Ethnomedicinal plants of folk medicinal practitioners of two villages in Bagerhat district of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh is well known for its folk medicinal practices and folk medicinal practitioners, who are generally known as Kavirajes. Kavirajes practice in virtually every village of the 86,000 villages of the country, as well as in small towns and cities and have been known to practice for hundreds of years. Folk medicinal practice is traditionally a family-oriented practice, and any knowledge gained by a Kaviraj is transmitted from generation to generation, where successive generations build up on the knowledge base through personal experiences and experiments. Though in recent years, the rural population is also turning to allopathic doctors for their medical treatments, due to lack of modern clinics, allopathic doctors and due to poor transportation infrastructure, the villagers still rely on Kavirajes for their primary health-care. There are other traditional forms of medicine in the country among which are Ayurveda, Unani, and homeopathy. The popularity of the Kavirajes is based mainly on two factors; first, the Kavirajes use a simple form of treatment with essentially medicinal plants forming the chief ingredient, and secondly, because of the ready availability of the Kavirajes and medicinal ingredients as well as the affordability of visits and treatments.
The number of floral species in Bangladesh has been estimated to be above 5,000 and many of these species are used in folk medicine. However, there had been insufficient documentation on the practices of the Kavirajes, the nature and number of medicinal plants used, and the selection of plants for treatment of any given disease. Such documentation is important for a variety of factors. Traditional medicinal knowledge has consistently proved to be important for the discovery of many important and effective allopathic drugs (Balick and Cox, 1996; Cotton, 1996; Gilani and Rahman, 2005); many diseases cannot be cured with allopathic drugs but are claimed to be cured by Kavirajes with their medicinal plant formulations; and many synthetic allopathic drugs are becoming unpopular because of their adverse side-effects or because of emergence of drug-resistant vectors. Towards a proper documentation of the folk medicinal practices of Bangladesh, we had been systematically conducting ethnomedicinal surveys for the last few years among the Kavirajes of the country, as well as tribal medicinal practitioners, whose medical practices resemble the Kavirajes in the use of medicinal plants as the primary ingredient in medicinal formulations (Nawaz et al., 2009; Rahmatullah et al., 2009a-c; Chowdhury et al., 2010; Hasan et al., 2010; Hossan et al, 2010; Mollik et al, 2010a,b; Rahmatullah et al, 2010a-g; Akber et al., 2011; Biswas et al., 2011a-c; Haque et al., 2011; Islam et al., 2011; Jahan et al., 2011; Rahmatullah et al., 2011a,b; Sarker et al., 2011; Shaheen et al., 2011; Das et al., 2012; Hasan et al., 2012; Hossan et al., 2012; Khan et al., 2012; Rahmatullah et al., 2012a-d; Sarker et al., 2012). However, to obtain a complete understanding of folk medicinal practices, there is still a necessity for more ethnomedicinal surveys involving more Kavirajes from different parts of the country.
Towards that objective, the present survey was conducted among the Kavirajes of two villages in Bangladessh, namely Shat-tola Bazaar and Talbari, which lies in Bagerhat district in the south-western part of the country.
Materials and Methods
The present survey was carried out among the three Kavirajes practicing in Shat-tola Bazaar and Talbari village in Bagerhat district of Bangladesh. The two villages had three Kavirajes, namely Kali Babu Debnath (age 43 years), Polash Chandan Das (age 50 years), and Abdul jalil Shaekh (age 30 years). Informed consent was initially obtained from the Kavirajes. The Kavirajes were fully apprised as to the nature of our visit and consent obtained to disseminate their names and any obtained information both nationally as well as internationally. Interviews were conducted in Bengali, which was spoken both by the interviewers and the Kavirajes. Actual surveys were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, the Kavirajes took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where they collected their medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. Plant specimens were photographed and collected on the spot, pressed and air-dried, and brought back to the Bangladesh National Herbarium at Dhaka for complete identification.
Results and Discussion
It was observed that the Kavirajes used a total of 71 medicinal plants for treatment of a diverse variety of ailments. Two of the plants could not be identified. The rest 69 plants were distributed into 40 families. Plant parts were mostly used for treatment versus whole plants, and it was observed that different plant parts from the same plant were used for treatment of different diseases. The plant parts used included leaves, roots, stems, barks, tubers, rhizomes, flowers, fruits, seeds, and exudates (sap) from a plant. The results are shown in Table 1.
An interesting feature of the Kavirajes was that, in most cases, the same plant or parts from the same plant was used for treatment of a wide variety of diseases. To cite just two instances, the green leaves of Justicia adhatoda were used for treatment of flatulency, low sperm count, sperm incapable of being fertilized, astringent, bitter, to increase flow of bile, biliary problems like bile turning the color of blood, gastrointestinal propulsion inhibitor (i.e. during diarrhea or dysentery), tuberculosis, coughs, and fever. The bark of the same plant was used for treatment of eczema and leprosy, while the stems from the plant were used for the treatment of asthma. The dried or fresh leaves or aerial parts of the plant, Andrographis paniculata, were used as prophylaxis and symptomatic treatment of upper respiratory infections (e.g. common cold, uncomplicated sinusitis, pharyngotonsillitis), lower urinary tract infections and acute diarrhea, while whole plants inclusive of roots were used for the treatment of bacillary dysentery, bronchitis, carbuncles, colitis, cough, dyspepsia, fever, hepatitis, malaria, mouth ulcers, sores, tuberculosis and venomous snake bites; the dried aerial parts of the same plant was used for treatment of colic, otitis media (middle ear infection), vaginitis (inflammation of the vagina), pelvic inflammatory disease, chickenpox, eczema and burns. It can be easily observed from Table 1 that taken together, the three Kavirajes interviewed possessed considerable knowledge on the medicinal properties of not only the whole plant, but also separate plant parts as well.
All plants produce hundreds if not thousands of secondary metabolites or phytochemicals, many of which have relevant pharmacological activities, and which activities can be used for obtaining relief or cure from many diseases. For instance, the plant Justicia adhatoda is known to contain alkaloids with positive effects on inflammatory diseases (Chakraborty and Brantner, 2001); extract of the plant also has been shown to have antitussive effect (Dhuley, 1999), and a bronchodilator alkaloid (vasicinone) has been isolated from the plant (Amin and Mehta, 1959). Notably, the Kavirajes in the present study used the plant for treatment of coughs and asthma. The phytochemical constituents of a plant may differ and usually differs between the various parts of the plant, although plant parts may contain also the same phytochemical. Since different phytochemicals in different parts of the plant have or may have different bio-activities, any given plant part may be relevant for treatment of one disease, while another part from the same plant may prove relevant for treatment of another disease. Obviously, the Kavirajes in the present survey did not know of phytochemicals, and less so of the identity and properties of phytochemicals present in various parts of a plant. However, as can be seen from Table 1, they were quite cognizant of the different disease-healing effects of different parts of the same plant and used that knowledge in their various treatments.
The Kavirajes claimed that this knowledge of the healing properties of various parts of any given plant have been transmitted through generations and also added upon through experimentation. According to them, initial experiments are conducted with animals prior to trying it on human beings. But other factors are involved in this process; in our other ethnomedicinal surveys, some Kavirajes claimed that they obtained knowledge of any particular plant through dreams; yet others claimed that they based their treatments on some recognizable similarities between the plant and the disease. For instance, the red flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis are used by some Kavirajes in some parts of the country for treatment of excessive bleeding during menstruation. Here, apparently is an instance of trying to make up for the blood (which has a red color) loss through administration of red-colored flowers. While some might think of this type of treatment to be without any scientific basis, yet surprisingly, many treatments offered by the Kavirajes have been validated by science (see for instance the treatment of coughs and asthma with Justicia adhatoda, Table 1 and also above). In a number of our previously published papers, we have also commented and shown that quite a number of treatments offered by Kavirajes have been validated by relevant modern scientific studies.
A surprising feature of the Kavirajes in the present survey was that they appeared to use any given plant or plant part for a diverse number of diseases. In most of our ethnomedicinal surveys with Kavirajes or tribal healers, usually a given plant or plant part was used for treatment of a single disease. In the present case, however, it was noted that the Kavirajes denoted many plants as bitter or astringent. These are particular properties which have similarities with Ayurveda, and these properties supposedly give a plant healing powers over various diseases (see Table 1 for more details). Also, although not all formulations were given by the Kavirajes involving the 71 plants used, where such formulations were given, the dosages were also given, and these dosages were very precise. Overall, it can be said that the Kavirajes involved knew what they were doing and possessed considerable knowledge on the treatment of various diseases with medicinal plants. This is also borne out when it is considered that the Kavirajes between themselves treated quite a large number of diseases.
Some of the diseases treated, like diabetes or rheumatism do not have cures in allopathic medicine. As such, the plants used by the Kavirajes for treatment of these two diseases, merit scientific investigations towards discovery of possible new drugs to combat these diseases, which afflict millions of people throughout the world. The other plants used by the Kavirajes also deserve proper scientific studies. Any validation of their folk medicinal uses can not only result in possible discovery of newer, cheaper and more effective drugs, but also spur conservation efforts on these medicinal plants.
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(1) Rezwan Walid, (1) Kazi Faisal Ahmed Suvro, (1) Md. Harun-or-Rashid, (2) Mohsina Mukti, (1) Shahnaz Rahman, 'Mohammed Rahmatullah
(1) Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.
(2) Department of Pharmacy, North South University, Bashundhara, Dhaka-1229, Bangladesh.
Corresponding Author: Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh Phone: 88-01715032621; Fax: 88-02-8157339; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1: Medicinal plants and formulations of the Kavirajes of Shat-tola Bazzar and Talbari villages in Bagerhat district of Bangladesh. Serial Scientific Family Name Local Number Name Name 1 Justicia Acanthaceae Bashok adhatoda L. 2 Ruellia Acanthaceae Kule Iongifolia Khara, L. C. Kulekata, Richard Shulmordon 3 Andragraphi Acanthaceae Kalomegh s paniculata (Burm. f.) 4 Achyranthes Amaranthaceae Apang aspera L. 5 Amaranthus Amaranthaceae Notekata spinosus L. 6 Amaranthus Amaranthaceae Note Shak viridis Pall. 7. Annona Annonaceae Ata squamosa L. 8. Trachysper Apiaceae Bonojmani mum ammi L. 9. Hemidesmus Apocynaceae Shamollota indicus (L.) Onontomul R.Br. 10. Alstonia Apocynaceae Chatim scholaris (L.) R.Br. 11. Cocos Arecaceae Narkel nucifera L. 12. Areca Arecaceae Supari catechu L. 13. Enydra Asteraceae Helencha fluctuans shak Lour. 14. Averrhoa Averrhoaceae Kamranga carambola L. 15. Oroxylum Bignoniaceae Shona indicum L. 16. Bombax Bombacaceae Mochros, ceiba L. Shimul Gum 17. Heliotropium Boraginaceae Hati Shura indicum L. 18. Cannabis Cannabaceae Vang, Gaaja sativa L. 19. Carica Caricaceae Pepe papaya L. 20. Terminalia Combretaceae Horitoki chebula Retz. 21. Eclipta Compositae Vingoraj prostrata (L.) L. 22. Ipomoea Convolvulaceae Vumi Kusmando mauritiana Jacq. 23. Operculina Convolvulaceae Teuri turpethum L. 24. Kalanchoe Crassulaceae Boro pathorkuchi pinnata (Lam.) Pers. 25. Luffa Cucurbitaceae Zhinga acutangula (L.) Roxb. 26. Cucumis Cucurbitaceae Rakhal shosha sativus L. 27. Momordica Cucurbitaceae Korolla, Ucche charantia L. 28. Coccinea Cucurbitaceae Telakochu cordifolia (L.) Cogn. 29. Dioscorea Dioscoreaceae Chamar alu alata L. 30. Jatropha Euphorbiaceae Shet verenda, curcas L. Lal verenda 31. Macaranga Euphorbiaceae Palidha denticulata Muell.-Arg. 32. Croton Euphorbiaceae Donti polyandrum Roxb. 33. Phyllanthus Euphorbiaceae Dattri gach, Amloki emblica L. 34. Tragia Euphorbiaceae Bichuti involucrata L. 35. Mimosa Fabaceae Lojjaboti pudica L. lota 36. Mucuna Fabaceae Alkushi pruriens (L.) DC. 37. Tamarindus Fabaceae Tetul indicus L. 38. Cinnamomum Lauraceae Tamal potro tamala T.Nees & Eberm. 39 Cinnamomu m Lauraceae Daruchini zeylanicum Blume 40 Barringtonia Lecythidaceae Hizol acutangula (L.) Gaertn. 41 Asparagus Liliaceae Shotomuli racemosus L. 42 Azadirachta Meliaceae Neem indica AJuss. 43 Stephania Menispermaceae Atmandi, Akandi japonica (Thunb.) Miers 44 Tinospora Menispermaceae Guloncho, tomentosa Padmaguruj Miers 45 Ficus Moraceae Ashwattha religiosa L. 46 Streblus Moraceae Sheora asper Lour. 47 Artocarpus Moraceae Kathal heterophyllus Lam. 48 Morus alba Moraceae Bola dumur L. 49 Ficus Moraceae Udumbor, Jog dumur racemosa L. 50 Moringa Moringaceae Sojne data oleifera Lam. 51 Musa Musaceae Kola sapientum L. 52 Myristica Myristicaceae Jai fol fragrans Houtt. 53 Syzygium Myrtaceae Jaam cumini (L.) Skeels 54 Psidium Myrtaceae Piara guajava L. 55 Eugenia Myrtaceae Lobongo caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S.G.Harrison 56 Piper betel Piperaceae Paan L. 57 Piper Piperaceae Pipil peepuloides Roxb. 58 Drynaria Polypodiaceae Porgacha spaesisora (Desv.) T. Moore 59 Nigella Ranunculaceae Gol sativa L. morich 60 Zizyphus Rhamnaceae Bodori, mauritiana Boroi Lam. 61 Hedyotis Rubiaceae Khet papra corymbosa L. 62 Aegle Rutaceae Bel marmelos (L.) Corr. 63 Citrus Rutaceae Kagoji lebu acida Roxb. 64 Datura Solanaceae Duthra stramonium L. 65 Solanum Solanaceae Konthikari torvum Swartz 66 Vitex Verbenaceae Nishinda negundo L. 67 Nyctanthes Verbenaceae Sheuli arbor tristis L. 68 Curcuma Zingiberaceae Holud longa L. 69 Elettaria Zingiberaceae Boro Alaich cardamomu m (L.) Maton 70 Unidentified Unidentified Alta 71 Unidentified Unidentified Kumirer Data Serial Scientific Parts used Mode of Number Name Administration 1 Justicia Green leaf adhatoda L. Bark Stem 2 Ruellia Seed 12 Anna and 1 Iongifolia vori seeds with a L. C. small amount of Richard sugar is administered 1 Leaf time 4 Anna 1 time in the evening 3 Andragraphi Dried or fresh s paniculata leaves or the (Burm. f.) aerial portions of the plant Whole plant including root Dried aerial parts 4 Achyranthes Leaf Powder--2 anna aspera L. Fruit Stem Root 5 Amaranthus Root Root juice 1 Tola spinosus L. with sugar taken in the morning 1 time for 15 days 6 Amaranthus Whole plant Powder with 1/2 viridis Pall. glass of water is taken, 1/4 tola at morning 1 time Root Leaves Fresh or dried powder Leaf Sap 7. Annona Fruit Ripe Fruit squamosa L. 8. Trachysper Fruit Powder--4 anna mum ammi L. taken 2 times in morning and evening 9. Hemidesmus Root 1/2 tola taken in indicus (L.) the morning once R.Br. 10. Alstonia Bark Powder--4 anna scholaris taken 1 time in (L.) R.Br. the morning 11. Cocos Green fruit nucifera L. pulp Ripe Fruit 12. Areca Green Fruit catechu L. 13. Enydra Whole plant Taken as fluctuans (except root) vegetable Lour. 14. Averrhoa Fruit carambola L. 15. Oroxylum Bark, fruit indicum L. 16. Bombax Gum Powder--4 anna ceiba L. taken with water 17. Heliotropium Whole plant Powder taken with indicum L. except root water 2 times after meal Leaves and Infusion of the young shoots leaves and young shoots Flower Infusion of the flowers Leaves Decoction of the leaves Juice of the leaves Boiled with castor oil 18. Cannabis Leaf Paste from leaves sativa L. which has been heated Leaf, flower Leaves and flowers are boiled in milk and the milk discarded. 1 anna amount of what is left is taken with water once daily for 1 month 19. Carica Green Fruit papaya L. Ripened Fruit Gum 1/2 drop taken with banana 1 time in the morning 20. Terminalia Fruit Smashed fruit powder chebula with honey (1/4 Retz. tola) 2 times per day 21. Eclipta Leaf Raw juice--2 prostrata times daily or (L.) L. powder--4 anna 2 times daily 22. Ipomoea Tuber Juice obtained from mauritiana tuber is soaked in Jacq. powdered tubers for 7 days. The mixture is kept outside so that dew is collected in the mix. 1/2 tola is then taken with honey and ghee (clarified butter) for 1 month 23. Operculina Main root Powder--4 anna, turpethum L. taken orally 24. Kalanchoe Leaf Juice--8 anna, pinnata 2 times (Lam.) Pers. 25. Luffa Fruit Taken as acutangula vegetable (L.) Roxb. Leaves Pounded leaves Leaf juice 26. Cucumis Root Powder--4 anna sativus L. taken once in the morning 27. Momordica Fruit Juice taken 1 time charantia L. in morning (0 to 100 ml of fruit juice) on an empty stomach or taken as vegetable (the bitter taste is considered by the Kavirajes as one of the most healing tastes; a bitter substance can heal a lot of imbalances in the mind and body) Leaf juice rubbed Leaf One teaspoon leaf juice + few drops of honey, thrice daily 28. Coccinea Root, Leaf, Smashed with little cordifolia Tuberous root water, then the (L.) Cogn. paste is used Stem Juice Leaf Paste Whole plant Used orally 29. Dioscorea Tuber Dry powder alata L. (1/2 tola) + water 30. Jatropha Young leaf Powder--4 Anna + curcas L. 1 cup water 2 times Fruit Powder--2 Anna + 1 cup water 1 time Pulp within the stem 31. Macaranga Leaf Juice--1 anna + 1 denticulata cup water taken Muell.-Arg. 2 times on an empty stomach Bark Powder--2 anna + 1 cup water taken 2 times on an empty stomach 32. Croton Fruit Powder--1 anna polyandrum taken orally Roxb. Root Seed 33. Phyllanthus Fruit Juice taken with emblica L. 1/2 tola sugar 34. Tragia Leaf Dried and involucrata powdered, Fried, L. Juice 2 times per day (1/4 tola) Leaf juice Root Decoction of the root 35. Mimosa Leaf Juice--2 anna pudica L. taken orally 36. Mucuna Seed Powder (4 anna) pruriens + 1 cup water taken (L.) DC. in the evening 1 time on an empty stomach 37. Tamarindus Fruit Fruit juice (1/2 indicus L. cup) Leaves 50g of juice obtained from crushed leaves is mixed with 20g sugar and taken twice daily for 3 days 38. Cinnamomum Leaf Powder--2 anna tamala taken orally T.Nees & Eberm. 39 Cinnamomu m Inner bark, leaves zeylanicum and buds Blume Oil Bark 1 piece bark and 2 cups water are boiled for 2 minutes, and then mixed with 1-2 teaspoon honey. Kept for 20 minutes, then taken (1-2 cups) after 3-5 hours Bark taken with tea 40 Barringtonia Fruit pulp Powder + 1 cup acutangula water taken 2 (L.) Gaertn. times in the morning on an empty stomach and at night 1 hour before dinner Seed The seed is rubbed down on a stone with water and applied over the sternum, and if there is much dyspnea a few grains with or without the juice of fresh ginger is administered orally 41 Asparagus Root Powder--1/2 anna racemosus L. taken 2 times 42 Azadirachta Bark 2 Anna in 1/2 glass indica water taken in the AJuss. morning on an empty stomach 43 Stephania Leaf Powder (4 anna) japonica taken orally (Thunb.) Miers 44 Tinospora Whole plant Cut small pieces tomentosa and put in a glass Miers of water, soak overnight, after night in morning the water is drunk on an empty stomach 45 Ficus Bark Powder--4 anna, religiosa 1 time at night L. before dinner Powder + Honey Root bark Root Chewed Fruit Ripe Fruit Powdered Fruit Seed Leaf Leaf & young shoot 46 Streblus Seed, bark Powder--2 anna asper taken 1 time in Lour. the morning 47 Artocarpus Fruit Ripe Fruit heterophyllus Lam. 48 Morus alba Leaf Fruit Powder--1/4 tola L. Whole Plant twice daily 49 Ficus Fruit, seed Powder--1/4 tola 2 racemosa L. Seed powder times per day for 1 month 50 Moringa Fruit Taken as vegetable oleifera Lam. 51 Musa Inflorescence Taken as vegetable sapientum L. (locally known as Mocha) Gum 25g gum obtained from the tree is taken once daily for 30 days. 52 Myristica Fruit pulp 1-10 rati fragrans Houtt. 53 Syzygium Fruit Taken orally cumini (L.) Skeels Leaf + Seed Extract 54 Psidium Fruit Fruit taken orally guajava L. (green fruits are considered better and more nutritive than ripe fruits) Leaves 100g juice obtained from crushed leaves is taken twice daily 55 Eugenia Oil, dried Extracted oil caryophyllus flower buds (Spreng.) Bullock & S.G.Harrison Flower bud powder 56 Piper betel Leaf Leaves are taken L. orally with tobacco and powdered leaves of Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae) 57 Piper Fresh and Extracted oil peepuloides dried leaves Roxb. Leaf Paste 10-30 ml juice with honey, twice a day 10-30ml juice with milk Fresh leaf juice Liquid extract of the leaves, in doses of 10 to 30 minims (1/480 of a fluid ounce) with ginger juice Chewed leaves Chewed leaves at frequent interval Oil coated hot leaves Essential oil extracted from the leaves 58 Drynaria Root Juice spaesisora (Desv.) Rhizome Extract T. Moore 59 Nigella Seeds 50g of seed sativa L. powder is taken daily till cure 60 Zizyphus Seed pulp Pulp from two mauritiana seeds are Lam. crushed with a carbohydrate item like starch or rice and taken orally Leaf Chewed orally 61 Hedyotis Whole plant 4 anna dry corymbosa L. powdered whole plant is taken in the evening on an empty stomach 62 Aegle Ripe Fruit Blended with water marmelos and taken orally (L.) Corr. 63 Citrus Fruit Fruit juice--7 to acida Roxb. 10 drops taken 2 times per day for 2-3 days 64 Datura Leaf Juice boiled with stramonium honey and rubbed L. Leaves, seeds 100g of leaf and seed paste is mixed with 50g of mustard oil and massaged on the chest thrice daily for 3 days Root 30g powdered dried root is mixed with 50g water and taken daily for 5 days Burned ripe Taken with oil fruit 65 Solanum Bark Bark of Solanum torvum torvum is mixed Swartz with bark of Justicia adhatoda (1:1, 1 tola each) and then mixed with 8 tolas water and boiled till volume has been reduced by half, which is then taken orally 66 Vitex Leaf Powder--2 anna + negundo L. 1 cup water, orally taken 2 times 67 Nyctanthes Leaf arbor tristis L. 68 Curcuma Rhizome longa L. 69 Elettaria Fruit pulp Powder--2 Anna cardamomu m (L.) Maton 70 Unidentified Leaves Powder--4 anna, 2 times orally administered 71 Unidentified Top of stem Powdered top of stems are taken with mishri (crystalline sugar) and a little milk in the evening daily Serial Scientific Disease & Number Name Symptoms 1 Justicia Flatulency, low sperm count, sperm adhatoda L. incapable of being fertilized, astringent, bitter, to increase flow of bile, biliary problems like bile turning the color of blood, gastrointestinal propulsion inhibitor (i.e. during diarrhea or dysentery), tuberculosis, coughs, fever. Eczema, Leprosy. Asthma. 2 Ruellia Decreased sperm count. Iongifolia L. C. Richard 3 Andragraphi Prophylaxis and symptomatic treatment s paniculata of upper respiratory infections (e.g. (Burm. f.) common cold, uncomplicated sinusitis, pharyngotonsillitis), lower urinary tract infections and acute diarrhea. Treatment of bacillary dysentery, bronchitis, carbuncles, colitis, cough, dyspepsia, fever, hepatitis, malaria, mouth ulcers, sores, tuberculosis and venomous snake bites. Treatment of colic, otitis media (middle ear infection), vaginitis (inflammation of the vagina), pelvic inflammatory disease, chickenpox, eczema and burns. 4 Achyranthes Bitter (this taste is considered by the aspera L. Kavirajes as one of the most healing tastes; a bitter substance can heal a lot of imbalances in the mind and body; it has a cooling effect, which can be useful in fever; it quenches thirst, it is used for fainting, itching, and burning sensations in the body; it promotes digestion and can act as blood purifier), to increase appetite, piles, respiratory tract disorders, pain, gastrointestinal tract disorders. Increase sperm. Vomiting tendency, cough, obesity. Jaundice. 5 Amaranthus Leucorrhea. spinosus L. 6 Amaranthus The whole plant is used to purify the viridis Pall. blood, increase urine & stool, increase appetite, coughs, and gall bladder problems. The pounded root is applied against dysentery. The leaves are diuretic and purgative, and are used in poultices to treat inflammations, boils and abscesses, gonorrhea, orchitis, and hemorrhoids. Used as an "eye wash" to treat eye infections and for treating convulsions and epilepsy in children. 7. Annona Thirst, anti-emetic, nausea, squamosa L. rheumatism, biliary problems. 8. Trachysper Gastrointestinal disorders, debility, low mum ammi L. sperm count, premature ejaculation. 9. Hemidesmus To increase sperm, tri-dosh nashok indicus (L.) (alleviation or prevention of R.Br. respiratory, gastric and hepatic problems), to induce sweat, diuretic, to increase strength, acidity, loss of appetite, all types of skin diseases, skin allergy, antidote to mercury poisoning, acute gout, rheumatoid arthritis. 10. Alstonia Acne, cough, flatulence, blood scholaris disorder, anti-infective, asthmatic (L.) R.Br. problem, abdominal tumor, chronic enlargement of spleen, helminthiasis. 11. Cocos Biliary problem, burning sensations nucifera L. from dehydration. Hematemesis, hyperacidity. 12. Areca Appetizer, hyperacidity oriented catechu L. burning sensation, stomach and gastrointestinal tract disorders, tri-dosh nashok (see above), anemia. Side effects: May cause dizziness due to increased blood circulation in brain (i.e. acts as a cerebrovascular dilator), blurred vision. 13. Enydra Constipation, bitter, astringent (having fluctuans the property of causing contraction of Lour. soft organic tissues), leprosy, biliary disorders. 14. Averrhoa Sperm incapable of being fertilized, carambola L. constipation, coughs, flatulency. 15. Oroxylum Respiratory and biliary problems, indicum L. coughs (bark), rheumatism, coughs, restless feeling, constipation, to stimulate appetite, helminthiasis, piles (fruit). 16. Bombax Diarrhea, indigestion, burning ceiba L. sensations due to dehydration. 17. Heliotropium Foul smelling ejaculation before due time, indicum L. typhoid. Used to treat nettle rash. Small doses regulate menstruation, but large doses are abortive. Used as a vermifuge. Antiseptic and anti-inflammatory and applied to wounds, sores, boils, gum- boils and pimples on the face. Applied to scorpion bites. It is also employed locally in ophthalmia, when the cornea is inflamed or excoriated. 18. Cannabis Bitter, increases bile secretion, sativa L. hallucinogenic, sex stimulant, induce sleep, induce pleasant sensations, excessive menstruation, urination problems. Rabies. 19. Carica Hematemesis. papaya L. Piles. Liver, spleen and hepatic impairment, constipation. 20. Terminalia Piles, asthmatic problems, coughs, fever. chebula Retz. 21. Eclipta To increase eyesight, blood purifier, prostrata increase strength of hair. (L.) L. 22. Ipomoea Nutritive, improves voice, diuretic, to mauritiana increase strength, sexual stimulant, to Jacq. increase sperm count and lactation, to treat skin assuming a different color as in jaundice, to increase vitality, biliary disorders, blood purifier, burning sensations in the body. 23. Operculina Constipation, helminthiasis, coughs, turpethum L. biliary disorders, indigestion, hypertension, dysentery, diarrhea, dyspepsia, jaundice. 24. Kalanchoe Alleviation or prevention of pinnata respiratory, stomach and hepatic (Lam.) Pers. problems, piles, swelling or tumor, burning sensations during urination, kidney or gall bladder stones, spleen disorders, urinary problems arising from endocrinological disorders like diabetes, vaginal diseases, urinary disorder, vaginitis, insufficient sperm count. 25. Luffa Asthma, coughs, helminthiasis. acutangula (L.) Roxb. Pounded leaves used for hemorrhoids, splenitis, and leprosy. Juice of leaves used for conjunctivitis in children. 26. Cucumis Jaundice, biliary disorders, coughs, sativus L. spleen disorders, respiratory problems, mucus, leprosy, acne, diabetes, tumor or swelling, mucus in stool, antidote to poison, goiter, acne. 27. Momordica Fever, biliary troubles, helminthiasis, charantia L. coughs, acute gout, hyperacidity, to increase digestion. On the affected parts for treatment of ringworm. For coughs, congestion and chest pain in children. 28. Coccinea Skin disease, tumors, headache, cordifolia pseudo-tumors, diabetes, jaundice. (L.) Cogn. Dripped into the eyes to treat cataracts. Useful as a poultice in treating skin eruptions. Laxative and used in the treatment of gonorrhea. 29. Dioscorea Biliary and blood siorders, burning alata L. sensations from dehydration, to give energy, to increase sperm count, sperm incapable of being fertilized, to improve voice, diuretic, flatulency. 30. Jatropha Gout, rheumatism, abdominal pain, curcas L. respiratory problems, edema, obesity, uterine cyst, gall bladder problems, flatulency and other gastrointestinal tract disorders. Premature ejaculation, to increase digestion, piles, flatulence, liver and spleen problems, lesions, ring worm. Purgative, laxative. 31. Macaranga Biliary disorder, otitis media, denticulata helminthiasis. Muell.-Arg. Flatulence, coughs, edema, obesity. 32. Croton Laxative, diuretic, edema, coughs. polyandrum Roxb. 33. Phyllanthus Vaginitis and burning sensations. emblica L. 34. Tragia Mouth rinse, to increase appetite and involucrata digestion, hemoptysis, hematemesis, L. coughs, asthmatic problems, indigestion, dyspepsia, fever. Jaundice. Roots are diaphoretic, alterative, diuretic and blood purifier. They are valued in febricula and in itching of the skin, also for pains in legs and arms. Roots are also used in old venereal complaints and externally in enlarged spleen; decoction of the root is useful in relieving bronchitis and attendant fever. 35. Mimosa Impotency, aphrodisiac, coughs, gall pudica L. bladder problems, vaginitis. 36. Mucuna Coughs, gall bladder problems, blood pruriens disorders, anti-infective, to increase (L.) DC. sperm, stimulant. 37. Tamarindus Increase digestion, premature indicus L. ejaculation, coughs, flatulence, hypertension. Coughs. 38. Cinnamomum Excessive sexual desire, Coughs, tamala flatulence, piles, bloating, loss of T.Nees appetite, sexual disorder & Eberm. 39 Cinnamomu m Stimulant, anti-microbial, anti-fungal, zeylanicum anti-coagulant, stimulates the digestive Blume system and reduces cholesterol and blood sugar levels. Used in external applications for rheumatism, aching joints and stiffness. It is also used for toothache and sore gums and has anti-coagulant properties. As a decongestant for respiratory tract and urinary problems. It is a good addition to teas for coughs and colds and is sometimes used in steam inhalations for respiratory conditions. 40 Barringtonia Pain reliever. acutangula (L.) Gaertn. When children suffer from a cold in the chest, and fail to expel accumulated mucus. 41 Asparagus Asthma during winter, bitter taste in racemosus L. mouth, nutritive, to increase intelligence, to maintain good eyes, to increase sperm, to increase lactation, to increase strength, diarrhea, hyperacidity. 42 Azadirachta Pimple, tiredness, coughs, vomiting, indica helminthiasis, gall bladder problems, AJuss. pain, dyspepsia, leprosy, acne, gleet (inflammation of the urethra characterized by a mucopurulent discharge), gonorrhea, diabetes. 43 Stephania Bitter, respiratory problems, coughs, japonica fever, vomiting tendency, diarrhea, (Thunb.) burning sensations in body, tumor, Miers acne, helminthiasis, piles, leprosy, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. 44 Tinospora Bitter (this taste is considered by the tomentosa Kavirajes as one of the most healing Miers tastes; a bitter substance can heal a lot of imbalances in the mind and body; it quenches thirst; it promotes digestion and can act as a blood purifier), protect from allergic attack. 45 Ficus Blood disorder, biliary problems. religiosa The bark is cooling and astringent, and L. is useful in inflammations and glandular swellings of neck. An infusion or decoction of the bark is used with some honey for the treatment of gonorrhea, ulcers, skin diseases and scabies. Bark powder is also used to heal wounds.. Root bark is good for stomatitis, ulcers and it is astringent and used in leucorrhoea. Root bark is aphrodisiac and also good for lumbago. Roots are good for gout. The roots are chewed to prevent gum disease. The fruit is laxative, promotes digestion, aphrodisiac and checks vomiting. Ripe fruits are alexipharmic (an antidote or defensive remedy against poison, venom or infection), are good for foul taste, thirst and heart disease. Taken for asthma. The seeds are cooling, and also used as laxative. Seeds are useful in urinary troubles. The leaves alone are used to treat constipation. The leaves and young shoots together are purgative (strong laxative). 46 Streblus Blood purifier, gall bladder problems, asper piles, flatulency, coughs, diarrhea. Lour. 47 Artocarpus To increase strength, to increase sperm heterophyllus count, hematemesis, lesions, acne. Lam. 48 Morus alba To increase sperm count, to increase L. strength, edema, coughs and other respiratory tract infections, biliary disorders, astringent, fever, tumor or swelling without pain, piles, insanity, antidote to poisoning. 49 Ficus To induce urination, to increase racemosa L. strength, gonorrhea, urethritis, to increase sexual desire, roughness of skin, biliary disorders, coughs, blood purifier, change of color of skin as in jaundice, acne, astringent. 50 Moringa To stimulate appetite, roughness of oleifera skin, pain, Lam. to increase sperm, acne, helminthiasis, obesity, coughs, restless feeling, bloating, swelling due to injury, formation of blood clots on skin, goiter, good for eyes, headache. 51 Musa To cure 80 types of gas formation in sapientum L. the stomach, indigestion, hematemesis. Piles. 52 Myristica Carminative, stomach problems, nausea fragrans and vomiting, flatulence, depression, Houtt. constipation, foul smell of feces, melena (black tarry feces indicative of gastrointestinal hemorrhage), helminthiasis, coughs, vomiting, edema. hypertension. 53 Syzygium Coughs, burning sensations in the cumini body, gall bladder problems, anemia, (L.) Skeels anti-infective. Abdominal disorders. 54 Psidium To increase strength, sperm count, and guajava L. appetite, fever, nutritive. Piles. 55 Eugenia Stimulating, carminative, antibacterial, caryophyllus antiviral, fungicidal, parasiticidal, (Spreng.) general stimulant, nerve tonic, uterine Bullock tonic, cutaneous purifier. & S.G.Harrison Dental infection, sinusitis, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, languid indigestion, and dyspepsia. 56 Piper betel To increase memory, premature ejaculation. L. 57 Piper The essential oil gives rise to a peepuloides sensation of warmth and well-being in Roxb. the mouth and stomach. It also produces a primary stimulation of the central nervous system followed by improved starch digestion Used as antiseptic, astringent, aphrodisiac, mildly stimulant, expectorant, exhilarant and sialogogue. Given to children in colic, indigestion, diarrhea, fever and laryngitis. In hysteria the mixture is orally administered. Immature worms are thrown out with frequent oral administration of leaf juice. Juice is used as eye drops in ophthalmia, and other painful eye diseases and night blindness. As a pectoral the juice is given with the juice of fresh ginger; is administered to children in catarrhal inflammation of the throat, larynx and bronchi, cough, difficult respiration and indigestion. The leaves are chewed to sweeten the breath, to remove foul odor from the mouth and to improve the voice. The leaves are chewed at frequent intervals by patients suffering from hookworms. Applied in layers as a rubefacient over the chest, especially of a child, in labored breathing, cough, pulmonary affections and bronchitis; over the liver when it is congested; over the abdomen in colic and flatulence; and over mammary glands to resolve glandular swellings and to suppress the secretion of milk in case of mammary abscesses; they are also locally used in orchitis and ovaritis; they are a useful dressing for blistered surfaces and ulcers; they are an excellent substitute for oiled skin and gutta-percha tissue; they are used as a pessary in constipation or tympanites of children. Is given in catarrhal and pulmonary disease. One drop of the oil is given in 100 grams of water to be used in antiseptic gurgle during diphtheria. The oil, in dose of 30 to 90 minims, given orally serves as a weak anthelmintic for hookworms. 58 Drynaria Used as an eye drop, to treat diarrhea spaesisora and gonorrhea (Desv.) Used extensively for joining of broken T. Moore bones 59 Nigella Rabies, toothache, blood dysentery. sativa L. 60 Zizyphus Anti-emetic. mauritiana Lam. Headache. 61 Hedyotis Hematemesis, frequent thirsts, coughs, corymbosa L. burning sensations, sperm incapable of being fertilized, flatulency. 62 Aegle Tri-dosh nashok, to increase digestive marmelos capability, flatulence, coughs, to keep (L.) Corr. body cool, to clear stool. 63 Citrus Helminthiasis, abdominal discomfort, acida Roxb. to increase appetite, flatulence, coughs, piles. 64 Datura Pain, burning sensations in the body. stramonium L. Remedy for cough. For mumps. Hyperacidity, fever, flatulence, mucus with stool, dysentery. 65 Solanum Hiccups, vomiting, respiratory distress. torvum Swartz 66 Vitex Piles, helminthiasis, edema, premature negundo L. ejaculation, astringent, to increase memory, to improve eyesight, biliary disorders, bloating, rheumatism, spleen disorders, throat infections, loss of appetite, fever, obesity. 67 Nyctanthes Bitter, tuberculosis, rheumatism, fever. arbor tristis L. 68 Curcuma To improve skin color, to control longa L. excessive sexual desire, rheumatism, leprosy, diabetes, edema. 69 Elettaria Coughs, blood disorders, anti-infective, cardamomu abnormal palpitation of heart, m (L.) Maton poisonous bites, rheumatism, stomatitis, gum disorders, vomiting, respiratory distress. 70 Unidentified Anti-bilious, to increase digestion, lack of semen, premature ejaculation, fever, respiratory distress, helminthiasis. 71 Unidentified Sex stimulant. 1 Vori = 1 tola = 11.66g; 5 tolas = 1 anna; 6 ratis = 1 anna.
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|Title Annotation:||Original Article|
|Author:||Walid, Rezwan; Suvro, Kazi Faisal Ahmed; Harun-or-Rashid, Md.; Mukti, Mohsina; Rahman, Shahnaz; Rahm|
|Publication:||American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2013|
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