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Ethnomedicines used by the Oraon and Gor tribes of Sylhet district, Bangladesh.

INTRODUCTION

Indigenous communities are believed to live in a state of harmony with nature where various natural resources available in the vicinity of their habitat serve as means of food, clothing, housing, and medicinal needs. They depend mainly on their traditional healers, whose knowledge of medicinal plants and animals are based on cumulative intergenerational experiences, and which through centuries have resulted in extensive knowledge on the therapeutic properties of various plant and animal species. Modern allopathic medicine has also taken advantage of this traditional medicinal knowledge, and a number of important allopathic drugs are a result of close observations of indigenous medicinal practices [2, 10, 15].

The number of tribes or indigenous communities in Bangladesh is presently believed to exceed 200. These tribal communities can be found practically all throughout the country with their heaviest concentrations in the northeastern and southeastern regions. Most of these tribes have dwindled in numbers to an extent, where it can be genuinely feared that they will either disappear completely or lose their unique identities through merging or absorbing the culture of the mainstream Bengali-speaking population. This is already happening, and many traditional practices including traditional medicinal practices are becoming lost due to lack of adequate documentation. If this process continues, the country and even the world will suffer from disappearance of unique medicinal knowledge of the tribes and so will miss the opportunity of rapid discovery of useful drugs from the medicinal plants used by the tribes.

Towards a thorough documentation of traditional medicinal knowledge, we have been conducting extensive ethnomedicinal surveys among both mainstream as well as tribal medicinal practitioners for a number of years [43,47-49, 9,18,20,37,38,50-56,1,4-6,17,22,23,60-63,67,70, 11,19,21,30,68]. Our surveys have pointed out the rich diversity of medicinal plant and animal knowledge among various tribal communities. Some of this knowledge has been experimentally determined to be correct in our laboratory studies.

The Oraon and the Gor tribe are two tribes, who can be still found in the Sylhet district of the northeastern part of Bangladesh. Both tribes, particularly the Gor tribe, has dwindled in numbers to such extent, that the total population now is only around 150 members. The Oraon tribe has also dwindled in numbers. Because of encroachment by the mainstream population and cutting down of their forest habitats, the tribes have mostly lost their ancestral lands and now exist as tea estate workers in the many tea gardens of Sylhet and Moulvibazar districts of Sylhet Division of the country. The exact population of the Oraon tribe is not known, but tribal members do not put their numbers above 500. Both tribes used to have extensive traditional medicinal practices (according to tribal elders), but such practices are on the verge of complete disappearance. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Oraon and Gor tribal healers and document their medicinal practices before they get totally lost.

Materials and Methods

The Gor tribe (about 150 member altogether) was located in Kalachura village adjoining Kalachura tea estate in Sreemangal, Sylhet district. The tribe has only one surviving traditional medicinal practitioner, named Anil Patro. The Oraon tribe was located in several villages, namely Shori Bari, Khaichara, and Deorachara, all villages being at Sreemangal in Sylhet district of the country. The tribal members worked in Premnagar and Kamalganj tea estates. The tribe had four traditional medicinal practitioners, namely Profulla Khor, Noresh Karmakar, Buddho Orang, and Lehan Kujur. Informed consent was obtained from all the tribal healers before conducting interviews.

The present survey was conducted between 2011 and 2012. A number of visits were made to the tribes to build up rapport and to gain their confidence. Tribal members including healers and Headmen were apprised as to the nature of our visits and consent obtained to disseminate any information obtained both nationally and internationally. Actual surveys were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method of Martin [35] and Maundu [36]. Briefly, in this method, the healers took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where they collected their medicinal plants, showed the plants, and described their uses. Use information was later verified in evening sessions with the healers. Plant specimens as pointed out were photographed and collected on the spot, pressed, dried, and brought back to Dhaka for complete identification at the Bangladesh National Herbarium.

Results and Discussion

A total of 74 plant species were obtained from the tribal healers of both tribes. These plants were distributed into 43 families and are shown in Table 1. The Gors have mostly forgotten their traditional medicinal practices and only nine plant species could be obtained from the Gor healer. The four Oraon tribal healers provided information on 65 plant species. The ailments treated with the plants included loss of energy, respiratory tract disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, oral lesions, helminthiasis, sexual disorders, pain, blood purification, diabetes, snake bite, vomiting, fever, jaundice, wounds, paralysis, dog bite, loss of hair, skin disorders, spleen enlargement, arthritis, bone fracture, chicken pox, nerve stimulant, cancer, and to expedite delivery. Four plants had ethnoveterinary uses; a combination of Cuscuta reflexa and Clerodendrum viscosum was used for treatment of anthrax in cattle, while Ricinus communis as well as Litsea monopetala was used for treatment of cattle diarrhea.

From the number of plant species used, it appeared that the common ailments within the two tribes were gastrointestinal disorders, sexual disorders, pain, and loss of energy. This is not surprising. Tribal adult members, as well as children, worked in the tea estates with the female members mostly engaged in plucking tea leaves and the male members working as agricultural laborers, tending to tea gardens. Both consisted of hard labor with meager pay, and both tribal members were observed to suffer from varying degrees of malnutrition. The living conditions were also not hygienic with poor sanitation and quality of drinking water. The combination would result in weakness and gastrointestinal disorders. Weakness can result in sexual disorders, the most common complaint being either erectile dysfunction or low semen density in male tribal members. Gastrointestinal disorders were treated with 22 plant species, sexual disorders with 14 plant species, various types of pain with 9 plant species, and energy loss with 5 plant species.

The tribal formulations were usually simple with juice obtained from crushed whole plant or plant part being taken orally or administered topically. However, there were several complex formulations. For treatment of wounds or paralysis, an Oraon formulation consisted of crushed shoots of Calotropis gigantea, leaves of Datura metel, flowers of Acacia farnesiana, clove of Allium sativum, and seeds of Brassica campestris were combined together and boiled to make a cake which was applied to wounds or paralyzed areas. For treatment of erectile dysfunction, a Gor tribal formulation consisted of juice from crushed whole plants of Calotropis gigantea combined with crushed whole plants of Cynodon dactylon, fruits of Allophyllus dimorphus and crushed tubers of Alocasia macrorrhizos and the combination was orally taken with 250 ml milk. For treatment of intestinal dysfunction, an Oraon tribal formulation consisted of leaf juice of Firmiana colorata combined with leaf juice of Duabanga grandiflora, leaf juice of Chrysopogon aciculatus, rhizome juice of Alpinia nigra, leaf juice of Hyptis suaveolens, and seeds of Nigella sativa. The combination was taken orally. It may be mentioned in this regard that a number of plant species used in the above formulations like Allophyllus dimorphus, Firmiana colorata, Duabanga grandiflora, and Chrysopogon aciculatus were not reported by traditional medicinal practitioners in our other ethnomedicinal surveys. This suggests two things: that every tribe has at least some of their medicinal plants unique to that tribe, and second, surveys should be undertaken on as many tribes as possible to get a total picture of medicinal plants of the country.

Among the various plants mentioned by the tribal healers, thrust areas of further research can be several. Anthrax in cattle was treated by the Oraon healers with a combination of Cuscuta reflexa and Clerodendrum viscosum. Anthrax is a fatal and contagious disease in cattle and poor tribal members can ill afford the cost of allopathic medicines. As such, if this combination can be proven to be successful in treating anthrax, the plants are readily available and could be used as a cheap source for cattle anthrax treatment. Litsea monopetala was used by the healers to treat cattle diarrhea. The people of nawalparasi district in Central Nepal use seeds of the plant to cure stomach ache [3].

Camellia sinensis was used by the healers for cancer treatment. The healers could not give any satisfactory reply as to which type of cancer was treated or how they diagnosed cancer. It is possible that through working in the tea gardens, they had unlimited access to tea leaves, and possibly in recent times, the healers have noticed absence or relative absence of cancer in the tribal population. Nevertheless of what the reason may be, there are enough evidences in the scientific literature on the beneficial effects of tea, particularly green tea in the prevention of cancer. Animal studies have shown that tea and tea constituents inhibit carcinogenesis of the skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, liver, prostate and other organs [32]. Tea contains antioxidants like polyphenols, and these compounds may reduce the risk of DNA damage and malignancy [71].

Carica papaya and Coccinia grandis were two plants used by the healers against diabetes. Various parts of Carica papaya have been scientifically shown to have beneficial effects in various diabetic complications. Beneficial effects on wound healing activity in experimental diabetic rats have been demonstrated [44]; notably, diabetic patients have great difficulty in wound healing, particularly if their blood sugar levels are high. Ethanol extract of leaves of the plant have been reported to have antihyperglycemic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice [39]. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of aqueous extract of leaves have been shown in alloxan diabetic rats [34]. Water-extractable phytochemicals from unripe fruits reportedly inhibited key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas [45]. Coccinia grandis also has reportedly similar beneficial effects in diabetes. The Marakh sect of the Garo tribe living in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh uses the plant to treat diabetes. Blood sugar lowering effect of the plant has been reported [40]. The ameliorative potential of extract of the plant on serum and liver marker enzymes and lipid profile in streptozotocin diabetic rats has also been reported [31]. Thus the two plants can be considered as excellent potential sources for development of newer and possibly more efficacious antidiabetic drugs.

Other plants used by the Gor and Oraon healers have also been scientifically validated in their uses or have similar ethnomedicinal uses in other regions and countries. Justicia aurea, used by the Oraon healers for treatment of coughs, has been reported to be used for the same purpose by folk medicinal practitioners in Sylhet Division, Bangladesh. Justicia gendarussa was used by the Gor healer to treat rheumatic pain. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of leaves of the plant has been reported [73]. Acorus calamus was used by the Oraon healers for treatment of wounds. The wound-healing activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of the plant has been shown [24]. Polyalthia longifolia was used by the Oraon healers for treatment of skin disorders. The plant has similar use among the local inhabitants of the hilly forested regions of Karnataka, India [72]. Centella asiatica, used by the Gor healer to treat dysentery, is used by some tribes in Mayurbhanj district, Odisha, India to treat dysentery [28]. The Kani tribals of Pechipparai Hills, Southern Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India also use the plant to treat dysentery [75]. Wound healing activity has been described for different extracts of Typhonium trilobatum [65], a plant used by the Oraon healers for treatment of wounds.

The shoots of Calotropis gigantea were used by the Oraon healers along with other plants to treat wounds. The wound healing activity of root bark of the plant has been demonstrated in rats [12]. The latex of the plant has also been shown to have wound healing activity [42]. The latex has also been shown to have healing activity in excision wounds in rats [66]. Significant wound healing activity has also been shown for ethanolic extract of Allium sativum [76], another plant used by the Oraon healers along with Calotropis gigantea for wound healing. The healing potential of Datura metel has been shown in burn wounds [46]; this plant was also used with the two afore-mentioned plants by the Oraon healers to treat wounds. Thus the three plants can produce a synergistic effect in combination when used for wound healing; the seeds of Brassica campestris would produce oil on heating, which can help as an emollient and for evenly spreading the other plant components. Eclipta alba was used to treat skin infections by the Oraon healers. Ethnomedicinal uses of the plant for the same purpose have been reported from India [29].

The anti-diarrheal activity of aqueous extract of Enhydra fluctuans has been reported [74]; the plant was used by the Oraon healers for intestinal disorders. The anti-ulcerogenic effect of Mikania cordata has been reported in diclofenac-induced ulcerogenic model in rats [39]; the Oraon healers used the plant for gastric problems. Terminalia arjuna, used by the Oraons to treat intestinal dysfunction is also reportedly used by tribes in Mayurbhanj district, Odisha, India to treat diarrhea [28]. Terminalia chebula was also used by the Oraon healers for intestinal dysfunction and constipation. The aboriginals of Kalrayan and Shervarayan Hills of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India, use the plant for ulcers, constipation, and diarrhea [26]. The Sonowal Kachari tribe of the Brahmaputra Valley, Assam, India use fruits of Dillenia indica to treat dysentery [27]; the Gor healer used leaves and fruits of the plant for treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. The Chutia, Sonowal Kachan, Tai Ahom and Ao Naga tribal groups of Disoi Valley Reserve Forest of Jorhat District, Assam, India, use floral parts of the plant against amebic dysentery [7].

The leaves and bark of Psidium guajava were used, respectively, by the Oraon healers for treatment of toothache and diarrhea. The antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of the plant has been demonstrated and has been attributed to both its antimicrobial activity, as well as ability to reduce gastrointestinal motility [13]. Alcoholic and aqueous extract of the plant has been shown to be effective against a number of enteric pathogens, and thus should prove useful for treatment of diarrhea [8]. The ethanolic fruit extract of the plant has also been shown to have anti-diarrheal activity in castor oil-induced diarrhea model in rats [14]. Aqueous extract of leaves of the plant has been scientifically reported to be beneficial in alleviating toothache [25]. It is possible that the leaves possess the phytochemical quercetin with known pain relieving activity, and which may be useful in alleviating toothache. Leaves and fruits of Datura metel were used by the Oraon healers to treat intestinal dysfunction. The pharmacological properties of the plant have been reviewed. The plant contains tropane alkaloids with known anti-spasmodic action, which may prove useful in diarrhea [33]. Hyptis suaveolens, used by the Oraon healers for intestinal dysfunction, is known to be used by the folk medicinal practitioners of Greater Khulna Division for treatment of constipation.

According to the Gor healer, for treatment of coughs, crushed leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum, Justicia adhatoda, and Clerodendrum viscosum were to be taken orally with honey. The anti-tussive action of Ocimum tenuiflorum (also known as Ocimum sanctum) has been reported [41]. Various polyherbal formulations containing Justicia adhatoda have been found effective in coughs [16]. The anti-tussive potential of Clerodendrum viscosum (also known as Clerodendrum infortunatum) has also been reviewed [64]. The available scientific literature therefore suggests that the three plant parts, given in combination, can possibly provide a strong anti-tussive action, and so can be beneficial in relieving coughs. This formulation again shows the extent of knowledge of medicinal plant properties by the Gor and Oraon healers.

Although this is not a comprehensive review of all the ethnomedicinal uses and scientific validations of the plants sued by the Gor and Oraon healers, the above discussion clearly shows that the plants merit further scientific research. While scientific validations clearly show the efficacy of use of the plant or plant part, consensus of ethnomedicinal uses suggest that the plant or plant part possess phytochemical constituent(s) with desirable pharmacological properties. Thus the plants used by the healers should be further studied towards discovery of possibly newer and more efficacious drugs.

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Md. Nur Kabidul Azam, Md. Nasir Ahmed, Md. Mizanur Rahman, Mohammed Rahmatullah

Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh.

Received: November 03, 2013; Revised: January 13, 2014; Accepted: January 17, 2014

Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor, University of Development Alternative, House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new), Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh. Phone: 88-01715032621 Fax: 88-02-8157339 E-mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com
Table 1: Medicinal plants and formulations of the Gor and Oraon
healers (formulations used by the Gor healer are given in parenthesis
after the formulation).

Serial Number   Scientific Name

1               Justicia adhatoda L.
2               Justicia aurea Schltdl.
3               Justicia gendarussa Burm.
4               Acorus calamus L.
5               Sansevieria trifasciata Hort. Ex D. Prain
6               Amaranthus spinosus L.
7               Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn.) Thwaites
8               Sageraea listeri King
9               Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.
10              Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br.
11              Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G. Don.
12              Amorphophall us campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume
13              Typhonium trilobatum (L.) Schott
14              Calotropis gigantea (L.) W.T. Aiton
15              Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk.
16              Enhydra fluctuans Lour.
17              Eupatorium odoratum L.
18              Mikania cordata (Burm. f.) B.L. Rob.
19              Spilanthes calva DC.
20              Oroxylum indicum Vent.
21              Bombax ceiba L.
22              Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.
23              Trema orientalis (L.) Blume
24              Carica papaya L.
25              Casuarina littorea L. ex Fosberg & Sachet
26              Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) W. & A.
27              Terminalia bellirica Roxb.
28              Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz
29              Brassica juncea (L.) Czern
30              Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt
31              Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.
32              Dillenia indica L.
33              Phyllanthus emblica L.
34              Ricinus communis L.
35              Tragia involucrata L.
36              Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.
37              Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth.
38              Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf.
39              Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC.
40              Erythrina variegata L.
41              Mimosa pudica L.
42              Swertia chirata (Roxb. ex Fleming) H. Karst.
43              Mesua ferrea L.
44              Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.
45              Leucas lavandulifolia Sm.
46              Ocimum tenuiflorum L.
47              Litsea monopetala (Roxb.) Pers.
48              Allium sativum L.
49              Duabanga grandiflora (Roxb. ex DC.) Walp.
50              Hibiscus rosa sinensis L.
51              Azadirachta indica A. Juss.
52              Ficus benghalensis L.
53              Streblus asper Lour.
54              Musa sapientum L.
55              Psidium guajava L.
56              Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin.
57              Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
58              Nigella sativa L.
59              Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle
60              Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck
61              Citrus macroptera Lour.
62              Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC.
63              Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.
64              Allophylus dimorphus Radlk.
65              Capsicum frutescens L.
66              Datura metel L.
67              Solanum torvum Sw.
68              Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal
69              Abroma augusta L.
70              Firmiana colorata R. Br.
71              Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze
72              Clerodendrum viscosum Vent.
73              Alpinia nigra (Gaertn.) Burtt.
74              Curcuma longa L.

Serial Number   Family Name      Local Name

1               Acanthaceae      Bashok
2               Acanthaceae      Kala bashok
3               Acanthaceae      Bishollo koroni, Bish jaron
4               Acoraceae        Vojo
5               Agavaceae        Krishno kur
6               Amaranthaceae    Kath dugi
7               Annonaceae       Debdaru
8               Annonaceae       Dhiman
9               Apiaceae         Tuna pata, Tonki manki
10              Apocynaceae      Chauni
11              Araceae          Shundori kochu
12              Araceae          Ol kochu
13              Araceae          Kukur shunga
14              Asclepiadaceae   Akhon
15              Asteraceae       Cherry shak
16              Asteraceae       Helencha
17              Asteraceae       Jarman
18              Asteraceae       Mekani lota
19              Asteraceae       Nak ful
20              Bignoniaceae     Naori
21              Bombacaceae      Shimul
22              Bromeliaceae     Anarosh
23              Cannabaceae      Chikon gach
24              Caricaceae       Koi fol
25              Casuarinaceae    Harish gach
26              Combretaceae     Arjun
27              Combretaceae     Bohera
28              Combretaceae     Hortoki
29              Cruciferae       Shorisha
30              Cucurbitaceae    Kaogaluli, Telakuchi
31              Cuscutaceae      Shurnol
32              Dilleniaceae     Cholta
33              Euphorbiaceae    Aowla
34              Euphorbiaceae    Verela
35              Euphorbiaceae    Bera, Chutra
36              Fabaceae         Babol
37              Fabaceae         Keola
38              Fabaceae         Dad gach, Krishnochur a
39              Fabaceae         Jhun jhuni
40              Fabaceae         Mandor
41              Fabaceae         Lajuni
42              Gentianaceae     Chirota
43              Guttiferae       Nageshwar
44              Lamiaceae        Tutma
45              Lamiaceae        Gam shak, Don kolosh
46              Lamiaceae        Tulsi
47              Lauraceae        Med
48              Liliaceae        Roshun
49              Lythraceae       Ram daton
50              Malvaceae        Joba
51              Meliaceae        Neem
52              Moraceae         Bot gach
53              Moraceae         Shohora
54              Musaceae         Kola
55              Myrtaceae        Sofori
56              Poaceae          Lengri fena
57              Poaceae          Dubol ghash
58              Ranunculaceae    Kala jira
59              Rutaceae         Jamera
60              Rutaceae         Jambura
61              Rutaceae         Shatkor
62              Rutaceae         Dhara, Ham jham
63              Rutaceae         Norshing, Pipolti
64              Sapindaceae      Chita paru
65              Solanaceae       Khet morich
66              Solanaceae       Dhutora, Kalo dhutura

67              Solanaceae       Bot baegun
68              Solanaceae       Ashwagond ha
69              Sterculiaceae    Ulot kombol, Lat lati
70              Sterculiaceae    Udal
71              Theaceae         Cha pata
72              Verbenaceae      Gatu pata, Ghato
73              Zingiberaceae    Tera
74              Zingiberaceae    Shidh gach

Serial Number   Parts used

1               Leaf
2               Leaf
3               Leaf
4               Leaf
5               Root
6               Root, whole plant
7               Bark
8               Fruit
9               Leaf
10              Bark from young plant
11              Tuber
12              Tuber
13              Leaf
14              Shoot, whole plant
15              Leaf, stem
16              Leaf, stem
17              Whole plant
18              Stem
19              Leaf
20              Bark
21              Root
22              Leaf
23              Leaf
24              Fruit
25              Root
26              Leaf
27              Fruit
28              Fruit
29              Seed
30              Leaf
31              Stem
32              Leaf, fruit
33              Fruit
34              Leaf
35              Root, leaf
36              Flower
37              Fruit
38              Leaf
39              Fruit
40              Whole plant
41              Root
42              Leaf
43              Flower
44              Fruit
45              Shoot
46              Leaf
47              Bark, root
48              Clove
49              Leaf
50              Flower
51              Leaf
52              Gum
53              Root
54              Leaf
55              Leaf, bark
56              Leaf
57              Shoot
58              Seed
59              Fruit
60              Leaf, fruit
61              Fruit
62              Leaf
63              Leaf
64              Fruit
65              Leaf
66              Leaf, fruit
67              Seed
68              Root
69              Leaf, fruit
70              Leaf
71              Leaf
72              Leaf
73              Rhizome
74              Rhizome

Serial Number   Disease, Symptoms, Formulations, and Administration

1               See Ocimum tenuiflorum.
2               Pneumonia, coughs. Leaf juice is orally taken.
3               Rheumatic pain. Crushed leaves are applied as
                  poultice to painful areas. (Gor) Bleeding from
                  external cuts and wounds. Crushed leaves are
                  applied to cuts and wounds. Blood coming out
                  through the mouth. Juice obtained from macerated
                  mouth. Juice obtained from macerated leaves is taken
                  orally with honey. 'Rokto prodor', 'rokto ujal'
                  (excessive or irregular bleeding during
                  menstruation). Juice obtained from macerated leaves
                  is taken orally. Bone fracture, rheumatic pain. One
                  cup of leaf juice is taken orally thrice daily;
                  alternately, crushed leaves are applied on
                  affected areas.
4               Wound. Crushed leaf is applied to wound.
5               Snake bite. A small amount of root is orally taken
                  against snake bite.
6               Low semen density. Root juice is taken orally. To
                  increase energy, low semen volume. Whole plant is
                  cooked and eaten.
7               Coughs, mucus, skin disorders. Bark is boiled in
                  water and the decoction taken orally with sugar
                  for 5-7 days.
8               Energy. Fruits are orally consumed for increasing
                  energy.
9               Dysentery, intestinal dysfunction. Leaf juice is
                  orally taken. (Gor) To increase energy. Leaves are
                  mashed form.
10              Nerve stimulant. Bark from young plant is boiled in
                  water and the decoction orally taken with honey.
11              See Calotropis gigantea.
12              Dysentery. Tubers are cooked as vegetables and eaten.
13              Infection, wound. Crushed leaf is topically applied to
                  affected area.
14              Wounds, paralysis. Crushed shoots of Calotropis
                  gigantea, leaves of Datura metel, flowers of Acacia
                  farnesiana, clove of Allium sativum, and seeds of
                  Brassica campestris are combined together and boiled
                  to make a cake which is applied to wounds or
                  paralyzed areas. Dog bite. 250 ml of juice obtained
                  from crushed whole plant is orally taken with 250 ml
                  cow milk. Erectile dysfunction. Juice from crushed
                  whole plants of Calotropis gigantea is combined with
                  crushed whole plants of Cynodon dactylon, fruits of
                  Allophyllus dimorphus and crushed tubers of Alocasia
                  macrorrhizos and the combination is orally taken
                  with 250 ml milk. (Gor)
15              Skin infection, chicken pox. Leaves and stems are
                  crushed and mixed with mustard oil (oil obtained
                  from seeds of Brassica juncea) and then topically
                  applied to the skin.
16              Intestinal disorders. Leaves and stems are fried and
                  eaten.
17              Low semen density. Whole plant is taken orally with
                  butter.
18              Gastric problems. Juice obtained from crushed stem is
                  orally taken.
19              Infection of mouth, toothache. Juice obtained from
                  crushed leaves is taken within the mouth and kept
                  for a few minutes; alternately, crushed leaves are
                  kept within the mouth for a few minutes.
20              Jaundice. Bark juice is orally taken.
21              Decreased semen density, erectile dysfunction. Root
                  juice is taken orally.
22              Helminthiasis. Juice obtained from crushed leaves is
                  orally taken. (Gor)
23              Vomiting. Juice obtained from crushed leaves is orally
                  taken. (Gor)
24              Jaundice, diabetes. Green (unripe) fruits are eaten
                  orally for jaundice, ripe fruits taken orally for
                  diabetes.
25              Erectile dysfunction. Root juice is orally taken.
26              Body pain, intestinal dysfunction. Leaf juice is
                  orally taken.
27              Helminthiasis, loss of hair. For helminthiasis, fruits
                  are taken orally with water on an empty stomach. For
                  loss of hair, crushed fruits are applied topically
                  to scalp.
28              Indigestion, vomiting, constipation, intestinal
                  dysfunction. Fruits are orally taken.
29              See Calotropis gigantea. See Eclipta alba.
30              Diabetes, intestinal dysfunction. Juice obtained from
                  crushed leaves is orally taken; alternately, leaves
                  are fried and eaten (for diabetes).
31              Anthrax in cattle. Stems of Cuscuta reflexa are
                  crushed with leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum and fed
                  to cattle. Jaundice. Stem juice is taken orally.
32              Diarrhea, dysentery. Juice obtained from crushed leaf
                  and fruit is orally taken. (Gor)
33              Intestinal dysfunction, blood purifier. Fruits are
                  chewed and orally taken.
34              Diarrhea in cattle. Leaves are orally administered.
                  Wound in humans. Leaves are boiled in water and the
                  vapor inhaled.
35              Cold, helminthiasis, loss of hair. Root juice is
                  orally taken. Constant feeling of sleepiness,
                  frequent absent mindedness. Dried and powdered leaf
                  is taken with milk.
36              See Calotropis gigantea.
37              Stomach pain, vomiting, headache. Fruits are orally
                  taken.
38              To increase sexual energy. Crushed leaves are applied
                  as poultice over penis or vagina.
39              Low semen density. Fruits are orally taken. (Gor)
40              Constipation. Juice obtained from crushed whole plant
                  is orally taken.
41              Impotency, appetizer, spleen enlargement. Root juice
                  is orally taken.
42              Fever. Leaf juice is taken orally.
43              Fever, arthritis. Flowers are orally taken with water.
44              Low semen density. Fruits are taken orally. See
                  Firmiana colorata.
45              Loss of appetite. Shoots are cooked and eaten as
                  vegetable.
46              Coughs. Crushed leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum, Justicia
                  adhatoda, and Clerodendrum viscosum are taken orally
                  with honey. (Gor)
47              Gastric ulcer. Bark juice is orally taken. Diarrhea in
                  cattle. Sliced roots are fed wrapped in banana leaf
                  (leaf of Musa sapientum).
48              See Calotropis gigantea.
49              See Firmiana colorata.
50              Premature ejaculation. Juice obtained from crushed
                  is orally taken.
51              Itch. Leaf juice is topically applied to itches.
52              Low semen density. Gum is orally taken.
53              Energy. Mashed root is taken orally for increasing
                  energy.
54              See Litsea monopetala.
55              Toothache. Young leaves are boiled in water with
                  camphor and the water used for gargling. Diarrhea.
                  Bark juice is taken orally for diarrhea.
56              See Firmiana colorata.
57              Headache, infection. Shoots are chewed for headache.
                  Crushed shoots are topically applied to infected
                  area(s). See Calotropis gigantea.
58              See Firmiana colorata.
59              Bloating, after effects of excessive alcohol drinking.
                  Fruit juice is orally taken.
60              Loss of appetite, vomiting, fever. Young leaves are
                  chewed to stimulate appetite and stop vomiting.
                  Fruits are taken orally for fever.
61              Fruits are cooked and eaten as vegetable.
62              Toothache. Leaves are chewed.
63              To expedite delivery in pregnant woman. Leaf juice is
                  orally taken.
64              See Calotropis gigantea.
65              Blood purifier, indigestion. Juice obtained from
                  crushed leaves is orally taken.
66              Intestinal dysfunction. Juice obtained from crushed
                  leaves and fruit is orally taken. See Calotropis
                  gigantea.
67              Toothache. Seeds are burnt and the smoke inhaled.
68              Erectile dysfunction. Root juice is taken orally.
69              Premature ejaculation. Juice obtained from a
                  combination of crushed leaves and fruit is orally
                  taken. Antidote to poisoning, intestinal
                  dysfunction. Leaf juice is orally taken.
70              Intestinal dysfunction. Leaf juice of Firmiana
                  colorata is combined with leaf juice of Duabanga
                  grandiflora, leaf juice of Chrysopogon aciculatus,
                  rhizome juice of Alpinia nigra, leaf juice of Hyptis
                  suaveolens, and seeds of Nigella sativa. The
                  combination is taken orally.
71              Nerve stimulant. Leaves are boiled in water and the
                  whole decoction taken orally. Cancer. Leaf juice is
                  taken orally on an empty stomach.
72              To increase energy. Leaf juice is orally taken. (Gor)
                See Ocimum tenuiflorum. See Cuscuta reflexa.
73              See Firmiana colorata.
74              Bone fracture, sex stimulant. Rhizome juice is applied
                  to fractured area. Rhizome juice is taken orally as
                  sex stimulant.
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Azam, Nur Kabidul; Ahmed, Nasir; Rahman, Mizanur; Rahmatullah, Mohammed
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Dec 1, 2013
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