Ethnomedicinal plants of folk medicinal practitioners in four villages of Natore and Rajshahi districts, Bangladesh.
Folk medicinal practitioners, otherwise known as Kavirajes, form the first tier of primary health-care in rural Bangladesh. The Kavirajes also practice in the cities, their majority of patients coming from the poorer sections of the people. Folk medicinal practices have existed in this region from centuries ago, and over the centuries the Kavirajes through transmission of inherited knowledge, has gained considerable experience in the handling of medicinal plants and their properties. Medicinal plants form the main ingredient in the formulations of the Kavirajes, although sometimes animal parts and inorganic substances may be included in the formulations. The Kavirajes vary widely in their selection of medicinal plants for treatment of even the same disease and these differences may be observed even within Kavirajes of adjoining areas. Thus to gain a comprehensive view of the medicinal plants used and the diseases treated by the Kavirajes, extensive ethnomedicinal surveys need to be carried out among as many Kavirajes as possible (who practice in practically all villages, towns and cities of Bangladesh). We had been conducting ethnomedicinal surveys among the Kavirajes of the mainstream population as well as the medicinal practitioners of various tribes in Bangladesh for the last few years (Nawaz et al., 2009; Rahmatullah et al., 2009a-c; Chowdhury et al., 2010; Hasan et al, 2010; Hossan et al., 2010; Mollik et al, 2010a,b; Rahmatullah et al, 2010a-g; Akber et al, 2011; Biswas et al., 2011a-c; Haque et al., 2011; Islam et al., 2011; Jahan et al., 2011; Rahmatullah et al., 2011a,b; Sarker et al., 2011; Shaheen et al, 2011; Das et al, 2012; Rahmatullah et al, 2012a-d).
The direct result of these studies has been a data base of more than 700 plants used for treatment of various diseases. Such documentation is important, for close observations of indigenous medicinal practices has led to the discovery of many important allopathic drugs (Balick and Cox, 1996; Cotton, 1996; Gilani and Rahman, 2005), and no doubt can form the basis of many more new drug discoveries in the future. Such discoveries are important not only for treatment of newly emergent diseases, but also for the treatment of diseases against which allopathic medicine has no known cure or has developed disease-resistant vectors. Towards a fuller documentation of the traditional medicinal plants of the Kavirajes, the objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes of four villages in Natore and Rajshahi districts of Bangladesh.
Materials and Methods
The present survey was carried out in Lokkhipur and Duttapara villages of Natore district, and Bohrompur and Kazihata Mor villages of Rajshahi district. The village population in these four areas was respectively, 1800, 1300, 7500 and 5000. Each village had one practicing Kaviraj, their names being, respectively, Md. Abdul Barik, Afaz Pagla, Shah Mohammed, and Alhaj Golam Hasib Sarwar. The ages of these Kavirajes were, respectively, 63, 52, 47 and 58. The last Kaviraj mentioned had his own medicinal plant garden where there was an extensive collection of medicinal plants.
Informed consent was first obtained from all four Kavirajes. The Kavirajes were explained as to the nature of our visit, and consent obtained to publish any information provided both nationally and internationally. Interviews of the Kavirajes were conducted in Bengali, which was the language spoken by both the Kavirajes and the interviewers alike. Interviews were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, the Kavirajes took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where they collected their medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. Plant specimens were photographed on the spot, collected, dried, and brought to Bangladesh National Herbarium at Dhaka for complete identification.
Results and Discussion
The four Kavirajes in between themselves used a total of 89 plant species in their different formulations for treatment of a wide variety of diseases. These plant species were distributed into 48 families. The results are shown in Table 1. The various diseases treated included skin disorders, respiratory tract disorders, ear infections, gastrointestinal disorders, hypertension, sexual problems, menorrhagia, pain, eye problems, diabetes, osteoporosis, arthritis, sexually transmitted diseases, urinary problems, fever, paralysis, cuts and wounds, chicken pox, weakness, kidney problems, jaundice, broken bones, and hepatitis B. Plants were also used as moisturizer, for relaxing uterine muscle, for treatment of snake bite, and as snake repellent. By far, from the number of plants used, the major problems of the village communities surveyed appeared to be skin disorders, respiratory tract disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, sexual problems, pain, and diabetes. Overall, the formulations were fairly simple and consisted of a single plant or plant part, which according to the diseases treated was administered either topically or orally.
Of the various plants obtained in the present survey, the plants used for treatment of diabetes are possibly the most important medically. Diabetes is a debilitating disease, which is currently affecting millions of people throughout the world. The disease has no total cure in allopathic medicine. Moreover, the disease is projected to reach epidemic proportions in the coming years because of changes in food habits and life styles of modern human beings. Seven plants, namely Stevia rebaudiana, Cycas pectinata, Diospyros ebenum, Cinnamomum tamala, Asparagus racemosus, Tinospora cordifolia, and Corchorus aestuans were used by the Kavirajes for treatment of diabetes. It was of interest to review the scientific literature on the anti-diabetic potential of these plants.
The anti-diabetic activity of medium-polar extract from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana on alloxan-induced diabetic rats has been reported (Misra et al., 2011). A crude extract of the plant has also been shown to demonstrate anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (Kujur et al., 2010). Anti-oxidant, antidiabetic and renal protective properties of the plant have also been reported (Shivanna et al., 2012). Antidiabetic potential has been reported for Cinnamomum tamala leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (Bisht and Sisodia, 2011). Essential oil obtained from the plant also exhibited anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and hypolipidemic potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rats (Kumar et al., 2012). Chemical characterization of various fractions of leaves of the plant toward their anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, and antiinflammatory properties have been carried out (Chaurasia and Tripathi, 2011).
The antihyperglycemic activity of Asparagus racemosus roots has been shown to be partly mediated by inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and absorption, and enhancement of cellular insulin action (Hannan et al., 2011). In perfused pancreas, isolated islets, and clonal pancreatic beta-cells, insulin secretory actions of extracts of roots of the plant have been demonstrated (Hannan et al., 2007). Anti-oxidant effect of Tinospora cordifolia extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats has been shown (Sivakumar and Rajan, 2010). The hypoglycemic activity of alkaloidal fraction of the plant has been demonstrated (Patel and Mishra, 2011). The plant has also been shown to attenuate oxidative stress and distorted carbohydrate metabolism in experimentally induced type 2 diabetes in rats (Sangeetha et al., 2011). Notably, oxidative stress is a major factor in diabetes-induced complications.
The available scientific literature validates the use of at least several plants used by the Kavirajes for treatment of diabetes. Similar validation can be seen for other plants also. For instance, Justicia adhatoda, used by the Kavirajes for treatment of coughs and colds, has been shown to shown scientifically to have anti-tussive action (Dhuley, 1999). It is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss all relevant scientific literature attesting to the validity of the plants used by the Kavirajes. Nevertheless, it is clear that a number of plants used by the Kavirajes have been validated scientifically and other plants possess potential to be newer sources of better medicines. It would be interesting to also scientifically examine the plants, more so the plants used by the Kavirajes to treat hepatitis B, osteoporosis, and arthritis.
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Fariste Mawla, Safiyah Khatoon, Fatema Rehana, Sharmin Jahan, Md. Moshiur Rahman Shelley, Sophia Hossain, Wahid Mozammel Haq, Shahnaz Rahman, Kallol Debnath, Mohammed Rahmatullah
Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.
Table 1: Medicinal plants and formulations of the folk medicinal practitioners of the villages surveyed in Natore and Rajshahi districts, Bangladesh. Serial Scientific Name Family Name Local Name Number 1 Justicia gendarussa Acanthaceae Kalkashinda Burm.f. 2 Justicia adhatoda L. Acanthaceae Bashok, Baukh, Kali bashok 3 Aloe vera Mill. Aloaceae Grithokumari 4 Amaranthus spinosus L. Amaranthaceae Katachuira, Katafuta 5 Amaranthus viridis Amaranthaceae Aampudira Pall. ex Steud 6 Aerva sanguinolenta Amaranthaceae Lalpata Blume 7 Telanthera ficoidea Amaranthaceae Shada Chorchora (Lam.) Moq. 8 Achyranthes aspera L. Amaranthaceae Lal chorchora, Apang 9 Curculigo orchioides Amaryllidaceae/ Talmul Gaertn. Hypoxicaeae 10 Carissa carandas L. Apocynaceae Neem goroncha 11 Rauwolfia serpentina Apocynaceae Borochanda, (L.) Benth. ex Kurz Shurjomukhi 12 Typhonium sp. Araceae Mankochuri 13 Steudnera virosa Araceae Bishkochu Roxb. 14 Aristolochia Aristolochiaceae Iswarmul indica L. 15 Calotropis procera Asclepiadaceae Akunda (Aiton) R.Br. ex W.T.Aiton 16 Tylophora indica Asclepiadaceae Anantamul Burm. f. Merr. 17 Ageratum Asteraceae Joanbir conyzoides L. 18 Artemisia indica Asteraceae Nagdana Willd. 19 Stevia rebaudiana Asteraceae Stevia Bertoni 20 Heliotropium Boraginaceae Hatishur indicum L. 21 Bombax ceiba Burm.f. Bombacaceae Shimul mul, Shimul 22 Opuntia dillenii Haw. Cactaceae Foni monshah 23 Cannabis sativa L. Cannabaceae Bhang 24 Cleome viscosa L. Capparidaceae Moicchafuli 25 Ipomoea mauritiana Convolvulaceae Bhui kumra Jacq. 26 Bryophyllum Crassulaceae Pathorkuchi, daigremontianum A. Ranikontho Berger 27 Kalanchoe pinnata Crassulaceae Hingshagor (Lam.) Pres. 28 Coccinia cordifolia Cucurbitaceae Telakucha L. Voigt 29 Cuscuta reftexa Roxb. Cuscutaceae AlokLota 30 Cyathea brunoniana Cyatheaceae Ponkhiraj (Wall.) Clarke & Baker 31 Cycas pectinata Cycadaceae Moniraj Buch.-Ham. 32 Diospyros ebenum Ebenaceae Gab Koenig 33 Jatropha curcas L. Euphorbiaceae Jamalgota 34 Trewia polycarpa Euphorbiaceae Pithalu Benth. 35 Chamaesyce hirta L. Euphorbiaceae Dudhkushi 36 Croton bonplandianum Euphorbiaceae Bonmorich Baill. 37 Euphorbia Euphorbiaceae Rokto chondal heterophylla L. 38 Euphorbia neriifolia Euphorbiaceae Tezbol L. 39 Phyllanthus Euphorbiaceae Chitki reticulatus Poir. 40 Manihot esculenta Euphorbiaceae Kasaba Crantz 41 Tragia involucrata Euphorbiaceae Shada bichatu L. 42 Albizia Fabaceae Jhonjhone lebbeckBenth. 43 Cassia alata L. Fabaceae Daudmul 44 Glycyrrhiza glabra Fabaceae Deshi joshtimodhu, L. Shona pata 45 Saraca indica L. Fabaceae Ashok 46 Tamarindus indica L. Fabaceae Tetul 47 Flacourtiaindica Flacourtiaceae Bauchi (Burm.f.) Merr. 48 Swertia chirata Gentianaceae Chita Buch.-Ham. ex Wall. 49 Engelhardtia spicata Juglandaceae Daud Lech. ex Blume 50 Anisomeles Lamiaceae Baborer gach malabarica (L.) R.Br. 51 Ocimum tenuiflorum Lamiaceae Kalotulsi, Tulshi L. 52 Leucas aspera Willd. Lamiaceae Dolkolosh 53 Cinnamomum tamala Lauraceae Tejpata T.Nees & Eberm 54 Asparagus racemosus Liliaceae Shotomul Willd. 55 Lawsonia inermis L. Lythraceae Mehdi 56 Abutilon hirtum Malvaceae Potka (Lam.) Sweet 57 Hibiscus rosa Malvaceae Joba ful sinensis L. 58 Azadirachta indica Meliaceae Neem A.Juss. 59 Tinospora cordifolia Menispermaceae Pipolti, Gulunchi, (Willd.) Hook.f. & Pipulti, Pipul Thomson morich 60 Ficus benghalensis Moraceae Bot gach L. 61 Ficus hispida L.f. Moraceae Dumur 62 Ficus heterophylla Moraceae Lota dumur L.f. 63 Moringa oleifera Moringaceae Shajna Lam. 64 Psidium guajava L. Myrtaceae Peara gach 65 Boerhaavia repens L. Nyctaginaceae Punnainobboy 66 Oxalis corniculata Oxalidaceae Amrula L. 67 Oxalis paniculata Oxalidaceae Amrul Reiche 68 Oxalis rubra St.-Hil. Oxalidaceae Lota amloki 69 Cynodon dactylon Poaceae Dubla gach (L.) Pers. 70 Paederia foetida L. Rubiaceae Gondho badal 71 Melicope anisata Rutaceae Ashte (H. Mann) T.G. Hartley & B.C. Stone 72 Aegle marmelos Rutaceae Bael (L.) Corr. 73 Physalis minima L. Solanaceae Futushkata 74 Nicotiana Solanaceae Kushumba plumbaginifolia Viv. 75 Solanum Solanaceae Kata fura sisymbriifolium Lam. 76 Solanum torvum Sw. Solanaceae Thankuni 77 Withania somnifera Solanaceae Orshogondha (L.) Dunal 78 Datura metel L. Solanaceae Kalo dhutra 79 Nicotiana tabacum L. Solanaceae Bontamukh 80 Abromaaugusta L.f Sterculiaceae Ulotkombol 81 Corchorus aestuans Tiliaceae Tita bhaet L. 82 Seseli diffusum Umbelliferace/ Banjoin (Roxb. ex Sm.) Apiaceae Santapau & Wagh 83 Phyla nodiflora Verbenaceae Modon lal (L.) Greene 84 Clerodendrum inerme Verbenaceae Bight (L.) Gaertn. 85 Clerodendrum sp. Verbenaceae Batraj 86 Vitex peduncularis Verbenaceae Borun Wall. 87 Vitex negundo L. Verbenaceae Nishinda 88 Cayratia trifolia Vitaceae Gai dudhla K.Schum. 89 Zingiber roseum Zingiberaceae Bauada, Shora (Roxb.) Roscoe Serial Utilize Part Ailment(s) treated Number with formulations 1 Leaf Eczema, abscess, local necrosis Leaf paste is applied topically and then covered with warm clothing. 2 Leaf Colds, coughs Leaf juice is mixed with leaf juice of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae) and heated mildly before taken orally. Leaf Fever, colds Leaf juice is taken 4 times daily for 2 days. Leaf Ear lobe infection Leaf juice extract is applied into the ear canal for 7 days. 3 Leaf Constipation, Hypertension/Anxiety The inner pulp of the leaves is taken daily with water and sugar. This is continued on a prolonged basis. 4 Root Dysentery Raw root is eaten directly with small amount of sugar or brown sugar. Root Sexual stimulant/ Aphrodisiac (male). Five or seven pieces of the root are chewed and eaten raw with sugar. 5 Leaf Chronic Dysentery Juice of the leaves is taken orally once for two days. 6 Whole plant Insect sting/Allergic rash Paste of whole plant is applied topically as a demulcent when a rash or insect bite occurs. 7 Root Dysentery Paste obtained from the root is eaten on an empty stomach. 8 Leaf Dermatitis Smashed leaf is applied topically to affected areas of skin until wound heals. Root Chronic dysentery Root is smashed and eaten. Root Blood Dysentery Root paste with small amount of brown sugar (molasses) is taken on an empty stomach for two days. Leaf Menorrhagia Juice obtained from crushed leaf is taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 3 days. 9 Root Aphrodisiac Root paste is orally taken until the problem has been cured. 10 Stem Indigestion and acidity Juice obtained from smashed leaf is taken only at time of acidity and not on a regular basis. 11 Leaf Skin diseases and sores caused by infection Juice of leaf is applied topically 3 to 4 times for the sore to heal. Longer dosage needed for skin infections. Whole plant/ Antidote/Snake repellent root 1. Smashed root is eaten for stopping venom flow in the body. 2. It can be planted to keep snakes out of the house. 12 Root Local necrosis due to snake bite Root paste on a cloth is applied topically and kept for a minimum of 96 hours (4 days). 13 Root Pain, dermatitis Sliced roots are fried in mustard oil. Then the cooked oil is topically applied to affected regions. 14 Leaf Fever and intestinal worms Dried leaves are made into pills which are taken in dosages of 2 pills each time. 15 Leaf Antispasmodic /joint pain Warmed leaf is applied topically to the affected area to heal immediately. Side effects: Sap of the plant can cause blindness and the root if ingested may drive a person insane. 16 Root Penile dysfuntions 1 teaspoon dried root powder with the powder of Bombax ceiba is added to water and taken twice a day. 17 Root Aphrodisiac The smashed root is taken with honey orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 7 days. 18 Leaf Conjunctivitis Juice extracted from the leaf is added with equal amount water and applied until irritation stops. 19 Leaf Diabetes Chewed raw, or juice obtained from the macerated leaf is taken with lime juice. 20 Leaf Migraines and Cataracts Crushed leaf with a pinch of salt is massaged onto the region of headache. Repeated until pain resides. Leaf Conjunctivitis Juice obtained from smashed leaf is applied into the eyes to clear blurred vision (two drops to each eye) for 5 days. 21 Root Osteoporosis Smashed root is added with water and taken regularly in the morning to increase calcium and bone development. Bark Blood dysentery and piles Smashed bark is cooked with Wallago attu (locally known as boal fish) and eaten for three consecutive Sundays. 22 Plant + Bark Increase libido Bark decoction is taken with normal meal at night for 7 days. 23 Leaf CNS depressant , Gout, Arthritic pain One teaspoon powder obtained from crushed and dried leaf is added to water and taken once orally. 24 Leaf Alleviate breast pain Smashed leaf is applied topically to the affected area. 25 Fruit Sexually transmitted diseases Fine powder obtained from crushed fruit picked from lower part of the plant is taken orally with water. 26 Leaf Leucorrhea The leaf is washed and eaten raw. Leaf Carminative and dysmenorrheal The raw leaf is eaten with salt for 7 days in dysmenorrhea. For gastric problems only once. 27 Whole plant Proper digestion, cholelithiasis Juice of whole plant is extracted and dosage is continued for 1 month. 28 Root Moisturizer (for dry skin) The juice of the leaf is applied topically to the affected areas of skin twice daily for 7 days. 29 Bark Female infertility Smashed bark with 1.25 cloves is ingested on an empty stomach. Thin stems Antipyretic Smashed stem applied topically to head as instant therapy. 30 Stem Paralysis and chronic pain Paste obtained from the stem is applied topically to the affected areas of the body. 31 Root, Stem Diabetes Root paste with juice obtained from crushed fruit stalk is taken orally thrice daily. 32 Bark Diabetes Bark decoction is taken orally once every morning. 33 Seeds Aperient (laxative) Inner parts of the seeds are taken orally once when needed. 34 Bark Ear lobe infections Luke warm bark is topically held to the infected area until cure. 35 Root To remove scales stuck in throat 1 unwashed and wiped root is eaten to remove scale within fifteen minutes. 36 Juice from stem Hemostasis Juice obtained from the stem is applied to cuts to stop bleeding. 37 Leaf Asthma Leaf decoction is taken orally during respiratory distress twice daily. 38 Bark Aphrodisiac (men), Leucorrhea (female) 1 spoon dried bark powder is added to warm milk and taken every night. 39 Leaf Chicken Pox Leaf paste is applied topically to affected areas of skin once daily for 15 days. 40 Leaf Eczema Leaf (10-15 pieces) is added to bath water to bathe once daily until cured. 41 Root, stem Warming the body Paste of one whole root with 0.25g black pepper is eaten. Dermatitis Smashed stem with mustard oil is applied topically to the affected areas of skin. 42 Leaf Acne, pimple Leaf paste is applied topically around the affected areas of skin. 43 Seed, root Sexual disorder 1 seed inserted inside the root is eaten on an empty stomach for 7 days. 44 Leaf Instantaneous drop in high blood glucose level Leaf is chewed raw. Root Anxiolytic Root is soaked in hot water and taken as tea. 45 Leaf, bark Dysmenorrhoea/painful menstruation Extract obtained from leaf and bark is taken orally twice daily on an empty stomach for 5 days. 46 Seed Uterine muscle relaxant 1 spoon dried powder of inner white part of the seed added to milk and taken at the time of contraction. 47 leaf Piles Leaf juice is taken orally. 48 Root + stem Intestinal worms Roots and stems are soaked overnight in water and the water is taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach. 49 Leaf Itchy wound Smashed leaf applied topically to the affected area until cure. 50 Seed Energizer Seeds are soaked overnight in water, and the water along with seeds is taken orally on an empty stomach. 51 Leaf Bronchitis and pneumonia Juice extracted from the leaves is added to honey and taken on a regular basis until cured. Colds, coughs Leaf juice is mixed with the leaf juice of Justicia adhatoda and heated mildly before taken orally. 52 Root Tonsillitis, mumps Smashed root is eaten 4 times daily for two days 53 Leaf Diabetes, Cold Leaves are soaked in warm water and taken orally on a regular basis for diabetes and temporarily for cold. 54 Root Weakness, diabetes, multiple urinary problems Smashed root is taken orally in the morning on an empty stomach for 15 days. Repeated if problem persists. 55 Leaf Emollient, Hair conditioner Leaf paste is applied topically to the affected areas of skin. Leaf paste directly applied to hair. 56 Stem and leaves Urinary infection (infants) Stem with leaves has to be attached to the waist of the infant and has to be worn for three days. 57 Flower General Weakness and Debility Flowers are soaked overnight in water and the water is taken in the morning for 7 days. 58 Bark, leaf, Oral hygiene seed Dried bark powder is rubbed onto the teeth for cleaning of the gums and teeth. Anodynic properties Smashed leaves are applied to the affected area for pain. Oil extracted from seed is applied topically to the affected area for itching and pain. 59 Root, leaf Aphrodisiac Smashed leaf and root is added to brown sugar and taken orally at night after normal dinner. Thin stems Diabetes Dried stem powder is added to water or juice obtained from macerated leaf is taken. Leaf Provides calcium and relieves obstructions in the intestine. Juice obtained from macerated leaf is taken in the morning. Leaf Cough and burning sensation during urination Juice obtained from smashed leaves is added to water and taken for 3 days for coughs and more than 3 days for burning sensation during urination. 60 Leaf Nausea Smashed leaf is taken at time before vomiting. 61 Fruit Anxiolytic Fruit is eaten for seven days to lower anxiety. 62 Leaf Acute renal failure Juice obtained from leaves is taken to control the amount of water released. 63 Fruit Seed Indigestion Fruits are cooked and taken as vegetable twice a week. 64 Leaf Oral hygiene Leaves are chewed raw on a daily basis for removing stains from teeth. 65 leaf Kidney diseases Juice extracted from leaf is taken orally. 66 Leaf Halitosis (bad breath) Pinch of salt is taken into the mouth first and then washed whole leaf is taken with water on an empty stomach. 67 Leaf Aphthous ulcers (painful open sore in the mouth) Leaf is eaten raw twice daily for 3 days. 68 Leaf Jaundice Leaf is rubbed into hands and then into the eyes. 69 Leaf Hemostasis Chewed leaves are applied to the bleeding area topically to instantly stop bleeding. 70 Leaf Appetizer Paste of leaves along with seeds of Lens culinaris and table salt is fried and then taken as a vegetable. 71 Stem Oral hygiene Raw stems are rubbed onto the teeth and gums in the morning and night as toothpaste. 72 Fruit Chronic dysentery Paste obtains from dried young fruit powder and small amount of water is taken orally. Fruit Anti-dandruff Rotten fruit paste (from ripe fruit) is applied topically to the scalp and dried before being washed off. 73 Leaf Skin diseases, Allergy Juice obtained from smashed leaf is applied topically to the affected area for 2 days. 74 Root Leucorrhea Smashed root is added to the juice of three coconuts and taken orally. 75 Roots, seeds Toothache, Discoloration of teeth The roots and seeds are chewed raw for 5 days in the morning. 76 Leaf Jaundice, Nausea 7 Crushed leaves are chewed and taken with one glass of water for 3 days Precautions: abstention from eating hilsha fish (Tenualosa ilisha), shrimp, pulses, beef and red pumpkin have to be maintained. 77 Whole plant Aphrodisiac Whole plants are cooked and taken as vegetable or juice extracted from whole plant and taken. 78 Leaf Body Irritation Leaves are fried and eaten regularly until itching stops. Side effects -reported to cause mental craziness in people who have consumed this plant. 79 Leaf Hemorrhoids (Piles) Juice obtained from smashed leaves is added to sugar and taken orally. 80 Stem Sexual Weakness, General weakness Chopped stems are macerated and taken with brown sugar along with water. 81 Young leaf Intestinal worm and diabetes Taken raw directly. 82 Roots Allergy Powder obtained from three plant roots are added to water and taken orally. 83 Whole plant Sexually transmitted without fruits diseases and seeds Whole plant is eaten directly without seeds and fruits. 84 Leaf Intestinal worm and antipyretic Smashed leaves are taken on an empty stomach for 3 to 4 days. 85 Leaf Joining of broken bones, paralysis and as an anodyne Crushed leaves are massaged on to the affected area once daily for 2 to 3 days. 86 Bark Analgesic Dried bark powder is added to water and applied topically to the affected area. 87 Leaf Headache, dizziness, debility Crushed leaves are taken with water. 88 Stem, root Inability of a cow to walk Stem is made into a bangle and put on the ankle of the cow if it is unable to walk. Body ache in humans Root along with 7 pieces of ginger is made into paste and heated with mustard oil and applied to the affected area for 7 days. 89 Root Indigestion Juice obtained from smashed root is taken once daily for 3 days on an empty stomach. Leaf Hepatitis B and Jaundice Leaves are soaked in water and the water taken orally for 7 days for hepatitis B and 3 days for jaundice.
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|Title Annotation:||Original Articles|
|Author:||Mawla, Fariste; Khatoon, Safiyah; Rehana, Fatema; Jahan, Sharmin; Shelley, Md. Moshiur Rahman; Hossa|
|Publication:||American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture|
|Date:||Oct 1, 2012|
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