Ethnoveterinary practices among folk medicinal practitioners of three randomly selected villages of Dinajpur district, Bangladesh.
Bangladesh is a developing country and the economy is still primarily dependent on agriculture. Because of the high density of population, the land holdings of most farmers are small, and there are a substantial number of rural persons who own practically no land beside their homesteads. Most cultivators, being poor, cannot afford modern agricultural implements, and plowing is still done by the small and marginal land holders with cows, bullocks or buffaloes. The average farmer may maintain one or two heads of cattle, essentially for plowing purposes, but sometimes for the production of milk, which is sold to retailers for some additional income. Some households may also raise a few goats, primarily for selling, and secondarily for consumption on rare festive occasions. The living conditions of the cattle thus maintained are not up to modern standards; consequently, cattle frequently suffer from diseases from poor living conditions, malnutrition, or overwork. Modern veterinarians are not a common feature in rural Bangladesh; moreover, modern medicines or vaccines of cattle are pricey and not easily available. As a result, the small cattle holders most often rely on traditional medicines dispensed by traditional medicinal practitioners, otherwise known as Kavirajes.
Reliance on traditional medicines for treatment of cattle diseases by small or marginal farmers is not limited to Bangladesh, but is quite widespread among the cultivators and the nomadic people of the world. For the former, the practice happens usually because of financial inability on the part of farmers to meet cattle disease treatment costs with modern medicines, and for the latter, the nomadic existence does not allow proper visitation to veterinarians for needed cattle vaccines or treatments, even if the particular nomadic cattle owner can bear such costs. There are a number of reports in the scientific literature on such traditional treatments for cattle or livestock diseases. The ethnoknowledge of the Bukusu community on livestock tick prevention and control in Bungoma district of Western Kenya has been reported (Wanzala et al., 2012). Ethnoveterinary practices and the medicines used have been reported for the Province of Granada in Andalusia, Spain (Benltez et al., 2012). Medicinal animals are reportedly used in ethnoveterinary practices of the 'Cariri Paraibano', NE Brazil (Souto et al., 2011). Traditional veterinary systems of Argentina use medicinal plants for cattle disease treatment (Martinez and Lujan, 2011). 45 plant species are reportedly used by the Nu people in Gongshan County of China to treat 35 animal conditions (Shen et al., 2010). Dromedary camel herders in the Suleiman Mountainous Region in Pakistan are known to rely on ethnoveterinary practices to treat camel diseases, particularly mange and trypanosomosis (Raziq et al., 2010). Animals are also used to treat animal diseases in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil (Confessor et al., 2009).
Although cattle treatment with medicinal plants and other ingredients are practiced throughout rural Bangladesh by Kavirajes, such practices have not been well documented. We have previously published two reports on ethnoveterinary practices in Bagerhat and Netrakona districts of the country (Harun-or-Rashid et al., 2010; Rahmatullah et al., 2010). However, to get a comprehensive picture of ethnoveterinary practices in Bangladesh, it is necessary to document the practices of other Kavirajes throughout the country, because available evidence from Bagerhat and Netrakona districts showed considerable differences among the medicinal plants used by the Kavirajes of the two districts for treatment of cattle diseases. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnoveterinary survey among the Kavirajes of three randomly selected adjacent villages of Dinajpur district, which is in the northern part of Bangladesh. The Kavirajes of the present survey treated cattle diseases exclusively, and not human ailments.
Materials and Methods
The present survey was conducted among the Kavirajes of three adjacent villages of Dinajpur district, Bangladesh during 2011. The district is one of the northernmost districts of the country, the people mostly are dependent on agriculture for their living, industrial infrastructure is absent, a substantial number of the people are poor, and moreover modern medical facilities, whether be it for human or cattle, is for the most part absent. The rural homesteads maintained one or two heads of cattle per family, and in general was observed to visit the practicing Kavirajes within their villages for treatment of cattle diseases. The three villages surveyed were Laxmipur, Panchbari, and Gopalganj Hat. Each village had one practicing cattle Kaviraj, respectively named, Khoka Ram (Kaviraj 1, age 65 years), Tochir Uddin (Kaviraj 2, age 75 years), and Niyuananda Basak (Kaviraj 3, age 55 years). In between themselves, the three Kavirajes had cumulative practicing experiences of more than 100 years.
Informed consent was initially obtained from the three Kavirajes to publish their names and any given information, both nationally and internationally. Interviews were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire, guided dialogue techniques (Bachaya et al., 2009), and the guided field-walk method of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, the Kavirajes took the interviewers on field-walks through areas from where they obtained their medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. Plant specimens were photographed and collected on the spot, dried, and brought back to Dhaka for identification by Mr. Manjur-Ul-Kadir Mia, ex-Curator and Principal Scientific Officer of the Bangladesh National Herbarium. Voucher specimens were deposited with the Medicinal Plant Collection Wing of the University of Development Alternative. The three Kavirajes were interviewed separately. Interviews were conducted in Bengali, the language spoken by both the Kavirajes as well as the interviewers. Following day-time field-walks, further information was gathered as well as day-time information re-checked in evening sessions with the Kavirajes.
Results and Discussion
The three Kavirajes used a total of 57 plants distributed into 37 families in the 37 formulations that they prescribed for treatment of a variety of cattle diseases. Among the various families of plants, the Fabaceae family contributed the maximum number of four plants. Of the various plant parts used in the formulations, leaves constituted 42.4% of total uses, followed by whole plants at 15.2%. Barks, fruits, tubers, seeds, stems, and rhizomes, respectively, contributed 9.1, 10.6, 1.5, 10.6, 7.6 and 3% of total uses. The results are shown in Table 1.
The Kavirajes differed as to the number of formulations provided. Kaviraj 1 provided 16 formulations, Kaviraj 2 provided 14 formulations, and Kaviraj 3 provided 7 formulations. The various cattle ailments treated by Kaviraj 1 included shannipat jor (see Table 1 for symptoms of diseases for which Kaviraj term has been used), diarrhea, skin diseases, swallowing of placenta by cattle, influenza, bhuri basanta, chamriya basanta, swellings of various parts of body, stoppage of urine and fecal excretion, loss of appetite, body lice, coughs, and bloating. Kaviraj 2 treated in cattle ailments like body pain, rheumatism, foot and mouth disease, diarrhea, mucus, loss of appetite, constipation, pneumonia, fever, and swellings. Although some cattle ailments were the same as treated by both Kaviraj 1 and Kaviraj 2 like diarrhea, swellings, fever, and loss of appetite, the cattle ailments treated by the two Kavirajes were more conspicuous by the differences rather than similarities. This suggests that some sort of specialization exists between Kavirajes, somewhat on the model of allopathic doctors, who may specialize in disorders of individual or certain organs of the body. The above conclusion is more evident when the cattle ailments treated by Kaviraj 3 are taken into account; Kaviraj 3 treated only bone fractures, cuts and wounds, burns, breaking of horns, and kaur gha. None of these ailments were treated by Kavirajes 1 or 2. When queried about this 'difference in ailment treatment' factor, the Kavirajes attributed it to three things: their initial training under a 'guru' Kaviraj (the guru is usually different between Kavirajes), their knowledge gained from practical experiences (which was derived from trial and error methods, practiced on cattle), and partly also from a need to avoid competition from Kavirajes of adjacent villages.
The various formulations mentioned by the Kavirajes were usually complex, i.e. utilizing a number of plants for treatment of a given ailment. A simple formulation, e.g. for cuts and wounds was just topical application of juice obtained from leaves of Tagetes erecta (see Serial Number 13). On the other hand for treatment of shannipat jor, plant parts from three plants, namely, Cassia sophera, Justicia adhatoda and Piper nigrum were used (see Serial Number 1). A more complex formulation was for treatment of diarrhea in cattle where barks from six plants, namely, Psidium guajava, Mangifera indica, Lannea coromandelica, Syzygium cumini, Diospyros peregrina and Ficus religiosa were not only used, but the preparation process consisted of boiling the barks in water prior to usage, the decoction then being fed to cattle (see Serial Number 4). Kaviraj 1 used a complex formulation containing plant parts or whole plants of 5 plants to treat a multitude of diverse diseases including bhuri basanta, mohua, influenza, basanta, tutua fola, navishal, and sadharon mohua (see Serial Number 12).
Seeds of three plants were used in multiple formulations; seeds of P. nigrum were used in 8 formulations, seeds of Carum copticum were used in 5 formulations, and seeds of Nigella sativa were used in 5 formulations. Notably, all three seeds are spices used in Bangladesh cuisine on a fairly regular basis. According to the Kavirajes, the seeds had at least two effects; first, it promoted appetite and digestion in cattle, which in turn helped cattle to recover from a disease more quickly, and secondly, the seeds had therapeutic effects individually or in combination. It is to be noted that seeds of P. nigrum were used for treatment of shannipat jor --an ailment whose symptoms included loss of appetite (see Serial Number 1); seeds of both C. copticum and N. sativa were used for treatment of influenza, an ailment characterized by shivering and loss of appetite, and bhuri basanta, an ailment whose symptoms also included loss of appetite (see Serial Number 12). The seeds of all three plants mentioned above were used in combination for treatment of fever and mucus in cattle (see Serial Number 15); it is a well-known fact that both humans as well as cattle suffer from loss of appetite during fever, especially if body temperatures run high.
An interesting use of dried fruits of three plants--Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula was observed in two formulations given by Kaviraj 2. The combination of fruits was orally administered following boiling in water containing molasses for treatment of diarrhea; the same combination, mixed with cold water was fed to cattle for treatment of constipation (see Serial Number 16). It is noteworthy that the combination of fruits from specifically the same three plants is very well known in Ayurvedic medicine as Triphala, and is reputed to have remarkable medicinal properties, including anti-microbial effects particularly against enteric bacterial pathogens (Tambekar and Dahikar, 2011).
It appeared that for topical applications, the Kavirajes had a good knowledge of the value of using oil along with medicinal plant ingredients. For treatment of pain, mustard oil (oil obtained from seeds of Brassica napus) was used in combination with plant parts from eight other plants (see Serial Number 2). For treatment of skin diseases, ash from burnt fruit skins of Mangifera indica was topically applied with coconut oil (oil obtained from fruit pulp of Cocos nucifera, see Serial Number 5). Oil acts as an effective emollient, helps in distribution of ingredients evenly over the applied area, and can further help in absorption of lipid-soluble phytochemicals through the skin. Expertise among the Kavirajes in the use of ingredients can also be observed in the case of use of macerated naphthalene for treatment of foot and mouth disease along with leaves of Annona squamosa, which following maceration is applied to hooves of cattle (see Serial Number 6). Naphthalene can serve as a "non-detergent wetting agent" as well as a fumigant. Since one of the clinical manifestations of foot and mouth disease is formation of blisters on the feet of cattle that may rupture, use of naphthalene will repel insects from any open wounds and save the diseased animal from insect infestations and any insect-borne diseases.
Besides oral or topical administrations, there were two unusual uses of plant parts in treatment. Kaviraj 2 used the leaves and stems of Stephania japonica for treatment of foot and mouth disease. In his treatment, the leaves and stems were tied like garland around a diseased cattle's neck (see Serial Number 30). According to the Kaviraj, the blisters and infections associated with the disease also dried up as the garland dried up with the passage of days. Also the same Kaviraj, for treatment of swellings of body, face and eyes in cattle, placed a smoke-emitting pot containing fruits of Capsicum frutescens and seeds of Oryza sativa (heated over a low flame) before the nostrils of cattle in such a way that the cattle had to inhale the smoke (see Serial Number 42). From a cursory view point, the pungent odor of C. frutescens would cause frequent sneezing in cattle while the smoke is inhaled, but whether such treatment can reduce facial or body swellings remain to be scientifically determined.
Overall, the Kavirajes (mainly Kavirajes 1 and 2) showed a remarkable divergence in their treatment methods, as demonstrated when they were treating the same cattle disease(s). The differences can be observed in cases like treatment of diarrhea (Serial Number 4, Kaviraj 1 versus Serial Number 8, Kaviraj 2), fever (Serial Number 15, Kaviraj 1 versus Serial Number 19, Kaviraj 2), loss of appetite (Serial Number 29, Kaviraj 1 versus Serial Number 30, Kaviraj 2), and fula rogh or swellings (Serial Number 14, Kaviraj 1 versus Serial Number 42, Kaviraj 2). To cite in details just one instance of such divergency, while Kaviraj 1 treated fula rogh with a mixture of Bombax ceiba, C. copticum, N. sativa, P. nigrum, Heliotropium indicum and Scoparia dulcis, Kaviraj 2 treated the same disease with C. frutescens and O. sativa. Even while treating the same disease like foot and mouth disease or diarrhea, Kaviraj 2 used two different formulations. The observations suggest a remarkable divergence existing between Kavirajes of even adjacent areas (where the same plant species exist), and strongly argues for a comprehensive survey of all Kavirajes of the country to obtain a clear picture of the manifold ways of cattle disease treatments.
Modern veterinarians have a tendency to dismiss the treatment methods of the Kavirajes as 'mere quackery'. Yet these Kavirajes have been practicing for years, and since their knowledge is being passed on from generation to generation, the treatment methods have possibly existed for centuries. Ancient or traditional medicinal practices could not have survived for centuries, if at least some benefits have not been obtained from these practices. Instead of dismissal, modern science can benefit to a strong extent from observation and documentation of these medicinal practices and the ingredients, particularly medicinal plants involved in the treatments. The analgesic effects of Leucas aspera and Polygonum hydropiper (used by Kaviraj 2 for treatment of pain, see Serial Number 2), as well as other Polygonum species has been amply demonstrated (Rahman et al., 2007; rahman et al., 2002; Han et al., 2012; Mazid et al., 2010a,b). Similarly, the beneficial effects of Zingiber officinale extracts on experimental rheumatoid arthritis have been reported (notably rhizomes of this plant are used by Kaviraj 2 for treatment of rheumatism in cattle, see Serial Number 3) (Funk et al., 2009). Taken together, the medicinal plants observed to be used by the Kavirajes for treatment of various cattle diseases in the present study merit further research for their strong potential in the discovery of newer, efficacious, and more affordable drugs.
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Md. Ariful Islam, Marina Yeasmin, Mohammed Rahmatullah
Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.
Corresponding Author: Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor and Dean, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, House 78, Road 11A, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh Telephone: 88-02-9136285; Fax: 88-02-8157339; E-mail: email@example.com
Table 1: Formulations used by three Kavirajes for treatment of cattle diseases in three adjacent villages of Dinajpur district, Bangladesh. Serial Scientific Family Name Local Name Number Name 1 Justicia Acanthaceae Harbox, adhatoda L. Bashok 2 Ruellia Acanthaceae Chotchotia tuberosa L. 3 Aloe vera Aloaceae Ghritokumari (L.) Burm. f. 4 Lannea Anacardiaceae Jiga coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr. 5 Mangifera Anacardiaceae Aam indica L. 6 Annona Annonaceae Mewa, squamosa Ata L. 7 Colocasia Araceae Kalo esculenta kochu (L.) Schott 8 Areca Arecaceae Supari catechu L. 9 Cocos Arecaceae Narkel nucifera L. 10 Chromolaena Asteraceae Bug jhar odorata (L.) R. M. King & H. Rob. 11 Cotula Asteraceae Hanchia hemisphaerica (Roxb.) Wall. ex C. B. Clarke 12 Launaea Asteraceae Mina asplenifolia gach Hook. f. 13 Tagetes Asteraceae Ganda erecta L. 14 Bombax ceiba L. Bombacaceae Shimul 15 Heliotropium Boraginaceae Hatishura indicum L. 16 Terminalia Combretaceae Bohera belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. 17 Terminalia Combretaceae Horitoki chebula Retz. 18 Brassica Cruciferae Shorisha napus L. 19 Trichosanthes Cucurbitaceae Potol dioica Roxb. 20 Diospyros Ebenaceae Gaab peregrina (Gaertn.) Gurke. 21 Pedilanthus Euphorbiaceae Kiccha tithymaloides (L.) Poit. 22 Phyllanthus Euphorbiaceae Amloki emblica L. 23 Caesalpinia Fabaceae Nata bonduc (L.) Roxb. 24 Cassia Fabaceae Sonalu fistula L. 25 Cassia Fabaceae Boro sophera L. chekenda 26 Tamarindus Fabaceae Tetul indica L. 27 Leucas aspera Lamiaceae Dulfi (Willd.) Link 28 Litsea Lauraceae Maligur monopetala (Roxb.) Pers. 29 Azadirachta Meliaceae Jaat indica A. neem Juss. 30 Stephania Menispermaceae Money japonica moni (Thunb.) Miers 31 Tinospora Menispermaceae Gurain crispa (L.) cha Hook.f. & Thoms. 32 Ficus Moraceae Pakur religiosa L. 33 Musa Musaceae Kola sapientum L. 34 Psidium Myrtaceae Peyara guajava L. 35 Syzygium Myrtaceae Long aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry 36 Syzygium Myrtaceae Jaam cumini (L.) Skeels 37 Boerhaavia Nyctaginaceae Ushuni diffusa L. 38 Piper betle L. Piperaceae Paan 39 Piper nigrum L. Piperaceae Gul morich 40 Cynodon Poaceae Durba dactylon (L.) Pers. 41 Melocanna Poaceae Makla baccifera bash (Roxb.) Kurtz. 42 Oryza Poaceae Dhan sativa L. 43 Polygonum Polygonaceae Bish hydropiper L. kutuli 44 Nigella Ranunculaceae Kalo sativa L. jira 45 Citrus Rutaceae Lebu aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle 46 Scoparia Scrophulariaceae Chini dulcis L. pata 47 Smilax Smilacaceae Bagh jhal zeylanica L. 48 Capsicum Solanaceae Morich frutescens L. 49 Nicotiana Solanaceae Tamak tabacum L. 50 Abroma Sterculiaceae Ulot komol augusta L. f. 51 Corchorus Tiliaceae Pata shak capsularis L. 52 Carum Umbelliferae Joan copticum (L.) C.B. Clarke 53 Centella Umbelliferae Thankuni asiatica (L.) Urb. 54 Clerodendrum Verbenaceae Bhati buti viscosum Vent. 55 Cissus Vitaceae Harjora quadrangularis L. 56 Curcuma longa Zingiberaceae Holud L. 57 Zingiber Zingiberaceae Ada officinale Roscoe Serial Scientific Part Number Name utilized 1 Justicia Leaf adhatoda L. 2 Ruellia Whole tuberosa L. plant 3 Aloe vera Leaf (L.) Burm. f. 4 Lannea Bark coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr. 5 Mangifera Skin of indica L. fruit, bark 6 Annona Leaf squamosa L. 7 Colocasia Tuber esculenta (L.) Schott 8 Areca Leaf catechu L. 9 Cocos Oil nucifera obtained L. from fruit pulp 10 Chromolaena Leaf, odorata (L.) whole R. M. King plant & H. Rob. 11 Cotula Whole hemisphaerica plant (Roxb.) Wall. ex C. B. Clarke 12 Launaea Leaf, asplenifolia whole Hook. f. plant 13 Tagetes Leaf erecta L. 14 Bombax ceiba L. Seed 15 Heliotropium Leaf indicum L. 16 Terminalia Dried belerica fruit (Gaertn.) Roxb. 17 Terminalia Dried chebula fruit Retz. 18 Brassica Oil napus L. from seed 19 Trichosanthes Leaf dioica Roxb. 20 Diospyros Bark peregrina (Gaertn.) Gurke. 21 Pedilanthus Leaf tithymaloides (L.) Poit. 22 Phyllanthus Dried emblica L. fruit 23 Caesalpinia Leaf bonduc (L.) Roxb. 24 Cassia Leaf fistula L. 25 Cassia Leaf, sophera L. top portion of stem 26 Tamarindus Leaf indica L. 27 Leucas aspera Leaf (Willd.) Link 28 Litsea Leaf monopetala (Roxb.) Pers. 29 Azadirachta Leaf indica A. Juss. 30 Stephania Leaf, japonica stem/ (Thunb.) whole Miers plant 31 Tinospora Leaf crispa (L.) Hook.f. & Thoms. 32 Ficus Bark religiosa L. 33 Musa Leaf, sapientum L. whole plant 34 Psidium Bark guajava L. 35 Syzygium Seed aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry 36 Syzygium Bark cumini (L.) Skeels 37 Boerhaavia Whole diffusa L. plant 38 Piper betle L. Leaf 39 Piper nigrum L. Seed 40 Cynodon Whole dactylon young (L.) Pers. plant 41 Melocanna Top baccifera green (Roxb.) portion Kurtz. of stalk (locally known as neli) 42 Oryza Seed sativa L. 43 Polygonum Whole hydropiper L. plant particularly leaves 44 Nigella Seed sativa L. 45 Citrus Fruit aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle 46 Scoparia Leaf dulcis L. 47 Smilax Whole zeylanica L. plant 48 Capsicum Fruit frutescens L. 49 Nicotiana Leaf tabacum L. 50 Abroma Leaf augusta L. f. 51 Corchorus Leaf capsularis L. 52 Carum Seed copticum (L.) C.B. Clarke 53 Centella Leaf asiatica (L.) Urb. 54 Clerodendrum Leaf, viscosum top of Vent. stem 55 Cissus Stem quadrangularis L. 56 Curcuma longa Rhizome L. 57 Zingiber Rhizome officinale Roscoe Serial Scientific Ailments/Symptoms treated Number Name 1 Justicia Shannipat jor (also known adhatoda L. as vitri jor, symptoms: wasting away of body, loss of appetite, weakness) in cattle. Leaves and top portions of stems of Cassia sophera are mixed with leaves of Justicia adhatoda and 1 chatak (local measure approximates 62.5g) powdered seeds of Piper nigrum and boiled in water. 1 poa (local measure approximates 250g) is fed to cattle thrice daily. (Bachaya, H.A., et al., 2009) 2 Ruellia Pain in any part of the tuberosa L. body of cattle. Leaves of Leucas aspera are mixed with tuber of Colocasia esculenta, whole plant of Ruellia tuberosa, whole plants (but particularly leaves) of Polygonum hydropiper, dried fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula, and musabbar (soft pulp within the leaves of Aloe vera soaked in water when it forms a gel), macerated, and applied to painful areas along with oil from seeds of Brassica napus (mustard oil). (Benitez, G., et al., 2012) 3 Aloe vera See Serial Number 2. (L.) Burm. Rheumatism in cattle f. (symptoms: lameness, swelling of tendons). Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale are mixed with musabbar (soft pulp within the leaves of Aloe vera soaked in water, when it forms a gel) and Y kg water and fed to cattle 2-3 times daily. (Benitez, G., et al., 2012) 4 Lannea Diarrhea in cattle. Barks coromandelica of Psidium guajava, (Houtt.) Merr. Mangifera indica, Lannea coromandelica, Syzygium cumini, Diospyros peregrina and Ficus religiosa are mixed together and boiled in 10 kg water till the amount has been reduced to around 2 kg. Y chatak is fed to large-sized cattle (cow-buffalo) thrice daily. A little less than Y chatak is fed to medium-sized cattle thrice daily. 2-3 spoonfuls of the decoction are fed to small-sized cows and buffaloes or goats or calves thrice daily. (Bachaya, H.A., et al., 2009) 5 Mangifera Skin diseases in cattle. indica L. Skins of fruits of Mangifera indica are burnt to ashes and then mixed with coconut oil (oil obtained from fruit pulp of Cocos nucifera). The concoction is applied to affected areas till cure. (Bachaya, H.A., et al., 2009) See Serial Number 4. 6 Annona Khura rogh (foot and squamosa mouth disease, symptoms: L. cannot walk, loss of appetite) in cattle. Leaves are macerated with naphthalene and applied to the hooves of cattle. (Benitez, G., et al., 2012) 7 Colocasia See Serial Number 2. esculenta (L.) Schott 8 Areca Diarrhea in cattle. catechu Leaves of Areca catechu L. and Tamarindus indica are boiled in water and then fed to cattle with rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and seeds of Piper nigrum 2-3 times daily. (Benitez, G., et al., 2012) 9 Cocos See Serial Number 5. nucifera L. 10 Chromolaena Bone fracture in cattle. odorata (L.) Macerated leaves and R. M. King whole plants of & H. Rob. Chromoloena odorata are applied to fractured area and bandaged with leaves of Musa sapientum. (Confessor, M.V., et al., 2009) 11 Cotula Mucus in cattle. Powdered hemisphaerica and dried whole plants (Roxb.) Wall. are applied to the ex C. B. nostrils. (Benitez, G., Clarke et al., 2012) 12 Launaea If placenta does not drop asplenifolia following delivery in Hook. f. cattle or if cattle eats the placenta. Powdered rhizome is fed with salt. (Bachaya, H.A., et al., 2009) Influenza in cattle. Powdered rhizomes of Curcuma longa are mixed with dried powdered leaves of Corchorus capsularis, and leaves and whole plants of Launaea asplenifolia and fed to cattle 2-3 times daily till cure. (Bachaya, H.A., et al., 2009) Loss of appetite in cattle. Fruits of Capsicum frutescens are boiled in water along with leaves of Centella asiatica, whole plants of Launaea asplenifolia, and leaves of Musa sapientum and fed to cattle 2-3 times daily. (Benitez, G., et al., 2012) Bhuri basanta (smelly feces, loss of appetite), mohua (swellings), influenza (shivering with loss of appetite), basanta (flaking of skin), tutua fula (swollen tonsils or swelling below the throat), navishal (swelling of base of navel), sadharon mohua (swelling in any part of the body) in cattle. Crushed seeds of Carum copticum are mixed with seeds of Nigella sativa, juice obtained from macerated whole plants of Smilax zeylanica, Boerhaavia diffusa, and Launaea asplenifolia. One chatak of the mixture is fed to cattle 2-3 times daily. (Bachaya, H.A., et al., 2009) 13 Tagetes Cuts and wounds in erecta cattle. Juice obtained L. from macerated leaves is applied. (Confessor, M.V., et al., 2009) 14 Bombax ceiba L. Fula rogh (swelling of mouth, eyes, body) in cattle. Seeds of Bombax ceiba, Carum copticum, Nigella sativa and Piper nigrum and leaves of Heliotropium indicum and Scoparia dulcis are macerated together and fed to cattle 4-5 times daily. (Bachaya, H.A., et al., 2009) Chamriya basanta (flaking and peeling of skin with bleeding from skin) in cattle. Seeds of Bombax ceiba and Piper nigrum are mixed and fed to cattle. At the same time dried powdered rhizomes of Curcuma longa mixed with mustard oil (oil from seeds of Brassica napus) and fried borax is topically applied to areas where there is flaky skin and bleeding). (Bachaya, H.A., et al., 2009) Bhuri basanta (diarrhea with smelly feces, may sometimes contain blood) in cattle. Seeds of Bombax ceiba and Piper nigrum are mixed with water and fed 2-3 times daily. (Bachaya, H.A., et al., 2009) 15 Heliotropium Stoppage of urination and indicum L. fecal excretion in cattle (cattle merely stands up without urinating or defecating). Seeds of Carum copticum are mixed with seeds of Nigella sativa, leaves of Heliotropium indicum and Scoparia dulcis, rock salt, and tepa mach (Ocellated puffer fish, Tetraodon cutcutia Hamilton). The mixture is fed to large-sized cow- buffalo 3-4 times daily and to small-sized cow- buffalo or goat 2-3 times daily. (Bachaya, H.A., et al., 2009) Fever and mucus in cattle. Top green portion of stalks of Melocanna baccifera are mixed with leaves of Scoparia dulcis and Heliotropium indicum, and seeds of Carum copticum, Nigella sativa and Piper nigrum and macerated. The macerated mixture is wrapped in leaves of Musa sapientum and fed to cattle thrice daily. At the same time ghee (clarified butter) is applied to the head of cattle. (Bachaya, H.A., et al., 2009) See Serial Number 14. 16 Terminalia See Serial Number 2. belerica (Gaertn.) Diarrhea in cattle. Dried Roxb. fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula are mixed, boiled in water with molasses and fed to cattle. (Benitez, G., et al., 2012) Constipation in cattle. Dried fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula are mixed with cold water and fed to cattle. (Benitez, G., et al., 2012) 17 Terminalia See Serial Number 2. chebula Retz. See Serial Number 16. 18 Brassica See Serial Number 2. napus L. See Serial Number 14. Pneumonia in cattle (symptoms: respiratory difficulties, watery eyes, hollow noise from chest, fever). Oil is warmed and massaged onto the chest and head. At the same time, ghee (clarified butter) is applied to the head. (Benitez, G., et al., 2012) 19 Trichosanthes Any type of fever in dioica Roxb. cattle. Leaves and top of stems of Clerodendrum viscosum along with leaves of Trichosanthes dioica and leaves of Caesalpinia bonduc are macerated and the juice obtained is fed to cattle with seeds of Piper nigrum 3-4 times daily. (Benitez, G., et al., 2012) 20 Diospyros See Serial Number 4. peregrina (Gaertn.) Gurke. 21 Pedilanthus Cuts and wounds in tithymaloides cattle. Juice obtained (L.) Poit. from macerated whole plant is applied to stop bleeding. (Confessor, M.V., et al., 2009) 22 Phyllanthus See Serial Number 2. emblica L. See Serial Number 16. 23 Caesalpinia See Serial Number 19. bonduc (L.) Roxb. 24 Cassia Stopping of urination in fistula L. cattle. Juice obtained from macerated leaves is fed 2-3 times daily till cure. (Bachaya, H.A., et al., 2009) 25 Cassia See Serial Number 1. sophera L. 26 Tamarindus See Serial Number 8. indica L. 27 Leucas aspera See Serial Number 2. (Willd.) Link 28 Litsea Bone fracture monopetala (particularly fracture in (Roxb.) Pers. leg) in cattle. Stems of Cissus quadrangularis, leaves of Litsea monopetala and Abroma augusta, and camphor, are mixed with white portion of hen's egg and applied to the fractured area. The place is bandaged with leaves of either Musa sapientum or Curcuma longa. Every 10-15 days, the procedure is repeated till totally healed. (Confessor, M.V., et al., 2009) 29 Azadirachta Loss of appetite in indica A. cattle. Approximately Juss. 250g of juice obtained from macerated leaves is fed thrice daily for 3 days. For large-size cattle, dose is given 3- 4 times daily; for small- sized cattle, dose given is 2-3 times daily. (Bachaya, H.A., et al., 2009) Body lice in cattle (symptoms: restlessness, mooing loudly, rubbing bodies against walls or tress). Leaves are boiled in water and cattle bathed in the water. This is continued till cure. (Bachaya, H.A., et al., 2009) 30 Stephania Khura/Khurai rogh (foot japonica and mouth disease) in (Thunb.) cattle. Leaves and stems, Miers alternately, whole plants are tied around the neck of cattle like a garland. As the garland dries up, so it is claimed that the infection dries up. (Benitez, G., et al., 2012) 31 Tinospora Loss of appetite in crispa (L.) cattle. Juice obtained Hook.f. & from macerated leaves is Thoms. fed 2-3 times daily. (Benitez, G., et al., 2012) 32 Ficus See Serial Number 4. religiosa L. 33 Musa See Serial Number 10. sapientum L. See Serial Number 12. See Serial Number 15. See Serial Number 28. Burns in cattle. Macerated whole plant is applied twice daily to burns for quick recovery. (Confessor, M.V., et al., 2009) 34 Psidium See Serial Number 4. guajava L. 35 Syzygium Coughs in cattle. Seeds aromaticum of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. are mixed with seeds of & L. M. Piper nigrum and applied Perry to the base of the tongue 2-3 times daily. (Bachaya, H.A., et al., 2009) 36 Syzygium See Serial Number 4. cumini (L.) Skeels 37 Boerhaavia See Serial Number 12. diffusa L. 38 Piper betle L. Bloating in cattle (symptoms: swollen abdomen, hollow sound if abdomen is struck with hand, loss of appetite). Seeds of Carum copticum and Nigella sativa are mixed with sulfur containing salt, rock salt and common salt and fed to cattle following wrapping in leaves of Piper betle. (Bachaya, H.A., et al., 2009) 39 Piper nigrum L. See Serial Number 1. See Serial Number 8. See Serial Number 14. See Serial Number 15. See Serial Number 19. See Serial Number 35. 40 Cynodon Breaking of horns, dactylon external bleeding from (L.) Pers. cuts and wounds in cattle. For horn breakage, lime is first applied followed by application of macerated whole young plants. The place is then bandaged with cloth. To stop bleeding, juice obtained from macerated whole young plants is applied to cut areas. (Confessor, M.V., et al., 2009) 41 Melocanna See Serial Number 15. baccifera (Roxb.) Kurtz. 42 Oryza Fula rogh (swelling of sativa L. body, face and eyes) in cattle. Dried fruits of Capsicum frutescens are mixed with dried and powdered seeds of Oryza sativa and put in a low flame in a pot. The pot is placed before the nostrils of the cattle such that the cattle have to inhale the smoke. It is claimed that the swellings go away following this treatment within 2-3 hours. (Benitez, G., et al., 2012) 43 Polygonum See Serial Number 2. hydropiper L. 44 Nigella See Serial Number 12. sativa L. See Serial Number 14. See Serial Number 15. See Serial Number 38. See Serial Number 38. 45 Citrus Fever with loss of aurantiifolia appetite in cattle. (Christm.) Juice from fresh fruits Swingle or whole fresh fruits of Citrus aurantiifolia is fed to cattle. (Benitez, G., et al., 2012) 46 Scoparia See Serial Number 14. dulcis L. See Serial Number 15. 47 Smilax See Serial Number 12. zeylanica L. 48 Capsicum See Serial Number 12. frutescens L. See Serial Number 42. 49 Nicotiana Kaur gha (infections on tabacum L. shoulders in cows or buffaloes). Leaves are boiled, then mixed with oil, and applied to shoulders till cure. (Confessor, M.V., et al., 2009) 50 Abroma See Serial Number 28. augusta L. f. 51 Corchorus See Serial Number 12. capsularis L. 52 Carum See Serial Number 12. copticum (L.) C.B. Clarke See Serial Number 14. See Serial Number 15. See Serial Number 38. 53 Centella See Serial Number 12. asiatica (L.) Urb. 54 Clerodendrum See Serial Number 19. viscosum Vent. 55 Cissus See Serial Number 28. quadrangularis L. 56 Curcuma longa See Serial Number 12. L. See Serial Number 14. See Serial Number 28. 57 Zingiber See Serial Number 3. officinale Roscoe See Serial Number 8. Numbers in parentheses under the column heading "Ailments/ Symptoms treated" denote (Bachaya, H.A., et al., 2009) Kaviraj 1, Khoka Ram, (Benitez, G., et al., 2012) Kaviraj 2, Tochir Uddin and (Confessor, M.V., et al., 2009) Kaviraj 3, Nityananda Basak.
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|Title Annotation:||Original Article|
|Author:||Islam, Ariful; Yeasmin, Marina; Rahmatullah, Mohammed|
|Publication:||American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2013|
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