Ethnomedicinal usage of plants and animals by folk medicinal practitioners of three villages in Chuadanga and Jhenaidah districts, Bangladesh.
Folk medicinal practitioners (otherwise known as Kavirajes or Vaidyas) are a common feature, particularly in the rural areas of Bangladesh. The origins of folk medicine are unknown, but may reflect a unique blend of other more established forms of traditional medicines in Bangladesh like Ayurveda and Unani combined with the personal experiences of the Kaviraj, which may be a totality of knowledge acquired through multiple generations as well as gathered from 'gurus' or reading books on medicinal values of plants. Since the practice of being a Kaviraj is usually kept within the family and passes in most cases from father to son or daughter and so forth, or in some cases acquired by serving as an apprenticeship to a 'guru' or master, over time, depending on the accumulated years of experience, a Kaviraj may possess considerable knowledge on the medicinal properties of plants. There are also anecdotal reports as well as reports by individual Kavirajes that they have gone to Assam state in India to get training from a master. Assam state, and particularly the district of Kamrup in Assam, is particularly known among the Kavirajes, who besides using medicinal plants and animal parts, also deals with healing of paranormal diseases through incantations, amulets and black magic. Other Kavirajes mention that they have acquired their knowledge through perusal of Ayurvedic, Unani or folk medicinal texts written for the lay persons. It may be mentioned in this regard that the Kaviraj community as a whole in Bangladesh do not have higher education (or in most cases have only primary school education or not even that), nor are they required to undergo professional training and obtain certification before they can practice. As such, any person can start practicing as a Kaviraj based on whatever training or knowledge that the person has learnt or collected.
Studies and documentation of folk medicinal practices are practically absent in Bangladesh. Most Kavirajes have been dismissed as mere quacks by the influential, intellectual and affluent sections of the society. Yet there is much anecdotal evidences that suggest that quite a large number of Kavirajes have very extensive practices and are visited by affluent sections of the society, who can afford advanced allopathic medicine, and have indeed gone to highly trained allopathic doctors, but have not been successful in cure of their diseases. The evidences also suggest that Kaviraj treatment has succeeded where allopathic treatment has failed. This is not surprising for most Kavirajes use medicinal plants and animal parts for treatment and modern science has recently began to re-discover the medicinal values of these plants and animals. That plants and animal parts have therapeutic values cannot be denied, for not only many allopathic drugs have been discovered from plants from close observations of the traditional medicinal practices of indigenous societies [10,21,36], but also animal parts have also been extensively used as medicines among indigenous societies for centuries and have started to prove their values in disease treatment from modern scientific research [20,74,64,4,5].
Towards a thorough documentation of the medicinal plants of Bangladesh, we had been conducting ethnomedicinal surveys among folk and tribal medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh for a number of years [78,89,90,91,19,42,44,70,71,89,90,91,92,93,94,95,96 ,97,98,2,13,14,15,40,47,49,89,90,113,117,23,42,45,5 6,89,90,91,92,93,114]. Such studies not only document the possible therapeutic importance of the medicinal plants and animal species of the country, but can also serve as the basis to initiate or continue further scientific research. As such the objective of the present study was to conduct ethnomedicinal surveys among folk medicinal practitioners of two adjoining districts of the country, namely Chuadanga and Jhenaidah.
Materials and Methods
The present survey was carried out in the adjoining villages of Tangramari and Kutubpur in Chuadanga district and the village of Benepara in Jhenaidah district of Bangladesh. It may be mentioned that the two districts adjoin each other. There were two practicing Kavirajes in Tangramari village, namely Md. Abdur Rahim (designated as Kaviraj 1 in Table 1) and Md. Altaf Hossain (designated as Kaviraj 3 in Table 1). Kaviraj 1 was male, 55 years by age, Muslim by religion, and had been practicing for about 25 years and specialized in ethnoveterinary medicine. Kaviraj 3 was male, 50 years by age, Muslim by religion, and had been practicing for about 20-25 years. The practitioner at Kutubpur village of Chuadanga district (designated as Kaviraj 2 in Table 1) was named Md. Abdur Razzak, male, 40 years by age, Muslim by religion, and had been practicing for about 15 years. The Kaviraj of Benepara village in Jhenaidah district was very old but still active. His name was Md. Afsar Ali Mandal, 111 years by age, Muslim by religion, and had been practicing for about 47-48 years.
Informed consent was first obtained from all Kavirajes as to publish their names, age, religion, and any other information that they provided. All Kavirajes were fully apprised of the nature of our visits and consent obtained to disseminate any information provided both nationally and internationally. All Kavirajes spoke Bengali, which was also spoken by the interviewers; thus interviews were conducted totally in the Bengali language. Actual interviews were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided fieldwalk method of Martin  and Maundu . In this method, the Kavirajes individually took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where each Kaviraj collected his medicinal plants, pointed out the plants and described their uses. However, on some occasions, the Kavirajes provided the information first, followed by taking the interviewers on guided field-walks. Plant specimens as pointed out by the Kavirajes were photographed and collected on the spot, pressed, dried and brought back to Dhaka for complete identification by Mr. Manjur-Ul-Kadir Mia, ex-Curator and Principal Scientific Officer of the Bangladesh National Herbarium. Voucher specimens were deposited with the Medicinal Plant Collection Wing of the University of Development Alternative.
Results and Discussion
The three Kavirajes from Chuadanga district were observed, in between themselves, to use a total of 74 medicinal plants in their various formulations. Of the 74 plants, 2 plants could not be identified. The rest of the plants were distributed into 38 families. Ailments treated by Kaviraj 1 included gastrointestinal disorders, bone fracture, tonsillitis, infertility in woman, snake bite, cancer, swelling of body (edema), cuts and wounds, allergy, pain, sprain, sexual problems, menstrual disorders, piles, insanity, eye disorders, dog bite, skin infections, abscess, and paranormal diseases like being touched by 'evil wind' or 'ghosts'. Kaviraj 1 also treated diseases of domestic animals, and on most occasions the same plant was used for treatment of the same disease in both humans and animals. Diseases treated by Kaviraj 2 included infertility in woman, bleeding while pregnant, rheumatism, sprain, snake bite, skin infections, insanity, cancer, abscess, and sexual disorders. Diseases treated by Kaviraj 3 included piles, abscess, gastrointestinal disorders, infections, excessive water loss from a pregnant woman, pain, sexual disorders, skin infections, vomiting in children, tuberculosis, fever with mucus, allergy, and calcium deficiency. Kaviraj 3 also advised partaking root juice of Solanum virginianum as preventive medicine for chicken pox. The results are shown in Table 1.
The three Kavirajes of Chuadanga district showed a certain degree of specialization among them. For instance, Kaviraj 1 specialized in ethnoveterinary medicine and treatment of paranormal diseases. Kaviraj 2 treated diseases like rheumatism and bleeding in woman who are pregnant, which problems were not treated by the other Kavirajes. Kaviraj 3 treated excessive water loss from pregnant woman, tuberculosis, vomiting in children, fever, and calcium deficiency exclusively. Some diseases were treated in common by the Kavirajes; however, plants used for treatment were totally different. To cite a few instances, infertility in woman was treated by Kaviraj 2 with a combination of Achyranthes aspera and Allium sativum, but treated by Kaviraj 1 with a complex formulation in which one root of Ichnocarpus frutescens and one root of Hemidesmus indicus were mixed with 12 spices (rhizome of Curcuma longa, rhizome of Zingiber officinale, seed of Nigellas sativa, fruit of Piper longum, bark of Cinnamomum verum, leaf of Cinnamomum tamala, fruit of Capsicum frutescens, seed of Elettaria cardamomum, bulb of Allium cepa, bulb of Allium sativum, and dried floral bud of Syzygium aromaticum). The fish, Colisa fasciata (Bengali: Khalse, English: banded gourami) was fried and made into a mash with the roots of the two plants and plants parts of the 12 different spices. The mash was to be taken orally with cooked rice once. Incidentally, this was the only use of a species other than medicinal plants by Kaviraj 1, while the other two Kavirajes kept their formulations exclusively to medicinal plants.
Sprain in human beings was treated with Calotropis procera by Kaviraj 1, but with Rauvolfia serpentina by Kaviraj 2. Kaviraj 2 also treated snake bite with the same plant. However, Kaviraj 1 treated snake bite with either Rauvolfia tetraphylla or Aristolochia indica. Skin infections were treated in common by all three Kavirajes. However, Kaviraj 1 treated such infections with Abrus precatorius, Kaviraj 2 with a combination of Dalbergia sissoo and Melocanna baccifera, and Kaviraj 3 treated skin infections with Cassia occidentalis. Kaviraj 3 also treated skin infections with Neohouzeaua dulloa. Insanity was treated by Kaviraj 1 with Phyla nodiflora, but by Kaviraj 2 with Opuntia dillenii. Abscess was treated with Tragia involucrata by Kaviraj 1, with Acacia farnesiana by Kaviraj 2, and with a combination of Annona squamosa and Acacia catechu by Kaviraj 3. Piles were treated with a combination of Eleusine indica, Piper betle, and Areca catechu by Kaviraj 1, but only with Spondias pinnata by Kaviraj 3. This differences in plant selection by the Kavirajes on the one hand, points to the rich diversity of plants present in Bangladesh to treat the same disease; on the other hand, it suggests that every Kaviraj has his or her unique repertoire of plants for treatment, and which plants he probably has learnt from training, experiences (which may include actual trials on human beings or animals), or picked up from other traditional medicinal practices (like Ayurveda or Unani) in Bangladesh.
Ayurveda has a long history in the Indian subcontinent and dates back to probably 5,000 years ago. Both Ayurveda and Unani systems are well-defined systems with their own formulary and a defined system of cause and cure of diseases. As such, it is very much possible that folk medicine has either borrowed from any of these two ancient systems (at least in some parts), or folk medicine is simply a more simplified version of Ayurvedic and Unani medicines. It is also possible that folk medicine could have taken some treatment methods from the various tribes of the country. It is interesting to note that Rauvolfia serpentina, known in Ayurveda as 'Sarpagandhaa', is used in the Ayurvedic system for hypertension and as a mild sedative. The plant was used to treat sprains and severe rheumatism by Kaviraj 2 and could function to mildly sedate a person when the person has become excited because of the sprain and consequent pain or because of rheumatic pain. The plant was also used by Kaviraj 2 to treat snake bite; the Sigibe clan of the Khumi tribe of Bangladesh also uses the plant for the same purpose . The local people of Eastern Ghats, India also use the plant to treat snake bites . The plant, along with Aristolochia indica is used by the Kurichya tribe of Kannur district, Western Ghats, Kerala, India, to treat snake bite . Crinum asiaticum, used by Kaviraj 1 for treatment of tonsillitis, is known in Ayurveda as 'Naagadamani', and is used as an expectorant . Spondias pinnata, used by Kaviraj 3 for treatment of piles, is known in Ayurveda as 'Aamraataka'. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends using the stem bark of the plant in hemorrhagic diseases, which can include bleeding piles (bleeding occurring from hemorrhoids). Annona squamosa, used by Kaviraj 3 to treat abscesses also has similar ethnomedicinal uses in India . Aristolochia indica was used by Kaviraj 1 for treatment of snake bite. The plant has similar use among the tribes of Chitradurga district, Karnataka India , and tribals of Kinnerasani region, Andhra Pradesh, India . The plant is also used for treatment of snake bite by tribals and rural folks of West Rarrh region of West Bengal, India  and by the Kani tribals of Agastyar Hills of Trivandrum district in Kerala, India .
Calotropis procera was used by Kaviraj 1 for treatment of pain and sprains. In Ayurveda, the plant is known as 'Alarka' and is used for treatment of painful joints and swellings. The plant is also used in traditional medicines of Rajasthan, India for treatment of pain , and among the Tripuri tribal medicinal practitioners for treatment of rheumatic pain . Blumea lacera, used Kaviraj 2 for gastric problems is reported used by eleven tribal communities in the northern part of West Bengal State in India for gastrointestinal disorders . Eclipta prostrata was used by Kaviraj 1 for treatment of cuts and wounds. Ethnic groups in Jhansi and Laitpur sections of Bundelkhand, Uttar Pradesh, India also use the plant for treatment of wounds . Jatropha gossypifolia, used by Kaviraj 3 for treatment of dysentery, is used in ethnomedicines of Orissa, India for treatment of diarrhea . Ricinus communis, used by Kaviraj 1 to treat headache, is known in Ayurveda as 'Eranda', and used for treatment of arthritic pain and pain in the urinary bladder. The plant is used among different tribes of India to alleviate pain .
Leaves, stems or roots of Abrus precatorius were used by Kaviraj 1 for treatment of skin infections. Paste of roots of this plant is also used by tribals of lower foot-hills of Himachal Pradesh, India to treat skin infections . In Ayurveda, the plant is known as 'Gunjaa', and seed paste is used to treat vitiligo . Leaves of Cassia occidentalis were used by Kaviraj 3 for treatment of skin infections and scabies. In Ayurveda, the plant is known as 'Kaasamarda' and is used for treatment of scabies, ringworm and other skin diseases. Dalbergia sissoo, used by Kaviraj 2 to treat skin infections, is considered an anti-leprotic plant in Ayurveda and is known as 'Shimshapaa'. Stems of Trichosanthes dioica were used by Kaviraj 2 for treatment of fever. Roots of the plant are used to treat fever by the tribals from Saraswati River Region of Patan district, North Gujarat, India . Erythrina variegata, which was used by Kaviraj 2 along with Trichosanthes dioica and Argemone mexicana to treat fever, is known in Ayurveda as 'Paaribhadra', and is used in Ayurvedic medicines to treat fever. Eleusine indica is considered a stomachic in Vietnamese traditional medicine ; it was used by Kaviraj 1 to treat dysentery. Cynodon dactylon was used by Kaviraj 2 to stop vaginal bleeding from pregnant woman; in Ayurveda, it is known as 'Duurvaa', and is used to treat bleeding piles and bleeding from external cuts and wounds; various ethnic groups of Disoi Valley Reserve Forest of Jorhat District, Assam, India, use the plant to stop gum bleed . Scoparia dulcis was used by Kaviraj 2 to treat diarrhea; the plant reportedly is used by the Kurichya tribe of Kannur district, Western Ghats, Kerala, India to treat stomach pain .
Similarity in ethnomedicinal uses of any particular plant species among various ethnic groups or different regions of the world indicates that the plant species can form a useful source of treatment for that disease. It also indicates a high probability of finding phytochemical(s) from the plant that may serve as an efficacious treatment for treatment of the disease for which the plant is used. From that view point, a number of plants used by the three Kavirajes of Chuadanga district were seen to have similar ethnomedicinal applications among other tribes and regions in India. Thus these plant species deserve further scientific studies as to their phytochemical constituent(s) and pharmacological activities with reference to the diseases that they are used for treatment.
A number of plants used by the three Kavirajes of Chuadanga district can be seen to be scientifically validated in their uses from available scientific reports. The three Kavirajes used, in between themselves, various plants for treatment of different types of pain. Calotropis procera, used by Kaviraj 1 for treatment of pain and sprains has been shown to have analgesic properties in the latex , as well as aerial parts . Opuntia dillenii, used by Kaviraj 2 for treatment of severe headache, has also been reported to have analgesic properties . The plant was also used by Kaviraj 2 to treat insanity. The Garo tribals as well as non-Garo population of Tangail district, Bangladesh use the plant to maintain mental strength . Butanol extract of the plant reportedly demonstrated anti-depressant like actions . Kalanchoe pinnata, used by Kaviraj 3 for treating headache, reportedly demonstrated analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in ethanol and aqueous extract of dried stems . Seed oil of Ricinus communis was used by Kaviraj 1 to treat headache. Antinociceptive activity has been reported for leaf extract of the plant . For treatment of waist pain, Kaviraj 1 advised tying the roots of Tragia involucrata to the waist. Whether this procedure can really eliminate pain is scientifically debatable; however, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity has been reported for root extract of this plant .
Hemigraphis hirta was used by Kaviraj 1 to treat diarrhea. The plant has been reported to contain lupeol ; the anti-diarrheal action of lupeol has been reported . Rauvolfia serpentina was used by Kaviraj 2 for treatment of severe rheumatism, sprain, and snake bite, any of which can cause neurological disturbances because of associated pain or fear. It is interesting that the plant has been shown beneficial for neuropsychiatric conditions . Also, alkaloids from the plant reportedly have anti-venom effect . Aristolochia indica contains the alkaloid aristolochic acid, which has been reported to inactivate Naja naja venom and reduce hemorrhage caused by Trimeresurus flavoviridis and Vipera russellii venoms [139,140]. The anti-venom potential of Eclipta prostrata (used by Kaviraj 1 to treat snake bite) against Malayan pit viper venom has also been shown . The anti-diarrheal property of Blumea lacera has been reported . Notably, Kaviraj 2 used the plant for treatment of gastric problems.
The sole Kaviraj surveyed from Jhenaidah district used a total of 37 plants and 3 animal parts in his medicinal formulations. The plants were distributed into 30 families. The various ailments treated by this Kaviraj included respiratory disorders, skin disorders, sexual disorders, diabetes, fever, snake bite, jaundice, pain, gastrointestinal disorders, edema, infertility, puerperal fever, rheumatism, burns, cuts and wounds, and bone fracture. The results are shown in Table 2 (A, B).
It is interesting that although Chuadanga and Jhenaidah districts adjoin each other, the plants selected by the Jhenaidah Kaviraj were much different from those selected by the Chuadanga Kavirajes. For instance, while the Chadanga Kavirajes used Rauvolfia serpentina or Aristolochia indica to treat snake bites, the Jhenaidah Kaviraj used Barringtonia racemosa or Aegle marmelos to treat snake bites. The Jhenaidah Kaviraj (Kaviraj 4) used Rauvolfia serpentina along with Aristolochia indica and Andrographis paniculata to treat allergy. The use of Aegle marmelos roots for treatment of snake bite by Kaviraj 4 is notable and has not been observed in our previous ethnomedicinal surveys. However, the use of fruits of this plant for treatment of stomach disorders is quite common in Bangladesh and other parts of India. The fruits of this plant, following drying, are used by the Mullu kuruma tribe of Wayanad district in Kerala, India for treatment of dyspepsia and dysentery . The roots of this plant are used by the Kurichya tribe in Kannur district, Western Ghats, Kerala, India, for treatment of dysentery . Fruits of the plant are used to treat dysentery in children in Dhule district, Maharashtra, India , and for treatment of dysentery by tribals of south Surguja district in Chhattisgarh State in India . It is noteworthy that the fruits of the plant are used to treat snake bite in certain parts of India . Pentacyclic triterpenes are present in the fruit, which can account for its antivenom activity .
Kaviraj 4 used Adhatoda vasica for treatment of coughs. This plant is known in Ayurveda as 'Vaasaka' and is used in Ayurvedic medicines as an expectorant (during bronchial, pulmonary and asthmatic disorders) . The anti-tussive action of the plant in polyherbal formulations has recently been reported . The plant contains alkaloids with positive effects on inflammatory diseases ; extract of the plant also has been shown to have antitussive effect , and a bronchodilator alkaloid (vasicinone) has been isolated from the plant . In fact, andrographolide, a constituent of the plant is possibly responsible for the beneficial effects of the plant against cold, coughs, and upper respiratory tract infections . Achyranthes aspera was used by Kaviraj 4 for treatment of diabetes. Anti-diabetic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of the plant has been shown in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats .
A combination of leaves of Andrographis paniculata and Aristolochia indica were used by Kaviraj 4 for treatment of fever. Andrographis paniculata, known in Ayurveda as 'Kaalmegha' is considered in that medicinal system as having febrifuge properties. Andrographis paniculata is also used in traditional Chinese and Thai medicines for treatment of fever . The anti-pyretic properties of one of the constituents of the plant, namely dihydroandrographolide, have been reported . In Sudan, Aristolochia species are traditionally used for treatment of fever . Barringtonia racemosa was used by Kaviraj 4 for treatment of snake bite. Ethnomedicinal uses of this plant for snake bite treatment has been reported . Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects have been observed with fruits of this plant, which effects may be beneficial for snake-bitten patient . The bark of Oroxylum indicum, a plant used by Kaviraj 4 for treatment of jaundice, has been shown to have hepatoprotective activity . Hepatoprotective activity has also been reported for leaves of the plant . Bark powder is used for treatment of jaundice in tribal areas of North Maharashtra, India .
Terminalia arjuna was used by Kaviraj 4 as preventive medicine for cardiovascular disorders. Bark of this plant is considered a very useful medicine as cardioprotective and cardiotonic in Ayurveda , where the plant is known as 'Arjuna'. In human volunteers, bark of the plant has been reported to significantly increase mean cardiac output and significantly inhibit platelet aggregation in diabetic subjects, thus showing that cardiovascular morbidity may be reduced following onset of diabetes . Bark extract has also been shown to have cardiotonic effects on frog's heart in situ . Other reported beneficial effects of bark of this plant on heart or heart disorders include protective effects of plant bark against Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity ; significant inotropic and hypotensive effect of bark, also increases coronary artery flow and protects myocardium against ischemic damage, reviewed by Dwivedi ; protection of rabbit heart by bark against ischemic-reperfusion injury ; cardioprotective effect of alcoholic extract of bark in an in vivo model of myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury ; efficacy of the plant in chronic stable angina [29,12]; beneficial effects of bark of the plant in isolated ischemic-reperfused rat heart ; and beneficial effects in coronary artery disease (significant reductions in anginal frequency) .
Kalanchoe spathulata was used by Kaviraj 4 for treatment of headache. A Chuadanga Kaviraj (Kaviraj 3) used Kalanchoe pinnata for the same purpose. It is possible that the Kalanchoe genera plants possess phytochemical(s) with analgesic properties. A steroidal derivative has been isolated from Kalanchoe pinnata with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties . Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC. stems in mice has also been reported . Analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of extracts from the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haworth has also been described [79,80]. Analgesic and anti-convulsant effects have further been reported from leaf extract of Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haworth [79,80]. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities have also been reported from Kalanchoe spathulata leaf extract .
Cassia fistula was used by Kaviraj 4 to treat diarrhea. In Cambodian ethnomedicine, the plant is used to treat dysentery . The tribal people of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Mayurbhanj district, Odisha, India, also use the plant to treat dysentery . Edema was treated by Kaviraj 4 with root of Tamarindus indica. The Kavirajes' treatment was, however, unusual and consisted of tying the root around the body for a week. On the other hand, it is interesting that anti-inflammatory activity has been reported for seeds of the plant [11,126]. Kaviraj 4 used the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis to treat infertility. On the other hand, flowers of this plant are considered an anti-fertility ethnomedicine in parts of India . Anti-fertility activity has also been reported with a benzene extract of flowers of the plant in female albino rats . Nyctanthes arbortristis leaf was used by Kaviraj 4 for treatment of stomach ache. The analgesic activity of stem bark extract of the plant has been reported . Traditionally, in India, the plant is used for treatment of rheumatic joint pain .
Scoparia dulcis was used by Kaviraj 4 for treatment of dysentery. The plant has traditional uses in India for treatment of stomach troubles . The Kurichya tribe of Kannur district, Western Ghats, Kerala, India, use root extract of the plant to treat stomach pain . Datura metel were combined with leaves of Argyreia nervosa, and leaves of Smilax indica along with mustard oil, oil obtained from Bengal fox, and juice obtained from bulbs of Allium cepa for treatment of rheumatism by Kaviraj 4. The tribals of Kalakad-Mundunthurai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India, put a bandage on affected areas with leaves of Datura metel boiled in water, to get relief from rheumatic pain . The plant is also used for treating rheumatism in traditional remedies for joint diseases in Assam, India . Analgesic properties of aqueous extracts of seeds of the plant have been described . In vivo analgesic activity of aerial part of Argyreia nervosa has also been reported , and thus could be beneficial in alleviating rheumatic pain. In Ayurveda, the plant is known as 'Vriddhadaruka', and is considered useful for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis . Ayurvedic formulation includes Ajmodadi Churna - a polyherbal formulation containing root of this plant for treatment of rheumatic affections . Analgesic activity has been described in methanolic extract of roots . Thus, the combination of Datura metel and Argyreia nervosa can be an effective combination for relief of pain, which occurs during rheumatism, but whether such combination can actually cure rheumatism remains to be scientifically determined. The purpose of use of Smilax indica with the other two plants is unknown. However, a related species, Smilax macrophylla, has ethnomedicinal uses in the West Rarrh region of West Bengal, India, for treatment of diarrhea . Since the Kaviraj formulation was advised to be taken orally, and other ingredients in the formulation like fat of Bengal fox may cause possible stomach upsets, so Smilax indica was used to counter this problem. Juice of Allium cepa bulbs reportedly has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties , and as such, can add to the pain-alleviating effect. The meat and fat of Bengal fox is widely considered in Bangladesh as being effective for rheumatism; fox meat is often advised by Kavirajes to be taken in the cooked form by rheumatic patients.
Vitex negundo was used along with Azadirachta indica and Thevetia peruviana for treatment of burna, and large-sized cuts and wounds. These disorders can cause pain and inflammation, and can become infectious. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Vitex negundo has been reported [129,27,37]. The plant is known in Ayurveda as 'Nirgundi', and is considered anti-inflammatory. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities have been reported for Azadirachta indica leaf extract . The plant is known in Ayurveda as 'Nimba' and is considered anti-microbial, and so can prove useful in infections developing from cuts and wounds or burns. The plant, Cissus quadrangularis, was used with Allium cepa by Kaviraj 4 for treatment of bone fracture. A number of studies have demonstrated the healing effects of Cissus quadrangularis on bone fracture [132,133,122,134,135,136,18]. Cissus quadrangularis is also considered an Ayurvedic plant, where it is known as 'Asthisamhaara', and is used for bone healing . The use of Allium cepa may have been to mitigate the pain arising from bone fracture; the analgesic effect of bulb juice of this plant has been discussed above. Moreover, the wound healing activity of Allium cepa has also been described . Zingiber purpureum was used by Kaviraj 4 to treat stomach pain. The plant is known in Ayurveda as 'Vanardraka', and is used in Ayurvedic medicines to treat diarrhea and colic. Rhizomes of a related species, Zingiber officinale, have been shown to give pain relief in patients suffering from dysmenorrheal .
In conclusion, several points may be observed in the present study. First, the folk medicinal practitioners (Kavirajes) of Bangladesh have areas of specialization in both selections of medicinal plants and diseases treated; this rich diversity among the Kavirajes needs to be documented as extensively as possible for scientific reasons and alleviation of human sufferings from various diseases. Second, the Kavirajes possess quite extensive knowledge on the medicinal properties of various plant species, as evidenced by scientific validation of quite a number of the plant species used by the Kavirajes. Third, similar ethnomedicinal uses of the plants used by the Kavirajes of Bangladesh have been reported from other tribes and regions besides Bangladesh; this consensus of opinion about the selectivity of a medicinal plant for treatment of a particular ailment suggests a strong possibility of discovering efficacious drugs from the plants. Finally, documentation of such traditional knowledge can spur both scientific interests and conservation efforts. As such, more ethnomedicinal surveys need to be carried out among the Kavirajes of Bangladesh. Adequate scientific validation of the medicinal plants used by the Kavirajes can also provide the people of Bangladesh, and indeed the world, with a cheap and alternative source of medicines.
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Asha Khatun, Md. Aliul Asif Khan, Md. Atiqur Rahman, Most. Shamima Akter, Abid Hasan, Waheda Parvin, Rabina Jerin Ripa, Md. Moniruzzaman, Mostafi Jumrut Mahal, Mohammed Rahmatullah
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh
Received: November 03, 2013; Revised: January 13, 2014; Accepted: January 17, 2014
Corresponding Author: Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1209 Bangladesh Phone: 88-01715032621; Fax: 88-02-8157339; E-mail: email@example.com
Table 1: Medicinal plants and formulations of the three Kavirajes of Chuadanga district, Bangladesh. Serial Scientific Family Name Local Name Number Name 1 Hemigraphis Acanthaceae Buripaan hirta (Vahl.) And. 2 Justicia Acanthaceae Har baksha adhatoda L. 3 Achyranthes Amaranthaceae Apang, Chor aspera L. chorea 4 Crinum Amaryllidaceae Go roshno asiaticum L. 5 Spondias Anacardiaceae Bon amra pinnata (L. f.) Kurz 6 Annona Annonaceae Ata squamosa L. 7 Cyminum Apiaceae Jeera cuminum L. 8 Cerbera Apocynaceae Dhakur manghas L. 9 Ichnocarpus Apocynaceae Bhadra mul frutescens R. Br. 10 Rauvolfia Apocynaceae Ruhu serpentina chondral (L.) Benth. ex Kurz. 11 Rauvolfia Apocynaceae Boro Chandra tetraphylla L. 12 Areca catechu L. Arecaceae Supari 13 Phoenix Arecaceae Khejur dactylifera L. 14 Aristolochia Aristolochiaceae Issher mul indica L. 15 Calotropis Asclepiadaceae Akundo procera (Ait.) Ait. f. 16 Hemidesmus Asclepiadaceae Ananta mul indicus (L.) R. Br. 17 Tylophora Asclepiadaceae Chosok indica (Burm. somudra f.) Merr. 18 Artemisia Asteraceae Eichae nilagirica nagdana (Clarke) Pamp 19 Blumea lacera Asteraceae Kukur shuka (Burm. f.) DC. 20 Eclipta Asteraceae Kershae prostrata (L.) L. 21 Crescentia Bignoniaceae Jummu makal cujete L. 22 Opuntia dillenii Cactaceae Monsha dakat (Ker Gawl.) 23 Capparis Capparaceae Kalae khura zeylanica L. 24 Cleome diffusa Capparaceae Sultae Banks ex DC. 25 Kalanchoe Crassulaceae Pathorkuchi pinnata (Lam.) Pers. 26 Trichosanthes Cucurbitaceae Potol dioica Roxb. 27 Jatropha Euphorbiaceae Laal bhati, gossypifolia Kalo bhati L. 28 Ricinus Euphorbiaceae Venna communis L. 29 Tragia Euphorbiaceae Bichuti, involucrata L. Chukta 30 Abrus Fabaceae Kuch precatorius L. 31 Acacia catechu Fabaceae Khower Willd. 32 Alysicarpus Fabaceae Hanuman jota bupleurifolius (L.) DC. 33 Cassia Fabaceae Kalo occidentalis kashunda L. 34 Dalbergia Fabaceae Shishu sissoo Roxb. 35 Erythrina Fabaceae Madar variegata L. 36 Cinnamomum Lauraceae Tejpata tamala T. Nees & Eberm 37 Cinnamomum Lauraceae Daruchini verum Presl 38 Allium cepa L. Liliaceae Peyaz 39 Allium Liliaceae Roshun sativum L. 40 Lygodium Lygodiaceae Shona jhuri flexuosum (L.) Sw. 41 Acacia Mimosaceae Guhe babla farnesiana (L.) Willd. 42 Ficus Moraceae Bot benghalensis L. 43 Syzygium Myrtaceae Lobongo aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry 44 Argemone Papaveraceae Shial kata mexicana L. 45 Piper betle L. Piperaceae Paan 46 Piper nigrum L. Piperaceae Gol morich 47 Plumbago Plumbaginaceae Awprachitae zeylanica L. 48 Bambusa sp. Poaceae Bansh 49 Cynodon Poaceae Durba ghash dactylon (L.) Pers. 50 Eleusine indica Poaceae Bhuin (L.) Gaertn. vadalae, Kaklae ghash 51 Melocanna Poaceae Baijol baccifera Roxb. 52 Neohouzeaua Poaceae Kalo dalci dulloa (Gamble) A. Camus 53 Nigella sativa Ranunculaceae Kalijira L. 54 Paederia Rubiaceae Gondho foetida L. vadalae 55 Aegle marmelos Rutaceae Bael (L.) Corr. 56 Glycosmis Rutaceae Aas sel pentaphylla (Retz.) A. DC. 57 Murraya koenigii Rutaceae Bhutraj, (L.) Spreng. Nimbhut 58 Scoparia Scrophulariaceae Michri dana, dulcis L. Chini champa 59 Capsicum Solanaceae Morich frutescens L. 60 Solanum ferox L. Solanaceae Ram baegun 61 Solanum Solanaceae Konto kiari virginianum L. 62 Abroma augusta Sterculiaceae Olot kombol L. 63 Callicarpa Verbenaceae Pahari macrophylla Vahl. 64 Phyla nodiflora Verbenaceae Koi ukra (L.) Greene 65 Cissus adnata Vitaceae Aam dauk Roxb. 66 Cissus carnopa Vitaceae Gai goblae, Lam. Goale lota 67 Vitis sp. Vitaceae Mocchhe 68 Diplazium Woodsiaceae Foni monsha sylvaticum (Bory) Sw. 69 Curcuma Zingiberaceae Holud longa L. 70 Elettaria Zingiberaceae Elach cardamomum Maton 71 Zingiber Zingiberaceae Ada officinale Roscoe 72 Zingiber Zingiberaceae Bon ada purpureum Roscoe 74 Unidentified Unidentified Vedar mollik Serial Parts used Number 1 Stem, root 2 Leaf, stem, sap 3 Root 4 Rhizome 5 Bark 6 Young leaf 7 Seed 8 Sap 9 Root 10 Inner portion of stem, root 11 Leaf, stem, root 12 Nut 13 Inner core (methi) 14 Leaf, stem, root 15 Leaf 16 Root 17 Stem, root 18 Leaf, stem 19 Root, leaf 20 Root, stem 21 Bark, fruit 22 Leaf 23 Leaf 24 Leaf 25 Leaf 26 Leaf 27 Root, fruit 28 Seed oil 29 Root 30 Leaf, stem, root 31 Dried bark extract 32 Seed 33 Leaf 34 Leaf 35 Bark 36 Leaf 37 Bark 38 Bulb 39 Bulb 40 Leaf, stem 41 Bark 42 Leaf, stem 43 Dried floral bud 44 Root 45 Leaf 46 Fruit 47 Stem 48 Stem 49 Leaf 50 Root 51 Leaf 52 Leaf 53 Seed 54 Leaf 55 Leaf 56 Stems with leaves 57 Leaf 58 Root 59 Fruit 60 Fruit 61 Root 62 Oil, stem 63 Leaf, root, bark 64 Stem, root 65 Stem, leaf 66 Leaf, stem 67 Stem 68 Root, stem 69 Rhizome 70 Seed 71 Rhizome 72 Rhizome 74 Stem Serial Disease, Symptoms, Formulations, and Number Administration 1 Diarrhea in humans. 50g juice obtained from crushed stems and roots is taken with sugar orally thrice daily in the morning, afternoon night.  2 Bone fracture, to increase appetite in humans. Sap or fibers from stems are applied to the fractured area and are taken off after 7 days. Note that the taking off and putting on must be at the same time. Juice obtained from seven stems with leaves is taken once daily to increase appetite.  3 (Badhok)- Kaviraj term for infertility in woman. 10g juice obtained from crushed root of Achyranthes aspera is taken orally with 2 cloves of garlic (Allium sativum) thrice daily for 3 months. The medication starts 3 days after menstruation begins.  Bleeding while pregnant (blood can be present in urine or just comes out of vagina). Roots of Achyranthes aspera are combined with leaves of Cynodon dactylon, and 2 inch length of stem of Crescentia cujete. Juice obtained from the crushed mixture is taken orally for 3-5 days. Note that during this time eating of meat and and fish is forbidden.  4 Tonsillitis. Rhizomes are sliced in round pieces and then warmed lightly followed by application to the tonsil area.  5 Piles. Three inch length of bark is crushed with 1/2 poa (local measure, 4 poas approximate 1 kg) cow milk. One poa of the mixture is taken orally once daily on an empty stomach for 1 month. Foods to be avoided during this period are sweets and any food causing allergic reactions in the body.  6 Abscess. Seven leaves of Annona squamosa and extract of bark of Acacia catechu (bark is boiled in water and the extract dried and powdered) is made into a paste and applied as poultice around the abscess.  7 See Ichnocarpus frutescens.  8 See Eleusine indica.  9 Infertility in woman. One root of Ichnocarpus frutescens and one root of Hemidesmus indicus are mixed with 12 spices (rhizome of Curcuma longa, rhizome of Zingiber officinale, seed of Nigella sativa, fruit of Piper longum, bark of Cinnamomum verum, leaf of Cinnamomum tamala, fruit of Capsicum frutescens, seed of Elettaria cardamomum, bulb of Allium cepa, bulb of Allium sativum, and dried floral bud of Syzygium aromaticum). The fish, Colisa fasciata (Bengali: Khalse, English: banded gourami) is fried and made into a mash with the roots of the two plants and plants parts of the 12 different spices. The mash is taken orally with cooked rice once on the night of the 5th day of start of menstruation.  10 Severe rheumatism, sprain, snake bite. Bark is peeled off from the stem and the inner portion of the stem is made into a paste and applied topically to affected areas. Roots can be substituted for stems.  11 Snake bite, snake repellent. For snake bite, 100g crushed leaves, stems and roots are administered orally till venom is gone. The plant is grown around the homestead to repel snakes.  12 See Eleusine indica.  13 See Erythrina variegata.  14 Snake bite, cancer. Juice obtained from a crushed mixture of leaves, stems and roots is taken orally once daily for 7 days. Note that this medication is slightly beneficial for cancer but cannot cure the disease totally.  15 Pain, sprain. Mustard oil is rubbed on the leaves, which are then warmed over a lantern or oven and then applied to affected places.  16 See Ichnocarpus frutescens.  17 Swelling of body (edema), bone fracture. Roots are tied around the waist with a thread for 7 days for edema. Note that beef cannot be taken during this period. Crushed stems are applied as poultice to fractured area for bone fractures and the fractured bone held in place with bamboo slices. This is continued for 15 days.  18 Skin infection. Crushed leaves of Artemisia nilagirica and crushed leaves of Paederia foetida are applied as poultice over the infected area.  19 Gastric problems. Roots of Blumea lacera are taken orally with one leaf of Piper betle once daily for 7 days. Burns. Juice from crushed leaves is applied topically over burnt area.  20 Cuts and wounds, snake bite in humans. 20g juice obtained from crushed stems and roots is taken orally daily in the morning till cure. During this medication period, any consumption of meat or fish is forbidden.  21 Brain disorder. 3-7 fruits are powdered and made into a halwa (local soft sweet dish) with sugarcane molasses. The halwa is taken orally once daily for 10-15 days.  Infections. Two inch amount of bark of Crescentia cujete and a handful of Cynodon dactylon are combined and crushed to obtain juice. The juice is taken orally once daily for 3 days on an empty stomach.  Excessive water loss from pregnant woman through excessive urination. Bark juice is orally taken.  See Achyranthes aspera.  22 Severe headache, insanity. Juice obtained from crushed white pulp present within the leaves is applied topically to the head for 7 consecutive days.  23 Allergy in humans and domestic animals. 10g amount of juice obtained from crushed leaves of Capparis zeylanica and rhizomes of Zingiber offinale are orally taken daily in the morning on an empty stomach for 7 days.  24 Headache, neck pain. Juice obtained from leaves is mixed with a pinch of table salt and applied drop by drop topically to head or neck. This is done for 3 days.  25 Hotness in head, headache. Juice obtained crushed leaves in topically applied to scalp for 3 consecutive days.  26 See Argemone mexicana.  See Erythrina variegata.  27 Dysentery, low semen density, accumulation of flesh on local parts of the body like the nose. Crushed roots and fruits are mixed with 100g honey and made into a halwa (local sweet soft dish). The halwa is orally taken once daily for 7 days.  28 Headache in humans. Seed oil is applied to scalp. 29 Abscess, waist pain, protection of new-born from any evil. Crushed roots are applied to abscess. Roots from the eastern side of the plant are tied with a thread to the waist for 21 days waist pain. For protection of a new-born, roots are kept inside the room where the infant is kept.  30 Skin infections, swelling of blood vessels in human. Crushed leaves and stems or roots are applied topically to affected areas for 21 days.  31 See Annona squamosa.  from crushed leaves 32 Cancer. 100g powdered seeds are taken orally once daily for 15 days. Note that during this time no food can be eaten that causes an allergic reaction in the body.  33 Skin infections, scabies. 5-10g juice obtained from crushed leaves is topically applied to affected areas. Note that during this period nothing salty can be eaten nor soap used on skin.  34 Skin infections. Juice obtained from a combined mixture of leaves of Dalbergia sissoo, leaves of Melocanna baccifera, and mishri (crystalline sugar) is topically applied twice daily in the morning and evening for 21 days.  35 See Argemone mexicana.  Vomiting in children. Bark of Erythrina variegata, rhizome of Curcuma longa, inner core of Phoenix dactylifera (methi) and stems and leaves of Trichosanthes dioica are mixed with slaked lime, and crushed to obtain juice. The juice is administered orally daily in the morning for 3-7 days.  36 See Ichnocarpus frutescens.  is topically 37 See Ichnocarpus frutescens.  applied to 38 See Ichnocarpus frutescens.  39 See Ichnocarpus frutescens.  See Achyranthes aspera.  40 Headache in humans, severe infections in domestic animals. For animals, juice obtained from 7 stems with leaves is orally administered as well as topically applied along with 100g mustard oil and some table salt. For human beings suffering from headache, juice obtained from 7 stems with leaves is topically applied to scalp in the morning before the person touches any water. After 10 minutes following application, the person has to take a bath.  41 Abscess. Crushed bark is applied as poultice over abscess.  42 Tuberculosis, low semen density. 200g of juice obtained from 7 stems with leaves is taken orally twice daily in the morning and evening for 7 days.  43 See Ichnocarpus frutescens.  44 Fever with mucus. Roots of Argemone mexicana are combined with 5 stems of Trichosanthes dioica and bark of Erythrina variegata. Juice obtained from the crushed combination is taken orally.  45 See Eleusine indica.  See Blumea lacera.  46 See Unidentifed plant nuna bhat.  See Ichnocarpus_frutescens.  47 Penile dysfunction. Stems are tied around the hand for two and a half days.  48 Reduced sexual desire in humans. Juice obtained from crushed stem is orally taken once daily.  49 See Crescentia cujete.  See Achyranthes aspera.  50 In humans--dysentery, piles, if menstruation goes on for a long time. For dysentery, juice obtained from a handful of crushed roots of Eleusine indica is mixed with 3 drops of sap of Cerbera manghas and taken orally for 3 days (each morning on an empty stomach and before touching any water).  For piles, juice obtained from a handful of crushed roots of Eleusine indica is taken orally once daily with a leaf of Piper betle, a nut from Areca catechu, and slaked lime after meals for 14 days. During this period, the patient has to maintain a vegetarian diet.  For prolonged menstruation, 1/2 kg cow milk is mixed with 1/2 kg water. Half portion of the mixture is taken orally. Then to the rest of the mixture, 1/2 kg water is added and the whole mixture taken orally. Crushed roots are then taken orally for 3 consecutive days.  51 See Dalbergia sissoo.  52 Skin infections. Juice obtained from leaf is topically applied to skin infections. Note that the plant is very poisonous. On application, it will itch strongly but will subside later and the infection will be cured.  53 See Ichnocarpus frutescens.  54 See Artemisia nilagirica.  55 Reduced sexual desire in humans. One glass of juice obtained from crushed leaves is orally taken daily for a month.  56 Severe infections in animals. 50g of stems with leaves is orally administered with 25g mustard oil.  57 Humans or animals being touched by the 'evil wind' or 'ghosts'. 100g of juice obtained from crushed leaves is orally taken 1-3 times daily.  58 Diarrhea. 300g of juice obtained from crushed roots is orally taken with sugar once daily for 13 days.  59 See Ichnocarpus frutescens.  60 Allergy. Three fruits are taken orally with rice for 7 days. During this period, foods that aggravate allergy cannot be eaten. . 61 Preventive medicine for chicken pox. Juice obtained from crushed root is taken orally.  62 Headache. Oil obtained from the plant is topically applied to scalp.  Hardening of skins in the body. Soaked stems are taken orally.  63 Calcium deficiency. Juice obtained from a combination of crushed leaves, barks, and roots is taken orally.  64 Dizziness, insanity in humans. 100g of juice obtained from crushed stems and roots is applied topically with salt to the scalp when dizziness occurs and to insane persons for 3-7 days. Note that for insane persons, the person has to take a bath within 1 hour following application.  65 Conjunctivitis. A stem is cut and blown from one side. The juice that emerges is topically applied to the affected eye(s).  Body pain. Crushed leaves are applied to painful areas.  66 Headache. Juice obtained from crushed leaves and stems is applied topically to scalp.  67 Pain in the forehead in humans. Juice obtained from 7 stems is applied topically to the forehead with a little table salt.  68 Neck sprain in cattle. The person who owns the cow/cattle takes the root/stem in his/her hand and enters a pond, and after swimming the length of the pond comes out from the other side. The place where he/she comes out, the root or the stem is planted in the soil. [ 1] 69 See Ichnocarpus frutescens.  See Erythrina variegata.  70 See Ichnocarpus frutescens.  71 See Capparis zeylanica.  See Ichnocarpus frutescens.  72 To keep teeth healthy. Teeth are brushed with rhizome daily.  74 Pain in the fingers through accumulation of dirt ('angul hara'). Sap of stem is topically applied.  Identity of the Kavirajes is given in brackets in the last column. Table 2: Medicinal plants, animal parts, and formulations of the Kaviraj from Jhenaidah district, Bangladesh. A. Plants Serial Scientific Family Name Local Name Number Name 1 Adhatoda vasica Acanthaceae Bashok Nees 2 Andrographis Acanthaceae Kalomegh paniculata Nees 3 Achyranthes Amaranthaceae Chirchirae aspera L. 4 Aerva Amaranthaceae Laal bishari sanguinolenta (L.) Blume 5 Rauvolfia Apocynaceae Choto serpentina Chandra Benth. ex. Kurz. 6 Thevetia Apocynaceae Shet korki, peruviana Kolke phul (Pers.) K. Schum. 7 Areca catechu L. Arecaceae Supari gach 8 Aristolochia Aristolochiaceae Ishe indica L. 9 Asparagus Asparagaceae/ Shotomul racemosus Liliaceae Willd. 10 Barringtonia Barringtoniaceae Moha racemosa (L.) shomuddur Spreng 11 Oroxylum Bignoniaceae Kanai dunga indicum L. 12 Bombax ceiba L. Bombacaceae Shimul 13 Terminalia Combretaceae Arjun arjuna (Roxb.) W. & A. 14 Argyreia Convolvulaceae Bethrok, nervosa Shona pata (Burm. f.) Bojer 15 Ipomoea Convolvulaceae Bhui kumra mauritiana Jacq. 16 Kalanchoe Crassulaceae Himsagor spathulata DC. 17 Euphorbia Euphorbiaceae Nera sejae antiquorum L. 18 Euphorbia Euphorbiaceae Pata sejae neriifolia L. 19 Acacia nilotica Fabaceae Guea babla (L.) Willd. ex Delile 20 Cassia fistula Fabaceae Sonali L. 21 Tamarindus Fabaceae Tetul indica L. 22 Flacourtia Flacourtiaceae Buinj indica (Burm. f.) Merr. 23 Allium cepa L. Liliaceae Peyaz 24 Lindernia Linderniaceae/ Belae shak antipoda (L.) Plantaginaceae/ Alston Scrophulariaceae 25 Hibiscus rosa Malvaceae Joba sinensis L. 26 Azadirachta Meliaceae Neem indica A. Juss. 27 Nymphaea rubra Nymphaeaceae Laal shapla Roxb. ex Andrews 28 Nyctanthes Oleaceae Sheuli arbor-tristis L. 29 Piper betle L. Piperaceae Paan 30 Gouania Rhamnaceae Moshkantur tiliaefolia Lam. 31 Aegle marmelos Rutaceae Bael (L.) Corr. 32 Scoparia Scrophulariaceae Ukne modhu dulcis L. 33 Smilax indica Smilacaceae Kanta kumrae Burm. f. 34 Datura metel L. Solanaceae Kalo dhutra 35 Vitex negundo L. Verbenaceae Nichindro 36 Cissus Vitaceae Harbhanga quadrangularis L. 37 Zingiber Zingiberaceae Bon ada purpureum Roxb. Serial Parts used Number 1 Leaf 2 Leaf 3 Root 4 Leaf 5 Root 6 Flower 7 Root 8 Root 9 Root 10 Bark 11 Bark 12 Root 13 Bark 14 Leaf 15 Tuber 16 Leaf 17 Thorn 18 Leaf 19 Fruit 20 Leaf 21 Root 22 Thorn, root 23 Bulb 24 Leaf, stem 25 Flower 26 Leaf 27 Flower 28 Leaf 29 Leaf 30 Leaf 31 Root, fruit 32 Leaf 33 Leaf, root 34 Leaf 35 Leaf 36 Stem 37 Root Serial Disease, Number Symptoms, Formulations, and Administration 1 Coughs. Juice obtained from 500g leaves is mixed with honey and warmed upon a hot iron. The warm juice is taken orally once daily for 2 weeks. 2 See Rauwolfia serpentina. See Aristolochia indica. 3 Low density of semen (dhatu sutika), diabetes (bohu mutra). 5g root is worn around the body in an amulet for 3-4 months. At the same time, 5g of crushed roots are taken orally twice daily in the morning and night. 4 Itches. Crushed leaves are applied topically to itches daily in the morning and afternoon after taking a bath. This is done for 1 week. Note that during this time and following the medication up to a month, any consumption of Solanum melongena fruits, Tenualosa ilisha fish, shrimp, prawn, duck eggs, duck meat and beef are forbidden. 5 Allergy. Roots of Rauwolfia serpentina are combined with roots of Aristolochia indica, and leaves of Andrographis paniculata. Paste prepared from the combination is taken (2g per dosage) once daily orally at night after meals. The dosage period is 2 weeks. During this period of medication and for a total of 2-3 months any consumption of duck meat, duck eggs, shrimp or prawn, Tenualosa ilisha fish, beef and Basella alba plant is forbidden. 6 See Vitex negundo. 7 See Oroxylum indicum. 8 Chronic fever. 5g of crushed leaves of Aristolochia indica and 5g of crushed leaves of Andrographis paniculata are taken orally thrice daily in the morning, afternoon and night. See Rauwolfia serpentina. 9 See Terminalia arjuna. 10 Snake bite. Juice obtained from crushed bark is taken twice daily (100 ml amounts) orally in the morning and night for 1 week. 11 Jaundice. Bark of Oroxylum indicum is combined with root of recently germinated roots of Areca catechu. The combination is crushed to obtain juice. 250 ml of the juice is taken orally daily at night after meals. The medication period is 2 weeks. Note that during this period of medication anything growing under the soil like potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) or turmeric (Curcuma longa) as well as hot peppers (Capsicum frutescens), too much soybean oil, beef, mutton, duck meat, duck eggs, shrimp or prawn, Tenualosa ilisha fish, and too much spicy food consumption is forbidden. 12 See Terminalia arjuna. 13 Used as preventive medicine for spermatorrhea and cardiovascular disorders as well as to raise body resistance against diseases and to keep the body healthy and mind contented. Bark is crushed with cow milk and dried. 0.25g of this bark is taken orally twice daily in the morning and night. Along with 0.25g bark of Terminalia arjuna, 0.25g powdered roots of Asparagus racemosus, 0.25g powdered tubers of Ipomoea mauritiana, and 0.25g powdered roots of Bombax ceiba are also taken. 14 See Datura metel. 15 See Terminalia arjuna. 16 Headache. 100g crushed leaves are mixed with mustard oil and applied to the scalp daily in the afternoon for 1 week. 17 Affected by 'genies'. One thorn is put in an amulet, which is worn around the body for 2-3 weeks. 18 Tonsillitis. Juice obtained from 250g crushed leaves is taken orally with honey once daily in the morning for 2-3 days. Note that during this medication period and up to a week any consumption of duck eggs, duck meat, seeds of Lens esculenta (masoor dal), Tenualosa ilisha fish (ilish mach), shrimp, prawn and beef are forbidden. 19 To remove fear, to stimulate the body in doing work. 3g fruit is put in an amulet, which is sealed in wax. The amulet is worn with a piece of black thread around the waist for a long time. 20 Diarrhea. Leaves are boiled in water to make a soup. 250 ml of the soup is taken orally twice daily in the morning and night. 21 Edema. 10g of root is tied around the body for a week. 22 Fear in children. One thorn of Flacourtia indica and one thorn of Smilax indica are put in an amulet. The amulet is sealed with wax and worn around the body for 3 months. Bending of neck in children (ghar bhanga rogh). 5g roots are put in an amulet, which is worn around the neck for 3 months. 23 See Datura metel. See Cissus quadrangularis. 24 Used as famine food. Leaves and stems are boiled, cooked and eaten for 2-3 weeks. 25 Infertility. Pills are prepared from 5g of crushed flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis and 5g of crushed flowers of Nymphaea rubra per pill. Three pills are taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach daily for 1 month. 26 See Vitex negundo. 27 See Hibiscus rosa sinensis. 28 Stomach ache. One teaspoonful of juice obtained from crushed leaves is taken orally twice daily in the morning and night for 3 days. 29 See Zingiber purpureum. 30 Headache with fever. 5g of crushed leaves are taken orally in the morning daily till cure. At the same time, juice obtained from crushed leaves is applied in drops to the scalp. 31 Snake bite. 10g of root is administered orally within 1/2 hour of snake bite. Stomach disorders. Sliced fruits are dried and taken orally once daily. 32 Dysentery. 5g of crushed leaves are taken orally twice daily in the morning and night for a week. Note that during the period of medication and following that up to a month any consumption of duck eggs, duck meat, beef, Tenualosa ilisha fish, shrimp or prawns are forbidden. 33 Puerperal fever (wasting away of body, breaking type noises in waste and back, soft stool). 5g root is put in an amulet and worn around the waist for 3 months. During this period, any consumption of seeds of Lens esculenta (masoor dal), shrimp, prawn, Heteropneustes fossilis fish (shing mach), and Basella alba plant (puin shak) is forbidden. See Datura metel. See Flacourtia indica. 34 Rheumatism. Leaves of Datura metel are combined with leaves of Argyreia nervosa, leaves of Smilax indica, oil obtained from Bengal fox (Vulpes bengalensis, a dead fox is dried and then boiled to extract oil from the fat), mustard oil, and juice obtained from bulbs of Allium cepa. The combination is crushed to obtain juice. 1 ml of the juice is taken orally twice daily in the morning and night for 2-3 weeks. 35 Burn, large size cuts and wounds. 1/2 kg leaves of Vitex negundo, 1/2 kg leaves of Azadirachta indica, and 2-3 flowers of Thevetia peruviana are boiled in water. One liter of the boiled water is mixed with 3-4 liters of clean water, and burns or cuts and wounds are washed with the water followed by washing the whole body in the water. This is done once daily. 36 Bone fracture in hands or legs. Crushed stems of Cissus quadrangularis and crushed bulbs of Allium cepa are combined together and applied as poultice on the fractured area. A cloth bandage is put over the place. The poultice is changed thrice within a period of 7 to 10 days. 37 Stomach pain in expecting mother. Roots of Zingiber purpureum are cut into small pieces. 3-4 pieces of the roots are orally taken twice daily along with leaf of Piper betle after meals. This is continued for 7-8 days. B. Animal parts Serial Scientific Name Family Name Local Name Number (English name) 1 Anser anser Anatidae Raj hansh (Greylag goose) 2 Vulpes Canidae Shiyal bengalensis (Bengal fox) 3 Lutrogale Mustelidae Dherae perspicillata (Indian smooth- coated otter) Serial Parts used Number 1 Throat bone 2 Oil 3 Throat bone Serial Disease, Number Symptoms, Formulations, and Administration 1 Asthma. Throat bones of Anser anser and throat bones of Lutrogale perspicillata are put in an amulet and worn around the neck. 2 See Serial Number 34, Part A of this Table. 3 See Anser anser.
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|Title Annotation:||Research Article|
|Author:||Khatun, Asha; Khan, Aliul Asif; Rahman, Atiqur; Akter, Shamima; Hasan, Abid; Parvin, Waheda; Ripa, R|
|Publication:||American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2013|
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