Ethnomedicinal plants of two village folk medicinal practitioners in Rajshahi district, Bangladesh: comparison of their folk medicinal uses with Ayurvedic uses.
Folk medicine is a unique form of medicine practiced in Bangladesh by folk medicinal practitioners, otherwise known as Kavirajes. Folk medicine cannot be categorized under a single or homogenous system of medicine like other traditional medicinal practices in Bangladesh, like Ayurveda or Unani. Folk medicine is rather a unique blend of medicines , in which individual Kavirajes have their own formulations, which can differ widely not only among Kaviarjes of distant areas but also even in the same or adjoining areas [31,32,25,18]. Kavirajes rely mainly on medicinal plants, and each Kaviraj has his or her own list of plants for treatment of certain diseases (as such the Kaviraj can be said to have specialization in treatment of these diseases). The knowledge of a Kaviraj is generally obtained from a member of the previous generation, who is either a close relative or a 'guru' under whom the Kaviraj has spent several years as apprentice. However, other Kavirajes claim to have gained their knowledge from reading books (particularly Ayurvedic texts, notably Ayurvedic and Unani forms of traditional medicine have their own pharmacopoeias), some claim to get their plants from dreams, while others claim to obtain plant knowledge through actual experiments initially done with cattle or poultry. Our ethnomedicinal surveys have found previous indications of Ayurvedic influences on folk medicinal practices of Kavirajes .
Since folk medicine is such a unique combination of influences derived from various factors, we had been conducting ethnomedicinal surveys among various folk medicinal practitioners and tribal medicinal practitioners for a number of years [29,31-33,9,13,15,25,26,34-42,2,5-7,12,17,18, 43,44,49,5,10,14,16,19,45-49,3,27]. Tribal medicinal practices can be considered also as a variant of folk medicine. The various intricate factors behind a particular Kavirajes' selection of plants and diseases treated and especially Ayurvedic influences on folk medicinal practices are yet to be explored in details. Such documentation not only can explain how medicinal plants are selected, but also can provide comprehensive information and thus help setting up a data base on the medicinal plants and their uses in Bangladesh. Such a data base can also help scientists in determining which pharmacological activities to look for in any specific medicinal plant. The objective of the present study was to carry out an ethnomedicinal survey among Kavirajes of two villages in Rajshahi district and examine possible Ayurvedic influences on plant selection.
Materials and Methods
The present survey was carried out among the folk medicinal practitioners (Kavirajes) of two villages, namely Chandura and Kakonhat in Tanore Thana of Rajshahi district, Bangladesh. The villages had one practicing folk medicinal practitioner each. Sojen was the name of the folk medicinal practitioner in Chandura village, while the folk medicinal practitioner at Kakonhat village was known as Bokul. Prior Informed Consent was obtained first from the two practitioners. The Kavirajes were explained as to the nature of our visit, and consent obtained to disseminate any information provided both nationally and internationally. Actual interviews and data collection were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method of Martin  and Maundu . In this method, the Kavirajes took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where they collected their medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. Plant specimens were photographed and collected from the spot, pressed, dried and brought back to Bangladesh National Herbarium for complete identification. Voucher specimens were deposited at the Medicinal Plant Collection Wing of the University of Development Alternative. Detailed conversations with the Kaviraj took place in the evening in open-ended conversations where the Kaviraj discussed the medicinal uses of plants in more details.
Results and Discussion
Medicinal plants used and diseases treated:
The two practitioners in between themselves were observed to use 51 plants distributed into 32 families for treatment of diseases like menstrual disorders, urinary disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, chest diseases, piles, weakness, anemia, pain, fever, sexual disorders, heart disorders, gall bladder stone, paralysis, cuts and wounds, skin diseases, helminthiasis, jaundice, respiratory disorders, appendicitis, edema, and bone fracture. The results are shown in Table 1. A comparison with Ayurvedic uses of the plants showed that at least 26 of the 51 medicinal plants used by the healers had reported comparable Ayurvedic uses. The comparison is also shown in Table 1.
Comparative Ayurvedic uses of medicinal plants of the healers:
While some Ayurvedic uses were similar, other Ayurvedic uses could be interpreted as to be indirectly beneficial for diseases treated by the Kavirajes. For instance, Amaranthus spinosus was used by the healers to treat dysentery. The Ayurvedic use of the plant is as a spasmolytic agent. As such, the plant can be useful in dysentery to stop the spasmodic actions of the bowel and so reduce frequency of stool passing. Another plant, Leea macrophylla was used by the healers for treatment of piles. The Ayurvedic use is for styptic purposes, i.e. to stop bleeding, which property of the plant can prove beneficial in stopping bleeding from 'bleeding piles' or 'bleeding hemorrhoids'. On the other hand, one of the uses in Ayurveda for Centella asiatica is to treat fatigue. The healers used the plant to treat weakness, which is a feature of fatigue. The Ayurvedic use of the plant, Vernonia cinerea, for treatment of fever by the healers is exactly the same as the plants' reported use in Ayurveda. Thus it can be said that with at least about 50% of the medicinal plants, their use by the healers were the same as that reported for Ayurveda.
When inquired about possible Ayurvedic influences on the plant choices by the healers, the healers mentioned that they did not attend any Ayurvedic colleges and had any formal training in Ayurveda, but they did mention that some of their medicinal plant information came out from reading Ayurvedic texts. Although original Ayurvedic texts like the Charaka Samhita are in the Sanskrit language, easy to read Bengali versions are available in Bangladesh. These texts, although not direct translations of classical Ayurvedic treatises provide in easy to read language, medicinal properties of various plants, but omit the complicated formulary of Ayurvedic classical texts or the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or the Ayurvedic Formulary of Bangladesh. They are essentially intended for the general reader. The healers were not highly educated.
They simply read the books and applied simple formulations of the medicinal plants as they thought appropriate, or what turned out to be good through some trial and error methods. As a result, simple formulations and single plants were substituted by the Kavirajes for complicated polyherbal formulations (with complicated procedures for preparations) as mentioned in Ayurveda.
It is an open question as which came first--Ayurvedic knowledge or the folk medicinal traditions. Ayurveda is possibly the most organized form of traditional medicine, and which dates back to possibly 3,500 years ago. On the other hand, the origins of Ayurveda are shrouded in mystery, but it is known that Ayurveda was introduced to the Indian sub-continent by the Aryans who came in (possibly from Central Asia through Iran) and conquered the existing Dravidian tribes of India. In fact, the first mentions of medicinal plants (i.e. Ayurveda) can be found in the Vedas, the sacred books of the Aryans (Devanathan et al., 2011). It has to be acknowledged that the pre-Aryan or the Dravidian tribes of India must have had their own traditional medicinal systems. For instance, one such indigenous Dravidian tribe, the Gonds of India, still practice their own traditional medicinal system . If that be the case, then Aryans could have borrowed some of the indigenous medicinal knowledge, and indigenous knowledge, part of which may be reflected in folk medicinal practices, may have borrowed from Aryan traditions. This could explain why only about 50% of the plants used by the healers had Ayurvedic connections, while the others did not. The latter plants could be remnants of indigenous knowledge gained through accumulation of empirical knowledge of medicinal properties of plants  or could be independent discoveries of the healers, achieved through trial and error experiments.
Other relevant reported ethnomedicinal uses of the medicinal plants of the Kavirajes:
It was of interest to determine other similar reported ethnomedicinal uses of the plants used by the two healers. A consensus of opinion among healers of various indigenous groups would suggest that the plant in question has a good probability for discovery of efficacious drugs for the treated disease. Achyranthes aspera was used by the Kavirajes for treatment of menstrual disorders; the plant is used for the same purpose by tribal people of Bellary district, Karnataka, India . Amaranthus spinosus, used by the Kavirajes to treat dysentery, is also reportedly used by the Kalanguya tribe in Tinoc, Ifugao, Luzon, Philippines for the same purpose . Leaves of Mangifera indica, used for treatment of stomach pain by the Kavirajes, are also used for the same purpose by the Kalanguya tribe in the Philippines . Calotropis procera, used by the healers for treatment of pain, is used by the dwellers of Rajasthan desert, India for treatment of knee pain . Leaves of the plant are also used for treatment of joint and waist pain by the natives of Sanwer village in Indore district, Madhya Pradesh, India .
The selection of medicinal plants by the folk medicinal practitioners indicated both Ayurvedic influences and individual preferences, which may be based on a number of factors like empirical basis or derived from socio-religious beliefs. Ayurvedic medicine is popular in the Indian sub-continent, and in recent years has seen a resurgence of interest among the general people because of what is considered a holistic approach to treatment of sickness by this method. Whether Ayurveda has influenced folk medicinal practitioners or the other way around remains a question for anthropologists and ethnobotanists to determine. It is of further interest to conduct scientific studies on the plants, which may lead to scientific validation of the use of the plants.
Published Online 2014 February 30.
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Sheikh Arif Hasan, Md. Mahtab Uddin, Kazi Nazib-ul Huda, Aparajita Das, Nadira Tabassum, Md. Rafat Hossain, Mostafi Jumrut Mahal, Mohammed Rahmatullah
Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh
Received: 21 January 2013; Received: 18 February 2014; Accepted: 20 March 2014; Available online: 4 April 2014
Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor, University of Development Alternative, House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new), Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh Phone: 88-01715032621 Fax: 88-02-8157339 E-mail: email@example.com
Table 1: Medicinal plants and their uses by the folk medicinal practitioners along with their reported Ayurvedic uses (similarity in uses have been denoted in bold letters). Serial Scientific Name Family Name Local Name Number 1 Achyranthes aspera Amaranthaceae Chotfotae L. 2 Amaranthus spinosus Amaranthaceae Kata khur L. 3 Crinum asiaticum L. Amaryllidaceae Bon roshun 4 Leea macrophylla Ampelidaceae Hatikan Roxb. polash 5 Lannea coromandelic Anacardiaceae Jiala a (Houtt.) Merr. 6 Mangifera indica L. Anacardiaceae Aam 7 Centella asiatica Apiaceae Thankuni (L.) Urban 8 Carissa carandas L. Apocynaceae Koromja 9 Calotropis procera Asclepiadaceae Akondo (Aiton) W.T. Aiton 10 Vernonia cinerea Asteraceae Joanbir (L.) Less. 11 Heliotropium indicum Boraginaceae Hatisur L. 12 Terminalia arjuna Combretaceae Arjun Wight & Am. 13 Kalanchoe pinnata Crassulaceae Pathorkuchi (Lam.) Pers. 14 Coccinia grandis Cucurbitaceae Daulat, (L.) Voigt Telakuch 15 Croton bonplandianum Euphorbiaceae Bon Baill. bonapori 16 Jatropha Euphorbiaceae Jamal gota gossypifolia L. 17 Abrus precatorius L. Fabaceae Shonakuch 18 Acacia nilotica (L.) Fabaceae Babla Willd. ex Delile 19 Caesalpinia bonduc Fabaceae Latai (L.) Roxb. 20 Caesalpinia digyna Fabaceae Bilai Rottler hachri 21 Cajanus cajan (L.) Fabaceae Orhol Millsp. 22 Cassia fistula L. Fabaceae Bandor lathi 23 Desmodium gangeticum Fabaceae Doya khoya (L.) DC. 24 Ocimum tenuiflorum Lamiaceae Kalo tulsi L. 25 Litsea monopetala Lauraceae Jigala (Roxb.) Persoon 26 Aloe vera (L.) Liliaceae Ghrito Burm.f. kanchan 27 Lawsonia inermis L. Lythraceae Mehedi 28 Abutilon indicum L. Malvaceae Horin kani 29 Bombax ceiba L. Malvaceae Shimul 30 Hibiscus rosa Malvaceae Joba sinensis L. 31 Hibiscus syriacus L. Malvaceae Joba (shada) 32 Sida cordata (Burm. Malvaceae Baila f.) Waalkes 33 Marsilea minuta L. Marsileaceae Sursuni 34 Ficus benghalensis Moraceae Bot gach L. 35 Ficus racemosa L. Moraceae Dumur 36 Streblus asper Lour. Moraceae Sohoba 37 Moringa oleifera Lam. Moringaceae Sojina 38 Averrhoa carambola L. Oxalidaceae Kamranga 39 Piper betle L. Piperaceae Paan 40 Piper nigrum L. Piperaceae Gol morich 41 Cynodon dactylon Poaceae Durba ghas (L.) Pers. 42 Aegle marmelos (L.) Rutaceae Bael Correa 43 Murraya paniculata L. Rutaceae Kamini 44 Scoparia dulcis L. Scrophulariaceae Joanbir 45 Datura metel L. Solanaceae Dhutra (shada) 46 Physalis micrantha Solanaceae Fotka Link 47 Solanum virginianum Solanaceae Kontokari L. 48 Abroma augusta L. Sterculiaceae Ulot kombol 49 Cissus quadrangular Vitaceae Har jora is L. 50 Curcuma aromatica Zingiberaceae Bon holud Salisb. 51 Zingiber officinale Zingiberaceae Ada Roscoe Serial Scientific Name Parts used Disease, Symptoms, Number Formulations, and Administration 1 Achyranthes aspera Root Menstrual disorders, L. burning sensations during urination. Pills are prepared from root. Seven pills are taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach. 2 Amaranthus spinosus Root Dysentery. Root of L. Amaranthus spinosus is crushed with top part of Acacia nilotica. Pills made from the crushed mix are taken orally. 3 Crinum asiaticum L. Root Chest diseases, vomiting tendency. Crushed roots of Crinum asiaticum, rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and fruits of Piper nigrum are mixed together and massaged on the chest. 4 Leea macrophylla Root "Roti haris" Roxb. (piles). Roots are made into small balls and orally taken for 7 days. 5 Lannea coromandelic Bark, stem Foot and mouth a (Houtt.) Merr. disease ('khura') in cattle. Bark or stem is tied to the neck of cattle. 6 Mangifera indica L. Leaf Stomach pain. Young leaves are chewed and taken orally. 7 Centella asiatica Flower Weakness. Crushed (L.) Urban flowers are taken orally following mixing with water. 8 Carissa carandas L. Fruit Anemia. Fruits are taken orally. 9 Calotropis procera Leaf Pain. Leaves are (Aiton) W.T. Aiton brushed with mustard oil and applied topically to painful areas. 10 Vernonia cinerea Root Fever, penile (L.) Less. disorders. Roots are taken orally with betel (Piper betle) leaf twice daily on an empty stomach in the morning and after meals in the evening. 11 Heliotropium indicum Root Small size of penis. L. Crushed roots are mixed with mustard oil and 5 drops of the mixture are massaged on the penis every night. Stomach pain. Roots are boiled in water. Six teaspoonful of the decoction is taken orally twice daily in the morning and evening. 12 Terminalia arjuna Bark, fruit Heart disorders. Wight & Am. Bark is mixed with water and orally taken. To get protection from evil doings ('ban mara'). Fruits are put inside an amulet, which is tied to the waist. 13 Kalanchoe pinnata Leaf Gall bladder stone, (Lam.) Pers. bloating. Leaves are chewed and taken orally. To stop bleeding from external cuts and wounds. Leaves are rubbed on cuts and wounds. 14 Coccinia grandis Whole plant Total paralysis or (L.) Voigt numbness of body. Whole plant is added to water and orally taken. Burning sensations in head or soles of feet. Crushed leaves are mixed with mustard oil and topically applied to head or soles of feet. 15 Croton bonplandianum Gum Bleeding from Baill. external cuts and wounds. Gum is applied topically to areas of bleeding. 16 Jatropha Sap Stop bleeding from gossypifolia L. teeth. Sap is applied to teeth. 17 Abrus precatorius L. Seed Birth control. One seed is taken orally per day for birth control. If more than five seeds are taken at one time, then birth control lasts till death. 18 Acacia nilotica (L.) Top portion See Amaranthus Willd. ex Delile of plant, spinosus. Skin bark diseases. Bark is boiled in water followed by washing affected areas of skin in the water. 19 Caesalpinia bonduc Top of stem Helminthiasis. Top (L.) Roxb. of stems are taken orally on an empty stomach. 20 Caesalpinia digyna Root Sex stimulant. Roots Rottler are directly taken orally or pills made from roots are taken orally (usually taken before intercourse). 21 Cajanus cajan (L.) Leaf Jaundice. Leaves are Millsp. soaked and crushed in water followed by orally taking the water. 22 Cassia fistula L. Bark Asthma. Pills prepared from bark of Cassia fistula are mixed with rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and orally taken. 23 Desmodium gangeticum Root Weakness, high (L.) DC. density of urine. Roots are crushed and mixed with 'sandesh' (a sweet prepared from milk). Pills prepared from the mixture are taken for 7 days. 24 Ocimum tenuiflorum Leaf Cold. Leaves of L. Ocimum tenuiflorum are wrapped with leaves of Piper betle and orally taken. 25 Litsea monopetala Bark Menstrual disorders. (Roxb.) Persoon Pills prepared from crushed bark are orally taken for 1 day (5 pills in the morning, afternoon, and evening). 26 Aloe vera (L.) Leaf pulp Headache, hot Burm.f. feeling in head, stomach disorders. The pulp is applied topically to the head for headache and hot feeling in head, and taken orally for stomach disorders. 27 Lawsonia inermis L. Leaf, bark, Red or yellow root coloration of urine. Leaves, barks or roots are soaked overnight in a glass of water. The water is taken orally the following morning. 28 Abutilon indicum L. Whole plant Weakness, loss of appetite. Pills made from crushed or paste of whole plants is taken thrice daily for 7 days. Cataract in cattle. Whole plants are rubbed on the left side of the waist in cattle. 29 Bombax ceiba L. Root Low semen density. Roots are sliced, dried and taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach. 30 Hibiscus rosa Leaf, flower Leucorrhea. Leaflets sinensis L. or floral buds are made into pills by crushing them in hand. Five pills are taken orally in the morning for 7 days. 31 Hibiscus syriacus L. Leaf Sexual weakness in males. Leaves are squeezed in water followed by taking the water orally. 32 Sida cordata (Burm. Leaf To blacken hair. f.) Waalkes Paste of leaves is applied to hair. Weakness. Crushed leaves are taken orally. Itches. Crushed leaves are applied topically. Abscess. Crushed leaves are applied to top of abscess. 33 Marsilea minuta L. Rhizome Insomnia, pain in hand or feet. Rhizomes are cooked and then taken in the mashed form. 34 Ficus benghalensis Gum Erectile L. dysfunction. Gum is taken orally with sugar or 'batasha' (local sweet dish). One drop of gum is to be taken daily for 10 consecutive days. 35 Ficus racemosa L. Fruit Dysentery. Boiled or cooked fruits are orally taken. 36 Streblus asper Lour. Bark Appendicitis. Pills prepared from crushed bark are taken orally for 4- 5 days on an empty or full stomach. 37 Moringa oleifera Lam. Fruit Body pain, fever. Fruits are boiled and taken orally for 20-25 days. Note that the roots are poisonous and can kill if taken. 38 Averrhoa carambola L. Fruit Coughs, mucus. Fruits are pierced with a stake and boiled over a fire. Then the boiled fruit is sucked. 39 Piper betle L. Leaf See Ocimum tenuiflorum. See Aegle marmelos. See Vernonia cinerea. 40 Piper nigrum L. Fruit See Crinum asiaticum. 41 Cynodon dactylon Leaf Yellowish coloration (L.) Pers. of urine. Leaves are tied to any finger. Bleeding from external cuts and wounds. Crushed leaves are applied to cuts and wounds to stop bleeding. 42 Aegle marmelos (L.) Fruit Constipation, Correa dysentery. Unripe fruits are sliced, dried, soaked in water and orally taken. Small size of penis. The gum obtained from ripe fruits is mixed with banana (Sabri variety) and betel (Piper betle) leaves and massaged on the penis for penile enlargement. 43 Murraya paniculata L. Leaf Edema. 3-4 leaves are chewed first. Then paste of leaves of Murraya paniculata and rhizomes of Zingiber officinale are applied to swelled areas. 44 Scoparia dulcis L. Root Weakness due to anemia. Roots are orally taken with molasses; alternately pills prepare from crushed roots and molasses are orally taken for 7 days. 45 Datura metel L. Leaf Pain. Crushed leaves are orally taken. Note that taking of fruits can lead to insanity. However, people can recover from insanity by taking the roots. 46 Physalis micrantha Whole plant Skin infections. Link Whole plants are dried, fried and powdered followed by topical application of the powder to infected areas. 47 Solanum virginianum Root, fruit Jaundice. Roots are L. orally taken with sugar. Skin infections. Fruits are fried in oil and orally taken. 48 Abroma augusta L. Top of stem, Weakness, headache. leaf, stem Top of stem, leaf and stem are soaked in water followed by drinking the water. 49 Cissus quadrangular Stem Bone fracture. Paste is L. of stem is applied to fractured area. 50 Curcuma aromatica Rhizome Acne, discoloration Salisb. of skin. Paste of rhizome is applied to affected areas. 51 Zingiber officinale Rhizome See Murraya Roscoe paniculata. See Cassia fistula. See Crinum asiaticum. Serial Scientific Name Ayurvedic name and Number uses (Khare, 2007) 1 Achyranthes aspera Apaamargaa. L. Astringent, respiratory tract disorders, diuretic, hepatoprotective, emmenagogue. 2 Amaranthus spinosus Tandulaka. L. Galactogenic, spasmolytic, diuretic, emollient, menorrhea. 3 Crinum asiaticum L. Naagadamani. Laxative, expectorant, urinary disorders, burns, skin diseases. 4 Leea macrophylla Hastikanda. Roxb. Astringent, anodyne, styptic (stops bleeding), roots applied to wounds and sores. 5 Lannea coromandelic Jingini. Stimulant, a (Houtt.) Merr. astringent, toothache, gout, elephantiasis. 6 Mangifera indica L. Amb. Antiinflammatory, chloretic, diuretic, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatism. 7 Centella asiatica Manduukaparni. (L.) Urban Laxative, diuretic, stress, fatigue, leprosy, memory enhancer. 8 Carissa carandas L. Karinkaara. Acidity, flatulence, poor digestion, diabetic ulcer. 9 Calotropis procera Alarka. Bronchial (Aiton) W.T. Aiton asthma, dyspepsia, flatulence, epilepsy, painful joints and swellings. 10 Vernonia cinerea Sahadevi. Fever, (L.) Less. leucorrhea, dysuria, spasm of bladder, strangury, helminthiasis, leucoderma. 11 Heliotropium indicum Vrischikaali. L. Diuretic, astringent, emollient, vulnerary, ulcers, urticaria, coughs. 12 Terminalia arjuna Arjuna. Wight & Am. Cardioprotective, cardiotonic, diuretic in cirrhosis of liver, hypertension, skin diseases, herpes, leukoderma. 13 Kalanchoe pinnata Parnabija. (Lam.) Pers. Gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes. 14 Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt 15 Croton bonplandianum Baill. 16 Jatropha Rakta- gossypifolia L. Vyaaghrairanda. Purgative, antidermatosis. 17 Abrus precatorius L. Gunjaa. Uterine stimulant, abortifacient, baldness. 18 Acacia nilotica (L.) Baabuula. Willd. ex Delile Astringent, spasmolytic, hypoglycemic, gastrointestinal disorders, helminthiasis, urogenital disorders. 19 Caesalpinia bonduc Puutikaranja. (L.) Roxb. Rheumatism, diabetes, fever, diuretic, helminthiasis. 20 Caesalpinia digyna Rottler 21 Cajanus cajan (L.) Aadhaki. Millsp. Hypocholesterolemic, jaundice. 22 Cassia fistula L. Aaragvadha. Constipation, colic, chlorosis, urinary disorders, fever, purgative, antibilious, amoebiasis. 23 Desmodium gangeticum Shaaliparni. Fever, (L.) DC. diuretic, gastrointestinal disorders, anticatarrhal, helminthiasis. 24 Ocimum tenuiflorum Tulasi. Carminative, L. stomachic, antispasmodic, expectorant, antiasthmatic, antirheumatic, hepatoprotective, diaphoretic. 25 Litsea monopetala Maidaa-lakdi. (Roxb.) Persoon Stimulant, astringent, spasmolytic, pain, gastrointestinal disorders. 26 Aloe vera (L.) Kanyaasaara. Burm.f. Purgative, emmenagogue, pain, constipation, dysmenorrheal, liver diseases. 27 Lawsonia inermis L. Madayanti. Astringent, antihemorrhagic, antispasmodic, dysuria, jaundice, bleeding disorders, skin diseases. 28 Abutilon indicum L. Atibalaa. Gout, polyuria, hemorrhagic diseases, fever, diuretic, piles, strangury. 29 Bombax ceiba L. Raktapushpa. Gastrointestinal disorders, stimulant, skin disorders, low vitality, debility, spermatorrhea. 30 Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. 31 Hibiscus syriacus L. 32 Sida cordata (Burm. Raajabalaa. Burning f.) Waalkes sensation in micturition, diarrhea, leucorrhea. 33 Marsilea minuta L. Sunishannaka. Sedative. 34 Ficus benghalensis Nyagrodha. Lipid L. disorders, diabetes, dysentery, seminal weakness, leucorrhea, menorrhagia, nervous disorders, erysipelas, rheumatic inflammations. 35 Ficus racemosa L. Udumbara. Diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, menorrhagia, hemorrhages. 36 Streblus asper Lour. Shaakhotaka. Fever, diarrhea, cervical lymphadenitis, lipid disorders. 37 Moringa oleifera Lam. Sigra. Fever, helminthiasis, diabetes, diuretic, pain, goiter, internal abscess, piles, fistula. 38 Averrhoa carambola L. Karmaranga. Ringworm, scabies, dysentery, chicken pox, fever, bleeding piles, galactogenic. 39 Piper betle L. Taambula. Stimulant, carminative, antispasmodic, respiratory catarrhs. 40 Piper nigrum L. Maricha. Stimulant, carminative, diuretic, anti- asthmatic, fever, dyspepsia, flatulence. 41 Cynodon dactylon Duurvaa. Epitaxis, (L.) Pers. hematuria, cuts, wounds, bleeding piles, skin diseases. 42 Aegle marmelos (L.) Bilva. Diarhhea, Correa colitis, dysentery, enteric infections. 43 Murraya paniculata L. Kaamini. Burns, boils, sores. 44 Scoparia dulcis L. Jastimadhu. Renal affections, fever, cough, bronchitis, anemia. 45 Datura metel L. Dhuurta. Headache, hemiplegia, epilepsy, rheumatism, asthma. 46 Physalis micrantha Link 47 Solanum virginianum Kantakaari. L. Stimulant, expectorant, diuretic, laxative, fever, skin diseases. 48 Abroma augusta L. Pivari. Emmenagogue. 49 Cissus quadrangular Asthisamhaara. Bone is L. fracture, irregular menstruation. 50 Curcuma aromatica Karpuraa. Bruises, Salisb. sprains, skin infections, skin eruptions. 51 Zingiber officinale Aardraka. Dyspepsia, Roscoe loss of appetite, tympanitis, anemia, rheumatism, cough, dyspnea, constipation, colic, edema, throat infections.
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|Title Annotation:||Research Article|
|Author:||Hasan, Sheikh Arif; Uddin, Mahtab; Huda, Kazi Nazib-ul; Das, Aparajita; Tabassum, Nadira; Hossain, R|
|Publication:||American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2014|
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