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Ethnomedicinal usage of plants and animals by folk medicinal practitioners of three villages in Chuadanga and Jhenaidah districts, Bangladesh.

INTRODUCTION

Folk medicinal practitioners (otherwise known as Kavirajes or Vaidyas) are a common feature, particularly in the rural areas of Bangladesh. The origins of folk medicine are unknown, but may reflect a unique blend of other more established forms of traditional medicines in Bangladesh like Ayurveda and Unani combined with the personal experiences of the Kaviraj, which may be a totality of knowledge acquired through multiple generations as well as gathered from 'gurus' or reading books on medicinal values of plants. Since the practice of being a Kaviraj is usually kept within the family and passes in most cases from father to son or daughter and so forth, or in some cases acquired by serving as an apprenticeship to a 'guru' or master, over time, depending on the accumulated years of experience, a Kaviraj may possess considerable knowledge on the medicinal properties of plants. There are also anecdotal reports as well as reports by individual Kavirajes that they have gone to Assam state in India to get training from a master. Assam state, and particularly the district of Kamrup in Assam, is particularly known among the Kavirajes, who besides using medicinal plants and animal parts, also deals with healing of paranormal diseases through incantations, amulets and black magic. Other Kavirajes mention that they have acquired their knowledge through perusal of Ayurvedic, Unani or folk medicinal texts written for the lay persons. It may be mentioned in this regard that the Kaviraj community as a whole in Bangladesh do not have higher education (or in most cases have only primary school education or not even that), nor are they required to undergo professional training and obtain certification before they can practice. As such, any person can start practicing as a Kaviraj based on whatever training or knowledge that the person has learnt or collected.

Studies and documentation of folk medicinal practices are practically absent in Bangladesh. Most Kavirajes have been dismissed as mere quacks by the influential, intellectual and affluent sections of the society. Yet there is much anecdotal evidences that suggest that quite a large number of Kavirajes have very extensive practices and are visited by affluent sections of the society, who can afford advanced allopathic medicine, and have indeed gone to highly trained allopathic doctors, but have not been successful in cure of their diseases. The evidences also suggest that Kaviraj treatment has succeeded where allopathic treatment has failed. This is not surprising for most Kavirajes use medicinal plants and animal parts for treatment and modern science has recently began to re-discover the medicinal values of these plants and animals. That plants and animal parts have therapeutic values cannot be denied, for not only many allopathic drugs have been discovered from plants from close observations of the traditional medicinal practices of indigenous societies [10,21,36], but also animal parts have also been extensively used as medicines among indigenous societies for centuries and have started to prove their values in disease treatment from modern scientific research [20,74,64,4,5].

Towards a thorough documentation of the medicinal plants of Bangladesh, we had been conducting ethnomedicinal surveys among folk and tribal medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh for a number of years [78,89,90,91,19,42,44,70,71,89,90,91,92,93,94,95,96 ,97,98,2,13,14,15,40,47,49,89,90,113,117,23,42,45,5 6,89,90,91,92,93,114]. Such studies not only document the possible therapeutic importance of the medicinal plants and animal species of the country, but can also serve as the basis to initiate or continue further scientific research. As such the objective of the present study was to conduct ethnomedicinal surveys among folk medicinal practitioners of two adjoining districts of the country, namely Chuadanga and Jhenaidah.

Materials and Methods

The present survey was carried out in the adjoining villages of Tangramari and Kutubpur in Chuadanga district and the village of Benepara in Jhenaidah district of Bangladesh. It may be mentioned that the two districts adjoin each other. There were two practicing Kavirajes in Tangramari village, namely Md. Abdur Rahim (designated as Kaviraj 1 in Table 1) and Md. Altaf Hossain (designated as Kaviraj 3 in Table 1). Kaviraj 1 was male, 55 years by age, Muslim by religion, and had been practicing for about 25 years and specialized in ethnoveterinary medicine. Kaviraj 3 was male, 50 years by age, Muslim by religion, and had been practicing for about 20-25 years. The practitioner at Kutubpur village of Chuadanga district (designated as Kaviraj 2 in Table 1) was named Md. Abdur Razzak, male, 40 years by age, Muslim by religion, and had been practicing for about 15 years. The Kaviraj of Benepara village in Jhenaidah district was very old but still active. His name was Md. Afsar Ali Mandal, 111 years by age, Muslim by religion, and had been practicing for about 47-48 years.

Informed consent was first obtained from all Kavirajes as to publish their names, age, religion, and any other information that they provided. All Kavirajes were fully apprised of the nature of our visits and consent obtained to disseminate any information provided both nationally and internationally. All Kavirajes spoke Bengali, which was also spoken by the interviewers; thus interviews were conducted totally in the Bengali language. Actual interviews were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided fieldwalk method of Martin [66] and Maundu [68]. In this method, the Kavirajes individually took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where each Kaviraj collected his medicinal plants, pointed out the plants and described their uses. However, on some occasions, the Kavirajes provided the information first, followed by taking the interviewers on guided field-walks. Plant specimens as pointed out by the Kavirajes were photographed and collected on the spot, pressed, dried and brought back to Dhaka for complete identification by Mr. Manjur-Ul-Kadir Mia, ex-Curator and Principal Scientific Officer of the Bangladesh National Herbarium. Voucher specimens were deposited with the Medicinal Plant Collection Wing of the University of Development Alternative.

Results and Discussion

The three Kavirajes from Chuadanga district were observed, in between themselves, to use a total of 74 medicinal plants in their various formulations. Of the 74 plants, 2 plants could not be identified. The rest of the plants were distributed into 38 families. Ailments treated by Kaviraj 1 included gastrointestinal disorders, bone fracture, tonsillitis, infertility in woman, snake bite, cancer, swelling of body (edema), cuts and wounds, allergy, pain, sprain, sexual problems, menstrual disorders, piles, insanity, eye disorders, dog bite, skin infections, abscess, and paranormal diseases like being touched by 'evil wind' or 'ghosts'. Kaviraj 1 also treated diseases of domestic animals, and on most occasions the same plant was used for treatment of the same disease in both humans and animals. Diseases treated by Kaviraj 2 included infertility in woman, bleeding while pregnant, rheumatism, sprain, snake bite, skin infections, insanity, cancer, abscess, and sexual disorders. Diseases treated by Kaviraj 3 included piles, abscess, gastrointestinal disorders, infections, excessive water loss from a pregnant woman, pain, sexual disorders, skin infections, vomiting in children, tuberculosis, fever with mucus, allergy, and calcium deficiency. Kaviraj 3 also advised partaking root juice of Solanum virginianum as preventive medicine for chicken pox. The results are shown in Table 1.

The three Kavirajes of Chuadanga district showed a certain degree of specialization among them. For instance, Kaviraj 1 specialized in ethnoveterinary medicine and treatment of paranormal diseases. Kaviraj 2 treated diseases like rheumatism and bleeding in woman who are pregnant, which problems were not treated by the other Kavirajes. Kaviraj 3 treated excessive water loss from pregnant woman, tuberculosis, vomiting in children, fever, and calcium deficiency exclusively. Some diseases were treated in common by the Kavirajes; however, plants used for treatment were totally different. To cite a few instances, infertility in woman was treated by Kaviraj 2 with a combination of Achyranthes aspera and Allium sativum, but treated by Kaviraj 1 with a complex formulation in which one root of Ichnocarpus frutescens and one root of Hemidesmus indicus were mixed with 12 spices (rhizome of Curcuma longa, rhizome of Zingiber officinale, seed of Nigellas sativa, fruit of Piper longum, bark of Cinnamomum verum, leaf of Cinnamomum tamala, fruit of Capsicum frutescens, seed of Elettaria cardamomum, bulb of Allium cepa, bulb of Allium sativum, and dried floral bud of Syzygium aromaticum). The fish, Colisa fasciata (Bengali: Khalse, English: banded gourami) was fried and made into a mash with the roots of the two plants and plants parts of the 12 different spices. The mash was to be taken orally with cooked rice once. Incidentally, this was the only use of a species other than medicinal plants by Kaviraj 1, while the other two Kavirajes kept their formulations exclusively to medicinal plants.

Sprain in human beings was treated with Calotropis procera by Kaviraj 1, but with Rauvolfia serpentina by Kaviraj 2. Kaviraj 2 also treated snake bite with the same plant. However, Kaviraj 1 treated snake bite with either Rauvolfia tetraphylla or Aristolochia indica. Skin infections were treated in common by all three Kavirajes. However, Kaviraj 1 treated such infections with Abrus precatorius, Kaviraj 2 with a combination of Dalbergia sissoo and Melocanna baccifera, and Kaviraj 3 treated skin infections with Cassia occidentalis. Kaviraj 3 also treated skin infections with Neohouzeaua dulloa. Insanity was treated by Kaviraj 1 with Phyla nodiflora, but by Kaviraj 2 with Opuntia dillenii. Abscess was treated with Tragia involucrata by Kaviraj 1, with Acacia farnesiana by Kaviraj 2, and with a combination of Annona squamosa and Acacia catechu by Kaviraj 3. Piles were treated with a combination of Eleusine indica, Piper betle, and Areca catechu by Kaviraj 1, but only with Spondias pinnata by Kaviraj 3. This differences in plant selection by the Kavirajes on the one hand, points to the rich diversity of plants present in Bangladesh to treat the same disease; on the other hand, it suggests that every Kaviraj has his or her unique repertoire of plants for treatment, and which plants he probably has learnt from training, experiences (which may include actual trials on human beings or animals), or picked up from other traditional medicinal practices (like Ayurveda or Unani) in Bangladesh.

Ayurveda has a long history in the Indian subcontinent and dates back to probably 5,000 years ago. Both Ayurveda and Unani systems are well-defined systems with their own formulary and a defined system of cause and cure of diseases. As such, it is very much possible that folk medicine has either borrowed from any of these two ancient systems (at least in some parts), or folk medicine is simply a more simplified version of Ayurvedic and Unani medicines. It is also possible that folk medicine could have taken some treatment methods from the various tribes of the country. It is interesting to note that Rauvolfia serpentina, known in Ayurveda as 'Sarpagandhaa', is used in the Ayurvedic system for hypertension and as a mild sedative. The plant was used to treat sprains and severe rheumatism by Kaviraj 2 and could function to mildly sedate a person when the person has become excited because of the sprain and consequent pain or because of rheumatic pain. The plant was also used by Kaviraj 2 to treat snake bite; the Sigibe clan of the Khumi tribe of Bangladesh also uses the plant for the same purpose [114]. The local people of Eastern Ghats, India also use the plant to treat snake bites [85]. The plant, along with Aristolochia indica is used by the Kurichya tribe of Kannur district, Western Ghats, Kerala, India, to treat snake bite [108]. Crinum asiaticum, used by Kaviraj 1 for treatment of tonsillitis, is known in Ayurveda as 'Naagadamani', and is used as an expectorant [57]. Spondias pinnata, used by Kaviraj 3 for treatment of piles, is known in Ayurveda as 'Aamraataka'. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends using the stem bark of the plant in hemorrhagic diseases, which can include bleeding piles (bleeding occurring from hemorrhoids). Annona squamosa, used by Kaviraj 3 to treat abscesses also has similar ethnomedicinal uses in India [112]. Aristolochia indica was used by Kaviraj 1 for treatment of snake bite. The plant has similar use among the tribes of Chitradurga district, Karnataka India [43], and tribals of Kinnerasani region, Andhra Pradesh, India [137]. The plant is also used for treatment of snake bite by tribals and rural folks of West Rarrh region of West Bengal, India [35] and by the Kani tribals of Agastyar Hills of Trivandrum district in Kerala, India [107].

Calotropis procera was used by Kaviraj 1 for treatment of pain and sprains. In Ayurveda, the plant is known as 'Alarka' and is used for treatment of painful joints and swellings. The plant is also used in traditional medicines of Rajasthan, India for treatment of pain [59], and among the Tripuri tribal medicinal practitioners for treatment of rheumatic pain [65]. Blumea lacera, used Kaviraj 2 for gastric problems is reported used by eleven tribal communities in the northern part of West Bengal State in India for gastrointestinal disorders [69]. Eclipta prostrata was used by Kaviraj 1 for treatment of cuts and wounds. Ethnic groups in Jhansi and Laitpur sections of Bundelkhand, Uttar Pradesh, India also use the plant for treatment of wounds [55]. Jatropha gossypifolia, used by Kaviraj 3 for treatment of dysentery, is used in ethnomedicines of Orissa, India for treatment of diarrhea [24]. Ricinus communis, used by Kaviraj 1 to treat headache, is known in Ayurveda as 'Eranda', and used for treatment of arthritic pain and pain in the urinary bladder. The plant is used among different tribes of India to alleviate pain [7].

Leaves, stems or roots of Abrus precatorius were used by Kaviraj 1 for treatment of skin infections. Paste of roots of this plant is also used by tribals of lower foot-hills of Himachal Pradesh, India to treat skin infections [83]. In Ayurveda, the plant is known as 'Gunjaa', and seed paste is used to treat vitiligo [57]. Leaves of Cassia occidentalis were used by Kaviraj 3 for treatment of skin infections and scabies. In Ayurveda, the plant is known as 'Kaasamarda' and is used for treatment of scabies, ringworm and other skin diseases. Dalbergia sissoo, used by Kaviraj 2 to treat skin infections, is considered an anti-leprotic plant in Ayurveda and is known as 'Shimshapaa'. Stems of Trichosanthes dioica were used by Kaviraj 2 for treatment of fever. Roots of the plant are used to treat fever by the tribals from Saraswati River Region of Patan district, North Gujarat, India [116]. Erythrina variegata, which was used by Kaviraj 2 along with Trichosanthes dioica and Argemone mexicana to treat fever, is known in Ayurveda as 'Paaribhadra', and is used in Ayurvedic medicines to treat fever. Eleusine indica is considered a stomachic in Vietnamese traditional medicine [57]; it was used by Kaviraj 1 to treat dysentery. Cynodon dactylon was used by Kaviraj 2 to stop vaginal bleeding from pregnant woman; in Ayurveda, it is known as 'Duurvaa', and is used to treat bleeding piles and bleeding from external cuts and wounds; various ethnic groups of Disoi Valley Reserve Forest of Jorhat District, Assam, India, use the plant to stop gum bleed [16]. Scoparia dulcis was used by Kaviraj 2 to treat diarrhea; the plant reportedly is used by the Kurichya tribe of Kannur district, Western Ghats, Kerala, India to treat stomach pain [108].

Similarity in ethnomedicinal uses of any particular plant species among various ethnic groups or different regions of the world indicates that the plant species can form a useful source of treatment for that disease. It also indicates a high probability of finding phytochemical(s) from the plant that may serve as an efficacious treatment for treatment of the disease for which the plant is used. From that view point, a number of plants used by the three Kavirajes of Chuadanga district were seen to have similar ethnomedicinal applications among other tribes and regions in India. Thus these plant species deserve further scientific studies as to their phytochemical constituent(s) and pharmacological activities with reference to the diseases that they are used for treatment.

A number of plants used by the three Kavirajes of Chuadanga district can be seen to be scientifically validated in their uses from available scientific reports. The three Kavirajes used, in between themselves, various plants for treatment of different types of pain. Calotropis procera, used by Kaviraj 1 for treatment of pain and sprains has been shown to have analgesic properties in the latex [22], as well as aerial parts [73]. Opuntia dillenii, used by Kaviraj 2 for treatment of severe headache, has also been reported to have analgesic properties [63]. The plant was also used by Kaviraj 2 to treat insanity. The Garo tribals as well as non-Garo population of Tangail district, Bangladesh use the plant to maintain mental strength [90]. Butanol extract of the plant reportedly demonstrated anti-depressant like actions [46]. Kalanchoe pinnata, used by Kaviraj 3 for treating headache, reportedly demonstrated analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in ethanol and aqueous extract of dried stems [67]. Seed oil of Ricinus communis was used by Kaviraj 1 to treat headache. Antinociceptive activity has been reported for leaf extract of the plant [128]. For treatment of waist pain, Kaviraj 1 advised tying the roots of Tragia involucrata to the waist. Whether this procedure can really eliminate pain is scientifically debatable; however, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity has been reported for root extract of this plant [109].

Hemigraphis hirta was used by Kaviraj 1 to treat diarrhea. The plant has been reported to contain lupeol [3]; the anti-diarrheal action of lupeol has been reported [110]. Rauvolfia serpentina was used by Kaviraj 2 for treatment of severe rheumatism, sprain, and snake bite, any of which can cause neurological disturbances because of associated pain or fear. It is interesting that the plant has been shown beneficial for neuropsychiatric conditions [58]. Also, alkaloids from the plant reportedly have anti-venom effect [39]. Aristolochia indica contains the alkaloid aristolochic acid, which has been reported to inactivate Naja naja venom and reduce hemorrhage caused by Trimeresurus flavoviridis and Vipera russellii venoms [139,140]. The anti-venom potential of Eclipta prostrata (used by Kaviraj 1 to treat snake bite) against Malayan pit viper venom has also been shown [87]. The anti-diarrheal property of Blumea lacera has been reported [125]. Notably, Kaviraj 2 used the plant for treatment of gastric problems.

The sole Kaviraj surveyed from Jhenaidah district used a total of 37 plants and 3 animal parts in his medicinal formulations. The plants were distributed into 30 families. The various ailments treated by this Kaviraj included respiratory disorders, skin disorders, sexual disorders, diabetes, fever, snake bite, jaundice, pain, gastrointestinal disorders, edema, infertility, puerperal fever, rheumatism, burns, cuts and wounds, and bone fracture. The results are shown in Table 2 (A, B).

It is interesting that although Chuadanga and Jhenaidah districts adjoin each other, the plants selected by the Jhenaidah Kaviraj were much different from those selected by the Chuadanga Kavirajes. For instance, while the Chadanga Kavirajes used Rauvolfia serpentina or Aristolochia indica to treat snake bites, the Jhenaidah Kaviraj used Barringtonia racemosa or Aegle marmelos to treat snake bites. The Jhenaidah Kaviraj (Kaviraj 4) used Rauvolfia serpentina along with Aristolochia indica and Andrographis paniculata to treat allergy. The use of Aegle marmelos roots for treatment of snake bite by Kaviraj 4 is notable and has not been observed in our previous ethnomedicinal surveys. However, the use of fruits of this plant for treatment of stomach disorders is quite common in Bangladesh and other parts of India. The fruits of this plant, following drying, are used by the Mullu kuruma tribe of Wayanad district in Kerala, India for treatment of dyspepsia and dysentery [121]. The roots of this plant are used by the Kurichya tribe in Kannur district, Western Ghats, Kerala, India, for treatment of dysentery [108]. Fruits of the plant are used to treat dysentery in children in Dhule district, Maharashtra, India [84], and for treatment of dysentery by tribals of south Surguja district in Chhattisgarh State in India [53]. It is noteworthy that the fruits of the plant are used to treat snake bite in certain parts of India [62]. Pentacyclic triterpenes are present in the fruit, which can account for its antivenom activity [72].

Kaviraj 4 used Adhatoda vasica for treatment of coughs. This plant is known in Ayurveda as 'Vaasaka' and is used in Ayurvedic medicines as an expectorant (during bronchial, pulmonary and asthmatic disorders) [57]. The anti-tussive action of the plant in polyherbal formulations has recently been reported [38]. The plant contains alkaloids with positive effects on inflammatory diseases [17]; extract of the plant also has been shown to have antitussive effect [26], and a bronchodilator alkaloid (vasicinone) has been isolated from the plant [6]. In fact, andrographolide, a constituent of the plant is possibly responsible for the beneficial effects of the plant against cold, coughs, and upper respiratory tract infections [50]. Achyranthes aspera was used by Kaviraj 4 for treatment of diabetes. Anti-diabetic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of the plant has been shown in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats [60].

A combination of leaves of Andrographis paniculata and Aristolochia indica were used by Kaviraj 4 for treatment of fever. Andrographis paniculata, known in Ayurveda as 'Kaalmegha' is considered in that medicinal system as having febrifuge properties. Andrographis paniculata is also used in traditional Chinese and Thai medicines for treatment of fever [50]. The anti-pyretic properties of one of the constituents of the plant, namely dihydroandrographolide, have been reported [25]. In Sudan, Aristolochia species are traditionally used for treatment of fever [31]. Barringtonia racemosa was used by Kaviraj 4 for treatment of snake bite. Ethnomedicinal uses of this plant for snake bite treatment has been reported [75]. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects have been observed with fruits of this plant, which effects may be beneficial for snake-bitten patient [120]. The bark of Oroxylum indicum, a plant used by Kaviraj 4 for treatment of jaundice, has been shown to have hepatoprotective activity [131]. Hepatoprotective activity has also been reported for leaves of the plant [130]. Bark powder is used for treatment of jaundice in tribal areas of North Maharashtra, India [9].

Terminalia arjuna was used by Kaviraj 4 as preventive medicine for cardiovascular disorders. Bark of this plant is considered a very useful medicine as cardioprotective and cardiotonic in Ayurveda [57], where the plant is known as 'Arjuna'. In human volunteers, bark of the plant has been reported to significantly increase mean cardiac output and significantly inhibit platelet aggregation in diabetic subjects, thus showing that cardiovascular morbidity may be reduced following onset of diabetes [86]. Bark extract has also been shown to have cardiotonic effects on frog's heart in situ [138]. Other reported beneficial effects of bark of this plant on heart or heart disorders include protective effects of plant bark against Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity [124]; significant inotropic and hypotensive effect of bark, also increases coronary artery flow and protects myocardium against ischemic damage, reviewed by Dwivedi [30]; protection of rabbit heart by bark against ischemic-reperfusion injury [34]; cardioprotective effect of alcoholic extract of bark in an in vivo model of myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury [54]; efficacy of the plant in chronic stable angina [29,12]; beneficial effects of bark of the plant in isolated ischemic-reperfused rat heart [33]; and beneficial effects in coronary artery disease (significant reductions in anginal frequency) [28].

Kalanchoe spathulata was used by Kaviraj 4 for treatment of headache. A Chuadanga Kaviraj (Kaviraj 3) used Kalanchoe pinnata for the same purpose. It is possible that the Kalanchoe genera plants possess phytochemical(s) with analgesic properties. A steroidal derivative has been isolated from Kalanchoe pinnata with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties [1]. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC. stems in mice has also been reported [61]. Analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of extracts from the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haworth has also been described [79,80]. Analgesic and anti-convulsant effects have further been reported from leaf extract of Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haworth [79,80]. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities have also been reported from Kalanchoe spathulata leaf extract [118].

Cassia fistula was used by Kaviraj 4 to treat diarrhea. In Cambodian ethnomedicine, the plant is used to treat dysentery [88]. The tribal people of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Mayurbhanj district, Odisha, India, also use the plant to treat dysentery [82]. Edema was treated by Kaviraj 4 with root of Tamarindus indica. The Kavirajes' treatment was, however, unusual and consisted of tying the root around the body for a week. On the other hand, it is interesting that anti-inflammatory activity has been reported for seeds of the plant [11,126]. Kaviraj 4 used the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis to treat infertility. On the other hand, flowers of this plant are considered an anti-fertility ethnomedicine in parts of India [48]. Anti-fertility activity has also been reported with a benzene extract of flowers of the plant in female albino rats [123]. Nyctanthes arbortristis leaf was used by Kaviraj 4 for treatment of stomach ache. The analgesic activity of stem bark extract of the plant has been reported [52]. Traditionally, in India, the plant is used for treatment of rheumatic joint pain [111].

Scoparia dulcis was used by Kaviraj 4 for treatment of dysentery. The plant has traditional uses in India for treatment of stomach troubles [115]. The Kurichya tribe of Kannur district, Western Ghats, Kerala, India, use root extract of the plant to treat stomach pain [108]. Datura metel were combined with leaves of Argyreia nervosa, and leaves of Smilax indica along with mustard oil, oil obtained from Bengal fox, and juice obtained from bulbs of Allium cepa for treatment of rheumatism by Kaviraj 4. The tribals of Kalakad-Mundunthurai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India, put a bandage on affected areas with leaves of Datura metel boiled in water, to get relief from rheumatic pain [127]. The plant is also used for treating rheumatism in traditional remedies for joint diseases in Assam, India [77]. Analgesic properties of aqueous extracts of seeds of the plant have been described [141]. In vivo analgesic activity of aerial part of Argyreia nervosa has also been reported [51], and thus could be beneficial in alleviating rheumatic pain. In Ayurveda, the plant is known as 'Vriddhadaruka', and is considered useful for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis [32]. Ayurvedic formulation includes Ajmodadi Churna - a polyherbal formulation containing root of this plant for treatment of rheumatic affections [75]. Analgesic activity has been described in methanolic extract of roots [8]. Thus, the combination of Datura metel and Argyreia nervosa can be an effective combination for relief of pain, which occurs during rheumatism, but whether such combination can actually cure rheumatism remains to be scientifically determined. The purpose of use of Smilax indica with the other two plants is unknown. However, a related species, Smilax macrophylla, has ethnomedicinal uses in the West Rarrh region of West Bengal, India, for treatment of diarrhea [35]. Since the Kaviraj formulation was advised to be taken orally, and other ingredients in the formulation like fat of Bengal fox may cause possible stomach upsets, so Smilax indica was used to counter this problem. Juice of Allium cepa bulbs reportedly has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties [76], and as such, can add to the pain-alleviating effect. The meat and fat of Bengal fox is widely considered in Bangladesh as being effective for rheumatism; fox meat is often advised by Kavirajes to be taken in the cooked form by rheumatic patients.

Vitex negundo was used along with Azadirachta indica and Thevetia peruviana for treatment of burna, and large-sized cuts and wounds. These disorders can cause pain and inflammation, and can become infectious. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Vitex negundo has been reported [129,27,37]. The plant is known in Ayurveda as 'Nirgundi', and is considered anti-inflammatory. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities have been reported for Azadirachta indica leaf extract [81]. The plant is known in Ayurveda as 'Nimba' and is considered anti-microbial, and so can prove useful in infections developing from cuts and wounds or burns. The plant, Cissus quadrangularis, was used with Allium cepa by Kaviraj 4 for treatment of bone fracture. A number of studies have demonstrated the healing effects of Cissus quadrangularis on bone fracture [132,133,122,134,135,136,18]. Cissus quadrangularis is also considered an Ayurvedic plant, where it is known as 'Asthisamhaara', and is used for bone healing [57]. The use of Allium cepa may have been to mitigate the pain arising from bone fracture; the analgesic effect of bulb juice of this plant has been discussed above. Moreover, the wound healing activity of Allium cepa has also been described [119]. Zingiber purpureum was used by Kaviraj 4 to treat stomach pain. The plant is known in Ayurveda as 'Vanardraka', and is used in Ayurvedic medicines to treat diarrhea and colic. Rhizomes of a related species, Zingiber officinale, have been shown to give pain relief in patients suffering from dysmenorrheal [106].

In conclusion, several points may be observed in the present study. First, the folk medicinal practitioners (Kavirajes) of Bangladesh have areas of specialization in both selections of medicinal plants and diseases treated; this rich diversity among the Kavirajes needs to be documented as extensively as possible for scientific reasons and alleviation of human sufferings from various diseases. Second, the Kavirajes possess quite extensive knowledge on the medicinal properties of various plant species, as evidenced by scientific validation of quite a number of the plant species used by the Kavirajes. Third, similar ethnomedicinal uses of the plants used by the Kavirajes of Bangladesh have been reported from other tribes and regions besides Bangladesh; this consensus of opinion about the selectivity of a medicinal plant for treatment of a particular ailment suggests a strong possibility of discovering efficacious drugs from the plants. Finally, documentation of such traditional knowledge can spur both scientific interests and conservation efforts. As such, more ethnomedicinal surveys need to be carried out among the Kavirajes of Bangladesh. Adequate scientific validation of the medicinal plants used by the Kavirajes can also provide the people of Bangladesh, and indeed the world, with a cheap and alternative source of medicines.

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Asha Khatun, Md. Aliul Asif Khan, Md. Atiqur Rahman, Most. Shamima Akter, Abid Hasan, Waheda Parvin, Rabina Jerin Ripa, Md. Moniruzzaman, Mostafi Jumrut Mahal, Mohammed Rahmatullah

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh

Received: November 03, 2013; Revised: January 13, 2014; Accepted: January 17, 2014

Corresponding Author: Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1209 Bangladesh Phone: 88-01715032621; Fax: 88-02-8157339; E-mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com
Table 1: Medicinal plants and formulations of the three Kavirajes of
Chuadanga district, Bangladesh.

Serial     Scientific         Family Name        Local Name
  Number     Name

1          Hemigraphis        Acanthaceae        Buripaan
             hirta (Vahl.)
             And.
2          Justicia           Acanthaceae        Har baksha
             adhatoda L.
3          Achyranthes        Amaranthaceae      Apang, Chor
             aspera L.                             chorea
4          Crinum             Amaryllidaceae     Go roshno
             asiaticum L.
5          Spondias           Anacardiaceae      Bon amra
             pinnata
             (L. f.) Kurz
6          Annona             Annonaceae         Ata
             squamosa L.
7          Cyminum            Apiaceae           Jeera
             cuminum L.
8          Cerbera            Apocynaceae        Dhakur
             manghas L.
9          Ichnocarpus        Apocynaceae        Bhadra mul
             frutescens
             R. Br.
10         Rauvolfia          Apocynaceae        Ruhu
             serpentina                            chondral
             (L.) Benth.
             ex Kurz.
11         Rauvolfia          Apocynaceae        Boro Chandra
             tetraphylla L.
12         Areca catechu L.   Arecaceae          Supari
13         Phoenix            Arecaceae          Khejur
             dactylifera L.
14         Aristolochia       Aristolochiaceae   Issher mul
             indica L.
15         Calotropis         Asclepiadaceae     Akundo
             procera (Ait.)
             Ait. f.
16         Hemidesmus         Asclepiadaceae     Ananta mul
             indicus (L.)
             R. Br.
17         Tylophora          Asclepiadaceae     Chosok
             indica (Burm.                         somudra
             f.) Merr.
18         Artemisia          Asteraceae         Eichae
             nilagirica                            nagdana
             (Clarke) Pamp
19         Blumea lacera      Asteraceae         Kukur shuka
             (Burm. f.) DC.
20         Eclipta            Asteraceae         Kershae
             prostrata
             (L.) L.
21         Crescentia         Bignoniaceae       Jummu makal
             cujete L.
22         Opuntia dillenii   Cactaceae          Monsha dakat
             (Ker Gawl.)
23         Capparis           Capparaceae        Kalae khura
             zeylanica L.
24         Cleome diffusa     Capparaceae        Sultae
             Banks ex DC.
25         Kalanchoe          Crassulaceae       Pathorkuchi
             pinnata (Lam.)
             Pers.
26         Trichosanthes      Cucurbitaceae      Potol
             dioica Roxb.
27         Jatropha           Euphorbiaceae      Laal bhati,
             gossypifolia                          Kalo bhati
             L.
28         Ricinus            Euphorbiaceae      Venna
             communis L.
29         Tragia             Euphorbiaceae      Bichuti,
             involucrata L.                        Chukta
30         Abrus              Fabaceae           Kuch
             precatorius L.
31         Acacia catechu     Fabaceae           Khower
             Willd.
32         Alysicarpus        Fabaceae           Hanuman jota
             bupleurifolius
             (L.) DC.
33         Cassia             Fabaceae           Kalo
             occidentalis                          kashunda
             L.
34         Dalbergia          Fabaceae           Shishu
             sissoo Roxb.
35         Erythrina          Fabaceae           Madar
             variegata L.
36         Cinnamomum         Lauraceae          Tejpata
             tamala T.
             Nees & Eberm
37         Cinnamomum         Lauraceae          Daruchini
             verum Presl
38         Allium cepa L.     Liliaceae          Peyaz
39         Allium             Liliaceae          Roshun
             sativum L.
40         Lygodium           Lygodiaceae        Shona jhuri
             flexuosum
             (L.) Sw.
41         Acacia             Mimosaceae         Guhe babla
             farnesiana
             (L.) Willd.
42         Ficus              Moraceae           Bot
           benghalensis L.
43         Syzygium           Myrtaceae          Lobongo
             aromaticum
             (L.) Merr. &
             L.M. Perry
44         Argemone           Papaveraceae       Shial kata
             mexicana L.
45         Piper betle L.     Piperaceae         Paan
46         Piper nigrum L.    Piperaceae         Gol morich
47         Plumbago           Plumbaginaceae     Awprachitae
             zeylanica L.
48         Bambusa sp.        Poaceae            Bansh
49         Cynodon            Poaceae            Durba ghash
           dactylon (L.)
             Pers.
50         Eleusine indica    Poaceae            Bhuin
             (L.) Gaertn.                          vadalae,
                                                   Kaklae
                                                   ghash
51         Melocanna          Poaceae            Baijol
             baccifera
             Roxb.
52         Neohouzeaua        Poaceae            Kalo dalci
             dulloa
             (Gamble) A.
             Camus
53         Nigella sativa     Ranunculaceae      Kalijira
             L.
54         Paederia           Rubiaceae          Gondho
             foetida L.                            vadalae
55         Aegle marmelos     Rutaceae           Bael
             (L.) Corr.
56         Glycosmis          Rutaceae           Aas sel
             pentaphylla
             (Retz.) A. DC.
57         Murraya koenigii   Rutaceae           Bhutraj,
             (L.) Spreng.                          Nimbhut
58         Scoparia           Scrophulariaceae   Michri dana,
             dulcis L.                             Chini
                                                   champa
59         Capsicum           Solanaceae         Morich
             frutescens L.
60         Solanum ferox L.   Solanaceae         Ram baegun
61         Solanum            Solanaceae         Konto kiari
             virginianum L.
62         Abroma augusta     Sterculiaceae      Olot kombol
             L.
63         Callicarpa         Verbenaceae        Pahari
             macrophylla
             Vahl.
64         Phyla nodiflora    Verbenaceae        Koi ukra
             (L.) Greene
65         Cissus adnata      Vitaceae           Aam dauk
             Roxb.
66         Cissus carnopa     Vitaceae           Gai goblae,
             Lam.                                  Goale lota
67         Vitis sp.          Vitaceae           Mocchhe
68         Diplazium          Woodsiaceae        Foni monsha
             sylvaticum
             (Bory) Sw.
69         Curcuma            Zingiberaceae      Holud
             longa L.
70         Elettaria          Zingiberaceae      Elach
             cardamomum
             Maton
71         Zingiber           Zingiberaceae      Ada
             officinale
             Roscoe
72         Zingiber           Zingiberaceae      Bon ada
             purpureum
             Roscoe
74         Unidentified       Unidentified       Vedar mollik

Serial     Parts used
  Number

1          Stem, root
2          Leaf, stem, sap
3          Root
4          Rhizome
5          Bark
6          Young leaf
7          Seed
8          Sap
9          Root
10         Inner portion of stem, root
11         Leaf, stem, root
12         Nut
13         Inner core (methi)
14         Leaf, stem, root
15         Leaf
16         Root
17         Stem, root
18         Leaf, stem
19         Root, leaf
20         Root, stem
21         Bark, fruit
22         Leaf
23         Leaf
24         Leaf
25         Leaf
26         Leaf
27         Root, fruit
28         Seed oil
29         Root
30         Leaf, stem, root
31         Dried bark extract
32         Seed
33         Leaf
34         Leaf
35         Bark
36         Leaf
37         Bark
38         Bulb
39         Bulb
40         Leaf, stem
41         Bark
42         Leaf, stem
43         Dried floral bud
44         Root
45         Leaf
46         Fruit
47         Stem
48         Stem
49         Leaf
50         Root
51         Leaf
52         Leaf
53         Seed
54         Leaf
55         Leaf
56         Stems with leaves
57         Leaf
58         Root
59         Fruit
60         Fruit
61         Root
62         Oil, stem
63         Leaf, root, bark
64         Stem, root
65         Stem, leaf
66         Leaf, stem
67         Stem
68         Root, stem
69         Rhizome
70         Seed
71         Rhizome
72         Rhizome
74         Stem

Serial     Disease, Symptoms, Formulations, and
  Number     Administration

1          Diarrhea in humans. 50g juice obtained from
             crushed stems and roots is taken with sugar
             orally thrice daily in the morning, afternoon
             night. [1]
2          Bone fracture, to increase appetite in humans.
             Sap or fibers from stems are applied to the
             fractured area and are taken off after 7 days.
             Note that the taking off and putting on must be
             at the same time. Juice obtained from seven
             stems with leaves is taken once daily to
             increase appetite. [1]
3          (Badhok)- Kaviraj term for infertility in woman.
             10g juice obtained from crushed root of
             Achyranthes aspera is taken orally with 2
             cloves of garlic (Allium sativum) thrice daily
             for 3 months. The medication starts 3 days
             after menstruation begins. [2]
           Bleeding while pregnant (blood can be present
             in urine or just comes out of vagina). Roots
             of Achyranthes aspera are combined with leaves
             of Cynodon dactylon, and 2 inch length of stem
             of Crescentia cujete. Juice obtained from the
             crushed mixture is taken orally for 3-5 days.
             Note that during this time eating of meat and
             and fish is forbidden. [2]
4          Tonsillitis. Rhizomes are sliced in round pieces
             and then warmed lightly followed by application
             to the tonsil area. [1]
5          Piles. Three inch length of bark is crushed
             with 1/2 poa (local measure, 4 poas approximate
             1 kg) cow milk. One poa of the mixture is taken
             orally once daily on an empty stomach for 1
             month. Foods to be avoided during this period
             are sweets and any food causing allergic
             reactions in the body. [3]
6          Abscess. Seven leaves of Annona squamosa and
             extract of bark of Acacia catechu (bark is
             boiled in water and the extract dried and
             powdered) is made into a paste and applied as
             poultice around the abscess. [3]
7          See Ichnocarpus frutescens. [1]
8          See Eleusine indica. [1]
9          Infertility in woman. One root of Ichnocarpus
             frutescens and one root of Hemidesmus indicus
             are mixed with 12 spices (rhizome of Curcuma
             longa, rhizome of Zingiber officinale, seed of
             Nigella sativa, fruit of Piper longum, bark of
             Cinnamomum verum, leaf of Cinnamomum tamala,
             fruit of Capsicum frutescens, seed of Elettaria
             cardamomum, bulb of Allium cepa, bulb of Allium
             sativum, and dried floral bud of Syzygium
             aromaticum). The fish, Colisa fasciata
             (Bengali: Khalse, English: banded gourami) is
             fried and made into a mash with the roots of
             the two plants and plants parts of the 12
             different spices. The mash is taken orally
             with cooked rice once on the night of the 5th
             day of start of menstruation. [1]
10         Severe rheumatism, sprain, snake bite. Bark is
             peeled off from the stem and the inner portion
             of the stem is made into a paste and applied
             topically to affected areas. Roots can be
             substituted for stems. [2]
11         Snake bite, snake repellent. For snake bite,
             100g crushed leaves, stems and roots are
             administered orally till venom is gone. The
             plant is grown around the homestead to repel
             snakes. [1]
12         See Eleusine indica. [1]
13         See Erythrina variegata. [3]
14         Snake bite, cancer. Juice obtained from a crushed
             mixture of leaves, stems and roots is taken
             orally once daily for 7 days. Note that this
             medication is slightly beneficial for cancer
             but cannot cure the disease totally. [1]
15         Pain, sprain. Mustard oil is rubbed on the
             leaves, which are then warmed over a lantern or
             oven and then applied to affected places. [1]
16         See Ichnocarpus frutescens. [1]
17         Swelling of body (edema), bone fracture. Roots
             are tied around the waist with a thread for 7
             days for edema. Note that beef cannot be taken
             during this period. Crushed stems are applied
             as poultice to fractured area for bone
             fractures and the fractured bone held in place
             with bamboo slices. This is continued for 15
             days. [1]
18         Skin infection. Crushed leaves of Artemisia
             nilagirica and crushed leaves of Paederia
             foetida are applied as poultice over the
             infected area. [2]
19         Gastric problems. Roots of Blumea lacera are
             taken orally with one leaf of Piper betle once
             daily for 7 days.
           Burns. Juice from crushed leaves is applied
             topically over burnt area. [2]
20         Cuts and wounds, snake bite in humans. 20g juice
             obtained from crushed stems and roots is taken
             orally daily in the morning till cure. During
             this medication period, any consumption of meat
             or fish is forbidden. [1]
21         Brain disorder. 3-7 fruits are powdered and made
             into a halwa (local soft sweet dish) with
             sugarcane molasses. The halwa is taken orally
             once daily for 10-15 days. [2]
           Infections. Two inch amount of bark of Crescentia
             cujete and a handful of Cynodon dactylon are
             combined and crushed to obtain juice. The juice
             is taken orally once daily for 3 days on an
             empty stomach. [2]
           Excessive water loss from pregnant woman through
             excessive urination. Bark juice is orally
             taken. [3]
           See Achyranthes aspera. [2]
22         Severe headache, insanity. Juice obtained from
             crushed white pulp present within the leaves is
             applied topically to the head for 7 consecutive
             days. [2]
23         Allergy in humans and domestic animals. 10g
             amount of juice obtained from crushed leaves of
             Capparis zeylanica and rhizomes of Zingiber
             offinale are orally taken daily in the morning
             on an empty stomach for 7 days. [1]
24         Headache, neck pain. Juice obtained from leaves
             is mixed with a pinch of table salt and applied
             drop by drop topically to head or neck. This is
             done for 3 days. [3]
25         Hotness in head, headache. Juice obtained
             crushed leaves in topically applied to scalp for
             3 consecutive days. [3]
26         See Argemone mexicana. [2]
           See Erythrina variegata. [3]
27         Dysentery, low semen density, accumulation of
             flesh on local parts of the body like the nose.
             Crushed roots and fruits are mixed with 100g
             honey and made into a halwa (local sweet soft
             dish). The halwa is orally taken once daily for
             7 days. [3]
28         Headache in humans. Seed oil is applied to
             scalp.[1]
29         Abscess, waist pain, protection of new-born from
             any evil. Crushed roots are applied to abscess.
             Roots from the eastern side of the plant are
             tied with a thread to the waist for 21 days
             waist pain. For protection of a new-born, roots
             are kept inside the room where the infant is
             kept. [1]
30         Skin infections, swelling of blood vessels in
             human. Crushed leaves and stems or roots are
             applied topically to affected areas for 21
             days. [1]
31         See Annona squamosa. [3] from crushed leaves

32         Cancer. 100g powdered seeds are taken orally once
             daily for 15 days. Note that during this time no
             food can be eaten that causes an allergic
             reaction in the body. [2]
33         Skin infections, scabies. 5-10g juice obtained
             from crushed leaves is topically applied to
             affected areas. Note that during this period
             nothing salty can be eaten nor soap used on
             skin. [3]
34         Skin infections. Juice obtained from a combined
             mixture of leaves of Dalbergia sissoo, leaves
             of Melocanna baccifera, and mishri (crystalline
             sugar) is topically applied twice daily in the
             morning and evening for 21 days. [2]
35         See Argemone mexicana. [2]
           Vomiting in children. Bark of Erythrina variegata,
             rhizome of Curcuma longa, inner core of Phoenix
             dactylifera (methi) and stems and leaves of
             Trichosanthes dioica are mixed with slaked lime,
             and crushed to obtain juice. The juice is
             administered orally daily in the morning for
             3-7 days. [3]
36         See Ichnocarpus frutescens. [1] is topically
37         See Ichnocarpus frutescens. [1] applied to
38         See Ichnocarpus frutescens. [1]
39         See Ichnocarpus frutescens. [1]
           See Achyranthes aspera. [2]
40         Headache in humans, severe infections in domestic
             animals. For animals, juice obtained from 7
             stems with leaves is orally administered as well
             as topically applied along with 100g mustard oil
             and some table salt. For human beings suffering
             from headache, juice obtained from 7 stems with
             leaves is topically applied to scalp in the
             morning before the person touches any water.
             After 10 minutes following application, the
             person has to take a bath. [1]
41         Abscess. Crushed bark is applied as poultice over
             abscess. [2]
42         Tuberculosis, low semen density. 200g of juice
             obtained from 7 stems with leaves is taken
             orally twice daily in the morning and evening
             for 7 days. [3]
43         See Ichnocarpus frutescens. [1]
44         Fever with mucus. Roots of Argemone mexicana are
             combined with 5 stems of Trichosanthes dioica
             and bark of Erythrina variegata. Juice obtained
             from the crushed combination is taken orally. [2]
45         See Eleusine indica. [1]
           See Blumea lacera. [2]
46         See Unidentifed plant nuna bhat. [1]
           See Ichnocarpus_frutescens. [1]
47         Penile dysfunction. Stems are tied around the hand
             for two and a half days. [2]
48         Reduced sexual desire in humans. Juice obtained
             from crushed stem is orally taken once daily. [1]
49         See Crescentia cujete. [2]
           See Achyranthes aspera. [2]
50         In humans--dysentery, piles, if menstruation goes
             on for a long time. For dysentery, juice
             obtained from a handful of crushed roots of
             Eleusine indica is mixed with 3 drops of sap of
             Cerbera manghas and taken orally for 3 days
             (each morning on an empty stomach and before
             touching any water). [1]
           For piles, juice obtained from a handful of
             crushed roots of Eleusine indica is taken orally
             once daily with a leaf of Piper betle, a nut
             from Areca catechu, and slaked lime after meals
             for 14 days. During this period, the patient has
             to maintain a vegetarian diet. [1]
           For prolonged menstruation, 1/2 kg cow milk is
             mixed with 1/2 kg water. Half portion of the
             mixture is taken orally. Then to the rest of the
             mixture, 1/2 kg water is added and the whole
             mixture taken orally. Crushed roots are then
             taken orally for 3 consecutive days. [1]
51         See Dalbergia sissoo. [2]
52         Skin infections. Juice obtained from leaf is
             topically applied to skin infections. Note that
             the plant is very poisonous. On application, it
             will itch strongly but will subside later and
             the infection will be cured. [3]
53         See Ichnocarpus frutescens. [1]
54         See Artemisia nilagirica. [2]
55         Reduced sexual desire in humans. One glass of
             juice obtained from crushed leaves is orally
             taken daily for a month. [1]
56         Severe infections in animals. 50g of stems with
             leaves is orally administered with 25g mustard
             oil. [1]
57         Humans or animals being touched by the 'evil wind'
             or 'ghosts'. 100g of juice obtained from crushed
             leaves is orally taken 1-3 times daily. [1]
58         Diarrhea. 300g of juice obtained from crushed
             roots is orally taken with sugar once daily for
             13 days. [2]
59         See Ichnocarpus frutescens. [1]
60         Allergy. Three fruits are taken orally with rice
             for 7 days. During this period, foods that
             aggravate allergy cannot be eaten. [3].
61         Preventive medicine for chicken pox. Juice
             obtained from crushed root is taken orally. [3]
62         Headache. Oil obtained from the plant is topically
             applied to scalp. [1]
           Hardening of skins in the body. Soaked stems are
             taken orally. [1]
63         Calcium deficiency. Juice obtained from a
             combination of crushed leaves, barks, and roots
             is taken orally. [3]
64         Dizziness, insanity in humans. 100g of juice
             obtained from crushed stems and roots is applied
             topically with salt to the scalp when dizziness
             occurs and to insane persons for 3-7 days. Note
             that for insane persons, the person has to take
             a bath within 1 hour following application. [1]
65         Conjunctivitis. A stem is cut and blown from one
             side. The juice that emerges is topically
             applied to the affected eye(s). [1]
           Body pain. Crushed leaves are applied to painful
             areas. [1]
66         Headache. Juice obtained from crushed leaves and
             stems is applied topically to scalp. [3]
67         Pain in the forehead in humans. Juice obtained
             from 7 stems is applied topically to the
             forehead with a little table salt. [3]
68         Neck sprain in cattle. The person who owns the
             cow/cattle takes the root/stem in his/her hand
             and enters a pond, and after swimming the length
             of the pond comes out from the other side. The
             place where he/she comes out, the root or the
             stem is planted in the soil. [ 1]
69         See Ichnocarpus frutescens. [1]
           See Erythrina variegata. [3]
70         See Ichnocarpus frutescens. [1]
71         See Capparis zeylanica. [1]
           See Ichnocarpus frutescens. [1]
72         To keep teeth healthy. Teeth are brushed with
             rhizome daily. [3]
74         Pain in the fingers through accumulation of dirt
             ('angul hara'). Sap of stem is topically
             applied. [3]

Identity of the Kavirajes is given in brackets in the last column.

Table 2: Medicinal plants, animal parts, and formulations of the
Kaviraj from Jhenaidah district, Bangladesh.

A. Plants

Serial     Scientific         Family Name        Local Name
  Number     Name

1          Adhatoda vasica    Acanthaceae        Bashok
             Nees
2          Andrographis       Acanthaceae        Kalomegh
           paniculata Nees
3          Achyranthes        Amaranthaceae      Chirchirae
             aspera L.
4          Aerva              Amaranthaceae      Laal bishari
             sanguinolenta
             (L.) Blume
5          Rauvolfia          Apocynaceae        Choto
             serpentina                            Chandra
             Benth. ex.
             Kurz.
6          Thevetia           Apocynaceae        Shet korki,
             peruviana                             Kolke phul
             (Pers.) K.
             Schum.
7          Areca catechu L.   Arecaceae          Supari gach
8          Aristolochia       Aristolochiaceae   Ishe
             indica L.
9          Asparagus          Asparagaceae/      Shotomul
             racemosus          Liliaceae
             Willd.
10         Barringtonia       Barringtoniaceae   Moha
             racemosa (L.)                         shomuddur
             Spreng
11         Oroxylum           Bignoniaceae       Kanai dunga
             indicum L.
12         Bombax ceiba L.    Bombacaceae        Shimul
13         Terminalia         Combretaceae       Arjun
             arjuna
             (Roxb.)
             W. & A.
14         Argyreia           Convolvulaceae     Bethrok,
             nervosa                               Shona pata
             (Burm. f.)
             Bojer
15         Ipomoea            Convolvulaceae     Bhui kumra
             mauritiana
             Jacq.
16         Kalanchoe          Crassulaceae       Himsagor
             spathulata DC.
17         Euphorbia          Euphorbiaceae      Nera sejae
             antiquorum L.
18         Euphorbia          Euphorbiaceae      Pata sejae
             neriifolia L.
19         Acacia nilotica    Fabaceae           Guea babla
             (L.) Willd.
             ex Delile
20         Cassia fistula     Fabaceae           Sonali
             L.
21         Tamarindus         Fabaceae           Tetul
             indica L.
22         Flacourtia         Flacourtiaceae     Buinj
             indica (Burm.
             f.) Merr.
23         Allium cepa L.     Liliaceae          Peyaz
24         Lindernia          Linderniaceae/     Belae shak
             antipoda (L.)    Plantaginaceae/
             Alston           Scrophulariaceae
25         Hibiscus rosa      Malvaceae          Joba
             sinensis L.
26         Azadirachta        Meliaceae          Neem
             indica A.
             Juss.
27         Nymphaea rubra     Nymphaeaceae       Laal shapla
             Roxb. ex
             Andrews
28         Nyctanthes         Oleaceae           Sheuli
             arbor-tristis
             L.
29         Piper betle L.     Piperaceae         Paan
30         Gouania            Rhamnaceae         Moshkantur
             tiliaefolia
             Lam.
31         Aegle marmelos     Rutaceae           Bael
             (L.) Corr.
32         Scoparia           Scrophulariaceae   Ukne modhu
             dulcis L.
33         Smilax indica      Smilacaceae        Kanta kumrae
             Burm. f.
34         Datura metel L.    Solanaceae         Kalo dhutra
35         Vitex negundo L.   Verbenaceae        Nichindro
36         Cissus             Vitaceae           Harbhanga
             quadrangularis
             L.
37         Zingiber           Zingiberaceae      Bon ada
             purpureum
             Roxb.

Serial     Parts used
  Number

1          Leaf
2          Leaf
3          Root
4          Leaf
5          Root
6          Flower
7          Root
8          Root
9          Root
10         Bark
11         Bark
12         Root
13         Bark
14         Leaf
15         Tuber
16         Leaf
17         Thorn
18         Leaf
19         Fruit
20         Leaf
21         Root
22         Thorn, root
23         Bulb
24         Leaf, stem
25         Flower
26         Leaf
27         Flower
28         Leaf
29         Leaf
30         Leaf
31         Root, fruit
32         Leaf
33         Leaf, root
34         Leaf
35         Leaf
36         Stem
37         Root

Serial     Disease,
  Number     Symptoms, Formulations, and Administration

1          Coughs. Juice obtained from 500g leaves is mixed
             with honey and warmed upon a hot iron. The warm
             juice is taken orally once daily for 2 weeks.
2          See Rauwolfia serpentina.
           See Aristolochia indica.
3          Low density of semen (dhatu sutika), diabetes
             (bohu mutra). 5g root is worn around the body
             in an amulet for 3-4 months. At the same time,
             5g of crushed roots are taken orally twice
             daily in the morning and night.
4          Itches. Crushed leaves are applied topically to
             itches daily in the morning and afternoon after
             taking a bath. This is done for 1 week. Note
             that during this time and following the
             medication up to a month, any consumption of
             Solanum melongena fruits, Tenualosa ilisha fish,
             shrimp, prawn, duck eggs, duck meat and beef are
             forbidden.
5          Allergy. Roots of Rauwolfia serpentina are
             combined with roots of Aristolochia indica, and
             leaves of Andrographis paniculata. Paste
             prepared from the combination is taken (2g per
             dosage) once daily orally at night after meals.
             The dosage period is 2 weeks. During this period
             of medication and for a total of 2-3 months any
             consumption of duck meat, duck eggs, shrimp or
             prawn, Tenualosa ilisha fish, beef and Basella
             alba plant is forbidden.
6          See Vitex negundo.
7          See Oroxylum indicum.
8          Chronic fever. 5g of crushed leaves of
             Aristolochia indica and 5g of crushed leaves of
             Andrographis paniculata are taken orally thrice
             daily in the morning, afternoon and night. See
             Rauwolfia serpentina.
9          See Terminalia arjuna.
10         Snake bite. Juice obtained from crushed bark is
             taken twice daily (100 ml amounts) orally in the
             morning and night for 1 week.
11         Jaundice. Bark of Oroxylum indicum is combined
             with root of recently germinated roots of Areca
             catechu. The combination is crushed to obtain
             juice. 250 ml of the juice is taken orally daily
             at night after meals. The medication period is
             2 weeks. Note that during this period of
             medication anything growing under the soil like
             potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) or turmeric
             (Curcuma longa) as well as hot peppers (Capsicum
             frutescens), too much soybean oil, beef, mutton,
             duck meat, duck eggs, shrimp or prawn, Tenualosa
             ilisha fish, and too much spicy food consumption
             is forbidden.
12         See Terminalia arjuna.
13         Used as preventive medicine for spermatorrhea and
             cardiovascular disorders as well as to raise
             body resistance against diseases and to keep the
             body healthy and mind contented. Bark is crushed
             with cow milk and dried. 0.25g of this bark is
             taken orally twice daily in the morning and
             night. Along with 0.25g bark of Terminalia
             arjuna, 0.25g powdered roots of Asparagus
             racemosus, 0.25g powdered tubers of Ipomoea
             mauritiana, and 0.25g powdered roots of Bombax
             ceiba are also taken.
14         See Datura metel.
15         See Terminalia arjuna.
16         Headache. 100g crushed leaves are mixed with
             mustard oil and applied to the scalp daily in
             the afternoon for 1 week.
17         Affected by 'genies'. One thorn is put in an
             amulet, which is worn around the body for 2-3
             weeks.
18         Tonsillitis. Juice obtained from 250g crushed
             leaves is taken orally with honey once daily in
             the morning for 2-3 days. Note that during this
             medication period and up to a week any
             consumption of duck eggs, duck meat, seeds of
             Lens esculenta (masoor dal), Tenualosa ilisha
             fish (ilish mach), shrimp, prawn and beef are
             forbidden.
19         To remove fear, to stimulate the body in doing
             work. 3g fruit is put in an amulet, which is
             sealed in wax. The amulet is worn with a piece
             of black thread around the waist for a long
             time.
20         Diarrhea. Leaves are boiled in water to make a
             soup. 250 ml of the soup is taken orally twice
             daily in the morning and night.
21         Edema. 10g of root is tied around the body for
             a week.
22         Fear in children. One thorn of Flacourtia indica
             and one thorn of Smilax indica are put in an
             amulet. The amulet is sealed with wax and worn
             around the body for 3 months.
           Bending of neck in children (ghar bhanga rogh).
             5g roots are put in an amulet, which is worn
             around the neck for 3 months.
23         See Datura metel.
           See Cissus quadrangularis.
24         Used as famine food. Leaves and stems are boiled,
             cooked and eaten for 2-3 weeks.
25         Infertility. Pills are prepared from 5g of
             crushed flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis and
             5g of crushed flowers of Nymphaea rubra per
             pill. Three pills are taken orally in the
             morning on an empty stomach daily for 1 month.
26         See Vitex negundo.
27         See Hibiscus rosa sinensis.
28         Stomach ache. One teaspoonful of juice obtained
             from crushed leaves is taken orally twice daily
             in the morning and night for 3 days.
29         See Zingiber purpureum.
30         Headache with fever. 5g of crushed leaves are
             taken orally in the morning daily till cure. At
             the same time, juice obtained from crushed
             leaves is applied in drops to the scalp.
31         Snake bite. 10g of root is administered orally
             within 1/2 hour of snake bite.
           Stomach disorders. Sliced fruits are dried and
             taken orally once daily.
32         Dysentery. 5g of crushed leaves are taken orally
             twice daily in the morning and night for a week.
             Note that during the period of medication and
             following that up to a month any consumption of
             duck eggs, duck meat, beef, Tenualosa ilisha
             fish, shrimp or prawns are forbidden.
33         Puerperal fever (wasting away of body, breaking
             type noises in waste and back, soft stool). 5g
             root is put in an amulet and worn around the
             waist for 3 months. During this period, any
             consumption of seeds of Lens esculenta (masoor
             dal), shrimp, prawn, Heteropneustes fossilis
             fish (shing mach), and Basella alba plant
             (puin shak) is forbidden.
           See Datura metel.
           See Flacourtia indica.
34         Rheumatism. Leaves of Datura metel are combined
             with leaves of Argyreia nervosa, leaves of
             Smilax indica, oil obtained from Bengal fox
             (Vulpes bengalensis, a dead fox is dried and
             then boiled to extract oil from the fat),
             mustard oil, and juice obtained from bulbs of
             Allium cepa. The combination is crushed to
             obtain juice. 1 ml of the juice is taken orally
             twice daily in the morning and night for 2-3
             weeks.
35         Burn, large size cuts and wounds. 1/2 kg leaves
             of Vitex negundo, 1/2 kg leaves of Azadirachta
             indica, and 2-3 flowers of Thevetia peruviana
             are boiled in water. One liter of the boiled
             water is mixed with 3-4 liters of clean water,
             and burns or cuts and wounds are washed with the
             water followed by washing the whole body in the
             water. This is done once daily.
36         Bone fracture in hands or legs. Crushed stems of
             Cissus quadrangularis and crushed bulbs of
             Allium cepa are combined together and applied as
             poultice on the fractured area. A cloth bandage
             is put over the place. The poultice is changed
             thrice within a period of 7 to 10 days.
37         Stomach pain in expecting mother. Roots of
             Zingiber purpureum are cut into small pieces.
             3-4 pieces of the roots are orally taken twice
             daily along with leaf of Piper betle after
             meals. This is continued for 7-8 days.

B. Animal parts

Serial     Scientific Name    Family Name        Local Name
  Number                                           (English
                                                   name)

1          Anser anser        Anatidae           Raj hansh
                                                   (Greylag
                                                   goose)
2          Vulpes             Canidae            Shiyal
             bengalensis                           (Bengal
                                                   fox)
3          Lutrogale          Mustelidae         Dherae
             perspicillata                         (Indian
                                                   smooth-
                                                   coated
                                                   otter)

Serial     Parts used
  Number

1          Throat bone
2          Oil
3          Throat bone

Serial     Disease,
  Number     Symptoms, Formulations, and Administration

1          Asthma. Throat bones of Anser anser and throat
             bones of Lutrogale perspicillata are put in an
             amulet and worn around the neck.

2          See Serial Number 34, Part A of this Table.

3          See Anser anser.
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Khatun, Asha; Khan, Aliul Asif; Rahman, Atiqur; Akter, Shamima; Hasan, Abid; Parvin, Waheda; Ripa, R
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Dec 1, 2013
Words:14584
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