Printer Friendly

Ethnomedicinal plants of folk medicinal practitioners of two villages in Bagerhat district of Bangladesh.

Introduction

Bangladesh is well known for its folk medicinal practices and folk medicinal practitioners, who are generally known as Kavirajes. Kavirajes practice in virtually every village of the 86,000 villages of the country, as well as in small towns and cities and have been known to practice for hundreds of years. Folk medicinal practice is traditionally a family-oriented practice, and any knowledge gained by a Kaviraj is transmitted from generation to generation, where successive generations build up on the knowledge base through personal experiences and experiments. Though in recent years, the rural population is also turning to allopathic doctors for their medical treatments, due to lack of modern clinics, allopathic doctors and due to poor transportation infrastructure, the villagers still rely on Kavirajes for their primary health-care. There are other traditional forms of medicine in the country among which are Ayurveda, Unani, and homeopathy. The popularity of the Kavirajes is based mainly on two factors; first, the Kavirajes use a simple form of treatment with essentially medicinal plants forming the chief ingredient, and secondly, because of the ready availability of the Kavirajes and medicinal ingredients as well as the affordability of visits and treatments.

The number of floral species in Bangladesh has been estimated to be above 5,000 and many of these species are used in folk medicine. However, there had been insufficient documentation on the practices of the Kavirajes, the nature and number of medicinal plants used, and the selection of plants for treatment of any given disease. Such documentation is important for a variety of factors. Traditional medicinal knowledge has consistently proved to be important for the discovery of many important and effective allopathic drugs (Balick and Cox, 1996; Cotton, 1996; Gilani and Rahman, 2005); many diseases cannot be cured with allopathic drugs but are claimed to be cured by Kavirajes with their medicinal plant formulations; and many synthetic allopathic drugs are becoming unpopular because of their adverse side-effects or because of emergence of drug-resistant vectors. Towards a proper documentation of the folk medicinal practices of Bangladesh, we had been systematically conducting ethnomedicinal surveys for the last few years among the Kavirajes of the country, as well as tribal medicinal practitioners, whose medical practices resemble the Kavirajes in the use of medicinal plants as the primary ingredient in medicinal formulations (Nawaz et al., 2009; Rahmatullah et al., 2009a-c; Chowdhury et al., 2010; Hasan et al., 2010; Hossan et al, 2010; Mollik et al, 2010a,b; Rahmatullah et al, 2010a-g; Akber et al., 2011; Biswas et al., 2011a-c; Haque et al., 2011; Islam et al., 2011; Jahan et al., 2011; Rahmatullah et al., 2011a,b; Sarker et al., 2011; Shaheen et al., 2011; Das et al., 2012; Hasan et al., 2012; Hossan et al., 2012; Khan et al., 2012; Rahmatullah et al., 2012a-d; Sarker et al., 2012). However, to obtain a complete understanding of folk medicinal practices, there is still a necessity for more ethnomedicinal surveys involving more Kavirajes from different parts of the country.

Towards that objective, the present survey was conducted among the Kavirajes of two villages in Bangladessh, namely Shat-tola Bazaar and Talbari, which lies in Bagerhat district in the south-western part of the country.

Materials and Methods

The present survey was carried out among the three Kavirajes practicing in Shat-tola Bazaar and Talbari village in Bagerhat district of Bangladesh. The two villages had three Kavirajes, namely Kali Babu Debnath (age 43 years), Polash Chandan Das (age 50 years), and Abdul jalil Shaekh (age 30 years). Informed consent was initially obtained from the Kavirajes. The Kavirajes were fully apprised as to the nature of our visit and consent obtained to disseminate their names and any obtained information both nationally as well as internationally. Interviews were conducted in Bengali, which was spoken both by the interviewers and the Kavirajes. Actual surveys were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, the Kavirajes took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where they collected their medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. Plant specimens were photographed and collected on the spot, pressed and air-dried, and brought back to the Bangladesh National Herbarium at Dhaka for complete identification.

Results and Discussion

It was observed that the Kavirajes used a total of 71 medicinal plants for treatment of a diverse variety of ailments. Two of the plants could not be identified. The rest 69 plants were distributed into 40 families. Plant parts were mostly used for treatment versus whole plants, and it was observed that different plant parts from the same plant were used for treatment of different diseases. The plant parts used included leaves, roots, stems, barks, tubers, rhizomes, flowers, fruits, seeds, and exudates (sap) from a plant. The results are shown in Table 1.

An interesting feature of the Kavirajes was that, in most cases, the same plant or parts from the same plant was used for treatment of a wide variety of diseases. To cite just two instances, the green leaves of Justicia adhatoda were used for treatment of flatulency, low sperm count, sperm incapable of being fertilized, astringent, bitter, to increase flow of bile, biliary problems like bile turning the color of blood, gastrointestinal propulsion inhibitor (i.e. during diarrhea or dysentery), tuberculosis, coughs, and fever. The bark of the same plant was used for treatment of eczema and leprosy, while the stems from the plant were used for the treatment of asthma. The dried or fresh leaves or aerial parts of the plant, Andrographis paniculata, were used as prophylaxis and symptomatic treatment of upper respiratory infections (e.g. common cold, uncomplicated sinusitis, pharyngotonsillitis), lower urinary tract infections and acute diarrhea, while whole plants inclusive of roots were used for the treatment of bacillary dysentery, bronchitis, carbuncles, colitis, cough, dyspepsia, fever, hepatitis, malaria, mouth ulcers, sores, tuberculosis and venomous snake bites; the dried aerial parts of the same plant was used for treatment of colic, otitis media (middle ear infection), vaginitis (inflammation of the vagina), pelvic inflammatory disease, chickenpox, eczema and burns. It can be easily observed from Table 1 that taken together, the three Kavirajes interviewed possessed considerable knowledge on the medicinal properties of not only the whole plant, but also separate plant parts as well.

All plants produce hundreds if not thousands of secondary metabolites or phytochemicals, many of which have relevant pharmacological activities, and which activities can be used for obtaining relief or cure from many diseases. For instance, the plant Justicia adhatoda is known to contain alkaloids with positive effects on inflammatory diseases (Chakraborty and Brantner, 2001); extract of the plant also has been shown to have antitussive effect (Dhuley, 1999), and a bronchodilator alkaloid (vasicinone) has been isolated from the plant (Amin and Mehta, 1959). Notably, the Kavirajes in the present study used the plant for treatment of coughs and asthma. The phytochemical constituents of a plant may differ and usually differs between the various parts of the plant, although plant parts may contain also the same phytochemical. Since different phytochemicals in different parts of the plant have or may have different bio-activities, any given plant part may be relevant for treatment of one disease, while another part from the same plant may prove relevant for treatment of another disease. Obviously, the Kavirajes in the present survey did not know of phytochemicals, and less so of the identity and properties of phytochemicals present in various parts of a plant. However, as can be seen from Table 1, they were quite cognizant of the different disease-healing effects of different parts of the same plant and used that knowledge in their various treatments.

The Kavirajes claimed that this knowledge of the healing properties of various parts of any given plant have been transmitted through generations and also added upon through experimentation. According to them, initial experiments are conducted with animals prior to trying it on human beings. But other factors are involved in this process; in our other ethnomedicinal surveys, some Kavirajes claimed that they obtained knowledge of any particular plant through dreams; yet others claimed that they based their treatments on some recognizable similarities between the plant and the disease. For instance, the red flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis are used by some Kavirajes in some parts of the country for treatment of excessive bleeding during menstruation. Here, apparently is an instance of trying to make up for the blood (which has a red color) loss through administration of red-colored flowers. While some might think of this type of treatment to be without any scientific basis, yet surprisingly, many treatments offered by the Kavirajes have been validated by science (see for instance the treatment of coughs and asthma with Justicia adhatoda, Table 1 and also above). In a number of our previously published papers, we have also commented and shown that quite a number of treatments offered by Kavirajes have been validated by relevant modern scientific studies.

A surprising feature of the Kavirajes in the present survey was that they appeared to use any given plant or plant part for a diverse number of diseases. In most of our ethnomedicinal surveys with Kavirajes or tribal healers, usually a given plant or plant part was used for treatment of a single disease. In the present case, however, it was noted that the Kavirajes denoted many plants as bitter or astringent. These are particular properties which have similarities with Ayurveda, and these properties supposedly give a plant healing powers over various diseases (see Table 1 for more details). Also, although not all formulations were given by the Kavirajes involving the 71 plants used, where such formulations were given, the dosages were also given, and these dosages were very precise. Overall, it can be said that the Kavirajes involved knew what they were doing and possessed considerable knowledge on the treatment of various diseases with medicinal plants. This is also borne out when it is considered that the Kavirajes between themselves treated quite a large number of diseases.

Some of the diseases treated, like diabetes or rheumatism do not have cures in allopathic medicine. As such, the plants used by the Kavirajes for treatment of these two diseases, merit scientific investigations towards discovery of possible new drugs to combat these diseases, which afflict millions of people throughout the world. The other plants used by the Kavirajes also deserve proper scientific studies. Any validation of their folk medicinal uses can not only result in possible discovery of newer, cheaper and more effective drugs, but also spur conservation efforts on these medicinal plants.

References

Akber, M., S. Seraj, F. Islam, D. Ferdausi, R. Ahmed, D. Nasrin, N. Nahar, S. Ahsan, F. Jamal and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. A survey of medicinal plants used by the traditional medicinal practitioners of Khulna City, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 177-195.

Amin, A.H., and D.R. Mehta, 1959. A bronchodilator alkaloid (vasicinone) from Adhatoda vasica Nees. Nature, 184 (Suppl 17): 1317.

Balick J.M., and P.A. Cox, 1996. Plants, People and Culture: the Science of Ethnobotany, Scientific American Library, New York, pp: 228.

Biswas, K.R., T. Ishika, M. Rahman, A. Swarna, T. Khan, M.N. Monalisa and M. Rahmatullah, 2011a. Antidiabetic plants and formulations used by folk medicinal practitioners of two villages in Narail and Chuadanga districts, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 158-167.

Biswas, A., W.M. Haq, M. Akber, D. Ferdausi, S. Seraj, F.I. Jahan, A.R. Chowdhury and M. Rahmatullah, 2011b. A survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages of Gaurnadi Upazila in Barisal district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 15-22.

Biswas, K.R., T. Khan, M.N. Monalisa, A. Swarna, T. Ishika, M. Rahman and M. Rahmatullah, 2011c. Medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of four adjoining villages of Narail and Jessore districts, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 23-33.

Chakraborty, A., and A.H. Brantner, 2001. Study of alkaloids from Adhatoda vasica Nees on their antiinflammatory activity. Phytotherapy Research, 15: 532-534.

Chowdhury, A.R., F.I. Jahan, S. Seraj, Z. Khatun, F. Jamal, S. Ahsan, R. Jahan, I. Ahmad, M.H. Chowdhury and M. Rahmatullah, 2010. A survey of medicinal plants used by Kavirajes of Barisal town in Barisal district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 237-246.

Cotton, C.M., 1996. Ethnobotany: Principle and Application, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp: 399. Das, P.R., M.T. Islam, A.S.M.S.B. Mahmud, M.H. Kabir, M.E. Hasan, Z. Khatun, M.M. Rahman, M.

Nurunnabi, Z. Khatun, Y.-K. Lee, R. Jahan, and M. Rahmatullah, 2012. An ethnomedicinal survey conducted among the folk medicinal practitioners of three villages in Kurigram district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6: 85-96.

Dhuley, J.N., 1999. Antitussive effect of Adhatoda vasica extract on mechanical or chemical stimulation-induced coughing in animals. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 67: 361-365.

Gilani, A.H., and A.U. Rahman, 2005. Trends in ethnopharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 100: 43-49.

Haque, M.A., M.K. Shaha, S.U. Ahmed, R. Akter, H. Rahman, S. Chakravotry, A.H.M.N. Imran, M.T. Islam, R.C. Das and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. Use of inorganic substances in folk medicinal formulations: a case study of a folk medicinal practitioner in Tangail district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 415-423.

Hasan, M.M., M.E.A. Annay, M. Sintaha, H.N. Khaleque, F.A. Noor, A. Nahar, S. Seraj, R. Jahan, M.H. Chowdhury and M. Rahmatullah, 2010. A survey of medicinal plant usage by folk medicinal practitioners in seven villages of Ishwardi Upazilla, Pabna district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 326-333.

Hasan, M.E., S. Akter, N.S. Piya, P.K. Nath, U.S.R. Nova, H.R. Chowdhury, N.F. Anjoom, Z. Khatun and M. Rahmatullah, 2012. Variations in selection of medicinal plants by tribal healers of the Soren clan of the Santal tribe: a study of the Santals in Rajshahi district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6: 315-324.

Hossan, M.S., A. Hanif, B. Agarwala, M.S. Sarwar, M. Karim, M.T. Rahman, R. Jahan and M. Rahmatullah, 2010. Traditional use of medicinal plants in Bangladesh to treat urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases. Ethnobotany Research and Applications, 8: 61-74.

Hossan, M.S., P. Roy, S. Seraj, S.M. Mou, M.N. Monalisa, S. Jahan, T. Khan, A. Swarna, R. Jahan and M. Rahmatullah, 2012. Ethnomedicinal knowledge among the Tongchongya tribal community of Roangchaari Upazila of Bandarban district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6: 349-359.

Islam, F., F.I. Jahan, S. Seraj, I. Malek, A.F.M.N. Sadat, M.S.A. Bhuiyan, A. Swarna, S. Sanam and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. Variations in diseases and medicinal plant selection among folk medicinal practitioners: a case study in Jessore district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 282-291.

Jahan, F.I., M.R.U. Hasan, R. Jahan, S. Seraj, A.R. Chowdhury, M.T. Islam, Z. Khatun and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. A Comparison of Medicinal Plant Usage by Folk Medicinal Practitioners of two Adjoining Villages in Lalmonirhat district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 46-66.

Khan, M.A., M.N. Hasan, N. Jahan, P.R. Das, M.T. Islam, M.S.A. Bhuiyan, S. Jahan, S. Hossain and M. Rahmatullah, 2012. Ethnomedicinal wisdom and famine food plants of the Hajong community of Baromari village in Netrakona district of Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6: 387-397.

Martin, G.J., 1995. Ethnobotany: a 'People and Plants' Conservation Manual, Chapman and Hall, London, pp: 268.

Maundu, P., 1995. Methodology for collecting and sharing indigenous knowledge: a case study. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor, 3: 3-5.

Mollik, M.A.H., M.S. Hossan, A.K. Paul, M.T. Rahman, R. Jahan and M. Rahmatullah, 2010a. A comparative analysis of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal healers in three districts of Bangladesh and inquiry as to mode of selection of medicinal plants. Ethnobotany Research and Applications, 8: 195-218.

Mollik, M.A.H., A.I. Hassan, T.K. Paul, M. Sintaha, H.N. Khaleque, F.A. Noor, A. Nahar, S. Seraj, R. Jahan, M.H. Chowdhury and M. Rahmatullah, 2010b. A survey of medicinal plant usage by folk medicinal practitioners in two villages by the Rupsha River in Bagerhat district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 349-356.

Nawaz, A.H.M.M., M. Hossain, M. Karim, M. Khan, R. Jahan and M. Rahmatullah, 2009. An ethnobotanical survey of Rajshahi district in Rajshahi division, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 143-150.

Rahmatullah, M., D. Ferdausi, M.A.H. Mollik, M.N.K. Azam, M.T. Rahman and R. Jahan, 2009a. Ethnomedicinal Survey of Bheramara Area in Kushtia District, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 534-541.

Rahmatullah, M., A. Noman, M.S. Hossan, M.H. Rashid, T. Rahman, M.H. Chowdhury and R. Jahan, 2009b. A survey of medicinal plants in two areas of Dinajpur district, Bangladesh including plants which can be used as functional foods. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 862-876.

Rahmatullah, M., A.K. Das, M.A.H. Mollik, R. Jahan, M. Khan, T. Rahman and M.H. Chowdhury, 2009c. An Ethnomedicinal Survey of Dhamrai Sub-district in Dhaka District, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 881-888.

Rahmatullah, M., D. Ferdausi, M.A.H. Mollik, R. Jahan, M.H. Chowdhury and W.M. Haque, 2010a. A Survey of Medicinal Plants used by Kavirajes of Chalna area, Khulna District, Bangladesh. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 7: 91-97.

Rahmatullah, M., M.A. Khatun, N. Morshed, P.K. Neogi, S.U.A. Khan, M.S. Hossan, M.J. Mahal and R. Jahan, 2010b. A randomized survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal healers of Sylhet Division, Bangladesh. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4: 52-62.

Rahmatullah, M., A.A.B.T. Kabir, M.M. Rahman, M.S. Hossan, Z. Khatun, M.A. Khatun and R. Jahan, 2010c. Ethnomedicinal practices among a minority group of Christians residing in Mirzapur village of Dinajpur District, Bangladesh. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4: 45-51.

Rahmatullah, M., M.A. Momen, M.M. Rahman, D. Nasrin, M.S. Hossain, Z. Khatun, F.I. Jahan, M.A. Khatun and R. Jahan, 2010d. A randomized survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners in Daudkandi sub-district of Comilla district, Bangladesh. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4: 99-104.

Rahmatullah, M., M.A.H. Mollik, M.N. Ahmed, M.Z.A. Bhuiyan, M.M. Hossain, M.N.K. Azam, S. Seraj, M.H. Chowdhury, F. Jamal, S. Ahsan and R. Jahan, 2010e. A survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners in two villages of Tangail district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 357-362.

Rahmatullah, M., M.A.H. Mollik, M.K. Islam, M.R. Islam, F.I. Jahan, Z. Khatun, S. Seraj, M.H. Chowdhury, F. Islam, Z.U.M. Miajee and R. Jahan, 2010f. A survey of medicinal and functional food plants used by the folk medicinal practitioners of three villages in Sreepur Upazilla, Magura district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 363-373.

Rahmatullah, M., R. Jahan, M.A. Khatun, F.I. Jahan, A.K. Azad, A.B.M. Bashar, Z.U.M. Miajee, S. Ahsan, N. Nahar, I. Ahmad and M.H. Chowdhury, 2010g. A pharmacological evaluation of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of Station Purbo Para Village of Jamalpur Sadar Upazila in Jamalpur district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4: 170-195.

Rahmatullah, M., T. Ishika, M. Rahman, A. Swarna, T. Khan M.N., Monalisa, S. Seraj, S.M. Mou, M.J. Mahal and K.R. Biswas, 2011a. Plants prescribed for both preventive and therapeutic purposes by the traditional healers of the Bede community residing by the Turag River, Dhaka district. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 325-331.

Rahmatullah, M., M.N.K. Azam, M.M. Rahman, S. Seraj, M.J. Mahal, S.M. Mou, D. Nasrin, Z. Khatun, F. Islam and M.H. Chowdhury, 2011b. A survey of medicinal plants used by Garo and non-Garo traditional medicinal practitioners in two villages of Tangail district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 350-357.

Rahmatullah, M., and K.R. Biswas, 2012a. Traditional medicinal practices of a Sardar healer of the Sardar (Dhangor) community of Bangladesh. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 18: 10-19.

Rahmatullah, M., A. Hasan, W. Parvin, M. Moniruzzaman, A. Khatun, Z. Khatun, F.I. Jahan and R. Jahan, 2012b. Medicinal plants and formulations used by the Soren clan of the Santal tribe in Rajshahi district, Bangladesh for treatment of various ailments. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 9: 342-349.

Rahmatullah, M., Z. Khatun, A. Hasan, W. Parvin, M. Moniruzzaman, A. Khatun, M.J. Mahal, M.S.A. Bhuiyan, S.M. Mou and R. Jahan, 2012c. Survey and scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used by the Pahan and Teli tribal communities of Natore district, Bangladesh. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 9: 366-373.

Rahmatullah, M., M.N.K. Azam, Z. Khatun, S. Seraj, F. Islam, M.A. Rahman, S. Jahan, M.S. Aziz and R. Jahan, 2012d. Medicinal plants used for treatment of diabetes by the Marakh sect of the Garo tribe living in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 9: 380-385.

Sarker, S., S. Seraj, M.M. Sattar, W.M. Haq, M.H. Chowdhury, I. Ahmad, R. Jahan, F. Jamal and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. Medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of six villages in Thakurgaon district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 332-343.

Sarker, B., F. Akther, U.A.R. Sifa, I. Jahan, M. Sarker S.K. Chakma, P.K. Podder, Z. Khatun and M. Rahmatullah, 2012. Ethnomedicinal investigations among the Sigibe clan of the Khumi tribe of Thanchi sub-district in Bandarban district of Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6: 378-386.

Shaheen, Md.E.K., Md.A. Syef, S.S. Saha, Md.S. Islam, Md.D.A. Hossain, Md.A.I. Sujan and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. Medicinal plants used by the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners in two villages of Khakiachora and Khasia Palli in Sylhet district, Bangladesh. Advances in Applied and Natural Sciences, 5: 9-19.

(1) Rezwan Walid, (1) Kazi Faisal Ahmed Suvro, (1) Md. Harun-or-Rashid, (2) Mohsina Mukti, (1) Shahnaz Rahman, 'Mohammed Rahmatullah

(1) Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.

(2) Department of Pharmacy, North South University, Bashundhara, Dhaka-1229, Bangladesh.

Corresponding Author: Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh Phone: 88-01715032621; Fax: 88-02-8157339; E-mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com
Table 1: Medicinal plants and formulations of the Kavirajes of
Shat-tola Bazzar and Talbari villages in Bagerhat district of
Bangladesh.

Serial   Scientific      Family Name      Local
Number   Name                             Name

1        Justicia        Acanthaceae      Bashok
         adhatoda L.

2        Ruellia         Acanthaceae      Kule
         Iongifolia                       Khara,
         L. C.                            Kulekata,
         Richard                          Shulmordon

3        Andragraphi     Acanthaceae      Kalomegh
         s paniculata
         (Burm. f.)

4        Achyranthes     Amaranthaceae    Apang
         aspera L.

5        Amaranthus      Amaranthaceae    Notekata
         spinosus L.

6        Amaranthus      Amaranthaceae    Note Shak
         viridis Pall.

7.       Annona          Annonaceae       Ata
         squamosa L.

8.       Trachysper      Apiaceae         Bonojmani
         mum ammi L.

9.       Hemidesmus      Apocynaceae      Shamollota
         indicus (L.)                     Onontomul
         R.Br.

10.      Alstonia        Apocynaceae      Chatim
         scholaris
         (L.) R.Br.

11.      Cocos           Arecaceae        Narkel
         nucifera L.

12.      Areca           Arecaceae        Supari
         catechu L.

13.      Enydra          Asteraceae       Helencha
         fluctuans                        shak
         Lour.

14.      Averrhoa        Averrhoaceae     Kamranga
         carambola L.

15.      Oroxylum        Bignoniaceae     Shona
         indicum L.

16.      Bombax          Bombacaceae      Mochros,
         ceiba L.                         Shimul Gum

17.      Heliotropium    Boraginaceae     Hati Shura
         indicum L.

18.      Cannabis        Cannabaceae      Vang, Gaaja
         sativa L.

19.      Carica          Caricaceae       Pepe
         papaya L.

20.      Terminalia      Combretaceae     Horitoki
         chebula
         Retz.

21.      Eclipta         Compositae       Vingoraj
         prostrata
         (L.) L.

22.      Ipomoea         Convolvulaceae   Vumi Kusmando
         mauritiana
         Jacq.

23.      Operculina      Convolvulaceae   Teuri
         turpethum L.

24.      Kalanchoe       Crassulaceae     Boro pathorkuchi
         pinnata
         (Lam.) Pers.

25.      Luffa           Cucurbitaceae    Zhinga
         acutangula
         (L.) Roxb.

26.      Cucumis         Cucurbitaceae    Rakhal shosha
         sativus L.

27.      Momordica       Cucurbitaceae    Korolla, Ucche
         charantia L.

28.      Coccinea        Cucurbitaceae    Telakochu
         cordifolia
         (L.) Cogn.

29.      Dioscorea       Dioscoreaceae    Chamar alu
         alata L.

30.      Jatropha        Euphorbiaceae    Shet verenda,
         curcas L.                        Lal verenda

31.      Macaranga       Euphorbiaceae    Palidha
         denticulata
         Muell.-Arg.

32.      Croton          Euphorbiaceae    Donti
         polyandrum
         Roxb.

33.      Phyllanthus     Euphorbiaceae    Dattri gach, Amloki
         emblica L.

34.      Tragia          Euphorbiaceae    Bichuti
         involucrata
         L.

35.      Mimosa          Fabaceae         Lojjaboti
         pudica L.                        lota

36.      Mucuna          Fabaceae         Alkushi
         pruriens
         (L.) DC.

37.      Tamarindus      Fabaceae         Tetul
         indicus L.

38.      Cinnamomum      Lauraceae        Tamal potro
         tamala
         T.Nees
         & Eberm.

39       Cinnamomu m     Lauraceae        Daruchini
         zeylanicum
         Blume

40       Barringtonia    Lecythidaceae    Hizol
         acutangula
         (L.) Gaertn.

41       Asparagus       Liliaceae        Shotomuli
         racemosus L.

42       Azadirachta     Meliaceae        Neem
         indica
         AJuss.

43       Stephania       Menispermaceae   Atmandi, Akandi
         japonica
         (Thunb.)
         Miers

44       Tinospora       Menispermaceae   Guloncho,
         tomentosa                        Padmaguruj
         Miers

45       Ficus           Moraceae         Ashwattha
         religiosa
         L.

46       Streblus        Moraceae         Sheora
         asper
         Lour.

47       Artocarpus      Moraceae         Kathal
         heterophyllus
         Lam.

48       Morus alba      Moraceae         Bola dumur
         L.

49       Ficus           Moraceae         Udumbor, Jog dumur
         racemosa L.

50       Moringa         Moringaceae      Sojne data
         oleifera
         Lam.

51       Musa            Musaceae         Kola
         sapientum L.

52       Myristica       Myristicaceae    Jai fol
         fragrans
         Houtt.

53       Syzygium        Myrtaceae        Jaam
         cumini
         (L.) Skeels

54       Psidium         Myrtaceae        Piara
         guajava L.

55       Eugenia         Myrtaceae        Lobongo
         caryophyllus
         (Spreng.)
         Bullock
         &
         S.G.Harrison

56       Piper betel     Piperaceae       Paan
         L.

57       Piper           Piperaceae       Pipil
         peepuloides
         Roxb.

58       Drynaria        Polypodiaceae    Porgacha
         spaesisora

         (Desv.)
         T. Moore

59       Nigella         Ranunculaceae    Gol
         sativa L.                        morich

60       Zizyphus        Rhamnaceae       Bodori,
         mauritiana                       Boroi
         Lam.

61       Hedyotis        Rubiaceae        Khet papra
         corymbosa L.

62       Aegle           Rutaceae         Bel
         marmelos
         (L.) Corr.

63       Citrus          Rutaceae         Kagoji lebu
         acida Roxb.

64       Datura          Solanaceae       Duthra
         stramonium
         L.

65       Solanum         Solanaceae       Konthikari
         torvum
         Swartz

66       Vitex           Verbenaceae      Nishinda
         negundo L.

67       Nyctanthes      Verbenaceae      Sheuli
         arbor
         tristis L.

68       Curcuma         Zingiberaceae    Holud
         longa L.

69       Elettaria       Zingiberaceae    Boro Alaich
         cardamomu
         m (L.) Maton

70       Unidentified    Unidentified     Alta

71       Unidentified    Unidentified     Kumirer Data

Serial   Scientific      Parts used        Mode of
Number   Name                              Administration

1        Justicia        Green leaf
         adhatoda L.

                         Bark

                         Stem

2        Ruellia         Seed              12 Anna and 1
         Iongifolia                        vori seeds with a
         L. C.                             small amount of
         Richard                           sugar is
                                           administered 1

                         Leaf              time 4 Anna 1 time
                                           in the evening

3        Andragraphi     Dried or fresh
         s paniculata    leaves or the
         (Burm. f.)      aerial portions
                         of the plant

                         Whole plant
                         including root

                         Dried aerial
                         parts

4        Achyranthes     Leaf              Powder--2 anna
         aspera L.

                         Fruit

                         Stem

                         Root

5        Amaranthus      Root              Root juice 1 Tola
         spinosus L.                       with sugar taken
                                           in the morning 1
                                           time for 15 days

6        Amaranthus      Whole plant       Powder with 1/2
         viridis Pall.                     glass of water is
                                           taken, 1/4 tola
                                           at morning 1 time

                         Root

                         Leaves            Fresh or dried
                                           powder

                                           Leaf Sap

7.       Annona          Fruit              Ripe Fruit
         squamosa L.

8.       Trachysper      Fruit             Powder--4 anna
         mum ammi L.                       taken 2 times in
                                           morning and evening

9.       Hemidesmus      Root              1/2 tola taken in
         indicus (L.)                      the morning once
         R.Br.

10.      Alstonia        Bark              Powder--4 anna
         scholaris                         taken 1 time in
         (L.) R.Br.                        the morning

11.      Cocos           Green fruit
         nucifera L.     pulp

                         Ripe Fruit

12.      Areca           Green Fruit
         catechu L.

13.      Enydra          Whole plant       Taken as
         fluctuans       (except root)     vegetable
         Lour.

14.      Averrhoa        Fruit
         carambola L.

15.      Oroxylum        Bark, fruit
         indicum L.

16.      Bombax          Gum               Powder--4 anna
         ceiba L.                          taken with water

17.      Heliotropium    Whole plant       Powder taken with
         indicum L.      except root       water 2 times
                                           after meal

                         Leaves and        Infusion of the
                         young shoots      leaves and young
                                           shoots

                         Flower            Infusion of the
                                           flowers

                         Leaves            Decoction of the
                                           leaves

                                           Juice of the leaves

                                           Boiled with castor
                                           oil

18.      Cannabis        Leaf              Paste from leaves
         sativa L.                         which has
                                           been heated

                         Leaf, flower      Leaves and flowers
                                           are boiled in milk
                                           and the milk
                                           discarded. 1 anna
                                           amount of what is
                                           left is taken with
                                           water once daily
                                           for 1 month

19.      Carica          Green Fruit
         papaya L.

                         Ripened Fruit

                         Gum               1/2 drop taken with
                                           banana 1 time in
                                           the morning

20.      Terminalia      Fruit             Smashed fruit powder
         chebula                           with honey (1/4
         Retz.                             tola) 2 times per
                                           day

21.      Eclipta         Leaf              Raw juice--2
         prostrata                         times daily or
         (L.) L.                           powder--4 anna 2
                                           times daily

22.      Ipomoea         Tuber             Juice obtained from
         mauritiana                        tuber is soaked in
         Jacq.                             powdered tubers for
                                           7 days. The mixture
                                           is kept outside so
                                           that dew is
                                           collected in the
                                           mix. 1/2 tola is
                                           then taken with
                                           honey and ghee
                                           (clarified butter)
                                           for 1 month

23.      Operculina      Main root         Powder--4 anna,
         turpethum L.                      taken orally

24.      Kalanchoe       Leaf              Juice--8 anna,
         pinnata                           2 times
         (Lam.) Pers.

25.      Luffa           Fruit             Taken as
         acutangula                        vegetable
         (L.) Roxb.
                         Leaves            Pounded leaves

                                           Leaf juice

26.      Cucumis         Root              Powder--4 anna
         sativus L.                        taken once in the
                                           morning

27.      Momordica       Fruit             Juice taken 1 time
         charantia L.                      in morning (0 to
                                           100 ml of fruit
                                           juice) on an empty
                                           stomach or taken as
                                           vegetable (the
                                           bitter taste is
                                           considered by the
                                           Kavirajes as one of
                                           the most healing
                                           tastes; a bitter
                                           substance can heal
                                           a lot of imbalances
                                           in the mind
                                           and body) Leaf
                                           juice rubbed

                         Leaf              One teaspoon leaf
                                           juice + few drops
                                           of honey, thrice
                                           daily

28.      Coccinea        Root, Leaf,       Smashed with little
         cordifolia      Tuberous root     water, then the
         (L.) Cogn.                        paste is used

                         Stem              Juice

                         Leaf              Paste

                         Whole plant       Used orally

29.      Dioscorea       Tuber             Dry powder
         alata L.                          (1/2 tola) + water

30.      Jatropha        Young leaf        Powder--4 Anna +
         curcas L.                         1 cup water 2 times

                         Fruit             Powder--2 Anna +
                                           1 cup water 1 time

                         Pulp within
                         the stem

31.      Macaranga       Leaf              Juice--1 anna + 1
         denticulata                       cup water taken
         Muell.-Arg.                       2 times on an
                                           empty stomach

                         Bark              Powder--2 anna
                                           + 1 cup water
                                           taken 2 times on
                                           an empty stomach

32.      Croton          Fruit             Powder--1 anna
         polyandrum                        taken orally
         Roxb.
                         Root

                         Seed

33.      Phyllanthus     Fruit             Juice taken with
         emblica L.                        1/2 tola sugar

34.      Tragia          Leaf              Dried and
         involucrata                       powdered, Fried,
         L.                                Juice
                                           2 times per day
                                           (1/4 tola)

                                           Leaf juice

                         Root              Decoction of the
                                           root

35.      Mimosa          Leaf              Juice--2 anna
         pudica L.                         taken orally

36.      Mucuna          Seed              Powder (4 anna)
         pruriens                          + 1 cup water taken
         (L.) DC.                          in the evening 1
                                           time on an
                                           empty stomach

37.      Tamarindus      Fruit             Fruit juice (1/2
         indicus L.                        cup)

                         Leaves            50g of juice
                                           obtained from
                                           crushed leaves is
                                           mixed with 20g
                                           sugar and taken
                                           twice daily for 3
                                           days

38.      Cinnamomum      Leaf              Powder--2 anna
         tamala                            taken orally
         T.Nees
         & Eberm.

39       Cinnamomu m                       Inner bark, leaves
         zeylanicum                        and buds
         Blume

                                           Oil

                                           Bark
                                           1 piece bark and
                                           2 cups water are
                                           boiled for 2
                                           minutes, and then
                                           mixed with 1-2
                                           teaspoon
                                           honey. Kept for
                                           20 minutes, then
                                           taken (1-2 cups)
                                           after 3-5 hours
                                           Bark taken with tea

40       Barringtonia    Fruit pulp        Powder + 1 cup
         acutangula                        water taken 2
         (L.) Gaertn.                      times in the
                                           morning on an
                                           empty stomach and
                                           at night 1 hour
                                           before dinner

                         Seed              The seed is
                                           rubbed down on a
                                           stone with water
                                           and applied over
                                           the sternum, and if
                                           there is much
                                           dyspnea a few
                                           grains with or
                                           without the juice
                                           of fresh ginger is
                                           administered orally

41       Asparagus       Root              Powder--1/2 anna
         racemosus L.                      taken 2 times

42       Azadirachta     Bark              2 Anna in 1/2 glass
         indica                            water taken in the
         AJuss.                            morning on an empty
                                           stomach

43       Stephania       Leaf              Powder (4 anna)
         japonica                          taken orally
         (Thunb.)
         Miers

44       Tinospora       Whole plant       Cut small pieces
         tomentosa                         and put in a glass
         Miers                             of water, soak
                                           overnight, after
                                           night in morning
                                           the water is drunk
                                           on an empty stomach

45       Ficus           Bark              Powder--4 anna,
         religiosa                         1 time at night
         L.                                before dinner

                                           Powder + Honey

                         Root bark

                         Root              Chewed

                         Fruit             Ripe Fruit

                                           Powdered Fruit

                         Seed

                         Leaf Leaf &
                         young shoot

46       Streblus        Seed, bark        Powder--2 anna
         asper                             taken 1 time in
         Lour.                             the morning

47       Artocarpus      Fruit             Ripe Fruit
         heterophyllus
         Lam.

48       Morus alba      Leaf Fruit        Powder--1/4 tola
         L.              Whole Plant       twice daily

49       Ficus           Fruit, seed       Powder--1/4 tola 2
         racemosa L.     Seed powder       times per day for
                                           1 month

50       Moringa         Fruit             Taken as vegetable
         oleifera
         Lam.

51       Musa            Inflorescence     Taken as vegetable
         sapientum L.    (locally known
                         as Mocha)

                         Gum               25g gum obtained
                                           from the tree is
                                           taken once daily
                                           for 30 days.

52       Myristica       Fruit pulp        1-10 rati
         fragrans
         Houtt.

53       Syzygium        Fruit             Taken orally
         cumini
         (L.) Skeels

                         Leaf + Seed       Extract

54       Psidium         Fruit             Fruit taken orally
         guajava L.                        (green fruits are
                                           considered better
                                           and more nutritive
                                           than ripe fruits)

                         Leaves            100g juice obtained
                                           from crushed leaves
                                           is taken twice daily

55       Eugenia         Oil, dried        Extracted oil
         caryophyllus    flower buds
         (Spreng.)
         Bullock
         &
         S.G.Harrison                      Flower bud powder

56       Piper betel     Leaf              Leaves are taken
         L.                                orally with
                                           tobacco and
                                           powdered leaves
                                           of Ocimum
                                           sanctum L.
                                           (Lamiaceae)

57       Piper           Fresh and         Extracted oil
         peepuloides     dried leaves
         Roxb.

                         Leaf              Paste

                                           10-30 ml juice
                                           with honey,
                                           twice a day
                                           10-30ml juice
                                           with milk

                                           Fresh leaf juice

                                           Liquid extract of
                                           the leaves, in
                                           doses of 10 to 30
                                           minims (1/480
                                           of a fluid ounce)
                                           with ginger juice

                                           Chewed leaves

                                           Chewed leaves
                                           at frequent
                                           interval

                                           Oil coated hot
                                           leaves

                                           Essential oil
                                           extracted from
                                           the leaves

58       Drynaria        Root              Juice
         spaesisora

         (Desv.)         Rhizome           Extract
         T. Moore

59       Nigella         Seeds             50g of seed
         sativa L.                         powder is taken
                                           daily till cure

60       Zizyphus        Seed pulp         Pulp from two
         mauritiana                        seeds are
         Lam.                              crushed with a
                                           carbohydrate
                                           item like starch
                                           or rice and taken
                                           orally
                         Leaf              Chewed orally

61       Hedyotis        Whole plant       4 anna dry
         corymbosa L.                      powdered whole
                                           plant is taken in
                                           the evening on an
                                           empty stomach

62       Aegle           Ripe Fruit        Blended with water
         marmelos                          and taken orally
         (L.) Corr.

63       Citrus          Fruit             Fruit juice--7 to
         acida Roxb.                       10 drops taken
                                           2 times per day
                                           for 2-3 days

64       Datura          Leaf              Juice boiled with
         stramonium                        honey and rubbed
         L.
                         Leaves, seeds     100g of leaf and
                                           seed paste is
                                           mixed with 50g
                                           of mustard oil
                                           and massaged on
                                           the chest thrice
                                           daily for 3 days

                         Root              30g powdered
                                           dried root is
                                           mixed with 50g
                                           water and taken
                                           daily for 5 days

                         Burned ripe       Taken with oil
                         fruit

65       Solanum         Bark              Bark of Solanum
         torvum                            torvum is mixed
         Swartz                            with bark of
                                           Justicia
                                           adhatoda (1:1, 1
                                           tola each) and
                                           then mixed with
                                           8 tolas water and
                                           boiled till
                                           volume has been
                                           reduced by half,
                                           which is then
                                           taken orally

66       Vitex           Leaf              Powder--2 anna +
         negundo L.                        1 cup water,
                                           orally taken 2 times

67       Nyctanthes      Leaf
         arbor
         tristis L.

68       Curcuma         Rhizome
         longa L.

69       Elettaria       Fruit pulp        Powder--2 Anna
         cardamomu
         m (L.) Maton

70       Unidentified    Leaves            Powder--4 anna, 2
                                           times orally
                                           administered

71       Unidentified    Top of stem       Powdered top of
                                           stems are taken
                                           with mishri
                                           (crystalline
                                           sugar) and a
                                           little milk in the
                                           evening daily

Serial   Scientific      Disease &
Number   Name            Symptoms

1        Justicia        Flatulency, low sperm count, sperm
         adhatoda L.     incapable of being fertilized, astringent,
                         bitter, to increase flow of bile, biliary
                         problems like bile turning the color of
                         blood, gastrointestinal propulsion
                         inhibitor (i.e. during diarrhea or
                         dysentery), tuberculosis, coughs, fever.

                         Eczema, Leprosy.

                         Asthma.

2        Ruellia         Decreased sperm count.
         Iongifolia
         L. C.
         Richard

3        Andragraphi     Prophylaxis and symptomatic treatment
         s paniculata    of upper respiratory infections (e.g.
         (Burm. f.)      common cold, uncomplicated sinusitis,
                         pharyngotonsillitis), lower urinary tract
                         infections and acute diarrhea.

                         Treatment of bacillary dysentery,
                         bronchitis, carbuncles, colitis, cough,
                         dyspepsia, fever, hepatitis, malaria,
                         mouth ulcers, sores, tuberculosis and
                         venomous snake bites.

                         Treatment of colic, otitis media (middle
                         ear infection), vaginitis (inflammation
                         of the vagina), pelvic inflammatory
                         disease, chickenpox, eczema and burns.

4        Achyranthes     Bitter (this taste is considered by the
         aspera L.       Kavirajes as one of the most healing
                         tastes; a bitter substance can heal a lot
                         of imbalances in the mind and body; it
                         has a cooling effect, which can be
                         useful in fever; it quenches thirst, it is
                         used for fainting, itching, and burning
                         sensations in the body; it promotes
                         digestion and can act as blood purifier),
                         to increase appetite, piles, respiratory
                         tract disorders, pain, gastrointestinal
                         tract disorders.

                         Increase sperm.

                         Vomiting tendency, cough, obesity.

                         Jaundice.

5        Amaranthus      Leucorrhea.
         spinosus L.

6        Amaranthus      The whole plant is used to purify the
         viridis Pall.   blood, increase urine & stool, increase
                         appetite, coughs, and gall bladder
                         problems.

                         The pounded root is applied against
                         dysentery.

                         The leaves are diuretic and purgative,
                         and are used in poultices to treat
                         inflammations, boils and abscesses,
                         gonorrhea, orchitis, and hemorrhoids.

                         Used as an "eye wash" to treat eye
                         infections and for treating convulsions
                         and epilepsy in children.

7.       Annona          Thirst, anti-emetic, nausea,
         squamosa L.     rheumatism, biliary problems.

8.       Trachysper      Gastrointestinal disorders, debility, low
         mum ammi L.     sperm count, premature ejaculation.

9.       Hemidesmus      To increase sperm, tri-dosh nashok
         indicus (L.)    (alleviation or prevention of
         R.Br.           respiratory, gastric and hepatic
                         problems), to induce sweat, diuretic, to
                         increase strength, acidity, loss of
                         appetite, all types of skin diseases, skin
                         allergy, antidote to mercury poisoning,
                         acute gout, rheumatoid arthritis.

10.      Alstonia        Acne, cough, flatulence, blood
         scholaris       disorder, anti-infective, asthmatic
         (L.) R.Br.      problem, abdominal tumor, chronic
                         enlargement of spleen, helminthiasis.

11.      Cocos           Biliary problem, burning sensations
         nucifera L.     from dehydration.

                         Hematemesis, hyperacidity.

12.      Areca           Appetizer, hyperacidity oriented
         catechu L.      burning sensation, stomach and
                         gastrointestinal tract disorders, tri-dosh
                         nashok (see above), anemia.
                         Side effects: May cause dizziness due
                         to increased blood circulation in brain
                         (i.e. acts as a cerebrovascular dilator),
                         blurred vision.

13.      Enydra          Constipation, bitter, astringent (having
         fluctuans       the property of causing contraction of
         Lour.           soft organic tissues), leprosy, biliary
                         disorders.

14.      Averrhoa        Sperm incapable of being fertilized,
         carambola L.    constipation, coughs, flatulency.

15.      Oroxylum        Respiratory and biliary problems,
         indicum L.      coughs (bark), rheumatism, coughs,
                         restless feeling, constipation, to
                         stimulate appetite, helminthiasis, piles
                         (fruit).

16.      Bombax          Diarrhea, indigestion, burning
         ceiba L.        sensations due to dehydration.

17.      Heliotropium    Foul smelling ejaculation before due time,
         indicum L.      typhoid.

                         Used to treat nettle rash.

                         Small doses regulate menstruation, but
                         large doses are abortive.

                         Used as a vermifuge.

                         Antiseptic and anti-inflammatory and
                         applied to wounds, sores, boils, gum-
                         boils and pimples on the face.

                         Applied to scorpion bites. It is also
                         employed locally in ophthalmia, when
                         the cornea is inflamed or excoriated.

18.      Cannabis        Bitter, increases bile secretion,
         sativa L.       hallucinogenic, sex stimulant, induce
                         sleep, induce pleasant sensations,
                         excessive menstruation, urination
                         problems.

                         Rabies.

19.      Carica          Hematemesis.
         papaya L.

                         Piles.

                         Liver, spleen and hepatic impairment,
                         constipation.

20.      Terminalia      Piles, asthmatic problems, coughs, fever.
         chebula
         Retz.

21.      Eclipta         To increase eyesight, blood purifier,
         prostrata       increase strength of hair.
         (L.) L.

22.      Ipomoea         Nutritive, improves voice, diuretic, to
         mauritiana      increase strength, sexual stimulant, to
         Jacq.           increase sperm count and lactation, to
                         treat skin assuming a different color as
                         in jaundice, to increase vitality, biliary
                         disorders, blood purifier, burning
                         sensations in the body.

23.      Operculina      Constipation, helminthiasis, coughs,
         turpethum L.    biliary disorders, indigestion,
                         hypertension, dysentery, diarrhea,
                         dyspepsia, jaundice.

24.      Kalanchoe       Alleviation or prevention of
         pinnata         respiratory, stomach and hepatic
         (Lam.) Pers.    problems, piles, swelling or tumor,
                         burning sensations during urination,
                         kidney or gall bladder stones, spleen
                         disorders, urinary problems arising
                         from endocrinological disorders like
                         diabetes, vaginal diseases, urinary
                         disorder, vaginitis, insufficient sperm
                         count.

25.      Luffa           Asthma, coughs, helminthiasis.
         acutangula
         (L.) Roxb.
                         Pounded leaves used for hemorrhoids,
                         splenitis, and leprosy.

                         Juice of leaves used for conjunctivitis in
                         children.

26.      Cucumis         Jaundice, biliary disorders, coughs,
         sativus L.      spleen disorders, respiratory problems,
                         mucus, leprosy, acne, diabetes, tumor
                         or swelling, mucus in stool, antidote to
                         poison, goiter, acne.

27.      Momordica       Fever, biliary troubles, helminthiasis,
         charantia L.    coughs, acute gout, hyperacidity, to
                         increase digestion.

                         On the affected parts for treatment of
                         ringworm.
                         For coughs, congestion and chest pain
                         in children.

28.      Coccinea        Skin disease, tumors, headache,
         cordifolia      pseudo-tumors, diabetes, jaundice.
         (L.) Cogn.

                         Dripped into the eyes to treat cataracts.

                         Useful as a poultice in treating skin
                         eruptions.

                         Laxative and used in the treatment of
                         gonorrhea.

29.      Dioscorea       Biliary and blood siorders, burning
         alata L.        sensations from dehydration, to give
                         energy, to increase sperm count, sperm
                         incapable of being fertilized, to
                         improve voice, diuretic, flatulency.

30.      Jatropha        Gout, rheumatism, abdominal pain,
         curcas L.       respiratory problems, edema, obesity,
                         uterine cyst, gall bladder problems,
                         flatulency and other gastrointestinal
                         tract disorders.

                         Premature ejaculation, to increase
                         digestion, piles, flatulence, liver and
                         spleen problems, lesions, ring worm.

                         Purgative, laxative.

31.      Macaranga       Biliary disorder, otitis media,
         denticulata     helminthiasis.
         Muell.-Arg.

                         Flatulence, coughs, edema, obesity.

32.      Croton          Laxative, diuretic, edema, coughs.
         polyandrum
         Roxb.

33.      Phyllanthus     Vaginitis and burning sensations.
         emblica L.

34.      Tragia          Mouth rinse, to increase appetite and
         involucrata     digestion, hemoptysis, hematemesis,
         L.              coughs, asthmatic problems,
                         indigestion, dyspepsia, fever.

                         Jaundice.

                         Roots are diaphoretic, alterative,
                         diuretic and blood purifier. They are
                         valued in febricula and in itching of the
                         skin, also for pains in legs and arms.
                         Roots are also used in old venereal
                         complaints and externally in enlarged
                         spleen; decoction of the root is useful
                         in relieving bronchitis and attendant
                         fever.


35.      Mimosa          Impotency, aphrodisiac, coughs, gall
         pudica L.       bladder problems, vaginitis.

36.      Mucuna          Coughs, gall bladder problems, blood
         pruriens        disorders, anti-infective, to increase
         (L.) DC.        sperm, stimulant.

37.      Tamarindus      Increase digestion, premature
         indicus L.      ejaculation, coughs, flatulence,
                         hypertension.
                         Coughs.

38.      Cinnamomum      Excessive sexual desire, Coughs,
         tamala          flatulence, piles, bloating, loss of
         T.Nees          appetite, sexual disorder
         & Eberm.

39       Cinnamomu m     Stimulant, anti-microbial, anti-fungal,
         zeylanicum      anti-coagulant, stimulates the digestive
         Blume           system and reduces cholesterol and
                         blood sugar levels.

                         Used in external applications for
                         rheumatism, aching joints and stiffness.
                         It is also used for toothache and sore
                         gums and has anti-coagulant properties.

                         As a decongestant for respiratory tract
                         and urinary problems.

                         It is a good addition to teas for coughs
                         and colds and is sometimes used in
                         steam inhalations for respiratory
                         conditions.

40       Barringtonia    Pain reliever.
         acutangula
         (L.) Gaertn.

                         When children suffer from a cold in the
                         chest, and fail to expel accumulated mucus.

41       Asparagus       Asthma during winter, bitter taste in
         racemosus L.    mouth, nutritive, to increase
                         intelligence, to maintain good eyes, to
                         increase sperm, to increase lactation, to
                         increase strength, diarrhea,
                         hyperacidity.

42       Azadirachta     Pimple, tiredness, coughs, vomiting,
         indica          helminthiasis, gall bladder problems,
         AJuss.          pain, dyspepsia, leprosy, acne, gleet
                         (inflammation of the urethra
                         characterized by a mucopurulent
                         discharge), gonorrhea, diabetes.

43       Stephania       Bitter, respiratory problems, coughs,
         japonica        fever, vomiting tendency, diarrhea,
         (Thunb.)        burning sensations in body, tumor,
         Miers           acne, helminthiasis, piles, leprosy,
                         hypertension and cardiovascular
                         disorders.

44       Tinospora       Bitter (this taste is considered by the
         tomentosa       Kavirajes as one of the most healing
         Miers           tastes; a bitter substance can heal a lot
                         of imbalances in the mind and body; it
                         quenches thirst; it promotes digestion
                         and can act as a blood purifier), protect
                         from allergic attack.

45       Ficus           Blood disorder, biliary problems.
         religiosa       The bark is cooling and astringent, and
         L.              is useful in inflammations and
                         glandular swellings of neck.

                         An infusion or decoction of the bark is
                         used with some honey for the treatment
                         of gonorrhea, ulcers, skin diseases and
                         scabies. Bark powder is also used to
                         heal wounds..

                         Root bark is good for stomatitis, ulcers
                         and it is astringent and used in
                         leucorrhoea.
                         Root bark is aphrodisiac and also good
                         for lumbago.

                         Roots are good for gout. The roots are
                         chewed to prevent gum disease.

                         The fruit is laxative, promotes
                         digestion, aphrodisiac and checks
                         vomiting. Ripe fruits are alexipharmic
                         (an antidote or defensive remedy
                         against poison, venom or infection), are
                         good for foul taste, thirst and heart
                         disease.

                         Taken for asthma.

                         The seeds are cooling, and also used as
                         laxative. Seeds are useful in urinary
                         troubles.

                         The leaves alone are used to treat
                         constipation.
                         The leaves and young shoots together
                         are purgative (strong laxative).

46       Streblus        Blood purifier, gall bladder problems,
         asper           piles, flatulency, coughs, diarrhea.
         Lour.

47       Artocarpus      To increase strength, to increase sperm
         heterophyllus   count, hematemesis, lesions, acne.
         Lam.

48       Morus alba      To increase sperm count, to increase
         L.              strength, edema, coughs and other
                         respiratory tract infections, biliary
                         disorders, astringent, fever, tumor or
                         swelling without pain, piles, insanity,
                         antidote to poisoning.

49       Ficus           To induce urination, to increase
         racemosa L.     strength, gonorrhea, urethritis, to
                         increase sexual desire, roughness of
                         skin, biliary disorders, coughs, blood
                         purifier, change of color of skin as in
                         jaundice, acne, astringent.

50       Moringa         To stimulate appetite, roughness of
         oleifera        skin, pain,
         Lam.            to increase sperm, acne, helminthiasis,
                         obesity, coughs, restless feeling,
                         bloating, swelling due to injury,
                         formation of blood clots on skin, goiter,
                         good for eyes, headache.

51       Musa            To cure 80 types of gas formation in
         sapientum L.    the stomach, indigestion, hematemesis.

                         Piles.

52       Myristica       Carminative, stomach problems, nausea
         fragrans        and vomiting, flatulence, depression,
         Houtt.          constipation, foul smell of feces,
                         melena (black tarry feces indicative of
                         gastrointestinal hemorrhage),
                         helminthiasis, coughs, vomiting,
                         edema. hypertension.

53       Syzygium        Coughs, burning sensations in the
         cumini          body, gall bladder problems, anemia,
         (L.) Skeels     anti-infective.

                         Abdominal disorders.

54       Psidium         To increase strength, sperm count, and
         guajava L.      appetite, fever, nutritive.

                         Piles.

55       Eugenia         Stimulating, carminative, antibacterial,
         caryophyllus    antiviral, fungicidal, parasiticidal,
         (Spreng.)       general stimulant, nerve tonic, uterine
         Bullock         tonic, cutaneous purifier.
         &
         S.G.Harrison    Dental infection, sinusitis, nausea,
                         vomiting, flatulence, languid
                         indigestion, and dyspepsia.

56       Piper betel     To increase memory, premature ejaculation.
         L.

57       Piper           The essential oil gives rise to a
         peepuloides     sensation of warmth and well-being in
         Roxb.           the mouth and stomach. It also
                         produces a primary stimulation of the
                         central nervous system followed by
                         improved starch digestion

                         Used as antiseptic, astringent,
                         aphrodisiac, mildly stimulant,
                         expectorant, exhilarant and sialogogue.

                         Given to children in colic, indigestion,
                         diarrhea, fever and laryngitis.
                         In hysteria the mixture is orally
                         administered.

                         Immature worms are thrown out with
                         frequent oral administration of leaf
                         juice. Juice is used as eye drops in
                         ophthalmia, and other painful eye
                         diseases and night blindness.

                         As a pectoral the juice is given with the
                         juice of fresh ginger; is administered to
                         children in catarrhal inflammation of
                         the throat, larynx and bronchi, cough,
                         difficult respiration and indigestion.

                         The leaves are chewed to sweeten the
                         breath, to remove foul odor from the
                         mouth and to improve the voice.
                         The leaves are chewed at frequent
                         intervals by patients suffering from
                         hookworms.

                         Applied in layers as a rubefacient over
                         the chest, especially of a child, in
                         labored breathing, cough, pulmonary
                         affections and bronchitis; over the liver
                         when it is congested; over the abdomen
                         in colic and flatulence; and over
                         mammary glands to resolve glandular
                         swellings and to suppress the secretion
                         of milk in case of mammary abscesses;
                         they are also locally used in orchitis
                         and ovaritis; they are a useful dressing
                         for blistered surfaces and ulcers; they
                         are an excellent substitute for oiled skin
                         and gutta-percha tissue; they are used
                         as a pessary in constipation or
                         tympanites of children.

                         Is given in catarrhal and pulmonary disease.

                         One drop of the oil is given in 100
                         grams of water to be used in antiseptic
                         gurgle during diphtheria.
                         The oil, in dose of 30 to 90 minims,
                         given orally serves as a weak
                         anthelmintic for hookworms.

58       Drynaria        Used as an eye drop, to treat diarrhea
         spaesisora      and gonorrhea

         (Desv.)         Used extensively for joining of broken
         T. Moore        bones

59       Nigella         Rabies, toothache, blood dysentery.
         sativa L.

60       Zizyphus        Anti-emetic.
         mauritiana
         Lam.

                         Headache.

61       Hedyotis        Hematemesis, frequent thirsts, coughs,
         corymbosa L.    burning sensations, sperm incapable of
                         being fertilized, flatulency.

62       Aegle           Tri-dosh nashok, to increase digestive
         marmelos        capability, flatulence, coughs, to keep
         (L.) Corr.      body cool, to clear stool.

63       Citrus          Helminthiasis, abdominal discomfort,
         acida Roxb.     to increase appetite, flatulence, coughs,
                         piles.

64       Datura          Pain, burning sensations in the body.
         stramonium
         L.
                         Remedy for cough.

                         For mumps.

                         Hyperacidity, fever, flatulence, mucus
                         with stool, dysentery.

65       Solanum         Hiccups, vomiting, respiratory distress.
         torvum
         Swartz

66       Vitex           Piles, helminthiasis, edema, premature
         negundo L.      ejaculation, astringent, to increase
                         memory, to improve eyesight, biliary
                         disorders, bloating, rheumatism, spleen
                         disorders, throat infections, loss of
                         appetite, fever, obesity.

67       Nyctanthes      Bitter, tuberculosis, rheumatism, fever.
         arbor
         tristis L.

68       Curcuma         To improve skin color, to control
         longa L.        excessive sexual desire, rheumatism,
                         leprosy, diabetes, edema.

69       Elettaria       Coughs, blood disorders, anti-infective,
         cardamomu       abnormal palpitation of heart,
         m (L.) Maton    poisonous bites, rheumatism,
                         stomatitis, gum disorders, vomiting,
                         respiratory distress.

70       Unidentified    Anti-bilious, to increase digestion, lack
                         of semen, premature ejaculation, fever,
                         respiratory distress, helminthiasis.

71       Unidentified    Sex stimulant.

1 Vori = 1 tola = 11.66g; 5 tolas = 1 anna; 6 ratis = 1 anna.
COPYRIGHT 2013 American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2013 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Walid, Rezwan; Suvro, Kazi Faisal Ahmed; Harun-or-Rashid, Md.; Mukti, Mohsina; Rahman, Shahnaz; Rahm
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Jan 1, 2013
Words:7989
Previous Article:Medicinal plants and formulations of the Murmu tribal community residing in Rajshahi district of Bangladesh.
Next Article:Ethnoveterinary practices among folk medicinal practitioners of three randomly selected villages of Dinajpur district, Bangladesh.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters