.)
         Roxb.

24       Cassia            Fabaceae           Sonalu
         fistula L.

25       Cassia            Fabaceae           Boro
         sophera L.                           chekenda

26       Tamarindus        Fabaceae           Tetul
         indica L.

27       Leucas aspera     Lamiaceae          Dulfi
         (Willd.) Link

28       Litsea            Lauraceae          Maligur
         monopetala
         (Roxb.) Pers.

29       Azadirachta       Meliaceae          Jaat
         indica A.                            neem
         Juss.

30       Stephania         Menispermaceae     Money
         japonica                             moni
         (Thunb.)
         Miers

31       Tinospora         Menispermaceae     Gurain
         crispa (L.)                          cha
         Hook.f. &
         Thoms.

32       Ficus             Moraceae           Pakur
         religiosa L.

33       Musa              Musaceae           Kola
         sapientum L.

34       Psidium           Myrtaceae          Peyara
         guajava L.

35       Syzygium          Myrtaceae          Long
         aromaticum
         (L.) Merr.
         & L. M.
         Perry

36       Syzygium          Myrtaceae          Jaam
         cumini (L.)
         Skeels

37       Boerhaavia        Nyctaginaceae      Ushuni
         diffusa L.

38       Piper betle L.    Piperaceae         Paan

39       Piper nigrum L.   Piperaceae         Gul morich

40       Cynodon           Poaceae            Durba
         dactylon
         (L.) Pers.

41       Melocanna         Poaceae            Makla
         baccifera                            bash
         (Roxb.)
         Kurtz.

42       Oryza             Poaceae            Dhan
         sativa L.

43       Polygonum         Polygonaceae       Bish
         hydropiper L.                        kutuli

44       Nigella           Ranunculaceae      Kalo
         sativa L.                            jira

45       Citrus            Rutaceae           Lebu
         aurantiifolia
         (Christm.)
         Swingle

46       Scoparia          Scrophulariaceae   Chini
         dulcis L.                            pata

47       Smilax            Smilacaceae        Bagh jhal
         zeylanica L.

48       Capsicum          Solanaceae         Morich
         frutescens L.

49       Nicotiana         Solanaceae         Tamak
         tabacum L.

50       Abroma            Sterculiaceae      Ulot komol
         augusta L. f.

51       Corchorus         Tiliaceae          Pata shak
         capsularis L.

52       Carum             Umbelliferae       Joan
         copticum (L.)
         C.B. Clarke

53       Centella          Umbelliferae       Thankuni
         asiatica
         (L.) Urb.

54       Clerodendrum      Verbenaceae        Bhati buti
         viscosum
         Vent.

55       Cissus            Vitaceae           Harjora
         quadrangularis
         L.

56       Curcuma longa     Zingiberaceae      Holud
         L.

57       Zingiber          Zingiberaceae      Ada
         officinale
         Roscoe

Serial   Scientific        Part
Number   Name              utilized

1        Justicia          Leaf
         adhatoda L.

2        Ruellia           Whole
         tuberosa L.       plant

3        Aloe vera         Leaf

         (L.) Burm.
         f.

4        Lannea            Bark
         coromandelica
         (Houtt.) Merr.

5        Mangifera         Skin of
         indica L.         fruit,
                           bark

6        Annona            Leaf
         squamosa
         L.

7        Colocasia         Tuber
         esculenta
         (L.)
         Schott

8        Areca             Leaf
         catechu
         L.

9        Cocos             Oil
         nucifera          obtained
         L.                from
                           fruit
                           pulp

10       Chromolaena       Leaf,
         odorata (L.)      whole
         R. M. King        plant
         &  H. Rob.

11       Cotula            Whole
         hemisphaerica     plant
         (Roxb.) Wall.
         ex C. B.
         Clarke

12       Launaea           Leaf,
         asplenifolia      whole
         Hook. f.          plant

13       Tagetes           Leaf
         erecta
         L.

14       Bombax ceiba L.   Seed

15       Heliotropium      Leaf
         indicum L.

16       Terminalia        Dried
         belerica          fruit
         (Gaertn.)
         Roxb.

17       Terminalia        Dried
         chebula           fruit
         Retz.

18       Brassica          Oil
         napus L.          from
                           seed

19       Trichosanthes     Leaf
         dioica Roxb.

20       Diospyros         Bark
         peregrina
         (Gaertn.)
         Gurke.

21       Pedilanthus       Leaf
         tithymaloides
         (L.) Poit.

22       Phyllanthus       Dried
         emblica L.        fruit

23       Caesalpinia       Leaf
         bonduc (L.)
         Roxb.

24       Cassia            Leaf
         fistula L.

25       Cassia            Leaf,
         sophera L.        top
                           portion
                           of stem

26       Tamarindus        Leaf
         indica L.

27       Leucas aspera     Leaf
         (Willd.) Link

28       Litsea            Leaf
         monopetala
         (Roxb.) Pers.

29       Azadirachta       Leaf
         indica A.
         Juss.

30       Stephania         Leaf,
         japonica          stem/
         (Thunb.)          whole
         Miers             plant

31       Tinospora         Leaf
         crispa (L.)
         Hook.f. &
         Thoms.

32       Ficus             Bark
         religiosa L.

33       Musa              Leaf,
         sapientum L.      whole
                           plant

34       Psidium           Bark
         guajava L.

35       Syzygium          Seed
         aromaticum
         (L.) Merr.
         & L. M.
         Perry

36       Syzygium          Bark
         cumini (L.)
         Skeels

37       Boerhaavia        Whole
         diffusa L.        plant

38       Piper betle L.    Leaf

39       Piper nigrum L.   Seed

40       Cynodon           Whole
         dactylon          young
         (L.) Pers.        plant

41       Melocanna         Top
         baccifera         green
         (Roxb.)           portion
         Kurtz.            of stalk
                           (locally
                           known as
                           neli)

42       Oryza             Seed
         sativa L.

43       Polygonum         Whole
         hydropiper L.     plant
                           particularly
                           leaves

44       Nigella           Seed
         sativa L.

45       Citrus            Fruit
         aurantiifolia
         (Christm.)
         Swingle

46       Scoparia          Leaf
         dulcis L.

47       Smilax            Whole
         zeylanica L.      plant

48       Capsicum          Fruit
         frutescens L.

49       Nicotiana         Leaf
         tabacum L.

50       Abroma            Leaf
         augusta L. f.

51       Corchorus         Leaf
         capsularis L.

52       Carum             Seed
         copticum (L.)
         C.B. Clarke

53       Centella          Leaf
         asiatica
         (L.) Urb.

54       Clerodendrum      Leaf,
         viscosum          top of
         Vent.             stem

55       Cissus            Stem
         quadrangularis
         L.

56       Curcuma longa     Rhizome
         L.

57       Zingiber          Rhizome
         officinale
         Roscoe

Serial   Scientific        Ailments/Symptoms treated
Number   Name

1        Justicia          Shannipat jor (also known
         adhatoda L.       as vitri jor, symptoms:
                           wasting away of body,
                           loss of appetite,
                           weakness) in cattle.
                           Leaves and top portions
                           of stems of Cassia
                           sophera are mixed with
                           leaves of Justicia
                           adhatoda and 1 chatak
                           (local measure
                           approximates 62.5g)
                           powdered seeds of Piper
                           nigrum and boiled in
                           water. 1 poa (local
                           measure approximates
                           250g) is fed to cattle
                           thrice daily. (Bachaya,
                           H.A., et al., 2009)

2        Ruellia           Pain in any part of the
         tuberosa L.       body of cattle. Leaves of
                           Leucas aspera are mixed
                           with tuber of Colocasia
                           esculenta, whole plant of
                           Ruellia tuberosa, whole
                           plants (but particularly
                           leaves) of Polygonum
                           hydropiper, dried fruits
                           of Phyllanthus emblica,
                           Terminalia belerica and
                           Terminalia chebula, and
                           musabbar (soft pulp
                           within the leaves of Aloe
                           vera soaked in water when
                           it forms a gel),
                           macerated, and applied to
                           painful areas along with
                           oil from seeds of
                           Brassica napus (mustard
                           oil). (Benitez, G., et
                           al., 2012)

3        Aloe vera         See Serial Number 2.

         (L.) Burm.        Rheumatism in cattle
         f.                (symptoms: lameness,
                           swelling of tendons).
                           Rhizomes of Zingiber
                           officinale are mixed with
                           musabbar (soft pulp
                           within the leaves of Aloe
                           vera soaked in water,
                           when it forms a gel) and
                           Y kg water and fed to
                           cattle 2-3 times daily.
                           (Benitez, G., et al.,
                           2012)

4        Lannea            Diarrhea in cattle. Barks
         coromandelica     of Psidium guajava,
         (Houtt.) Merr.    Mangifera indica, Lannea
                           coromandelica, Syzygium
                           cumini, Diospyros
                           peregrina and Ficus
                           religiosa are mixed
                           together and boiled in 10
                           kg water till the amount
                           has been reduced to
                           around 2 kg. Y chatak is
                           fed to large-sized cattle
                           (cow-buffalo) thrice
                           daily. A little less than
                           Y chatak is fed to
                           medium-sized cattle
                           thrice daily. 2-3
                           spoonfuls of the
                           decoction are fed to
                           small-sized cows and
                           buffaloes or goats or
                           calves thrice daily.
                           (Bachaya, H.A., et al.,
                           2009)

5        Mangifera         Skin diseases in cattle.
         indica L.         Skins of fruits of
                           Mangifera indica are
                           burnt to ashes and then
                           mixed with coconut oil
                           (oil obtained from fruit
                           pulp of Cocos nucifera).
                           The concoction is applied
                           to affected areas till
                           cure. (Bachaya, H.A., et
                           al., 2009) See Serial
                           Number 4.

6        Annona            Khura rogh (foot and
         squamosa          mouth disease, symptoms:
         L.                cannot walk, loss of
                           appetite) in cattle.
                           Leaves are macerated with
                           naphthalene and applied
                           to the hooves of cattle.
                           (Benitez, G., et al.,
                           2012)

7        Colocasia         See Serial Number 2.
         esculenta
         (L.)
         Schott

8        Areca             Diarrhea in cattle.
         catechu           Leaves of Areca catechu
         L.                and Tamarindus indica are
                           boiled in water and then
                           fed to cattle with
                           rhizomes of Zingiber
                           officinale and seeds of
                           Piper nigrum 2-3 times
                           daily. (Benitez, G., et
                           al., 2012)

9        Cocos             See Serial Number 5.
         nucifera
         L.

10       Chromolaena       Bone fracture in cattle.
         odorata (L.)      Macerated leaves and
         R. M. King        whole plants of
         &  H. Rob.        Chromoloena odorata are
                           applied to fractured area
                           and bandaged with leaves
                           of Musa sapientum.
                           (Confessor, M.V., et al.,
                           2009)

11       Cotula            Mucus in cattle. Powdered
         hemisphaerica     and dried whole plants
         (Roxb.) Wall.     are applied to the
         ex C. B.          nostrils. (Benitez, G.,
         Clarke            et al., 2012)

12       Launaea           If placenta does not drop
         asplenifolia      following delivery in
         Hook. f.          cattle or if cattle eats
                           the placenta. Powdered
                           rhizome is fed with salt.
                           (Bachaya, H.A., et al.,
                           2009)

                           Influenza in cattle.
                           Powdered rhizomes of
                           Curcuma longa are mixed
                           with dried powdered
                           leaves of Corchorus
                           capsularis, and leaves
                           and whole plants of
                           Launaea asplenifolia and
                           fed to cattle 2-3 times
                           daily till cure.
                           (Bachaya, H.A., et al.,
                           2009)

                           Loss of appetite in
                           cattle. Fruits of
                           Capsicum frutescens are
                           boiled in water along
                           with leaves of Centella
                           asiatica, whole plants of
                           Launaea asplenifolia, and
                           leaves of Musa sapientum
                           and fed to cattle 2-3
                           times daily. (Benitez,
                           G., et al., 2012) Bhuri
                           basanta (smelly feces,
                           loss of appetite), mohua
                           (swellings), influenza
                           (shivering with loss of
                           appetite), basanta
                           (flaking of skin), tutua
                           fula (swollen tonsils or
                           swelling below the
                           throat), navishal
                           (swelling of base of
                           navel), sadharon mohua
                           (swelling in any part of
                           the body) in cattle.
                           Crushed seeds of Carum
                           copticum are mixed with
                           seeds of Nigella sativa,
                           juice obtained from
                           macerated whole plants of
                           Smilax zeylanica,
                           Boerhaavia diffusa, and
                           Launaea asplenifolia. One
                           chatak of the mixture is
                           fed to cattle 2-3 times
                           daily. (Bachaya, H.A., et
                           al., 2009)

13       Tagetes           Cuts and wounds in
         erecta            cattle. Juice obtained
         L.                from macerated leaves is
                           applied. (Confessor,
                           M.V., et al., 2009)

14       Bombax ceiba L.   Fula rogh (swelling of
                           mouth, eyes, body) in
                           cattle. Seeds of Bombax
                           ceiba, Carum copticum,
                           Nigella sativa and Piper
                           nigrum and leaves of
                           Heliotropium indicum and
                           Scoparia dulcis are
                           macerated together and
                           fed to cattle 4-5 times
                           daily. (Bachaya, H.A., et
                           al., 2009) Chamriya
                           basanta (flaking and
                           peeling of skin with
                           bleeding from skin) in
                           cattle. Seeds of Bombax
                           ceiba and Piper nigrum
                           are mixed and fed to
                           cattle. At the same time
                           dried powdered rhizomes
                           of Curcuma longa mixed
                           with mustard oil (oil
                           from seeds of Brassica
                           napus) and fried borax is
                           topically applied to
                           areas where there is
                           flaky skin and bleeding).
                           (Bachaya, H.A., et al.,
                           2009) Bhuri basanta
                           (diarrhea with smelly
                           feces, may sometimes
                           contain blood) in cattle.
                           Seeds of Bombax ceiba and
                           Piper nigrum are mixed
                           with water and fed 2-3
                           times daily. (Bachaya,
                           H.A., et al., 2009)

15       Heliotropium      Stoppage of urination and
         indicum L.        fecal excretion in cattle
                           (cattle merely stands up
                           without urinating or
                           defecating). Seeds of
                           Carum copticum are mixed
                           with seeds of Nigella
                           sativa, leaves of
                           Heliotropium indicum and
                           Scoparia dulcis, rock
                           salt, and tepa mach
                           (Ocellated puffer fish,
                           Tetraodon cutcutia
                           Hamilton). The mixture is
                           fed to large-sized cow-
                           buffalo 3-4 times daily
                           and to small-sized cow-
                           buffalo or goat 2-3 times
                           daily. (Bachaya, H.A., et
                           al., 2009) Fever and
                           mucus in cattle. Top
                           green portion of stalks
                           of Melocanna baccifera
                           are mixed with leaves of
                           Scoparia dulcis and
                           Heliotropium indicum, and
                           seeds of Carum copticum,
                           Nigella sativa and Piper
                           nigrum and macerated. The
                           macerated mixture is
                           wrapped in leaves of Musa
                           sapientum and fed to
                           cattle thrice daily. At
                           the same time ghee
                           (clarified butter) is
                           applied to the head of
                           cattle. (Bachaya, H.A.,
                           et al., 2009)

                           See Serial Number 14.

16       Terminalia        See Serial Number 2.
         belerica
         (Gaertn.)         Diarrhea in cattle. Dried
         Roxb.             fruits of Phyllanthus
                           emblica, Terminalia
                           belerica and Terminalia
                           chebula are mixed, boiled
                           in water with molasses
                           and fed to cattle.
                           (Benitez, G., et al.,
                           2012) Constipation in
                           cattle. Dried fruits of
                           Phyllanthus emblica,
                           Terminalia belerica and
                           Terminalia chebula are
                           mixed with cold water and
                           fed to cattle. (Benitez,
                           G., et al., 2012)

17       Terminalia        See Serial Number 2.
         chebula
         Retz.             See Serial Number 16.

18       Brassica          See Serial Number 2.
         napus L.
                           See Serial Number 14.

                           Pneumonia in cattle
                           (symptoms: respiratory
                           difficulties, watery
                           eyes, hollow noise from
                           chest, fever). Oil is
                           warmed and massaged onto
                           the chest and head. At
                           the same time, ghee
                           (clarified butter) is
                           applied to the head.
                           (Benitez, G., et al.,
                           2012)

19       Trichosanthes     Any type of fever in
         dioica Roxb.      cattle. Leaves and top of
                           stems of Clerodendrum
                           viscosum along with
                           leaves of Trichosanthes
                           dioica and leaves of
                           Caesalpinia bonduc are
                           macerated and the juice
                           obtained is fed to cattle
                           with seeds of Piper
                           nigrum 3-4 times daily.
                           (Benitez, G., et al.,
                           2012)

20       Diospyros         See Serial Number 4.
         peregrina
         (Gaertn.)
         Gurke.

21       Pedilanthus       Cuts and wounds in
         tithymaloides     cattle. Juice obtained
         (L.) Poit.        from macerated whole
                           plant is applied to stop
                           bleeding. (Confessor,
                           M.V., et al., 2009)

22       Phyllanthus       See Serial Number 2.
         emblica L.
                           See Serial Number 16.

23       Caesalpinia       See Serial Number 19.
         bonduc (L.)
         Roxb.

24       Cassia            Stopping of urination in
         fistula L.        cattle. Juice obtained
                           from macerated leaves is
                           fed 2-3 times daily till
                           cure. (Bachaya, H.A., et
                           al., 2009)

25       Cassia            See Serial Number 1.
         sophera L.

26       Tamarindus        See Serial Number 8.
         indica L.

27       Leucas aspera     See Serial Number 2.
         (Willd.) Link

28       Litsea            Bone fracture
         monopetala        (particularly fracture in
         (Roxb.) Pers.     leg) in cattle. Stems of
                           Cissus quadrangularis,
                           leaves of Litsea
                           monopetala and Abroma
                           augusta, and camphor, are
                           mixed with white portion
                           of hen's egg and applied
                           to the fractured area.
                           The place is bandaged
                           with leaves of either
                           Musa sapientum or Curcuma
                           longa. Every 10-15 days,
                           the procedure is repeated
                           till totally healed.
                           (Confessor, M.V., et al.,
                           2009)

29       Azadirachta       Loss of appetite in
         indica A.         cattle. Approximately
         Juss.             250g of juice obtained
                           from macerated leaves is
                           fed thrice daily for 3
                           days. For large-size
                           cattle, dose is given 3-
                           4 times daily; for small-
                           sized cattle, dose given
                           is 2-3 times daily.
                           (Bachaya, H.A., et al.,
                           2009) Body lice in cattle
                           (symptoms: restlessness,
                           mooing loudly, rubbing
                           bodies against walls or
                           tress). Leaves are boiled
                           in water and cattle
                           bathed in the water. This
                           is continued till cure.
                           (Bachaya, H.A., et al.,
                           2009)

30       Stephania         Khura/Khurai rogh (foot
         japonica          and mouth disease) in
         (Thunb.)          cattle. Leaves and stems,
         Miers             alternately, whole plants
                           are tied around the neck
                           of cattle like a garland.
                           As the garland dries up,
                           so it is claimed that the
                           infection dries up.
                           (Benitez, G., et al.,
                           2012)

31       Tinospora         Loss of appetite in
         crispa (L.)       cattle. Juice obtained
         Hook.f. &         from macerated leaves is
         Thoms.            fed 2-3 times daily.
                           (Benitez, G., et al.,
                           2012)

32       Ficus             See Serial Number 4.
         religiosa L.

33       Musa              See Serial Number 10.
         sapientum L.
                           See Serial Number 12.

                           See Serial Number 15.

                           See Serial Number 28.

                           Burns in cattle.
                           Macerated whole plant is
                           applied twice daily to
                           burns for quick recovery.
                           (Confessor, M.V., et al.,
                           2009)

34       Psidium           See Serial Number 4.
         guajava L.

35       Syzygium          Coughs in cattle. Seeds
         aromaticum        of Syzygium aromaticum
         (L.) Merr.        are mixed with seeds of
         & L. M.           Piper nigrum and applied
         Perry             to the base of the tongue
                           2-3 times daily.
                           (Bachaya, H.A., et al.,
                           2009)

36       Syzygium          See Serial Number 4.
         cumini (L.)
         Skeels

37       Boerhaavia        See Serial Number 12.
         diffusa L.

38       Piper betle L.    Bloating in cattle
                           (symptoms: swollen
                           abdomen, hollow sound if
                           abdomen is struck with
                           hand, loss of appetite).
                           Seeds of Carum copticum
                           and Nigella sativa are
                           mixed with sulfur
                           containing salt, rock
                           salt and common salt and
                           fed to cattle following
                           wrapping in leaves of
                           Piper betle. (Bachaya,
                           H.A., et al., 2009)

39       Piper nigrum L.   See Serial Number 1.

                           See Serial Number 8.

                           See Serial Number 14.

                           See Serial Number 15.

                           See Serial Number 19.

                           See Serial Number 35.

40       Cynodon           Breaking of horns,
         dactylon          external bleeding from
         (L.) Pers.        cuts and wounds in
                           cattle. For horn
                           breakage, lime is first
                           applied followed by
                           application of macerated
                           whole young plants. The
                           place is then bandaged
                           with cloth. To stop
                           bleeding, juice obtained
                           from macerated whole
                           young plants is applied
                           to cut areas. (Confessor,
                           M.V., et al., 2009)

41       Melocanna         See Serial Number 15.
         baccifera
         (Roxb.)
         Kurtz.

42       Oryza             Fula rogh (swelling of
         sativa L.         body, face and eyes) in
                           cattle. Dried fruits of
                           Capsicum frutescens are
                           mixed with dried and
                           powdered seeds of Oryza
                           sativa and put in a low
                           flame in a pot. The pot
                           is placed before the
                           nostrils of the cattle
                           such that the cattle have
                           to inhale the smoke. It
                           is claimed that the
                           swellings go away
                           following this treatment
                           within 2-3 hours.
                           (Benitez, G., et al.,
                           2012)

43       Polygonum         See Serial Number 2.
         hydropiper L.

44       Nigella           See Serial Number 12.
         sativa L.
                           See Serial Number 14.

                           See Serial Number 15.

                           See Serial Number 38.

                           See Serial Number 38.

45       Citrus            Fever with loss of
         aurantiifolia     appetite in cattle.
         (Christm.)        Juice from fresh fruits
         Swingle           or whole fresh fruits
                           of Citrus aurantiifolia
                           is fed to cattle.
                           (Benitez, G., et al.,
                           2012)

46       Scoparia          See Serial Number 14.
         dulcis L.
                           See Serial Number 15.

47       Smilax            See Serial Number 12.
         zeylanica L.

48       Capsicum          See Serial Number 12.
         frutescens L.
                           See Serial Number 42.

49       Nicotiana         Kaur gha (infections on
         tabacum L.        shoulders in cows or
                           buffaloes). Leaves are
                           boiled, then mixed with
                           oil, and applied to
                           shoulders till cure.
                           (Confessor, M.V., et al.,
                           2009)

50       Abroma            See Serial Number 28.
         augusta L. f.

51       Corchorus         See Serial Number 12.
         capsularis L.

52       Carum             See Serial Number 12.
         copticum (L.)
         C.B. Clarke       See Serial Number 14.

                           See Serial Number 15.

                           See Serial Number 38.

53       Centella          See Serial Number 12.
         asiatica
         (L.) Urb.

54       Clerodendrum      See Serial Number 19.
         viscosum
         Vent.

55       Cissus            See Serial Number 28.
         quadrangularis
         L.

56       Curcuma longa     See Serial Number 12.
         L.
                           See Serial Number 14.

                           See Serial Number 28.

57       Zingiber          See Serial Number 3.
         officinale
         Roscoe            See Serial Number 8.

Numbers in parentheses under the column heading "Ailments/
Symptoms treated" denote (Bachaya, H.A., et al., 2009)
Kaviraj 1, Khoka Ram, (Benitez, G., et al., 2012)
Kaviraj 2, Tochir Uddin and (Confessor, M.V., et al.,
2009) Kaviraj 3, Nityananda Basak.
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Islam, Ariful; Yeasmin, Marina; Rahmatullah, Mohammed
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Jan 1, 2013
Words:6257
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