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Ethnomedicinal plants of two village folk medicinal practitioners in Rajshahi district, Bangladesh: comparison of their folk medicinal uses with Ayurvedic uses.

INTRODUCTION

Folk medicine is a unique form of medicine practiced in Bangladesh by folk medicinal practitioners, otherwise known as Kavirajes. Folk medicine cannot be categorized under a single or homogenous system of medicine like other traditional medicinal practices in Bangladesh, like Ayurveda or Unani. Folk medicine is rather a unique blend of medicines [30], in which individual Kavirajes have their own formulations, which can differ widely not only among Kaviarjes of distant areas but also even in the same or adjoining areas [31,32,25,18]. Kavirajes rely mainly on medicinal plants, and each Kaviraj has his or her own list of plants for treatment of certain diseases (as such the Kaviraj can be said to have specialization in treatment of these diseases). The knowledge of a Kaviraj is generally obtained from a member of the previous generation, who is either a close relative or a 'guru' under whom the Kaviraj has spent several years as apprentice. However, other Kavirajes claim to have gained their knowledge from reading books (particularly Ayurvedic texts, notably Ayurvedic and Unani forms of traditional medicine have their own pharmacopoeias), some claim to get their plants from dreams, while others claim to obtain plant knowledge through actual experiments initially done with cattle or poultry. Our ethnomedicinal surveys have found previous indications of Ayurvedic influences on folk medicinal practices of Kavirajes [28].

Since folk medicine is such a unique combination of influences derived from various factors, we had been conducting ethnomedicinal surveys among various folk medicinal practitioners and tribal medicinal practitioners for a number of years [29,31-33,9,13,15,25,26,34-42,2,5-7,12,17,18, 43,44,49,5,10,14,16,19,45-49,3,27]. Tribal medicinal practices can be considered also as a variant of folk medicine. The various intricate factors behind a particular Kavirajes' selection of plants and diseases treated and especially Ayurvedic influences on folk medicinal practices are yet to be explored in details. Such documentation not only can explain how medicinal plants are selected, but also can provide comprehensive information and thus help setting up a data base on the medicinal plants and their uses in Bangladesh. Such a data base can also help scientists in determining which pharmacological activities to look for in any specific medicinal plant. The objective of the present study was to carry out an ethnomedicinal survey among Kavirajes of two villages in Rajshahi district and examine possible Ayurvedic influences on plant selection.

Materials and Methods

The present survey was carried out among the folk medicinal practitioners (Kavirajes) of two villages, namely Chandura and Kakonhat in Tanore Thana of Rajshahi district, Bangladesh. The villages had one practicing folk medicinal practitioner each. Sojen was the name of the folk medicinal practitioner in Chandura village, while the folk medicinal practitioner at Kakonhat village was known as Bokul. Prior Informed Consent was obtained first from the two practitioners. The Kavirajes were explained as to the nature of our visit, and consent obtained to disseminate any information provided both nationally and internationally. Actual interviews and data collection were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method of Martin [22] and Maundu [23]. In this method, the Kavirajes took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where they collected their medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. Plant specimens were photographed and collected from the spot, pressed, dried and brought back to Bangladesh National Herbarium for complete identification. Voucher specimens were deposited at the Medicinal Plant Collection Wing of the University of Development Alternative. Detailed conversations with the Kaviraj took place in the evening in open-ended conversations where the Kaviraj discussed the medicinal uses of plants in more details.

Results and Discussion

Medicinal plants used and diseases treated:

The two practitioners in between themselves were observed to use 51 plants distributed into 32 families for treatment of diseases like menstrual disorders, urinary disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, chest diseases, piles, weakness, anemia, pain, fever, sexual disorders, heart disorders, gall bladder stone, paralysis, cuts and wounds, skin diseases, helminthiasis, jaundice, respiratory disorders, appendicitis, edema, and bone fracture. The results are shown in Table 1. A comparison with Ayurvedic uses of the plants showed that at least 26 of the 51 medicinal plants used by the healers had reported comparable Ayurvedic uses. The comparison is also shown in Table 1.

Comparative Ayurvedic uses of medicinal plants of the healers:

While some Ayurvedic uses were similar, other Ayurvedic uses could be interpreted as to be indirectly beneficial for diseases treated by the Kavirajes. For instance, Amaranthus spinosus was used by the healers to treat dysentery. The Ayurvedic use of the plant is as a spasmolytic agent. As such, the plant can be useful in dysentery to stop the spasmodic actions of the bowel and so reduce frequency of stool passing. Another plant, Leea macrophylla was used by the healers for treatment of piles. The Ayurvedic use is for styptic purposes, i.e. to stop bleeding, which property of the plant can prove beneficial in stopping bleeding from 'bleeding piles' or 'bleeding hemorrhoids'. On the other hand, one of the uses in Ayurveda for Centella asiatica is to treat fatigue. The healers used the plant to treat weakness, which is a feature of fatigue. The Ayurvedic use of the plant, Vernonia cinerea, for treatment of fever by the healers is exactly the same as the plants' reported use in Ayurveda. Thus it can be said that with at least about 50% of the medicinal plants, their use by the healers were the same as that reported for Ayurveda.

When inquired about possible Ayurvedic influences on the plant choices by the healers, the healers mentioned that they did not attend any Ayurvedic colleges and had any formal training in Ayurveda, but they did mention that some of their medicinal plant information came out from reading Ayurvedic texts. Although original Ayurvedic texts like the Charaka Samhita are in the Sanskrit language, easy to read Bengali versions are available in Bangladesh. These texts, although not direct translations of classical Ayurvedic treatises provide in easy to read language, medicinal properties of various plants, but omit the complicated formulary of Ayurvedic classical texts or the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India or the Ayurvedic Formulary of Bangladesh. They are essentially intended for the general reader. The healers were not highly educated.

They simply read the books and applied simple formulations of the medicinal plants as they thought appropriate, or what turned out to be good through some trial and error methods. As a result, simple formulations and single plants were substituted by the Kavirajes for complicated polyherbal formulations (with complicated procedures for preparations) as mentioned in Ayurveda.

It is an open question as which came first--Ayurvedic knowledge or the folk medicinal traditions. Ayurveda is possibly the most organized form of traditional medicine, and which dates back to possibly 3,500 years ago. On the other hand, the origins of Ayurveda are shrouded in mystery, but it is known that Ayurveda was introduced to the Indian sub-continent by the Aryans who came in (possibly from Central Asia through Iran) and conquered the existing Dravidian tribes of India. In fact, the first mentions of medicinal plants (i.e. Ayurveda) can be found in the Vedas, the sacred books of the Aryans (Devanathan et al., 2011). It has to be acknowledged that the pre-Aryan or the Dravidian tribes of India must have had their own traditional medicinal systems. For instance, one such indigenous Dravidian tribe, the Gonds of India, still practice their own traditional medicinal system [24]. If that be the case, then Aryans could have borrowed some of the indigenous medicinal knowledge, and indigenous knowledge, part of which may be reflected in folk medicinal practices, may have borrowed from Aryan traditions. This could explain why only about 50% of the plants used by the healers had Ayurvedic connections, while the others did not. The latter plants could be remnants of indigenous knowledge gained through accumulation of empirical knowledge of medicinal properties of plants [8] or could be independent discoveries of the healers, achieved through trial and error experiments.

Other relevant reported ethnomedicinal uses of the medicinal plants of the Kavirajes:

It was of interest to determine other similar reported ethnomedicinal uses of the plants used by the two healers. A consensus of opinion among healers of various indigenous groups would suggest that the plant in question has a good probability for discovery of efficacious drugs for the treated disease. Achyranthes aspera was used by the Kavirajes for treatment of menstrual disorders; the plant is used for the same purpose by tribal people of Bellary district, Karnataka, India [52]. Amaranthus spinosus, used by the Kavirajes to treat dysentery, is also reportedly used by the Kalanguya tribe in Tinoc, Ifugao, Luzon, Philippines for the same purpose [4]. Leaves of Mangifera indica, used for treatment of stomach pain by the Kavirajes, are also used for the same purpose by the Kalanguya tribe in the Philippines [4]. Calotropis procera, used by the healers for treatment of pain, is used by the dwellers of Rajasthan desert, India for treatment of knee pain [21]. Leaves of the plant are also used for treatment of joint and waist pain by the natives of Sanwer village in Indore district, Madhya Pradesh, India [1].

Conclusion:

The selection of medicinal plants by the folk medicinal practitioners indicated both Ayurvedic influences and individual preferences, which may be based on a number of factors like empirical basis or derived from socio-religious beliefs. Ayurvedic medicine is popular in the Indian sub-continent, and in recent years has seen a resurgence of interest among the general people because of what is considered a holistic approach to treatment of sickness by this method. Whether Ayurveda has influenced folk medicinal practitioners or the other way around remains a question for anthropologists and ethnobotanists to determine. It is of further interest to conduct scientific studies on the plants, which may lead to scientific validation of the use of the plants.

Published Online 2014 February 30.

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Sheikh Arif Hasan, Md. Mahtab Uddin, Kazi Nazib-ul Huda, Aparajita Das, Nadira Tabassum, Md. Rafat Hossain, Mostafi Jumrut Mahal, Mohammed Rahmatullah

Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh

Received: 21 January 2013; Received: 18 February 2014; Accepted: 20 March 2014; Available online: 4 April 2014

Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor, University of Development Alternative, House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new), Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh Phone: 88-01715032621 Fax: 88-02-8157339 E-mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com
Table 1: Medicinal plants and their uses by the folk medicinal
practitioners along with their reported Ayurvedic uses (similarity
in uses have been denoted in bold letters).

Serial      Scientific Name        Family Name      Local Name
Number

1         Achyranthes aspera      Amaranthaceae      Chotfotae
                  L.

2         Amaranthus spinosus     Amaranthaceae      Kata khur
                  L.

3         Crinum asiaticum L.     Amaryllidaceae    Bon roshun

4          Leea macrophylla        Ampelidaceae       Hatikan
                 Roxb.                                polash

5         Lannea coromandelic     Anacardiaceae        Jiala
           a (Houtt.) Merr.

6         Mangifera indica L.     Anacardiaceae         Aam

7          Centella asiatica         Apiaceae        Thankuni
              (L.) Urban

8         Carissa carandas L.      Apocynaceae        Koromja

9         Calotropis procera      Asclepiadaceae      Akondo
          (Aiton) W.T. Aiton

10         Vernonia cinerea         Asteraceae        Joanbir
              (L.) Less.

11       Heliotropium indicum      Boraginaceae       Hatisur
                  L.

12         Terminalia arjuna       Combretaceae        Arjun
              Wight & Am.

13         Kalanchoe pinnata       Crassulaceae     Pathorkuchi
             (Lam.) Pers.

14         Coccinia grandis       Cucurbitaceae       Daulat,
              (L.) Voigt                             Telakuch

15       Croton bonplandianum     Euphorbiaceae         Bon
                Baill.                               bonapori

16             Jatropha           Euphorbiaceae     Jamal gota
            gossypifolia L.

17       Abrus precatorius L.        Fabaceae        Shonakuch

18       Acacia nilotica (L.)        Fabaceae          Babla
           Willd. ex Delile

19        Caesalpinia bonduc         Fabaceae          Latai
              (L.) Roxb.

20        Caesalpinia digyna         Fabaceae          Bilai
                Rottler                               hachri

21        Cajanus cajan (L.)         Fabaceae          Orhol
                Millsp.

22         Cassia fistula L.         Fabaceae         Bandor
                                                       lathi

23       Desmodium gangeticum        Fabaceae       Doya khoya
               (L.) DC.

24        Ocimum tenuiflorum        Lamiaceae       Kalo tulsi
                  L.

25         Litsea monopetala        Lauraceae         Jigala
            (Roxb.) Persoon

26          Aloe vera (L.)          Liliaceae         Ghrito
                Burm.f.                               kanchan

27        Lawsonia inermis L.       Lythraceae        Mehedi

28        Abutilon indicum L.       Malvaceae       Horin kani

29          Bombax ceiba L.         Malvaceae         Shimul

30           Hibiscus rosa          Malvaceae          Joba
              sinensis L.

31       Hibiscus syriacus L.       Malvaceae          Joba
                                                      (shada)

32        Sida cordata (Burm.       Malvaceae          Baila
              f.) Waalkes

33        Marsilea minuta L.       Marsileaceae       Sursuni

34        Ficus benghalensis         Moraceae        Bot gach
                  L.

35         Ficus racemosa L.         Moraceae          Dumur

36       Streblus asper Lour.        Moraceae         Sohoba

37       Moringa oleifera Lam.     Moringaceae        Sojina

38       Averrhoa carambola L.     Oxalidaceae       Kamranga

39          Piper betle L.          Piperaceae         Paan

40          Piper nigrum L.         Piperaceae      Gol morich

41         Cynodon dactylon          Poaceae        Durba ghas
              (L.) Pers.

42        Aegle marmelos (L.)        Rutaceae          Bael
                Correa

43       Murraya paniculata L.       Rutaceae         Kamini

44        Scoparia dulcis L.     Scrophulariaceae     Joanbir

45          Datura metel L.         Solanaceae        Dhutra
                                                      (shada)

46        Physalis micrantha        Solanaceae         Fotka
                 Link

47        Solanum virginianum       Solanaceae       Kontokari
                  L.

48         Abroma augusta L.      Sterculiaceae        Ulot
                                                      kombol

49        Cissus quadrangular        Vitaceae        Har jora
                 is L.

50         Curcuma aromatica      Zingiberaceae      Bon holud
                Salisb.

51        Zingiber officinale     Zingiberaceae         Ada
                Roscoe

Serial      Scientific Name       Parts used     Disease, Symptoms,
Number                                            Formulations, and
                                                   Administration

1         Achyranthes aspera         Root       Menstrual disorders,
                  L.                             burning sensations
                                                  during urination.
                                                 Pills are prepared
                                                  from root. Seven
                                                   pills are taken
                                                    orally in the
                                                 morning on an empty
                                                      stomach.

2         Amaranthus spinosus        Root        Dysentery. Root of
                  L.                             Amaranthus spinosus
                                                 is crushed with top
                                                   part of Acacia
                                                nilotica. Pills made
                                                from the crushed mix
                                                  are taken orally.

3         Crinum asiaticum L.        Root          Chest diseases,
                                                 vomiting tendency.
                                                  Crushed roots of
                                                  Crinum asiaticum,
                                                rhizomes of Zingiber
                                                   officinale and
                                                   fruits of Piper
                                                  nigrum are mixed
                                                    together and
                                                   massaged on the
                                                       chest.

4          Leea macrophylla          Root           "Roti haris"
                 Roxb.                           (piles). Roots are
                                                   made into small
                                                  balls and orally
                                                  taken for 7 days.

5         Lannea coromandelic     Bark, stem       Foot and mouth
           a (Houtt.) Merr.                     disease ('khura') in
                                                cattle. Bark or stem
                                                 is tied to the neck
                                                     of cattle.

6         Mangifera indica L.        Leaf        Stomach pain. Young
                                                  leaves are chewed
                                                  and taken orally.

7          Centella asiatica        Flower        Weakness. Crushed
              (L.) Urban                          flowers are taken
                                                  orally following
                                                 mixing with water.

8         Carissa carandas L.       Fruit        Anemia. Fruits are
                                                    taken orally.

9         Calotropis procera         Leaf         Pain. Leaves are
          (Aiton) W.T. Aiton                    brushed with mustard
                                                   oil and applied
                                                topically to painful
                                                       areas.

10         Vernonia cinerea          Root           Fever, penile
              (L.) Less.                        disorders. Roots are
                                                  taken orally with
                                                 betel (Piper betle)
                                                 leaf twice daily on
                                                 an empty stomach in
                                                   the morning and
                                                 after meals in the
                                                      evening.

11       Heliotropium indicum        Root       Small size of penis.
                  L.                              Crushed roots are
                                                 mixed with mustard
                                                 oil and 5 drops of
                                                   the mixture are
                                                   massaged on the
                                                 penis every night.
                                                 Stomach pain. Roots
                                                are boiled in water.
                                                 Six teaspoonful of
                                                  the decoction is
                                                 taken orally twice
                                                daily in the morning
                                                    and evening.

12         Terminalia arjuna     Bark, fruit      Heart disorders.
              Wight & Am.                        Bark is mixed with
                                                  water and orally
                                                    taken. To get
                                                protection from evil
                                                doings ('ban mara').
                                                   Fruits are put
                                                  inside an amulet,
                                                which is tied to the
                                                       waist.

13         Kalanchoe pinnata         Leaf        Gall bladder stone,
             (Lam.) Pers.                       bloating. Leaves are
                                                  chewed and taken
                                                   orally. To stop
                                                    bleeding from
                                                  external cuts and
                                                 wounds. Leaves are
                                                 rubbed on cuts and
                                                       wounds.

14         Coccinia grandis      Whole plant     Total paralysis or
              (L.) Voigt                          numbness of body.
                                                Whole plant is added
                                                 to water and orally
                                                   taken. Burning
                                                 sensations in head
                                                  or soles of feet.
                                                 Crushed leaves are
                                                 mixed with mustard
                                                  oil and topically
                                                 applied to head or
                                                   soles of feet.

15       Croton bonplandianum        Gum            Bleeding from
                Baill.                            external cuts and
                                                   wounds. Gum is
                                                applied topically to
                                                 areas of bleeding.

16             Jatropha              Sap         Stop bleeding from
            gossypifolia L.                         teeth. Sap is
                                                  applied to teeth.

17       Abrus precatorius L.        Seed        Birth control. One
                                                seed is taken orally
                                                  per day for birth
                                                  control. If more
                                                 than five seeds are
                                                 taken at one time,
                                                 then birth control
                                                  lasts till death.

18       Acacia nilotica (L.)    Top portion       See Amaranthus
           Willd. ex Delile       of plant,        spinosus. Skin
                                     bark         diseases. Bark is
                                                   boiled in water
                                                 followed by washing
                                                  affected areas of
                                                 skin in the water.

19        Caesalpinia bonduc     Top of stem     Helminthiasis. Top
              (L.) Roxb.                         of stems are taken
                                                 orally on an empty
                                                      stomach.

20        Caesalpinia digyna         Root       Sex stimulant. Roots
                Rottler                          are directly taken
                                                orally or pills made
                                                from roots are taken
                                                   orally (usually
                                                    taken before
                                                    intercourse).

21        Cajanus cajan (L.)         Leaf       Jaundice. Leaves are
                Millsp.                          soaked and crushed
                                                in water followed by
                                                  orally taking the
                                                       water.

22         Cassia fistula L.         Bark           Asthma. Pills
                                                 prepared from bark
                                                  of Cassia fistula
                                                   are mixed with
                                                rhizomes of Zingiber
                                                   officinale and
                                                    orally taken.

23       Desmodium gangeticum        Root          Weakness, high
               (L.) DC.                           density of urine.
                                                  Roots are crushed
                                                   and mixed with
                                                 'sandesh' (a sweet
                                                prepared from milk).
                                                 Pills prepared from
                                                   the mixture are
                                                  taken for 7 days.

24        Ocimum tenuiflorum         Leaf          Cold. Leaves of
                  L.                             Ocimum tenuiflorum
                                                  are wrapped with
                                                   leaves of Piper
                                                  betle and orally
                                                       taken.

25         Litsea monopetala         Bark       Menstrual disorders.
            (Roxb.) Persoon                      Pills prepared from
                                                  crushed bark are
                                                 orally taken for 1
                                                 day (5 pills in the
                                                 morning, afternoon,
                                                    and evening).

26          Aloe vera (L.)        Leaf pulp         Headache, hot
                Burm.f.                           feeling in head,
                                                 stomach disorders.
                                                 The pulp is applied
                                                  topically to the
                                                  head for headache
                                                 and hot feeling in
                                                   head, and taken
                                                 orally for stomach
                                                     disorders.

27        Lawsonia inermis L.    Leaf, bark,        Red or yellow
                                     root       coloration of urine.
                                                  Leaves, barks or
                                                  roots are soaked
                                                overnight in a glass
                                                 of water. The water
                                                 is taken orally the
                                                 following morning.

28        Abutilon indicum L.    Whole plant      Weakness, loss of
                                                appetite. Pills made
                                                   from crushed or
                                                   paste of whole
                                                   plants is taken
                                                 thrice daily for 7
                                                  days. Cataract in
                                                cattle. Whole plants
                                                  are rubbed on the
                                                  left side of the
                                                  waist in cattle.

29          Bombax ceiba L.          Root        Low semen density.
                                                  Roots are sliced,
                                                   dried and taken
                                                    orally in the
                                                 morning on an empty
                                                      stomach.

30           Hibiscus rosa       Leaf, flower   Leucorrhea. Leaflets
              sinensis L.                        or floral buds are
                                                 made into pills by
                                                  crushing them in
                                                hand. Five pills are
                                                 taken orally in the
                                                 morning for 7 days.

31       Hibiscus syriacus L.        Leaf        Sexual weakness in
                                                  males. Leaves are
                                                  squeezed in water
                                                 followed by taking
                                                  the water orally.

32        Sida cordata (Burm.        Leaf         To blacken hair.
              f.) Waalkes                        Paste of leaves is
                                                  applied to hair.
                                                  Weakness. Crushed
                                                  leaves are taken
                                                   orally. Itches.
                                                 Crushed leaves are
                                                 applied topically.
                                                  Abscess. Crushed
                                                 leaves are applied
                                                 to top of abscess.

33        Marsilea minuta L.       Rhizome        Insomnia, pain in
                                                    hand or feet.
                                                 Rhizomes are cooked
                                                  and then taken in
                                                  the mashed form.

34        Ficus benghalensis         Gum              Erectile
                  L.                             dysfunction. Gum is
                                                  taken orally with
                                                 sugar or 'batasha'
                                                 (local sweet dish).
                                                 One drop of gum is
                                                  to be taken daily
                                                 for 10 consecutive
                                                        days.

35         Ficus racemosa L.        Fruit       Dysentery. Boiled or
                                                  cooked fruits are
                                                    orally taken.

36       Streblus asper Lour.        Bark        Appendicitis. Pills
                                                    prepared from
                                                  crushed bark are
                                                 taken orally for 4-
                                                 5 days on an empty
                                                  or full stomach.

37       Moringa oleifera Lam.      Fruit         Body pain, fever.
                                                  Fruits are boiled
                                                and taken orally for
                                                  20-25 days. Note
                                                 that the roots are
                                                  poisonous and can
                                                   kill if taken.

38       Averrhoa carambola L.      Fruit          Coughs, mucus.
                                                 Fruits are pierced
                                                  with a stake and
                                                 boiled over a fire.
                                                   Then the boiled
                                                  fruit is sucked.

39          Piper betle L.           Leaf            See Ocimum
                                                    tenuiflorum.

                                                 See Aegle marmelos.

                                                    See Vernonia
                                                      cinerea.

40          Piper nigrum L.         Fruit       See Crinum asiaticum.

41         Cynodon dactylon          Leaf       Yellowish coloration
              (L.) Pers.                        of urine. Leaves are
                                                 tied to any finger.

                                                    Bleeding from
                                                  external cuts and
                                                   wounds. Crushed
                                                 leaves are applied
                                                 to cuts and wounds
                                                  to stop bleeding.

42        Aegle marmelos (L.)       Fruit           Constipation,
                Correa                            dysentery. Unripe
                                                 fruits are sliced,
                                                  dried, soaked in
                                                  water and orally
                                                       taken.

                                                    Small size of
                                                   penis. The gum
                                                 obtained from ripe
                                                fruits is mixed with
                                                    banana (Sabri
                                                 variety) and betel
                                                (Piper betle) leaves
                                                 and massaged on the
                                                  penis for penile
                                                    enlargement.

43       Murraya paniculata L.       Leaf         Edema. 3-4 leaves
                                                  are chewed first.
                                                Then paste of leaves
                                                     of Murraya
                                                   paniculata and
                                                rhizomes of Zingiber
                                                   officinale are
                                                 applied to swelled
                                                       areas.

44        Scoparia dulcis L.         Root          Weakness due to
                                                  anemia. Roots are
                                                  orally taken with
                                                      molasses;
                                                  alternately pills
                                                prepare from crushed
                                                 roots and molasses
                                                are orally taken for
                                                       7 days.

45          Datura metel L.          Leaf       Pain. Crushed leaves
                                                  are orally taken.
                                                 Note that taking of
                                                 fruits can lead to
                                                 insanity. However,
                                                 people can recover
                                                  from insanity by
                                                  taking the roots.

46        Physalis micrantha     Whole plant      Skin infections.
                 Link                             Whole plants are
                                                  dried, fried and
                                                powdered followed by
                                                 topical application
                                                  of the powder to
                                                   infected areas.

47        Solanum virginianum    Root, fruit     Jaundice. Roots are
                  L.                              orally taken with
                                                     sugar. Skin
                                                 infections. Fruits
                                                are fried in oil and
                                                    orally taken.

48         Abroma augusta L.     Top of stem,    Weakness, headache.
                                  leaf, stem      Top of stem, leaf
                                                 and stem are soaked
                                                in water followed by
                                                 drinking the water.

49        Cissus quadrangular        Stem       Bone fracture. Paste
                 is L.                           of stem is applied
                                                 to fractured area.

50         Curcuma aromatica       Rhizome       Acne, discoloration
                Salisb.                           of skin. Paste of
                                                 rhizome is applied
                                                 to affected areas.

51        Zingiber officinale      Rhizome           See Murraya
                Roscoe                               paniculata.

                                                 See Cassia fistula.

                                                     See Crinum
                                                     asiaticum.

Serial      Scientific Name       Ayurvedic name and
Number                            uses (Khare, 2007)

1         Achyranthes aspera         Apaamargaa.
                  L.                 Astringent,
                                  respiratory tract
                                 disorders, diuretic,
                                  hepatoprotective,
                                     emmenagogue.

2         Amaranthus spinosus         Tandulaka.
                  L.                Galactogenic,
                                     spasmolytic,
                                 diuretic, emollient,
                                      menorrhea.

3         Crinum asiaticum L.        Naagadamani.
                                      Laxative,
                                 expectorant, urinary
                                  disorders, burns,
                                    skin diseases.

4          Leea macrophylla          Hastikanda.
                 Roxb.           Astringent, anodyne,
                                    styptic (stops
                                   bleeding), roots
                                  applied to wounds
                                      and sores.

5         Lannea coromandelic    Jingini. Stimulant,
           a (Houtt.) Merr.          astringent,
                                   toothache, gout,
                                    elephantiasis.

6         Mangifera indica L.            Amb.
                                  Antiinflammatory,
                                 chloretic, diuretic,
                                      diabetes,
                                   gastrointestinal
                                      disorders,
                                     rheumatism.

7          Centella asiatica        Manduukaparni.
              (L.) Urban         Laxative, diuretic,
                                   stress, fatigue,
                                   leprosy, memory
                                      enhancer.

8         Carissa carandas L.    Karinkaara. Acidity,
                                   flatulence, poor
                                 digestion, diabetic
                                        ulcer.

9         Calotropis procera      Alarka. Bronchial
          (Aiton) W.T. Aiton      asthma, dyspepsia,
                                     flatulence,
                                  epilepsy, painful
                                      joints and
                                      swellings.

10         Vernonia cinerea        Sahadevi. Fever,
              (L.) Less.         leucorrhea, dysuria,
                                  spasm of bladder,
                                      strangury,
                                    helminthiasis,
                                     leucoderma.

11       Heliotropium indicum       Vrischikaali.
                  L.                  Diuretic,
                                     astringent,
                                      emollient,
                                  vulnerary, ulcers,
                                  urticaria, coughs.

12         Terminalia arjuna           Arjuna.
              Wight & Am.         Cardioprotective,
                                     cardiotonic,
                                     diuretic in
                                 cirrhosis of liver,
                                  hypertension, skin
                                  diseases, herpes,
                                     leukoderma.

13         Kalanchoe pinnata          Parnabija.
             (Lam.) Pers.          Gastrointestinal
                                 disorders, diabetes.

14         Coccinia grandis
              (L.) Voigt

15       Croton bonplandianum
                Baill.

16             Jatropha                 Rakta-
            gossypifolia L.        Vyaaghrairanda.
                                      Purgative,
                                   antidermatosis.

17       Abrus precatorius L.      Gunjaa. Uterine
                                      stimulant,
                                    abortifacient,
                                      baldness.

18       Acacia nilotica (L.)         Baabuula.
           Willd. ex Delile          Astringent,
                                     spasmolytic,
                                    hypoglycemic,
                                   gastrointestinal
                                      disorders,
                                    helminthiasis,
                                      urogenital
                                      disorders.

19        Caesalpinia bonduc        Puutikaranja.
              (L.) Roxb.             Rheumatism,
                                   diabetes, fever,
                                      diuretic,
                                    helminthiasis.

20        Caesalpinia digyna
                Rottler

21        Cajanus cajan (L.)           Aadhaki.
                Millsp.          Hypocholesterolemic,
                                      jaundice.

22         Cassia fistula L.         Aaragvadha.
                                 Constipation, colic,
                                  chlorosis, urinary
                                  disorders, fever,
                                      purgative,
                                     antibilious,
                                     amoebiasis.

23       Desmodium gangeticum    Shaaliparni. Fever,
               (L.) DC.               diuretic,
                                   gastrointestinal
                                      disorders,
                                    anticatarrhal,
                                    helminthiasis.

24        Ocimum tenuiflorum     Tulasi. Carminative,
                  L.                  stomachic,
                                    antispasmodic,
                                     expectorant,
                                    antiasthmatic,
                                    antirheumatic,
                                  hepatoprotective,
                                     diaphoretic.

25         Litsea monopetala        Maidaa-lakdi.
            (Roxb.) Persoon           Stimulant,
                                     astringent,
                                  spasmolytic, pain,
                                   gastrointestinal
                                      disorders.

26          Aloe vera (L.)           Kanyaasaara.
                Burm.f.               Purgative,
                                  emmenagogue, pain,
                                    constipation,
                                 dysmenorrheal, liver
                                      diseases.

27        Lawsonia inermis L.         Madayanti.
                                     Astringent,
                                   antihemorrhagic,
                                    antispasmodic,
                                  dysuria, jaundice,
                                 bleeding disorders,
                                    skin diseases.

28        Abutilon indicum L.      Atibalaa. Gout,
                                      polyuria,
                                     hemorrhagic
                                   diseases, fever,
                                   diuretic, piles,
                                      strangury.

29          Bombax ceiba L.          Raktapushpa.
                                   Gastrointestinal
                                      disorders,
                                   stimulant, skin
                                    disorders, low
                                 vitality, debility,
                                    spermatorrhea.

30           Hibiscus rosa
              sinensis L.

31       Hibiscus syriacus L.

32        Sida cordata (Burm.    Raajabalaa. Burning
              f.) Waalkes            sensation in
                                     micturition,
                                      diarrhea,
                                     leucorrhea.

33        Marsilea minuta L.        Sunishannaka.
                                      Sedative.

34        Ficus benghalensis       Nyagrodha. Lipid
                  L.             disorders, diabetes,
                                  dysentery, seminal
                                      weakness,
                                     leucorrhea,
                                 menorrhagia, nervous
                                      disorders,
                                     erysipelas,
                                      rheumatic
                                    inflammations.

35         Ficus racemosa L.     Udumbara. Diarrhea,
                                      dysentery,
                                      dyspepsia,
                                     menorrhagia,
                                     hemorrhages.

36       Streblus asper Lour.    Shaakhotaka. Fever,
                                  diarrhea, cervical
                                 lymphadenitis, lipid
                                      disorders.

37       Moringa oleifera Lam.      Sigra. Fever,
                                    helminthiasis,
                                 diabetes, diuretic,
                                    pain, goiter,
                                  internal abscess,
                                   piles, fistula.

38       Averrhoa carambola L.       Karmaranga.
                                  Ringworm, scabies,
                                  dysentery, chicken
                                 pox, fever, bleeding
                                 piles, galactogenic.

39          Piper betle L.       Taambula. Stimulant,
                                     carminative,
                                    antispasmodic,
                                     respiratory
                                      catarrhs.

40          Piper nigrum L.      Maricha. Stimulant,
                                     carminative,
                                   diuretic, anti-
                                  asthmatic, fever,
                                      dyspepsia,
                                     flatulence.

41         Cynodon dactylon       Duurvaa. Epitaxis,
              (L.) Pers.           hematuria, cuts,
                                   wounds, bleeding
                                     piles, skin
                                      diseases.

42        Aegle marmelos (L.)      Bilva. Diarhhea,
                Correa           colitis, dysentery,
                                 enteric infections.

43       Murraya paniculata L.     Kaamini. Burns,
                                    boils, sores.

44        Scoparia dulcis L.      Jastimadhu. Renal
                                  affections, fever,
                                  cough, bronchitis,
                                       anemia.

45          Datura metel L.       Dhuurta. Headache,
                                     hemiplegia,
                                      epilepsy,
                                 rheumatism, asthma.

46        Physalis micrantha
                 Link

47        Solanum virginianum        Kantakaari.
                  L.                  Stimulant,
                                     expectorant,
                                 diuretic, laxative,
                                     fever, skin
                                      diseases.

48         Abroma augusta L.     Pivari. Emmenagogue.

49        Cissus quadrangular    Asthisamhaara. Bone
                 is L.           fracture, irregular
                                    menstruation.

50         Curcuma aromatica      Karpuraa. Bruises,
                Salisb.             sprains, skin
                                   infections, skin
                                      eruptions.

51        Zingiber officinale    Aardraka. Dyspepsia,
                Roscoe            loss of appetite,
                                 tympanitis, anemia,
                                  rheumatism, cough,
                                       dyspnea,
                                 constipation, colic,
                                    edema, throat
                                     infections.
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Hasan, Sheikh Arif; Uddin, Mahtab; Huda, Kazi Nazib-ul; Das, Aparajita; Tabassum, Nadira; Hossain, R
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Jan 1, 2014
Words:6408
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