Printer Friendly

Ethnomedicinal wisdom of a Tonchongya tribal healer practicing in Rangamati district, Bangladesh.

Introduction

More than a hundred indigenous communities or tribal groups are present in Bangladesh. Many of these groups with their clans and sub-clans are present in the southeastern portion of the country known as the Chittagong Hill Tracts region. The region is a hilly forested area and is considered a hot spot within the country regarding variety of plant species found there, many of them being considered as medicinal plants, and used as such by the tribal communities. The various tribes inhabiting the region include the Chaks, Chakmas, Marmas, Murongs, Rakhains, Tripuras, Pankhos, Bawms, Tonchongyas, and the Mros, to name only a few. Although each of these tribal groups have their own tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) and the TMPs have their own medicinal plant formulations, such use of medicinal plants remain largely undocumented as of present. Observations of indigenous medicinal practices and especially their use of medicinal plants have led to discovery of many important modern drugs (Balick and Cox, 1996; Cotton, 1996; Gilani and Rahman, 2005). It is therefore always of interest to document the use of medicinal plants or other items used by these indigenous communities and documenting them in details, so that proper scientific studies may be conducted on them.

Medicinal plants, in any country, form a valuable resource. Not only such plants may possess among the various phytochemicals present within any given plant, valuable drugs to combat any old or emerging disease(s), but also form a cheap source of treatment and so save a country and its inhabitants from costly health-care. The recognition that any given plant species is a valuable medicinal plant also spurs conservation effort on the plant species concerned. Towards building up a comprehensive data base of the medicinal plants of Bangladesh, we had been conducting ethnomedicinal surveys among various mainstream traditional medicinal practitioners (particularly folk medicinal practitioners) and TMPs over the last few years (Nawaz et al., 2009; Rahmatullah et al, 2009a-c; Chowdhury et al, 2010; Hasan et al., 2010; Hossan et al, 2010; Mollik et al., 2010a, b; Rahmatullah et al., 2010a-g; Akber et al., 2011; Biswas et al., 2011a-c; Haque et al., 2011; Islam et al., 2011; Jahan et al., 2011; Rahmatullah et al., 2011a, b; Sarker et al., 2011; Shaheen et al., 2011; Das et al., 2012; Hasan et al., 2012; Hossan et al., 2012; Khan et al., 2012; Rahmatullah et al., 2012a-d; Sarker et al., 2012). The objective of this present survey was to document the ethnomedicinal practices of a Tonchongya tribal healer, who very unusually, practiced among Chakma and Pankho tribal communities in Bilaichari subdistrict, which falls within Rangamati district of Bangladesh. Notably, Rangamati district is within the Chittagong Hill Tracts. The Tonchongyas are a separate tribal community and have their own tribal healers. However, this TMP mainly practiced in the town of Rangamati, and his patients, according to him, came mostly from the Chakma and Pankho communities residing in the town of Rangamati.

Materials and Methods

Informed consent was initially obtained from the TMP, Shompun Tonchongya, who was 79 years in age, and Buddhist by religion. The TMP practiced among the Chakma and Pankho communities who reside in Bilaichari sub-district of Rangamati, but his main practice center was the town of Rangamati. The town has a number of tribal community members in residence, and the patients of the TMP, according to him, came usually from the Chakma and the Pankho tribal communities, the Chakma community being the largest tribal group residing in Rangamati. The TMP was apprised of the nature of our visit and consent obtained to disseminate any information obtained both nationally and internationally. Rangamati town also has a large group of mainstream Bengali-speaking residents, and the Kaviraj could speak fluent Bengali, which was also the language of the interviewers.

Interviews were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, the TMP took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where he collected his medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. Plant specimens were collected on the spot, photographed, and dried. Following drying, the specimens were brought to Dhaka to be identified by Mr. Manjur-Ul-Kadir Mia, ex-Curator and Principal Scientific Officer of the Bangladesh National Herbarium. Voucher specimens were deposited with the Medicinal Plant Collection Wing of the University of Development Alternative.

Results and Discussion

The Tonchongya TMP was observed to use a total of 24 plant species in his treatment of various ailments. These plant species were distributed into 14 families. The various ailments treated included respiratory disorders, urinary problems, snake or insect bite, excessive bleeding during menstruation, gastrointestinal disorders, high blood pressure, abscess, pain, measles, allergy, cataract, rheumatic fever, and chicken pox. One plant species, namely Vernonia cinerea, was used for treatment of patients, who believed or the TMP diagnosed as being possessed by 'genies' or 'ghosts'. The results are shown in Table 1.

The formulations of the Tonchongya healer were quite simple. Usually one plant was used for treatment of a single ailment, like the use of Acorus calamus for treatment of asthma. However, sometimes the TMP used the same plant species to treat more than one ailment, like use of Ocimum basilicum for treatment of both asthma as well as refusal of an infant to take milk from the nursing mother. In most cases, juice of a particular plant part was obtained by crushing the plant part followed by topical or oral administration of the juice. In some cases, a plant part was directly administered, like the oral administration of seeds of Cassia fistula with milk for treatment of constipation in children. An unusual feature of the TMP was the use of iron rod to heat or warm juice obtained from various plant parts prior to administration. For instance, leaves of a Combretum species were touched with a red-hot iron rod prior to boiling the leaves followed by oral administration of the boiled leaves. For treatment of asthma, juice obtained from crushed leaves of Ocimum basilicum were heated with a red-hot iron rod followed by oral administration of the juice. It is possible that the hotness of the iron piece was utilized to render the preparation aseptic. On the other hand, it is quite possible that insertion of a heated iron piece within the plant juice may lead to formation of complexes with different phytochemicals present within the juice, and these herbometallic complexes were the real agents for cure. It is to be noted that many plants contain gallic acid as a constituent, and iron-gallic acid complex formation has been reported (Rajendran et al., 2012).

Despite the belief in genies or ghosts, the use of a number of plants by the TMP appears to be remarkably justified considering the various ethnomedicinal and scientific reports on the uses and pharmacological properties of those plant species. Acorus calamus was used by the TMP for treatment of asthma; various constituents of the plant like phenyl propanoids, sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, xanthone glycosides, flavones, lignans, and steroids possess properties, which include anticonvulsant and smooth muscle relaxant properties and which properties justifies the use of the plant for treatment of asthma (Divya et al., 2011). Traditional uses of Achyranthes aspera for treatment of strangury has been reported (Krishnaveni and Thaakur, 2006); the TMP used the plant for treatment of urination difficulties and passing of blood during urination. The use of Aerva sanguinolenta for treatment of snake bite by the Tonchongya TMP is also practiced by traditional medicinal practitioners in Sri Lanka. Amaranthus spinosus was used by the TMP for treatment of excessive bleeding during menstruation; in Indian ethnomedicinal systems, the seeds of the plant are used for treatment of internal bleeding and excessive menstruation, while the leaves of the plant are used for colic menorrhagia (Baral et al., 2011).

Holarrhena antidysenterica was used by the TMP to treat dysentery; the ancient Indian traditional system of medicine known as Ayurveda uses an Ayurvedic formulation known as Kutajghan Vati containing this plant for treatment of dysentery (Lather et al., 2010). Rauwolfia serpentina, used by the TMP to treat high blood pressure has long been established in the scientific literature as an effective treatment for this disorder (Vakil, 1955). Chromolaena odorata was used by the TMP for treatment of abscess with pain; notably, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of flavonoid fractions of the plant has been shown (Owoyele et al., 2008).

Ethnomedicinal uses of a particular plant species may be the same or vary among ethnic groups of various regions of the world. Ricinus communis was used by the Tonchongya TMP to treat blood dysentery. Some ethnic groups of India use the plant as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent (Anilkumar, 2010). The Oromo ethnic group in southwestern Ethiopia uses the plant to treat rabies (Yineger et al., 2008). The local community of Jalalpur Jattan in Punjab, Pakistan uses the plant for treatment of constipation, and stomach and bowel problems (Hussain et al., 2010). The Kalanguya tribe in Tinoc, Ifugao, Luzon, Philippines use the same plant for treatment of scabies (Balangcod and Balangcod, 2011). Canavalia gladiata, used by the Tonchongya TMP for treatment of measles in children is used by the Kanikkar tribal group in Tirunelveli district in Tamil Nadu, India for treatment of pain occurring in external piles (Mohan et al., 2008). Cassia alata, used by the TMP for treatment of skin infections, has ethnomedicinal uses in Thailand as a laxative and for treatment of fungal skin diseases (Gritsanapan, 2010). The Kalanguya tribe in the Philippines uses the plant both for treatment of scabies (leaves) and for treatment of helmintic infections (seeds) (Balangcod and Balangcod, 2011). Cassia fistula was used by the TMP for treatment of constipation in children; such ethnomedicinal uses have been reported for in Iran. Moreover, the laxative effect of the plant has been established for pediatric functional constipation (Mozaffarpur et al., 2012).

Folklore herbalists and the Tripuri tribe of India use the rhizomes of Curculigo recurvata on boils and to stop bleeding from external cuts and wounds (Majumdar and Datta, 2007); the Tonchongya TMP used the roots for treatment of allergy. Ocimum basilicum was used by the TMP to treat asthma; relaxant effects of the plant on tracheal chains has been reported (Boskabady et al., 2005). The plant is also used by the Mbo community of Nkongsamba Region, Cameroon for treatment of asthma (Noumi, 2010). Juice obtained from young leaves of Vitex agnus-castus was used by the TMP for treatment of cataract; the plant has ethnoveterinary uses in Trinidad for treatment of hormone imbalances in horses (Lans et al., 2006). The roots of the plant Pericampylus glaucus were used by the TMP for treatment of constipation in young children; the people of Nawalparasi district in Central Nepal uses the plant for treatment of dysuria and as a diuretic (Bhattarai et al., 2009). In traditional medicines of Assam, India, the plant is used to treat hematuria (Deka et al., 2008).

The Tonchongya TMP used the plant Mussaenda glabrata for treatment of headache, while other tribal people of the Chittagong Hill Tracts region like the Chakmas, Marmas and Tripuras use the plant for treatment of jaundice and leprosy (Biswas et al., 2010). Leaves of Paederia foetida were used by the TMP to treat rheumatic fever. The plant is used in some parts of India to treat rheumatism (Shetti et al., 2012); the Tai Ahom tribal people of Dibrugarh district in Assam, India use the plant to treat abdominal pain (Kalita and Phukan, 2010). The Tripuri tribe of India uses the plant for treatment of rheumatic pain (Majumdar and Datta, 2007).

A comparative ethnomedicinal analysis of the use of a particular plant species by different indigenous communities in various parts of the world combined with scientific reports on phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties of the same species can be a good indicator of the possibility of finding a new drug from that plant species or use of the plant for treatment of a given disease. From that view point, the plants used by the Tonchongya TMP merits further studies for a number of plants are validated in their uses on the basis of scientific reports on their pharmacognostic profiles or ethnomedicinal uses. The forests of Chittagong Hill Tracts region are yet to be thoroughly explored regarding the plant species present in the region, and the Tonchongya healer used a number of plants not used by the mainstream folk medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh. Many of the plant species mentioned are on the point of endangerment. Scientific recognition of these endangered species as possible sources of new and better drugs can spur conservation efforts of these plants and at the same time lead to more efficient health-care among not only the tribal people but the population as a whole.

References

Akber, M., S. Seraj, F. Islam, D. Ferdausi, R. Ahmed, D. Nasrin, N. Nahar, S. Ahsan, F. Jamal and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. A survey of medicinal plants used by the traditional medicinal practitioners of Khulna City, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 177-195.

Anilkumar, M., 2010. Ethnomedicinal plants as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. Ethnomedicine: A Source of Complementary Therapeutics, (Ed. Debprasad Chattopadhyay), Research Signpost, Kerala, India.

Balangcod, T.D. and A.K.D. Balangcod, 2011. Ethnomedical knowledge of plants and healthcare practices among the Kalanguya tribe in Tinoc, Ifugao, Luzon, Philippines. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 10: 227-238.

Balick, J.M. and P.A. Cox, 1996. Plants, People and Culture: the Science of Ethnobotany, Scientific American Library, New York, pp: 228.

Baral, M., A. Datta, S. Chakraborty and P. Chakraborty, 2011. Pharmacognostic studies on stem and leaves of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, 2: 41-47.

Bhattarai, S., R.P. Chaudhary and R.S.L. Taylor, 2009. Ethno-medicinal plants used by the people of Nawalparasi District, Central Nepal. Our Nature, 7: 82-99.

Biswas, A., M.A. Bari, M. Roy and S.K. Bhadra, 2010. Inherited folk pharmaceutical knowledge of tribal people in the Chittagong Hill tracts, Bangladesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 9: 77-89.

Biswas, K.R., T. Ishika, M. Rahman, A. Swarna, T. Khan, M.N. Monalisa and M. Rahmatullah, 2011a. Antidiabetic plants and formulations used by folk medicinal practitioners of two villages in Narail and Chuadanga districts, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 158-167.

Biswas, A., W.M. Haq, M. Akber, D. Ferdausi, S. Seraj, F.I. Jahan, A.R. Chowdhury and M. Rahmatullah, 2011b. A survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages of Gaurnadi Upazila in Barisal district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 15-22.

Biswas, K.R., T. Khan, M.N. Monalisa, A. Swarna, T. Ishika, M. Rahman and M. Rahmatullah, 2011c. Medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of four adjoining villages of Narail and Jessore districts, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 23-33.

Boskabady, M.H., S. Kiani and B. Haghiri, 2005. Relaxant effects of Ocimum basilicum on guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s). DARU, 13: 28-33.

Chowdhury, A.R., F.I. Jahan, S. Seraj, Z. Khatun, F. Jamal, S. Ahsan, R. Jahan, I. Ahmad, M.H. Chowdhury and M. Rahmatullah, 2010. A survey of medicinal plants used by Kavirajes of Barisal town in Barisal district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 237-246.

Cotton, C.M., 1996. Ethnobotany: Principle and Application, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp: 399.

Das, P.R., M.T. Islam, A.S.M.S.B. Mahmud, M.H. Kabir, M.E. Hasan, Z. Khatun, M.M. Rahman, M. Nurunnabi, Z. Khatun, Y.K. Lee, R. Jahan and M. Rahmatullah, 2012. An ethnomedicinal survey conducted among the folk medicinal practitioners of three villages in Kurigram district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6: 85-96.

Deka, P., K.K. Nath and S.K. Borthakur, 2008. Ethoiatrical uses of Euphorbia antiquorum L. and E. ligularia Roxb. in Assam. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 7: 466-468.

Divya, G., S. Gajalakshmi, S. Mythili and A. Sathiavelu, 2011. Pharmacological activities of Acorus calamus: A review. Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 4: 57-69.

Gilani, A.H. and A.U. Rahman, 2005. Trends in ethnopharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 100: 43-49.

Gritsanapan, W., 2010. Ethnomedicinal plants popularly used in Thailand as laxative drugs. Ethnomedicine: A Source of Complementary Therapeutics (Ed. Debprasad Chattopadhyay), Research Signpost, Kerala, India, pp: 295-315.

Haque, M.A., M.K. Shaha, S.U. Ahmed, R. Akter, H. Rahman, S. Chakravotry, A.H.M.N. Imran, M.T. Islam, R.C. Das and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. Use of inorganic substances in folk medicinal formulations: a case study of a folk medicinal practitioner in Tangail district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 415-423.

Hasan, M.M., M.E.A. Annay, M. Sintaha, H.N. Khaleque, F.A. Noor, A. Nahar, S. Seraj, R. Jahan, M.H. Chowdhury and M. Rahmatullah, 2010. A survey of medicinal plant usage by folk medicinal practitioners in seven villages of Ishwardi Upazilla, Pabna district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 326-333.

Hasan, M.E., S. Akter, N.S. Piya, P.K. Nath, U.S.R. Nova, H.R. Chowdhury, N.F. Anjoom, Z. Khatun and M. Rahmatullah, 2012. Variations in selection of medicinal plants by tribal healers of the Soren clan of the Santal tribe: a study of the Santals in Rajshahi district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6: 315-324.

Hossan, M.S., A. Hanif, B. Agarwala, M.S. Sarwar, M. Karim, M.T. Rahman, R. Jahan and M. Rahmatullah, 2010. Traditional use of medicinal plants in Bangladesh to treat urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases. Ethnobotany Research and Applications, 8: 61-74.

Hossan, M.S., P. Roy, S. Seraj, S.M. Mou, M.N. Monalisa, S. Jahan, T. Khan, A. Swarna, R. Jahan and M. Rahmatullah, 2012. Ethnomedicinal knowledge among the Tongchongya tribal community of Roangchaari Upazila of Bandarban district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6: 349-359.

Hussain, K., M.F. Nisar, A. Majeed, K. Nawaz and K.H. Bhatti, 2010. Ethnomedicinal survey for important plants of Jalalpur Jattan, District Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan. Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 14: 807-825.

Islam, F., F.I. Jahan, S. Seraj, I. Malek, A.F.M.N. Sadat, M.S.A. Bhuiyan, A. Swarna, S. Sanam and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. Variations in diseases and medicinal plant selection among folk medicinal practitioners: a case study in Jessore district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 282-291.

Jahan, F.I., M.R.U. Hasan, R. Jahan, S. Seraj, A.R. Chowdhury, M.T. Islam, Z. Khatun and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. A Comparison of Medicinal Plant Usage by Folk Medicinal Practitioners of two Adjoining Villages in Lalmonirhat district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 46-66.

Kalita, D. and B. Phukan, 2010. Some ethnomedicines used by the Tai Ahom of Dibrugarh district, Assam, India. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 1: 507-511.

Khan, M.A., M.N. Hasan, N. Jahan, P.R. Das, M.T. Islam, M.S.A. Bhuiyan, S. Jahan, S. Hossain and M. Rahmatullah, 2012. Ethnomedicinal wisdom and famine food plants of the Hajong community of Baromari village in Netrakona district of Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6: 387-397.

Krishnaveni, A. and S.R. Thaakur, 2006. Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical studies of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Ancient Science of Life, XXVI: 1-5.

Lans, C., N. Turner, G. Brauer, G. Lourenco and K. Georges, 2006. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses in Trinidad and in British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2: 31-50.

Lather, A., V. Gupta, P. Bansal, R. Singh and A.K. Chaudhary, 2010. Pharmacological potential of Ayurvedic formulation: Kutajghan Vati - A review. Journal of Advanced Scientific Research, 1: 41-45.

Majumdar, K. and B.K. Datta, 2007. A study on ethnomedicinal usage of plants among the folklore herbalists and Tripuri medical practitioners: Part II. Natural Product Radiance, 6: 66-73.

Martin, G.J., 1995. Ethnobotany: a 'People and Plants' Conservation Manual, Chapman and Hall, London, pp: 268.

Maundu, P., 1995. Methodology for collecting and sharing indigenous knowledge: a case study. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor, 3: 3-5.

Mohan, V.R., A. Rajesh, T. Athiperumalsami and S. Sutha, 2008. Ethnomedicinal plants of the Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 12: 79-95.

Mollik, M.A.H., M.S. Hossan, A.K. Paul, M.T. Rahman, R. Jahan and M. Rahmatullah, 2010a. A comparative analysis of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal healers in three districts of Bangladesh and inquiry as to mode of selection of medicinal plants. Ethnobotany Research and Applications, 8: 195-218.

Mollik, M.A.H., A.I. Hassan, T.K. Paul, M. Sintaha, H.N. Khaleque, F.A. Noor, A. Nahar, S. Seraj, R. Jahan, M.H. Chowdhury and M. Rahmatullah, 2010b. A survey of medicinal plant usage by folk medicinal practitioners in two villages by the Rupsha River in Bagerhat district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 349-356.

Mozaffarpur, S.A., M. Naseri, M.R. Esmaeilidooki and M. Kamalinejad, 2012. The effect of Cassia fistula emulsion on pediatric functional constipation in comparison with mineral oil: a randomized, clinical trial. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 20: 83-91.

Nawaz, A.H.M.M., M. Hossain, M. Karim, M. Khan, R. Jahan and M. Rahmatullah, 2009. An ethnobotanical survey of Rajshahi district in Rajshahi division, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 143-150.

Noumi, E., 2010. Ethno-medico-botanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of asthma in the Nkongsamba Region, Cameroon. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 9: 491-495.

Owoyele, B.V., S.O. Oguntoye, K. Dare, B.A. Ogunbiyi, E.A. Aruboula and A.O. Soladoye, 2008. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities from flavonoid fractions of Chromolaena odorata. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2: 219-225.

Rahmatullah, M., D. Ferdausi, M.A.H. Mollik, M.N.K. Azam, M.T. Rahman and R. Jahan, 2009a. Ethnomedicinal Survey of Bheramara Area in Kushtia District, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 534-541.

Rahmatullah, M., A. Noman, M.S. Hossan, M.H. Rashid, T. Rahman, M.H. Chowdhury and R. Jahan, 2009b. A survey of medicinal plants in two areas of Dinajpur district, Bangladesh including plants which can be used as functional foods. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 862-876.

Rahmatullah, M., A.K. Das, M.A.H. Mollik, R. Jahan, M. Khan, T. Rahman and M.H. Chowdhury, 2009c. An Ethnomedicinal Survey of Dhamrai Sub-district in Dhaka District, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 881-888.

Rahmatullah, M., D. Ferdausi, M.A.H. Mollik, R. Jahan, M.H. Chowdhury and W.M. Haque, 2010a. A Survey of Medicinal Plants used by Kavirajes of Chalna area, Khulna District, Bangladesh. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 7: 91-97.

Rahmatullah, M., M.A. Khatun, N. Morshed, P.K. Neogi, S.U.A. Khan, M.S. Hossan, M.J. Mahal and R. Jahan, 2010b. A randomized survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal healers of Sylhet Division, Bangladesh. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4: 52-62.

Rahmatullah, M., A.A.B.T. Kabir, M.M. Rahman, M.S. Hossan, Z. Khatun, M.A. Khatun and R. Jahan, 2010c. Ethnomedicinal practices among a minority group of Christians residing in Mirzapur village of Dinajpur District, Bangladesh. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4: 45-51.

Rahmatullah, M., M.A. Momen, M.M. Rahman, D. Nasrin, M.S. Hossain, Z. Khatun, F.I. Jahan, M.A. Khatun and R. Jahan, 2010d. A randomized survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners in Daudkandi sub-district of Comilla district, Bangladesh. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4: 99104.

Rahmatullah, M., M.A.H. Mollik, M.N. Ahmed, M.Z.A. Bhuiyan, M.M. Hossain, M.N.K. Azam, S. Seraj, M.H. Chowdhury, F. Jamal, S. Ahsan and R. Jahan, 2010e. A survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners in two villages of Tangail district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 357-362.

Rahmatullah, M., M.A.H. Mollik, M.K. Islam, M.R. Islam, F.I. Jahan, Z. Khatun, S. Seraj, M.H. Chowdhury, F. Islam, Z.U.M. Miajee and R. Jahan, 2010f. A survey of medicinal and functional food plants used by the folk medicinal practitioners of three villages in Sreepur Upazilla, Magura district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 363-373.

Rahmatullah, M., R. Jahan, M.A. Khatun, F.I. Jahan, A.K. Azad, A.B.M. Bashar, Z.U.M. Miajee, S. Ahsan, N. Nahar, I. Ahmad and M.H. Chowdhury, 2010g. A pharmacological evaluation of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of Station Purbo Para Village of Jamalpur Sadar Upazila in Jamalpur district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 170-195.

Rahmatullah, M., T. Ishika, M. Rahman, A. Swarna, T. Khan M.N. Monalisa, S. Seraj, S.M. Mou, M.J. Mahal and K.R. Biswas, 2011a. Plants prescribed for both preventive and therapeutic purposes by the traditional healers of the Bede community residing by the Turag River, Dhaka district. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 325-331.

Rahmatullah, M., M.N.K. Azam, M.M. Rahman, S. Seraj, M.J. Mahal, S.M. Mou, D. Nasrin, Z. Khatun, F. Islam and M.H. Chowdhury, 2011b. A survey of medicinal plants used by Garo and non-Garo traditional medicinal practitioners in two villages of Tangail district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 350-357.

Rahmatullah, M., and K.R. Biswas, 2012a. Traditional medicinal practices of a Sardar healer of the Sardar (Dhangor) community of Bangladesh. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 18: 10-19.

Rahmatullah, M., A. Hasan, W. Parvin, M. Moniruzzaman, A. Khatun, Z. Khatun, F.I. Jahan and R. Jahan, 2012b. Medicinal plants and formulations used by the Soren clan of the Santal tribe in Rajshahi district, Bangladesh for treatment of various ailments. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 9: 342-349.

Rahmatullah, M., Z. Khatun, A. Hasan, W. Parvin, M. Moniruzzaman, A. Khatun, M.J. Mahal, M.S.A. Bhuiyan, S.M. Mou and R. Jahan, 2012c. Survey and scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used by the Pahan and Teli tribal communities of Natore district, Bangladesh. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 9: 366-373.

Rahmatullah, M., M.N.K. Azam, Z. Khatun, S. Seraj, F. Islam, M.A. Rahman, S. Jahan, M.S. Aziz and R. Jahan, 2012d. Medicinal plants used for treatment of diabetes by the Marakh sect of the Garo tribe living in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 9: 380-385.

Rajendran, N., B. Pemiah, R.K. Sekar, U.M. Krishnan, S. Sethuraman and S. Krishnaswamy, 2012. Role of gallic acid in the preparation of an iron-based Indian traditional medicine--Lauha Bhasma. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4: 45-48.

Sarker, S., S. Seraj, M.M. Sattar, W.M. Haq, M.H. Chowdhury, I. Ahmad, R. Jahan, F. Jamal and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. Medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of six villages in Thakurgaon district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 332-343.

Sarker, B., F. Akther, U.A.R. Sifa, I. Jahan, M. Sarker, S.K. Chakma, P.K. Podder, Z. Khatun and M. Rahmatullah, 2012. Ethnomedicinal investigations among the Sigibe clan of the Khumi tribe of Thanchi sub-district in Bandarban district of Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6: 378-386.

Shaheen, Md.E.K., Md.A. Syef, S.S. Saha, Md.S. Islam, Md.D.A. Hossain, Md.A.I. Sujan and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. Medicinal plants used by the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners in two villages of Khakiachora and Khasia Palli in Sylhet district, Bangladesh. Advances in Applied and Natural Sciences, 5: 9-19.

Shetti, S., D.K. Chellappan, I.P. Sharma and A. Kalusalingam, 2012. Pharmacognostical profile of Paederia foetida Linn. leaves. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 3: 2075-2081.

Vakil, R.J., 1955. Rauwolfia serpentina in the treatment of high blood pressure: A review of the literature. Circulation, 12: 220-229.

Yineger, H., D. Yewhalaw and D. Teketay, 2008. Ethnomedicinal plant knowledge and practice of the Oromo ethnic group in southwestern Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 4: 11-20.

Abdul Wahab, Sourav Roy, Ahsan Habib, Md. Rifat Ahmed Bhuiyan, Piya Roy, Md. Golam Sorwar Khan, Abul Kalam Azad, Mohammed Rahmatullah

Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh

Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor, University of Development Alternative, House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new), Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh Ph: 88-01715032621 Fax: 88-02-8157339 E mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com
Table 1: Medicinal plants and formulations of the Tonchongya healer
of Rangamati district, Bangladesh.

Serial
Number    Scientific Name        Family Name

1         Acorus                 Acoraceae
          calamus L.

2         Achyranthes            Amaranthaceae
          aspera L.

3         Aerva sanguinolenta    Amaranthaceae
          (L.) Blume

4         Amaranthus             Amaranthaceae
          spinosus L.

5         Holarrhena             Apocynaceae
          antidysenterica
          (Roxb. ex Fleming)
          Wall.

6         Rauwolfia              Apocynaceae
          serpentina (L.)
          Benth.

7         Chromolaena            Asteraceae
          odorata (L.) King
          & H. Rob.

8         Vernonia cinerea L.    Asteraceae

9         Begonia                Begoniaceae
          barbata Wall.

10        Combretum sp.          Combretaceae

11        Gelonium               Euphorbiaceae
          multiflorum A.
          Juss.

12        Ricinus communis L.    Euphorbiaceae

13        Canavalia gladiata     Fabaceae
          (Jacq.) DC.

14        Cassia alata L.        Fabaceae

15        Cassia fistula L.      Fabaceae

16        Curculigo recurvata    Hypoxidaceae
          Dryand

17        Ocimum basilicum L.    Lamiaceae

18        Ocimum                 Lamiaceae
          tenuiflorum L.

19        Vitex                  Lamiaceae
          agnuscastus L.

20        Pericampylus           Menispermaceae
          glaucus
          (Lamarck) Merrill

21        Mussaenda glabrata     Rubiaceae
          (Hook.f.) Hutch.
          Ex Gamble

22        Paederia foetida L.    Rubiaceae

23        Cardiospermum          Sapindaceae
          halicacabam L.

24        Alpinia sp.            Zingiberaceae

Serial    Local Name (local
Number    Bengali name)          Parts used

1         Dhan                   Leaf
          sabarong
          (Bach ghora, Bach)

2         Oblega                 Whole plant
          (Apang)

3         Laal pata (Chaya)      Leaf

4         Kanta morich           Root
          (Kantanotaya)

5         Kurok gach (Kurok      Bark
          gach)

6         Sur san                Leaf, root
          (Chandra)

7         Khut toring            Root
          (Kurchi)

8         Dondo kupal            Root
          (Kuksim,
          Silmotra)

9         Shilte doi             Leaf
          (Tinis)

10        Onnulodi (Annolodi)    Young leaf

11        Aam kurut              Root
          (Bandor kola)

12        Ranga veron gach       Young leaf
          (Irando)

13        Mogno bichi (Makhon    Leaf, seed
          shim)

14        Jowlong pata           Leaf
          (Chakunda, Panivar)

15        Sitol sua (Sonali,     Seed
          Bandor loti)

16        Meloni gach            Root
          (Talmuli)

17        Jeth sabarong,         Leaf
          Laal tulsi (Tulsi,
          Debunsah)

18        Nikunta pata           Leaf
          (Babu tulsi)

19        Syamula                Young leaf
          (Syamula)

20        Patalpur               Root
          (Krishna
          sirish)

21        Metoni (Shada pata)    Leaf

22        Gondho batali          Leaf
          (Gondho badali)

23        Keda foska             Leaf
          (Lataphat kri)

24        Khetro ranga           Root
          (Khet ranga)

Serial    Disease, Symptoms,
Number    Formulations, and Administration

1         Asthma. Juice obtained from crushed leaves is
          heated with a red-hot piece of iron and the juice
          is then taken orally.

2         Having trouble during urination, passing of
          blood during urination. Whole plants are dried
          and powdered and mixed with 2 ml water.
          Pills prepared from the mixture are taken twice
          daily.

3         Snake or insect bite. Juice obtained from crushed
          leaves is topically applied to bitten area.

4         Excessive bleeding during menstruation. Juice is
          obtained by rubbing roots on a piece of stone.
          The juice is then orally administered.

5         Dysentery. Bark is boiled in water and then
          taken orally with a little table salt.

6         High blood pressure. Leaves and roots are kept
          inside the mouth.

7         Abscess with accompanying pain. Juice
          obtained from crushed root is applied to abscess.

8         Feeling afraid, being possessed by 'genies'
          or 'ghosts'. Juice obtained from crushed roots is
          administered orally.

9         Pain in urinary tract during urination. Juice
          obtained from crushed leaves is orally
          administered.

10        Diarrhea. Leaves are touched with a red-hot piece
          of iron and then boiled and orally taken.

11        Throat pain. Juice obtained from crushed roots
          is mixed with cold water and orally administered.

12        Blood dysentery. Young leaves are boiled and
          orally administered.

13        Measles in children. Dried and powdered leaves are
          applied topically on the skin of both children and
          mother. At the same time, juice obtained from
          crushed seeds is applied topically to areas
          affected by measles.

14        Skin infections. Leaves are crushed and mixed with
          2-3 drops of kerosene and applied topically to
          affected areas of skin.

15        Constipation in children. Seeds are orally
          administered with milk.

16        Allergy. Roots are boiled in water followed by
          bathing in the water while it is still warm.

17        Asthma. Juice obtained from crushed leaves is
          heated with a red-hot piece of iron and then the
          juice is orally administered. If infant refuses to
          take milk from nursing mother and cries
          incessantly. Powdered and dried leaves are rubbed
          on both nursing mother and infant.

18        If infant refuses to take milk from nursing
          mother and cries incessantly. Powdered and dried
          leaves are rubbed on both nursing mother and
          infant.

19        Cataract. Juice obtained from crushed leaves is
          applied to eyes.

20        Constipation in young children. Juice obtained
          from crushed root is administered orally with
          cold water.

21        Headache. Juice obtained from crushed leaves is
          topically applied to scalp.

22        Rheumatic fever. Juice obtained from crushed
          leaves is orally administered twice daily.

23        Chicken pox. Juice obtained from crushed
          leaves is boiled and administered twice daily.

24        Rheumatic pain. Juice obtained from crushed root
          is orally administered with honey.
COPYRIGHT 2013 American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2013 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Original Articles
Author:Wahab, Abdul; Roy, Sourav; Habib, Ahsan; Bhuiyan, Rifat Ahmed; Roy, Piya; Khan, Golam Sorwar; Azad,
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Apr 1, 2013
Words:5496
Previous Article:Use of plants as preventive medicine: a survey conducted in Devinagar village of Chapai Nawabganj district, Bangladesh.
Next Article:Effects of impulse drip irrigation on root response of aerobic rice.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters