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Ethnomedicinal plants of folk medicinal practitioners in four villages of Natore and Rajshahi districts, Bangladesh.

Introduction

Folk medicinal practitioners, otherwise known as Kavirajes, form the first tier of primary health-care in rural Bangladesh. The Kavirajes also practice in the cities, their majority of patients coming from the poorer sections of the people. Folk medicinal practices have existed in this region from centuries ago, and over the centuries the Kavirajes through transmission of inherited knowledge, has gained considerable experience in the handling of medicinal plants and their properties. Medicinal plants form the main ingredient in the formulations of the Kavirajes, although sometimes animal parts and inorganic substances may be included in the formulations. The Kavirajes vary widely in their selection of medicinal plants for treatment of even the same disease and these differences may be observed even within Kavirajes of adjoining areas. Thus to gain a comprehensive view of the medicinal plants used and the diseases treated by the Kavirajes, extensive ethnomedicinal surveys need to be carried out among as many Kavirajes as possible (who practice in practically all villages, towns and cities of Bangladesh). We had been conducting ethnomedicinal surveys among the Kavirajes of the mainstream population as well as the medicinal practitioners of various tribes in Bangladesh for the last few years (Nawaz et al., 2009; Rahmatullah et al., 2009a-c; Chowdhury et al., 2010; Hasan et al, 2010; Hossan et al., 2010; Mollik et al, 2010a,b; Rahmatullah et al, 2010a-g; Akber et al, 2011; Biswas et al., 2011a-c; Haque et al., 2011; Islam et al., 2011; Jahan et al., 2011; Rahmatullah et al., 2011a,b; Sarker et al., 2011; Shaheen et al, 2011; Das et al, 2012; Rahmatullah et al, 2012a-d).

The direct result of these studies has been a data base of more than 700 plants used for treatment of various diseases. Such documentation is important, for close observations of indigenous medicinal practices has led to the discovery of many important allopathic drugs (Balick and Cox, 1996; Cotton, 1996; Gilani and Rahman, 2005), and no doubt can form the basis of many more new drug discoveries in the future. Such discoveries are important not only for treatment of newly emergent diseases, but also for the treatment of diseases against which allopathic medicine has no known cure or has developed disease-resistant vectors. Towards a fuller documentation of the traditional medicinal plants of the Kavirajes, the objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes of four villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts of Bangladesh.

Materials and Methods

The present survey was carried out in Lokkhipur and Duttapara villages of Natore district, and Bohrompur and Kazihata Mor villages of Rajshahi district. The village population in these four areas was respectively, 1800, 1300, 7500 and 5000. Each village had one practicing Kaviraj, their names being, respectively, Md. Abdul Barik, Afaz Pagla, Shah Mohammed, and Alhaj Golam Hasib Sarwar. The ages of these Kavirajes were, respectively, 63, 52, 47 and 58. The last Kaviraj mentioned had his own medicinal plant garden where there was an extensive collection of medicinal plants.

Informed consent was first obtained from all four Kavirajes. The Kavirajes were explained as to the nature of our visit, and consent obtained to publish any information provided both nationally and internationally. Interviews of the Kavirajes were conducted in Bengali, which was the language spoken by both the Kavirajes and the interviewers alike. Interviews were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, the Kavirajes took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where they collected their medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. Plant specimens were photographed on the spot, collected, dried, and brought to Bangladesh National Herbarium at Dhaka for complete identification.

Results and Discussion

The four Kavirajes in between themselves used a total of 89 plant species in their different formulations for treatment of a wide variety of diseases. These plant species were distributed into 48 families. The results are shown in Table 1. The various diseases treated included skin disorders, respiratory tract disorders, ear infections, gastrointestinal disorders, hypertension, sexual problems, menorrhagia, pain, eye problems, diabetes, osteoporosis, arthritis, sexually transmitted diseases, urinary problems, fever, paralysis, cuts and wounds, chicken pox, weakness, kidney problems, jaundice, broken bones, and hepatitis B. Plants were also used as moisturizer, for relaxing uterine muscle, for treatment of snake bite, and as snake repellent. By far, from the number of plants used, the major problems of the village communities surveyed appeared to be skin disorders, respiratory tract disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, sexual problems, pain, and diabetes. Overall, the formulations were fairly simple and consisted of a single plant or plant part, which according to the diseases treated was administered either topically or orally.

Of the various plants obtained in the present survey, the plants used for treatment of diabetes are possibly the most important medically. Diabetes is a debilitating disease, which is currently affecting millions of people throughout the world. The disease has no total cure in allopathic medicine. Moreover, the disease is projected to reach epidemic proportions in the coming years because of changes in food habits and life styles of modern human beings. Seven plants, namely Stevia rebaudiana, Cycas pectinata, Diospyros ebenum, Cinnamomum tamala, Asparagus racemosus, Tinospora cordifolia, and Corchorus aestuans were used by the Kavirajes for treatment of diabetes. It was of interest to review the scientific literature on the anti-diabetic potential of these plants.

The anti-diabetic activity of medium-polar extract from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana on alloxan-induced diabetic rats has been reported (Misra et al., 2011). A crude extract of the plant has also been shown to demonstrate anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (Kujur et al., 2010). Anti-oxidant, antidiabetic and renal protective properties of the plant have also been reported (Shivanna et al., 2012). Antidiabetic potential has been reported for Cinnamomum tamala leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (Bisht and Sisodia, 2011). Essential oil obtained from the plant also exhibited anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and hypolipidemic potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rats (Kumar et al., 2012). Chemical characterization of various fractions of leaves of the plant toward their anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, and antiinflammatory properties have been carried out (Chaurasia and Tripathi, 2011).

The antihyperglycemic activity of Asparagus racemosus roots has been shown to be partly mediated by inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and absorption, and enhancement of cellular insulin action (Hannan et al., 2011). In perfused pancreas, isolated islets, and clonal pancreatic beta-cells, insulin secretory actions of extracts of roots of the plant have been demonstrated (Hannan et al., 2007). Anti-oxidant effect of Tinospora cordifolia extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats has been shown (Sivakumar and Rajan, 2010). The hypoglycemic activity of alkaloidal fraction of the plant has been demonstrated (Patel and Mishra, 2011). The plant has also been shown to attenuate oxidative stress and distorted carbohydrate metabolism in experimentally induced type 2 diabetes in rats (Sangeetha et al., 2011). Notably, oxidative stress is a major factor in diabetes-induced complications.

The available scientific literature validates the use of at least several plants used by the Kavirajes for treatment of diabetes. Similar validation can be seen for other plants also. For instance, Justicia adhatoda, used by the Kavirajes for treatment of coughs and colds, has been shown to shown scientifically to have anti-tussive action (Dhuley, 1999). It is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss all relevant scientific literature attesting to the validity of the plants used by the Kavirajes. Nevertheless, it is clear that a number of plants used by the Kavirajes have been validated scientifically and other plants possess potential to be newer sources of better medicines. It would be interesting to also scientifically examine the plants, more so the plants used by the Kavirajes to treat hepatitis B, osteoporosis, and arthritis.

References

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Shivanna, N., M. Naika, F. Khanum and V.K. Kaul, 2012. Antioxidant, anti-diabetic and renal protective properties of Stevia rebaudiana. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, (in press).

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Fariste Mawla, Safiyah Khatoon, Fatema Rehana, Sharmin Jahan, Md. Moshiur Rahman Shelley, Sophia Hossain, Wahid Mozammel Haq, Shahnaz Rahman, Kallol Debnath, Mohammed Rahmatullah

Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.
Table 1: Medicinal plants and formulations of the folk medicinal
practitioners of the villages surveyed in Natore and Rajshahi
districts,

Bangladesh.

Serial   Scientific Name        Family Name        Local Name
Number

1        Justicia gendarussa    Acanthaceae        Kalkashinda
         Burm.f.

2        Justicia adhatoda L.   Acanthaceae        Bashok, Baukh,
                                                   Kali bashok

3        Aloe vera Mill.        Aloaceae           Grithokumari

4        Amaranthus spinosus L. Amaranthaceae      Katachuira, Katafuta

5        Amaranthus viridis     Amaranthaceae      Aampudira
         Pall. ex Steud

6        Aerva sanguinolenta    Amaranthaceae      Lalpata
         Blume

7        Telanthera ficoidea    Amaranthaceae      Shada Chorchora
         (Lam.) Moq.

8        Achyranthes aspera L.  Amaranthaceae      Lal chorchora, Apang

9        Curculigo orchioides   Amaryllidaceae/    Talmul
         Gaertn.                Hypoxicaeae

10       Carissa carandas L.    Apocynaceae        Neem goroncha

11       Rauwolfia serpentina   Apocynaceae        Borochanda,
         (L.) Benth. ex Kurz                       Shurjomukhi

12       Typhonium sp.          Araceae            Mankochuri

13       Steudnera virosa       Araceae            Bishkochu
         Roxb.

14       Aristolochia           Aristolochiaceae   Iswarmul
         indica L.

15       Calotropis procera     Asclepiadaceae     Akunda
         (Aiton) R.Br. ex
         W.T.Aiton

16       Tylophora indica       Asclepiadaceae     Anantamul
         Burm. f. Merr.

17       Ageratum               Asteraceae         Joanbir
         conyzoides L.

18       Artemisia indica       Asteraceae         Nagdana
         Willd.

19       Stevia rebaudiana      Asteraceae         Stevia
         Bertoni

20       Heliotropium           Boraginaceae       Hatishur
         indicum L.

21       Bombax ceiba Burm.f.   Bombacaceae        Shimul mul, Shimul

22       Opuntia dillenii Haw.  Cactaceae          Foni monshah

23       Cannabis sativa L.     Cannabaceae        Bhang

24       Cleome viscosa L.      Capparidaceae      Moicchafuli

25       Ipomoea mauritiana     Convolvulaceae     Bhui kumra
         Jacq.

26       Bryophyllum            Crassulaceae       Pathorkuchi,
         daigremontianum A.                        Ranikontho

         Berger

27       Kalanchoe pinnata      Crassulaceae       Hingshagor
         (Lam.) Pres.

28       Coccinia cordifolia    Cucurbitaceae      Telakucha
         L. Voigt

29       Cuscuta reftexa Roxb.  Cuscutaceae        AlokLota

30       Cyathea brunoniana     Cyatheaceae        Ponkhiraj
         (Wall.) Clarke
         & Baker

31       Cycas pectinata        Cycadaceae         Moniraj
         Buch.-Ham.

32       Diospyros ebenum       Ebenaceae          Gab
         Koenig

33       Jatropha curcas L.     Euphorbiaceae      Jamalgota

34       Trewia polycarpa       Euphorbiaceae      Pithalu
         Benth.

35       Chamaesyce hirta L.    Euphorbiaceae      Dudhkushi

36       Croton bonplandianum   Euphorbiaceae      Bonmorich
         Baill.

37       Euphorbia              Euphorbiaceae      Rokto chondal
         heterophylla L.

38       Euphorbia neriifolia   Euphorbiaceae      Tezbol
         L.

39       Phyllanthus            Euphorbiaceae      Chitki
         reticulatus  Poir.

40       Manihot esculenta      Euphorbiaceae      Kasaba
         Crantz

41       Tragia involucrata     Euphorbiaceae      Shada bichatu
         L.

42       Albizia                Fabaceae           Jhonjhone
         lebbeckBenth.

43       Cassia alata L.        Fabaceae           Daudmul

44       Glycyrrhiza glabra     Fabaceae           Deshi joshtimodhu,
         L.                                        Shona pata

45       Saraca indica L.       Fabaceae           Ashok

46       Tamarindus indica L.   Fabaceae           Tetul

47       Flacourtiaindica       Flacourtiaceae     Bauchi
         (Burm.f.) Merr.

48       Swertia chirata        Gentianaceae       Chita
         Buch.-Ham. ex Wall.

49       Engelhardtia spicata   Juglandaceae       Daud
         Lech. ex Blume

50       Anisomeles             Lamiaceae          Baborer gach
         malabarica  (L.)
         R.Br.

51       Ocimum tenuiflorum     Lamiaceae          Kalotulsi, Tulshi
         L.

52       Leucas aspera Willd.   Lamiaceae          Dolkolosh

53       Cinnamomum tamala      Lauraceae          Tejpata
         T.Nees & Eberm

54       Asparagus racemosus    Liliaceae          Shotomul
         Willd.

55       Lawsonia inermis L.    Lythraceae         Mehdi

56       Abutilon hirtum        Malvaceae          Potka
         (Lam.) Sweet

57       Hibiscus rosa          Malvaceae          Joba ful
         sinensis L.

58       Azadirachta indica     Meliaceae          Neem
         A.Juss.

59       Tinospora cordifolia   Menispermaceae     Pipolti, Gulunchi,
         (Willd.) Hook.f. &                        Pipulti, Pipul
         Thomson                                   morich

60       Ficus benghalensis     Moraceae           Bot gach
         L.

61       Ficus hispida L.f.     Moraceae           Dumur

62       Ficus heterophylla     Moraceae           Lota dumur
         L.f.

63       Moringa oleifera       Moringaceae        Shajna
         Lam.

64       Psidium guajava L.     Myrtaceae          Peara gach

65       Boerhaavia repens L.   Nyctaginaceae      Punnainobboy

66       Oxalis corniculata     Oxalidaceae        Amrula
         L.

67       Oxalis paniculata      Oxalidaceae        Amrul
         Reiche

68       Oxalis rubra St.-Hil.  Oxalidaceae        Lota amloki

69       Cynodon dactylon       Poaceae            Dubla gach
         (L.) Pers.

70       Paederia foetida L.    Rubiaceae          Gondho badal

71       Melicope anisata       Rutaceae           Ashte
         (H. Mann) T.G.
         Hartley & B.C. Stone

72       Aegle marmelos         Rutaceae           Bael
         (L.) Corr.

73       Physalis minima L.     Solanaceae         Futushkata

74       Nicotiana              Solanaceae         Kushumba

         plumbaginifolia Viv.

75       Solanum                Solanaceae         Kata fura
         sisymbriifolium
         Lam.

76       Solanum torvum Sw.     Solanaceae         Thankuni

77       Withania somnifera     Solanaceae         Orshogondha
         (L.) Dunal

78       Datura metel L.        Solanaceae         Kalo dhutra

79       Nicotiana tabacum L.   Solanaceae         Bontamukh

80       Abromaaugusta L.f      Sterculiaceae      Ulotkombol

81       Corchorus aestuans     Tiliaceae          Tita bhaet
         L.

82       Seseli diffusum        Umbelliferace/     Banjoin
         (Roxb. ex  Sm.)        Apiaceae
         Santapau & Wagh

83       Phyla nodiflora        Verbenaceae        Modon lal
         (L.) Greene

84       Clerodendrum inerme    Verbenaceae        Bight
         (L.) Gaertn.

85       Clerodendrum sp.       Verbenaceae        Batraj

86       Vitex peduncularis     Verbenaceae        Borun
         Wall.

87       Vitex negundo L.       Verbenaceae        Nishinda

88       Cayratia trifolia      Vitaceae           Gai dudhla
         K.Schum.

89       Zingiber roseum        Zingiberaceae      Bauada, Shora
         (Roxb.) Roscoe

Serial   Utilize Part      Ailment(s) treated
Number                     with formulations

1        Leaf              Eczema, abscess, local
                           necrosis Leaf paste is
                           applied topically and
                           then covered with warm
                           clothing.

2        Leaf              Colds, coughs

                           Leaf juice is mixed with
                           leaf juice of Ocimum
                           tenuiflorum L.
                           (Lamiaceae) and heated
                           mildly before taken
                           orally.

         Leaf              Fever, colds

                           Leaf juice is taken 4
                           times daily for 2 days.

         Leaf              Ear lobe infection

                           Leaf juice extract is
                           applied into the ear
                           canal for 7 days.

3        Leaf              Constipation,
                           Hypertension/Anxiety The
                           inner pulp of the leaves
                           is taken daily with water
                           and sugar. This is
                           continued on a prolonged
                           basis.

4        Root              Dysentery

                           Raw root is eaten
                           directly with small
                           amount of sugar or brown
                           sugar.

         Root              Sexual stimulant/
                           Aphrodisiac (male).

                           Five or seven pieces of
                           the root are chewed and
                           eaten raw with sugar.

5        Leaf              Chronic Dysentery

                           Juice of the leaves is
                           taken orally once for two
                           days.

6        Whole plant       Insect sting/Allergic rash

                           Paste of whole plant is
                           applied topically as a
                           demulcent when a rash or
                           insect bite occurs.

7        Root              Dysentery

                           Paste obtained from the
                           root is eaten on an empty
                           stomach.

8        Leaf              Dermatitis

                           Smashed leaf is applied
                           topically to affected
                           areas of skin until wound
                           heals.

         Root              Chronic dysentery Root is
                           smashed and eaten.

         Root              Blood Dysentery

                           Root paste with small
                           amount of brown sugar
                           (molasses) is taken on an
                           empty stomach for two
                           days.

         Leaf              Menorrhagia

                           Juice obtained from
                           crushed leaf is taken
                           orally in the morning on
                           an empty stomach for 3
                           days.

9        Root              Aphrodisiac

                           Root paste is orally
                           taken until the problem
                           has been cured.

10       Stem              Indigestion and acidity

                           Juice obtained from
                           smashed leaf is taken
                           only at time of acidity
                           and not on a regular
                           basis.

11       Leaf              Skin diseases and sores
                           caused by infection

                           Juice of leaf is applied
                           topically 3 to 4 times
                           for the sore to heal.
                           Longer dosage needed for
                           skin infections.

         Whole plant/      Antidote/Snake repellent
         root

                           1. Smashed root is eaten
                           for stopping venom flow
                           in the body.

                           2. It can be planted to
                           keep snakes out of the
                           house.

12       Root              Local necrosis due to
                           snake bite Root paste on
                           a cloth is applied
                           topically and kept for a
                           minimum of 96 hours (4
                           days).

13       Root              Pain, dermatitis

                           Sliced roots are fried in
                           mustard oil.

                           Then the cooked oil is
                           topically applied to
                           affected regions.

14       Leaf              Fever and intestinal
                           worms

                           Dried leaves are made
                           into pills which are
                           taken in dosages of 2
                           pills each time.

15       Leaf              Antispasmodic /joint pain

                           Warmed leaf is applied
                           topically to the affected
                           area to heal immediately.

                           Side effects: Sap of the
                           plant can cause blindness
                           and the root if ingested
                           may drive a person
                           insane.

16       Root              Penile dysfuntions

                           1 teaspoon dried root
                           powder with the powder of
                           Bombax ceiba is added to
                           water and taken twice a
                           day.

17       Root              Aphrodisiac

                           The smashed root is taken
                           with honey orally in the
                           morning on an empty
                           stomach for 7 days.

18       Leaf              Conjunctivitis

                           Juice extracted from the
                           leaf is added with equal
                           amount water and applied
                           until irritation stops.

19       Leaf              Diabetes

                           Chewed raw, or juice
                           obtained from the
                           macerated leaf is taken
                           with lime juice.

20       Leaf              Migraines and Cataracts
                           Crushed leaf with a pinch
                           of salt is massaged
                           onto   the   region of
                           headache.   Repeated
                           until pain resides.

         Leaf              Conjunctivitis

                           Juice obtained from
                           smashed leaf is applied
                           into the eyes to clear
                           blurred vision (two drops
                           to each eye) for 5 days.

21       Root              Osteoporosis

                           Smashed root is added
                           with water and taken
                           regularly in the morning
                           to increase calcium and
                           bone development.

         Bark              Blood dysentery and piles

                           Smashed bark is cooked
                           with Wallago attu
                           (locally known as boal
                           fish) and eaten for three
                           consecutive Sundays.

22       Plant + Bark      Increase libido

                           Bark decoction is taken
                           with normal meal at night
                           for 7 days.

23       Leaf              CNS depressant , Gout,
                           Arthritic pain

                           One teaspoon powder
                           obtained from crushed and
                           dried leaf is added to
                           water and taken once
                           orally.

24       Leaf              Alleviate breast pain

                           Smashed leaf is applied
                           topically to the affected
                           area.

25       Fruit             Sexually transmitted
                           diseases

                           Fine powder obtained from
                           crushed fruit picked from
                           lower part of the plant
                           is taken orally with
                           water.

26       Leaf              Leucorrhea

                           The leaf is washed and
                           eaten raw.

         Leaf              Carminative and
                           dysmenorrheal

                           The raw leaf is eaten
                           with salt for 7 days in
                           dysmenorrhea. For gastric
                           problems only once.

27       Whole plant       Proper digestion,
                           cholelithiasis Juice of
                           whole plant is extracted
                           and  dosage  is
                           continued  for 1 month.

28       Root              Moisturizer (for dry
                           skin)

                           The juice of the leaf is
                           applied topically to the
                           affected areas of skin
                           twice daily for 7 days.

29       Bark              Female infertility

                           Smashed bark with 1.25
                           cloves is ingested on an
                           empty stomach.

         Thin stems        Antipyretic

                           Smashed stem applied
                           topically to head as
                           instant therapy.

30       Stem              Paralysis and chronic
                           pain

                           Paste obtained from the
                           stem is applied topically
                           to the affected areas of
                           the body.

31       Root, Stem        Diabetes

                           Root paste with juice
                           obtained from crushed
                           fruit stalk is taken
                           orally thrice daily.

32       Bark              Diabetes

                           Bark decoction is taken
                           orally once every
                           morning.

33       Seeds             Aperient (laxative)

                           Inner parts of the seeds
                           are taken orally once
                           when needed.

34       Bark              Ear lobe infections

                           Luke warm bark is
                           topically held to the
                           infected area until cure.

35       Root              To remove scales stuck in
                           throat

                           1 unwashed and wiped root
                           is eaten to   remove
                           scale  within fifteen
                           minutes.

36       Juice from stem   Hemostasis

                           Juice obtained from the
                           stem is applied to cuts
                           to stop bleeding.

37       Leaf              Asthma

                           Leaf decoction is taken
                           orally during respiratory
                           distress twice daily.

38       Bark              Aphrodisiac (men),
                           Leucorrhea (female)

                           1 spoon dried bark powder
                           is added to warm milk and
                           taken every night.

39       Leaf              Chicken Pox

                           Leaf paste is applied
                           topically to affected
                           areas of skin once daily
                           for 15 days.

40       Leaf              Eczema

                           Leaf (10-15 pieces) is
                           added to bath water to
                           bathe once daily until
                           cured.

41       Root, stem        Warming the body Paste of
                           one whole root with 0.25g
                           black pepper is eaten.

                           Dermatitis

                           Smashed stem with mustard
                           oil is applied topically
                           to the affected areas of
                           skin.

42       Leaf              Acne, pimple

                           Leaf paste is applied
                           topically around the
                           affected areas of skin.

43       Seed, root        Sexual disorder

                           1 seed inserted inside
                           the root is eaten on an
                           empty stomach for 7 days.

44       Leaf              Instantaneous drop in
                           high blood glucose level

                           Leaf is chewed raw.

         Root              Anxiolytic

                           Root is soaked in hot
                           water and taken as tea.

45       Leaf, bark        Dysmenorrhoea/painful
                           menstruation

                           Extract obtained from
                           leaf and bark is taken
                           orally twice daily on an
                           empty stomach for 5 days.

46       Seed              Uterine muscle relaxant

                           1 spoon dried powder of
                           inner white part of the
                           seed added to milk and
                           taken at the time of
                           contraction.

47       leaf              Piles

                           Leaf juice is taken
                           orally.

48       Root + stem       Intestinal worms

                           Roots and stems are
                           soaked overnight in water
                           and the water is taken
                           orally in the morning on
                           an empty stomach.

49       Leaf              Itchy wound

                           Smashed leaf applied
                           topically to the affected
                           area until cure.

50       Seed              Energizer

                           Seeds are soaked
                           overnight in water, and
                           the water along with
                           seeds is taken orally on
                           an empty stomach.

51       Leaf              Bronchitis and pneumonia

                           Juice extracted from the
                           leaves is added to honey
                           and taken on a regular
                           basis until cured.

                           Colds, coughs

                           Leaf juice is mixed with
                           the leaf juice of
                           Justicia adhatoda and
                           heated mildly before
                           taken orally.

52       Root              Tonsillitis, mumps

                           Smashed root is eaten 4
                           times daily for two days

53       Leaf              Diabetes, Cold

                           Leaves are soaked in warm
                           water and taken orally on
                           a regular basis for
                           diabetes and temporarily
                           for cold.

54       Root              Weakness, diabetes,
                           multiple urinary problems

                           Smashed root is taken
                           orally in the morning on
                           an empty stomach for 15
                           days. Repeated if problem
                           persists.

55       Leaf              Emollient, Hair
                           conditioner Leaf paste is
                           applied topically to the
                           affected areas of skin.

                           Leaf paste directly
                           applied to hair.

56       Stem and leaves   Urinary infection
                           (infants)

                           Stem with leaves has to
                           be attached to the waist
                           of the infant and has to
                           be worn for three days.

57       Flower            General Weakness and
                           Debility Flowers are
                           soaked overnight in water
                           and the water is taken in
                           the morning for 7 days.

58       Bark, leaf,       Oral hygiene
         seed
                           Dried bark powder is
                           rubbed onto the teeth for
                           cleaning of the gums and
                           teeth.

                           Anodynic properties

                           Smashed leaves are
                           applied to the affected
                           area for pain.

                           Oil extracted from seed
                           is applied topically to
                           the affected area for
                           itching and pain.

59       Root, leaf        Aphrodisiac
                           Smashed leaf and root is
                           added to brown sugar and
                           taken orally at night
                           after normal dinner.

         Thin stems        Diabetes

                           Dried stem powder is
                           added to water or juice
                           obtained from macerated
                           leaf is taken.

         Leaf              Provides calcium and
                           relieves obstructions in
                           the intestine. Juice
                           obtained from macerated
                           leaf is taken in the
                           morning.

         Leaf              Cough and burning
                           sensation during
                           urination

                           Juice obtained from
                           smashed leaves is added
                           to water and taken for 3
                           days for coughs and more
                           than 3 days for burning
                           sensation during
                           urination.

60       Leaf              Nausea

                           Smashed leaf is taken at
                           time before vomiting.

61       Fruit             Anxiolytic

                           Fruit is eaten for seven
                           days to lower anxiety.

62       Leaf              Acute renal failure

                           Juice obtained from
                           leaves is taken to
                           control the amount of
                           water released.

63       Fruit Seed        Indigestion

                           Fruits are cooked and
                           taken as vegetable twice
                           a week.

64       Leaf              Oral hygiene

                           Leaves are chewed raw on
                           a daily basis for
                           removing stains from
                           teeth.

65       leaf              Kidney diseases

                           Juice extracted from leaf
                           is taken orally.

66       Leaf              Halitosis (bad breath)

                           Pinch of salt is taken
                           into the mouth first and
                           then washed whole leaf is
                           taken with water on an
                           empty stomach.

67       Leaf              Aphthous ulcers (painful
                           open sore in the mouth)

                           Leaf is eaten raw twice
                           daily for 3 days.

68       Leaf              Jaundice

                           Leaf is rubbed into hands
                           and then into the eyes.

69       Leaf              Hemostasis

                           Chewed leaves are applied
                           to the bleeding area
                           topically to instantly
                           stop bleeding.

70       Leaf              Appetizer

                           Paste of leaves along
                           with seeds of Lens
                           culinaris and table salt
                           is fried and then taken
                           as a vegetable.

71       Stem              Oral hygiene Raw stems
                           are rubbed onto the teeth
                           and gums in the morning
                           and night as toothpaste.

72       Fruit             Chronic dysentery Paste
                           obtains from dried young
                           fruit powder and small
                           amount of water is taken
                           orally.

         Fruit             Anti-dandruff Rotten
                           fruit paste (from ripe
                           fruit) is applied
                           topically to the scalp
                           and dried before being
                           washed off.

73       Leaf              Skin diseases, Allergy

                           Juice obtained from
                           smashed leaf is applied
                           topically to the affected
                           area for 2 days.

74       Root              Leucorrhea

                           Smashed root is added to
                           the juice of three
                           coconuts and taken
                           orally.

75       Roots, seeds      Toothache, Discoloration
                           of teeth The roots and
                           seeds are chewed raw for
                           5 days in the morning.

76       Leaf              Jaundice, Nausea

                           7 Crushed leaves are
                           chewed and taken with one
                           glass of water for 3 days

                           Precautions: abstention
                           from eating hilsha fish
                           (Tenualosa ilisha),
                           shrimp, pulses, beef and
                           red pumpkin have to be
                           maintained.

77       Whole plant       Aphrodisiac

                           Whole plants are cooked
                           and taken as vegetable or
                           juice extracted from
                           whole plant and taken.

78       Leaf              Body Irritation

                           Leaves are fried and
                           eaten regularly until
                           itching stops.

                           Side effects -reported to
                           cause mental craziness in
                           people who have consumed
                           this plant.

79       Leaf              Hemorrhoids (Piles)

                           Juice obtained from
                           smashed leaves is added
                           to sugar and taken
                           orally.

80       Stem              Sexual Weakness, General
                           weakness

                           Chopped stems are
                           macerated and taken with
                           brown sugar along with
                           water.

81       Young leaf        Intestinal worm and
                           diabetes

                           Taken raw directly.

82       Roots             Allergy

                           Powder obtained from
                           three plant roots are
                           added to water and taken
                           orally.

83       Whole plant       Sexually transmitted
         without fruits    diseases
         and seeds
                           Whole plant is eaten
                           directly without seeds
                           and fruits.

84       Leaf              Intestinal worm and
                           antipyretic

                           Smashed leaves are taken
                           on an empty stomach for 3
                           to 4 days.

85       Leaf              Joining of broken bones,
                           paralysis and as an
                           anodyne

                           Crushed leaves are
                           massaged on to the
                           affected area once daily
                           for 2 to 3 days.

86       Bark              Analgesic

                           Dried bark powder is
                           added to water and
                           applied topically to the
                           affected area.

87       Leaf              Headache, dizziness,
                           debility

                           Crushed leaves are taken
                           with water.

88       Stem, root        Inability of a cow to
                           walk Stem is made into a
                           bangle and put on the
                           ankle of the cow if it is
                           unable to walk.

                           Body ache in humans

                           Root along with 7 pieces
                           of ginger is made into
                           paste and heated with
                           mustard oil and applied
                           to the affected area for
                           7 days.

89       Root              Indigestion

                           Juice obtained from
                           smashed root is taken
                           once daily for 3 days on
                           an empty stomach.

         Leaf              Hepatitis B and Jaundice
                           Leaves are soaked in
                           water and the water taken
                           orally for 7 days for
                           hepatitis B and 3 days
                           for jaundice.
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Title Annotation:Original Articles
Author:Mawla, Fariste; Khatoon, Safiyah; Rehana, Fatema; Jahan, Sharmin; Shelley, Md. Moshiur Rahman; Hossa
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Oct 1, 2012
Words:6215
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