Ethnomedicinal survey of Bheramara area in Kushtia district, Bangladesh.
The use of plants for medicinal purposes date back a long time ago and probably happened when primitive people noticed that animals like chimpanzees partake of certain plants when they got sick. Sofowara (1982) reported that even around some 3000 years B.P., human beings were aware of the medicinal properties of plants. Historical surveys have indicated that the eastern region of the Mediterranean has always been a rich source of medicinal plants and that indigenous Arab medicine was a major contributor to the development of modern medicine in Europe (Saad et al., 2005). A number of alternative medicine systems exist in the Indian subcontinent, of which the chief form is the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The Ayurveda, which has been claimed to date back to over 7000 years, contain description of 2000 plant species and their therapeutic potentials. Overall, the various alternative medicinal systems of India uses more than 7500 plant species Mukherjee and Wahile, (2006). Balick and Cox (1996) observed that a number of important modern pharmaceuticals have been derived from, or are plants used by indigenous people. Modern drugs like aspirin, atropine, ephedrine, digoxin, morphine, quinine, reserpine and tubocurarine are examples, which were originally discovered through observations of traditional cure methods of indigenous peoples Gilani and Rahman, (2005).
Bangladesh has also a rich history of traditional medicinal practices (alternately known as alternative or complementary medicine). Besides the established systems of Ayurveda and Unani, traditional medicinal practitioners in Bangladesh (known variously as Kavirajes or Vaidyas) follow their own system, which can be termed as 'folk medicinal system'. In folk medicine, each Kaviraj has his own unique formulations of medicinal plants based on partly his own experience and partly on the basis of plants growing in his own vicinity. This knowledge is rarely written down, but is closely guarded within the family and passed on from generation to generation. Each successive generation adds to the formulations, so that at the end of several generations, if the family still clings to the medicinal practice, a considerable amount of knowledge on the medicinal properties of plants is accumulated. Since this folk medicinal preparations and use of plants can vary considerably between the Kavirajes of different regions of the country, the objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes of Bheramara area, Kushtia district, Bangladesh to learn about medicinal plants used in that region. Kushtia district of Bangladesh adjoins India and is well known for its folk medicinal practices.
Materials and methods
2.1. the Study Area:
Bheramara sub-district is located within Kushtia district, Bangladesh and falls roughly within 23[degrees]40 -24[degrees]10 N and 88[degrees]45 -89[degrees]20 E. The town of Bheramara has an area of 3.26 sq. km and a population of 20,676. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people and the major crops are paddy, wheat, mustard, sweet potato, sunflower, onion, garlic, betel leaf, tobacco, and sugarcane. The survey was conducted in Bheramara town and its immediate vicinity.
2.2. Data Collection and Sampling Techniques:
A total of six Kavirajes were interviewed for this survey. Informed consent was obtained from all Kavirajes and the survey was explained to them in details including the information that the survey results may be published internationally. The Kavirajes agreed to provide information on medicinal plants but requested that the exact formulations be not provided in the manuscript since that may cause financial losses to them when disseminated before a wide public. At their request, the Kavirajes were interviewed as a group and not separately. Semi-structured interviews based on note-taking while interviewing the informants (also known as guided field walk) as described by Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995) was followed in collecting the ethnomedicinal data. Briefly, in this system, the informant (Kaviraj) takes the observer on a guided field walk through areas from where he collects his medicinal plants during daytime. Medicinal plants are shown to the observer with a detailed description of their uses. The information was later cross-checked and every item verified in evening meetings held with the Kavirajes. Plant specimens, as pointed out by the informants (Kavirajes) were collected, pressed and dried on site. All collected specimens were later brought to the Bangladesh National Herbarium for complete identification.
Results and Discussion
Plants and Their Distribution into Families:
The result of the present study shows that 58 species of plants are used by the Kavirajes of Bheramara area in Kushtia district, Bangladesh. These medicinal plants belong to 50 genera and 38 families (Table 1). The Leguminosae family provided the largest number of species (5), followed by the Euphorbiaceae family (4). Not all plants were obtained from the wild. Several plants were cultivated for home consumption of fruits; the fruits were also sold commercially. These plants are Spondias dulcis, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Diospyros discolor, Phyllanthus emblica, Tamarindus indica, Syzygium aqueum, Syzygium cumini, Citrus acida, Citrus grandis, Punica granatum and Capsicum annuum. Three plants, namely Eryngium foetidum, Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were also cultivated for use as spices. Several other plants were also occasionally grown around homesteads either for their medicinal properties or as ornamentals. These plants include Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Polyalthia longifolia, Catharanthus roseus, Calendula officinalis, Codiaeum variegatum, Ocimum gratissimum, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Hibiscus rosa chinensis, Azadirachta indica, and Bougainvillea spectabilis.
Plant Parts Used and Mode of Preparation:
The various plant parts used included whole plants, leaves, stems, roots, barks, flowers, fruits, and rhizomes. In total, 71 uses of whole plants or plant parts were reported for the 58 species collected in the present survey. Table 2 displays the results on medicinal plant parts used to treat various ailments. Leaves and roots formed the part of the plant most frequently used followed by fruits and whole plant. The Kavirajes use several different types of preparation for a particular plant or plant part. To obtain the juice of a particular plant or plant part, it is crushed with the help of a shil-nora (a flat slab of stone on which the plant is repeatedly crushed with another long and rounded stone) or a haman-dista (tall iron mortar with iron pestle). The crushed plant or plant part is then strained through cloth and the juice may be administered either orally or used for topical applications. For topical applications, the juice is usually mixed with various oils. For instance, to treat rheumatic pain, juice obtained from the leaves of Cordyline fruticosa is mixed with mustard oil and sesame seed oil and then applied to affected areas. The crushed leaves of Codiaeum variegatum are mixed with mustard oil and applied to affected areas as remedy for pain. To treat skin infections or snake and insect bites, the plant or plant part is simply crushed on a shil nora and the crushed parts applied onto the affected or bitten area. Crushed whole plant or plant parts may also be administered orally as is done for Eryngium foetidum (to treat indigestion). In cases of oral administration of juice, it may be mixed with sugar, sugarcane juice, molasses, milk, honey or salt to lessen the bitterness or make it more palatable (e.g. Bombax ceiba, Tradescantia spathacea, Ipomoea quamoclit, Kalanchoe pinnata, Cycas rumphii, Coleus blumei). Occasionally, whole plant or plant part may be crushed and mixed with a spice and then taken orally. Instances are Mapania caudata (crushed roots are taken with black cumin for helminthiasis) and Aphanamixis polystachya (roots and flowers are taken with coriander to reduce obesity).
It was observed that occasionally a single plant was used to treat a single ailment. However, a plant may also be used to multiple ailments, and a combination of plants may be used to treat a single ailment. Ocimum tenuiflorum presents an example where a single plant is used to treat diverse ailments like malaria, erectile dysfunction, coughs and colds. The fruits of Citrus grandis are also used as a carminative, to increase strength and for indigestion. Some examples of a single plant being used to treat a single ailment include Cordyline fruticosa (rheumatic pain), Eryngium foetidum (indigestion), Bombax ceiba (to increase sperm count), Tradescantia spathacea (blood in urine of women), Ipomoea quamoclit (passing of semen with urine), Kalanchoe pinnata (kidney stones), Cycas rumphii (debility), Diospyros discolor (diabetes), Codiaeum variegatum (pain), Smilax china (erectile dysfunction), and Cissus quadrangularis (bone fracture).
It was observed that for treatment of complicated or serious ailments, the Kavirajes usually use a combination of plants. For instance, to treat snake bites, roots of Morinda citrifolia are mixed with roots of Polyalthia longifolia and rhizomes of Curcuma longa and administered orally. For treatment of erectile dysfunction, the fruits of Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, and Phyllanthus emblica are mixed with roots of Abrus precatorius and administered with cow milk. As an antidote to poison or for gall bladder pains, the leaves and roots of Desmodium motorium, Uraria picta and Aristolochia indica are crushed and the juice taken orally.
Eight plants were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders (including bloating, constipation, indigestion, dysentery) and eight plants were also used as sex stimulant or to treat impotency (including erectile dysfunction). Seven plants were used to treat skin infections, six to treat reproductive and urinary tract problems, and five to treat gall bladder problems or cough, cold, mucus and fever. Four plants were used to treat weakness and three plants as remedy for sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea or syphilis.
Leaves and roots generally form the most frequently used plant parts in traditional medicine (Giday et al., 2003; Wondimu et al., 2007). Our survey results showed a similar profile of plant parts used in Bheramara area, where leaves or roots formed 29.58% each of the total uses (71). Fruits formed 15.49% of the uses, while whole plant use formed 14.08% of the total uses. It is interesting to note that seeds were not at all used by the Kavirajes of this area.
A number of plants used by the Kavirajes of Bheramara area are also reported to be used in the traditional medicinal systems in other parts of the world, although the ailments treated may be different. Some of the uses have also been validated through modern scientific research. Andrographis paniculata and Aristolochia indica is used by indigenous groups of southern parts of Tamilnadu, India for treatment of snake bite (Samy et al., 2008). Andrographis paniculata is used by the Kavirajes of Bheramara to treat helminthiasis, dysentery, rectal diseases, coughs, colds, mucus and fever, as well as an antidote to poison. A preliminary study conducted in the United States of America concluded that Andrographis paniculata may help in the prevention and treatment of colds Roxas and Jurenka (2007). Administration of this plant also reportedly decreased nasal secretion in upper respiratory tract-infected children Carr and Nahata (2006). Aloe vera is considered a medicinal plant in South Africa and various Aloe species are used in that country for treatment of infections, internal parasites, digestive ailments and injuries (Graee et al., 2008). The Kavirajes of Bheramara use the plant to treat constipation. Traditional Chinese medicine uses the plant for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease Langmead and Rampton, (2006). In the ethnomedicine of Trinidad and Tobago, the plant is used to treat hypertension Lans, (2006).
Polyalthia longifolia is also considered a medicinal plant in India and its analgesic activity has been validated through scientific studies (Maiairajan et al., 2006). The plant is used by the Bheramara Kavirajes to treat skin infections and snake bite. Catharanthus roseus, used by the Kavirajes to treat toothache, is considered an anti-diabetic plant in the ethnomedicine of Trinidad and Tobago Lans, (2006). Azadirachta indica, used by the Kavirajes to treat fever is also considered a medicinal plant in the traditional medicinal systems of India, and reportedly demonstrated anti-bacterial activity against six bacterial strains, namely Pseudomonas testosteroni, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus morganii, and Micrococcus flavus (Nair et al., 2007). The plant thus may be of value against fever arising out of bacterial infections. In Oyo state of southwestern Nigeria, the plant is also used in their traditional medicine system to treat fever (Ajaiyeoba et al., 2003). Cassia alata, used by the Kavirajes as remedy for wet dreams is considered a medicinal plant by the Caribs of Guatemala (Giron et al., 1991).
Tamarindus indica is used by the Kavirajes for syphilis and urinary tract infections. This species is considered to possess considerable medicinal properties in a number of countries' traditional medicinal systems. It is considered a medicinal plant in Yemen where it is used to treat common infections. Scientific studies have shown that various extracts of the plant possess considerable anti-microbial activity, being active against three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria (Al-Fatimi et al., 2007). The plant is also used to treat trypanosomiasis in Kaduna state of Nigeria (Atawodi et al., 2002) and in North African countries to treat inflammation; its anti-inflammatory properties have also been validated through scientific studies (Rimbau et al., 1999).
Traditional medicine has always been an excellent source for modern drug discoveries. Plants contain many chemical substances like terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins as well as other compounds, a number of which have now been identified by modern research to be effective drugs. Terpenoids for instance, which serves in plants as a chemical defense against environmental stress has been shown to suppress the process of inflammation and cancer (Salminen et al., 2008). The use of turmeric in the traditional Ayurvedic medicine system of India and the traditional medicine system of China to treat inflammatory diseases dates back thousands of years. Curcumin, a compound isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa) has been shown to modulate a number of cellular targets and so has become a potential candidate to treat arthritis, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease and cancer (Shishodia et al., 2005). The 58 plant species as used by the Kavirajes of Bheramara have the potential for novel drug discoveries, which can serve as excellent remedies for a diverse number of ailments. At the same time, scientific validation of the various medicinal plant's use by the Kavirajes can go a long way towards conservation and cultivation of these plant species, some of which are getting endangered because of increase in human habitat.
This survey was made possible through internal funding by the University of Development Alternative.
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(1) Mohammed Rahmatullah, (1) Dilara Ferdausi, (1) Md. Ariful Haque Mollik, (1) Md. Nur Kabidul Azam, (2) M. Taufiq-Ur-Rahman, (1) Rownak Jahan
(1) Department of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering University of Development Alternative Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh
(2) Department of Pharmacology University of Cambridge Tennis Court Road CB2 'PD Cambridge, UK
Corresponding Author: Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh Phone: 88-02-9136285: Fax: 88-02-8157339
Table 1: Listing of medicinal plants obtained from the traditional medicinal practitioners of Bheramara area, Kushtia district, Bangladesh. Serial Scientific Name Family Name Local Name Number 1 Andrographis Acanthaceae Kalo-megh paniculata Nees. 2 Cordyline fruticosa Agavaceae Chaya-bon (L.) Goepp. 3 Aloe vera L. Aloaceae Ghrito-kumari 4 Spondias dulcis Anacardiaceae Amra Sol. ex Parkinson 5 Polyalthia longifolia Annonaceae Devdaru (Sonn.) Thwaites (PL) 6 Eryngium foetidum L. Apiaceae Dhonia 7 Catharanthus roseus Apocynaceae Noyon-tara (L. G. Don. 8 Aristolochia indica L Aristolochiaceae Ishwarmul 9 Calendula Asteraceae Ganda officinalis L. 10 Stereospermum Bignoniaceae Niil-parul suaveolens DC. 11 Bombax ceiba L. Bombacaceae Shimul 12 Mesua ferrea L. Clusiaceae Nageshwaar 13 Terminalia belerica Combretaceae Bohera (Gaertn.) Roxb. 14 Terminalia Combretaceae Horitoki chebula Retz. 15 Tradescantia Commelinaceae Sthol-shapla spathacea Sw. 16 Ipomoea Convolvulaceae Vhui-cumra mauritiana Jacq. 17 Ipomoea Convolvulaceae Pushpo-rani quamoclit L. 18 Kalanchoe pinnata Crassulaceae Pathorkuchi (Lam.) Pers. 19 Coccinia cordifolia Cucurbitaceae Telamoon, (L.) Cogn. 20 Cycas revoluta Thunb. Cycadaceae Cycas 21 Cycas rumphii Cycadaceae Moni-raaj Miquel 22 Mapania caudata Cyperaceae Chiruni-bahar Kuk. 23 Diospyros discolor Ebenaceae Bilati-gab Willd. 24 Codiaeum variegatum Euphorbiaceae Pata-bahar (L.) A.Juss. 25 Euphorbia Euphorbiaceae Kata-shaz antiquorum L. 26 Euphorbia tirucalli L. Euphorbiaceae Dood-kora antiquorum L. 27 Phyllanthus Euphorbiaceae Amloki emblica L. 28 Abrus precatorius L. Fabaceae Josthimodhu 29 Mimosa diplotricha C. Fabaceae Lojjaboti Wright ex Sauvalle 30 Coleus blumei Benth. Lamiaceae C hikunda 31 Ocimum Lamiaceae Radha-tulsi gratissimum L. 32 Ocimum Lamiaceae tenuiflorum L. 33 Cassia alata L. Leguminosae Guru-chondal 34 Cassia occidentalis L. Leguminosae Kalka-sunda 35 Desmodium motorium Leguminosae Turok chondal (Houtt.) Merrill Leaf, root 36 Tamarindus indica L. Leguminosae Tetul 37 Uraria picta Leguminosae Rahu-chondal (Jacq.) DC. 38 Asparagus racemosus Liliaceae S hotomool Willd. 39 Curculigo orchioides Liliaceae Taal-mool Gaertn. 40 Punica granatum L. Lythraceae Dalim 41 Hibiscus rosa Malvaceae Rokto-joba sinensis L. 42 Aphanamixis Meliaceae Piit-raaz polystachya (Wall.) R. Parker 43 Azadirachta Meliaceae Neem indica A. Juss. 44 Ficus hispida L.f. Moraceae Full-dumur 45 Syzygium aqueum Myrtaceae Jamrul (Burm.f.) Alston 46 Syzygium cumini M yrtaceae Jaam (L.) Skeels 47 Bougainvillea Nyctaginaceae Bagan-bilash spectabilis Willd. 48 Piper longum L. Piperaceae Pipul 49 Ixora coccinea L. Rubiaceae Rongon 50 Morinda citrifolia L. Rubiaceae Boro-chad 51 Citrus acida Roxb. Rutaceae Lebu 52 Citrus grandis Rutaceae Jambura (L.) Osbeck 53 Smilax china L. Smilacaceae Bili-hachra 54 Capsicum annuum L. S olanaceae M orich 55 Cissus Vitaceae Haar-jora quadrangularis L. 56 Hedychium Zingiberaceae Moyur-rupee coronarium J. Konig. 57 Curcuma longa L. Zingiberaceae Holud 58 Zingiber Zingiberaceae Ada officinale Roscoe Serial Utilized Part Number 1 Whole plant 2 Leaf 3 Leaf 4 Fruit 5 Whole plant, root 6 Leaf, root, fruit 7 Leaf 8 Leaf, root 9 Leaf juice 10 Leaf 11 Root 12 Whole plant 13 Fruit 14 Fruit 15 Leaf 16 Root 17 Root 18 Leaf 19 Telakuchi Leaf 20 Whole plant 21 Root tops 22 Root 23 Fruit 24 Leaf 25 Stem 26 Leaf, stem 27 Fruit 28 Root 29 Root 30 Root 31 Leaf 32 Krishno-tulsi 33 Whole plant 34 Leaf 35 Leaf, root 36 Leaf 37 Whole plant, leaf, root 38 Whole plant 39 Root 40 Fruit 41 Flower 42 Root, flower 43 Leaf, root 44 Root 45 Root 46 Fruit, bark 47 Leaf 48 Leaf 49 Leaf, root 50 Root 51 Fruit 52 Fruit 53 Whole plant 54 Fruit 55 Stem 56 Leaf 57 Rhizome 58 Rhizome Serial Ailment/Uses/Side-effects/Precautions Number 1 Anthelmintic, dysentery, rectal diseases, cough, cold, mucus, fever. Whole plant juice is taken with molasses or sugar. Side-effects: too much medication can lead to large intestinal worms. 2 Rheumatic pain. Leaf juice is mixed with mustard oil, sesame seed oil and applied to affected areas. Side- effects: may cause coughs, colds and mucus. 3 Constipation. Inner portions of leaf are taken with water. 4 Increase eye sight and decrease eye infections (stye disease, Bangla: anjali). Crushed fruits are taken. 5 Skin infections, snake bite. Crushed whole plant is applied to skin infections. Roots of Morinda citrifolia are mixed with Polyalthia longifolia roots and rhizomes of Curcuma longa and taken as remedy for snake bite. Side-effects: there will be more desire for urination. 6 Indigestion. Leaves, roots and fruits are crushed and taken. Side effects: may cause hardening of stool. 7 Toothache. Leaves are chewed. Side-effects: may cause salivation. 8 Gall bladder pain, skin infections, antidote to poison. Leaves and roots of Desmodium motorium, Uraria picta and Aristolochia indica are crushed and the juice taken as remedy. Precautions: yoghurt must be taken after the medication. 9 Ear ache, skin infections, insect bite. Leaf juice is applied to ears or applied to infections and insect bites. 10 Gonorrhea. Leaves are mixed with sugar cane molasses and water and taken. Precautions: patient should not take salty or hot food while on this medication. 11 Increase sperm count. Root juice is taken with sugar. 12 Skin diseases. 13 Erectile dysfunction. The fruits of Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, and Phyllanthus emblica are mixed with Abrus precatorius root and taken with cow's milk. 14 Erectile dysfunction. The fruits of Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, and Phyllanthus emblica are mixed with Abrus precatorius root and taken with cow's milk. 15 Blood in urine of women (Bangla: rokto-prodor). Leaf juice is mixed with sugarcane juice and taken. Side-effects: may cause rheumatism. 16 Increase lactation. Crushed and powdered roots are taken. Precautions: when chewed directly may cause vomiting. 17 Passing of semen with urine. Crushed roots are taken with sugar. 18 Kidney stones. The leaves are chewed with salt. 19 Whitish discharge in urine (men). Leaves are mixed with leaf juice of Aegle marmelos and molasses or sugar and taken. Side-effects: frequent medication can lead to loss of sexual strength. 20 Skin infections. Leaves are crushed and applied to affected areas. Precautions: must not be applied too frequently. 21 Debility. Root tops are crushed and taken with sugar or milk. Side-effects: may cause mucus in stool. 22 Anthelmintic. Roots are crushed with black cumin (Nigella sativa seed) and taken. May cause frequent stool. 23 Diabetes. Ripe fruits are taken. 24 Pain. Crushed leaves are applied with mustard oil to affected areas. Side-effects: may cause rheumatism and gall bladder problems. 25 Cuts and wounds. Stem juice is applied to cuts and wounds. Side-effects: may cause ulceration of stomach. 26 Increase lactation in cows and buffaloes. Leaves and stems are fed to cattle. 27 Erectile dysfunction. The fruits of Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, and Phyllanthus emblica are mixed with Abrus precatorius root and taken with cow's milk. 28 Erectile dysfunction. The fruits of Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, and Phyllanthus emblica are mixed with Abrus precatorius root and taken with cow's milk. 29 Sex stimulant. Root juice is taken. 30 Piles, blood coming out through rectum. Root juice is taken with sugar. Side-effects: may cause constipation and gall bladder pain. 31 Colds, coughs. Leaves of Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum tenuiflorum are crushed and the juice taken. 32 Leaf, root Malaria, erectile dysfunction, coughs, colds. 1/2 inch roots are chewed with betel leaf as remedy for erectile dysfunction. 1 tola * leaf juice is taken for malaria. Leaf juice is taken with honey for coughs and colds. 33 Wet dream. Whole plants are crushed and the juice taken. 34 Body poisoning, gall bladder problems, constipation. Leaf juice is taken with 1 tola * (approximately 1 teaspoonful) honey for gall bladder problems. Leaf juice is taken with warm water daily as remedy for constipation. 2 tolas * leaf juice is taken with cold water as remedy for body poisoning. 35 Gall bladder pain, skin infections, antidote to poison. Leaves and roots of Desmodium motorium, Uraria picta and Aristolochia indica are crushed and the juice taken. Precautions: yoghurt must be taken after the medication. 36 S yphilis, infections within the penis, difficulties in urination, burning sensations during urination. Leaves of Tamarindus indica are mixed with Piper longum leaves, crushed and the juice taken. Penis has to be cleaned with the help of a syringe. 37 Antidote to poison, skin infections. Also: leaves and roots of Desmodium motorium, Uraria picta and Aristolochia indica are crushed and the juice taken as remedy for the above-mentioned ailments or gall bladder pain. Precautions: yoghurt must be taken after the medication. 38 Stone lodged in penis, diabetes. Whole plant is mixed with rhizome of Curcuma longa and taken to get rid of stone deposition in penis. Plant juice is taken for diabetes. Side-effects: may cause vomiting. 39 Passing of semen with urine. Roots are taken with sugar cubes. Side-effects: may cause excess sleeping. 40 Increase strength, debility. Fruit juice is taken. 41 Menstrual disorders. Flowers are crushed in cold water and taken. 42 Obesity (Bangla: medh). The roots and flowers are taken with coriander (Coriandrum sativum) juice. Side-effects: may cause frequent urination. 43 Fever, fever arising from gall bladder disorders. Leaf and root juice is taken. 44 Gall bladder diseases. The roots are cooked with roots of Citrus acida, ginger and mustard oil and taken. Side-effects: may cause constipation. 45 Anthelmintic. Roots are crushed and taken. Side-effects: may cause frequent urination. 46 Digestive aid, rheumatoid arthritis. Roots and bark is taken with salt. Side-effects: may cause chronic dysentery. 47 Anthelmintic. Leaf juice is mixed with rhizomes of Curcuma longa and taken. Side-effects: may cause obesity and excessive sleeping. 48 Syphilis, infections within the penis, difficulties in urination, burning sensations during urination. Leaves of Tamarindus indica are mixed with Piper longum leaves, crushed and the juice taken. Penis has to be cleaned with the help of a syringe. 49 Dysentery. Crushed leaves and roots are taken with ginger juice. Side-effects: may cause frequent urination. 50 Snake bite. Roots of Morinda citrifolia are mixed with Polyalthia longifolia roots and rhizomes of Curcuma longa and taken. Side-effects: there will be more desire for urination. 51 Carminative, gall bladder diseases. Fruit juice is taken. 52 Increase strength, carminative, indigestion. Fruits are taken with salt. Side-effects: may cause loosening of stool. 53 Erectile dysfunction. Whole plant is taken. 54 Vitamin C source, respiratory problems. Powdered fruits of Capsicum annuum are mixed with black pepper, lemon, and Piper longum root, crushed and the juice taken as remedy for respiratory problems. 55 Bone fracture. Crushed stems are applied to fractures. 56 Stomachache. Leaves are chewed. 57 Snake bite. Roots of Morinda citrifolia are mixed with Polyalthia longifolia roots and rhizomes of Curcuma longa and taken as remedy for snake bite. Side-effects: there will be more desire for urination. 58 Debility, digestive aid. Rhizomes are mixed with salt and taken after food. * Tola. Local measure. 1 tola is approximately equivalent to 11.4g. Note that some of the disease names are given in bold in the local (Bangla) language. The nearest equivalent English terminology for the disease is also given along with. Table 2: Parts of medicinal plants used to treat various ailments. Number of Parts used species Percentage Whole plant 10 14.08 Leaf 21 29.58 Root 21 29.58 Rhizome 2 2.82 Bark 1 1.41 Stem 3 4.23 Flower 2 2.82 Seed 0 0.00 Fruit 11 15.49
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|Title Annotation:||Original Article|
|Author:||Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Ferdausi, Dilara; Mollik, M.D. Ariful Haque; Azam, Md. Nur Kabidul; Taufiq-Ur|
|Publication:||American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2009|
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