Ethnomedicinal knowledge among the Tonchongya tribal community of Roangchaari Upazila of Bandarban district, Bangladesh.
Allopathic medicine or medicine that is mostly described as modern medicine owes a lot to observations of ethnomedicinal practices of indigenous communities throughout the world. Indigenous communities, indeed human beings from their advent, have relied on natural materials and particularly plant products for treatment and healing of diseases that have also afflicted human beings, right from the day of their advent. As such, indigenous communities have accumulated considerable knowledge in the medicinal properties of natural substances, and more so of the medicinal properties of various plant species. Close observations of medicinal practices of indigenous communities have resulted in the discovery of many modern drugs like atropine, reserpine, strychnine, quinine and artemisinin, to name only a few (Balick and Cox, 1996; Cotton, 1996; Gilani and Rahman, 2005). Such information from ethnic groups or indigenous traditional medicine has also played a vital role in the discovery of novel chemotherapeutic agents from plants (Katewa et al., 2004). Despite the tremendous advancement of allopathic medicine in bringing relief to countless millions of people suffering in the world from manifold diseases, in recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in traditional medicinal systems, otherwise also known as alternative or complementary medicinal systems. This is because of a number of factors, like development of drug resistance to various allopathic medicines, as well as to adverse reactions associated with a number of allopathic drugs. Moreover, allopathic doctors and clinics are not available or affordable in many rural communities of the world, and such communities still rely on traditional medicinal systems as their first tier of primary health-care (Goleniowski et al., 2006). Globally, about 85% of all medications for primary health care are derived from plants (Farnsworth, 1988).
Traditional medicinal systems exist in almost all countries of the world and it is said that such systems in various countries use more than 80,000 plant species for treatment of different diseases. However, such traditional medicinal practices suffer from lack of documentation or inadequate documentation. This is true for all countries of the world including Bangladesh, which has still a number of different traditional medicinal systems like Ayurveda, Unani, homeopathy, and folk medicinal systems, all of which systems have their practitioners, clients, and adherents. Side by side, the various tribes of Bangladesh also have their own individual tribal medicines, which vary widely from tribe to tribe in the nature of the ingredients used for treatment, although most such tribal practices rely heavily on medicinal plants for treatment. Since many of these tribes and folk medicinal practices are on the verge of disappearance, we had been conducting systematic ethnomedicinal surveys among the folk medicinal practitioners and TMPs for a number of years (Nawaz et al., 2009; Rahmatullah et al., 2009a-c; Chowdhury et al., 2010; Hasan et al, 2010; Hossan et al., 2010; Mollik et al., 2010a,b; Rahmatullah et al., 2010a-g; Akber et al., 2011; Biswas et al., 2011a-c; Haque et al., 2011; Islam et al., 2011; Jahan et al., 2011; Rahmatullah et al., 2011a,b; Sarker et al., 2011; Shaheen et al., 2011; Das et al., 2012; Rahmatullah et al., 2012a-d). Our objective has been not only to document such practices before they get lost, but also to bring such practices to the attention of scientists so that appropriate scientific studies can be carried out on ingredients (primarily medicinal plants) leading to possible discover of newer and more effective drugs.
The Tonchongyas are a relatively small tribal community residing in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in the southeastern corner of Bangladesh. Often they are confused with their more numerous neighbors, the Chakma tribe. In fact, the Chakmas claim that the Tonchongyas are an offshoot of the Chakmas, which claim is vigorously denied by the Tonchongyas, who claim that they are a separate ethnic group. The Tonchongyas' primary residence is in the hilly forested regions of the Bandarban district in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, where various communities of the Tonchongyas can be found scattered in different areas. We have previously conducted an ethnomedicinal survey of the tribal practitioners of the Tonchongya tribe residing in Keyaju Para in Bandarban district in Bangladesh. Another community of this tribe was located in Roangchaari Upazila and more precisely in the villages of Bottoli Bazaar, Faruk Para, and Roangchaari Bazaar, also in the Bandarban district. It was of interest to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the tribal healers of this community to get a more complete coverage of the medicinal practices of this tribe, as well as to compare the medicinal practices of the two communities of the same tribe but residing in different areas.
Materials and Methods
The area of study comprised of (I) Bottoli Bazaar, Roangchaari Upazila, Bandarban district, (II) Faruk Para, Roangchaari Upazila, Bandarban district, and (III) Roangchaari Bazaar, Roangchaari Upazila, Bandarban district. The Tonchongya communities residing in the afore-mentioned three villages had eight practicing TMPs or Vaidyas, whose details are given below.
1. Binot Chawndo, age 50, male, Bottoloi Bazaar
2. Roro Chawndro, age 56, male, Bottoli Bazaar
3. Lalliun Khum, age 42, male, Faruk Para
4. Laramthiprun, age 54, female, Bottoli Bazaar
5. Lunjum Chawndrao, age 66, female, Bottoli Bazaar
6. Salmubi Kasha, age 40, male, Bottoli Bazaar
7. Shoshivushan, age 79, male, Faruk Para
8. Zumlian Ampli, age 34, female, Roangchaari Bazaar
Informed consent was first obtained from the TMPs. The TMPs were told individually in details of the nature and purpose of our visit, and informed consent obtained to mention their names and any information obtained in any national or international publications. Several of the TMPs were quite fluent in the Bengali language, the language spoken by the mainstream population of Bangladesh including the interviewers. Other TMPs were not so fluent in the Bengali language, and conversations with them as well as detailed interviews took place through the Headman of individual Tonchongya communities, who by and large could all speak and understand fluently the Bengali language. Interviews were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, the TMPs took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where they obtained their medicinal plants, pointed out the plants and described their uses. Plant specimens were photographed and collected on the spot, dried, and later brought back to Dhaka for complete identification by Mr. Manjur-Ul-Kadir Mia, ex-Curator and Principal Scientific Officer of the Bangladesh National Herbarium.
Results and Discussion
The eight TMPs of the Tonchongya communities interviewed in the present survey used a total of 54 plants for treatment of various ailments. The results are shown in Table 1. Various parts of the plant were observed to be used including leaves, roots, barks, stems, and fruits. Some preparations included whole plants. In most cases, a single plant part was used for treatment of diverse ailments. For instance, the leaves of Justicia adhatoda were used to treat malaria, coughs, and cold. The leaves of Calotropis gigantea were used as emollient, as well as for treatment of elephantitis, pain, boils, and abscesses. Occasionally, two parts from the same plant were observed to be used for treatment of two or more different ailments. For instance, rhizomes of Dioscorea belophylla were taken in the form of curry for its astringent effect. The leaf juice of the same plant was taken orally for jaundice, but crushed leaves were applied topically as treatment for pain. These varying modes of treatment with different parts of the same plant, as well as the different modes of administration (oral versus topical) suggested an in-depth knowledge of the medicinal plants to be present among the TMPs.
In some cases, a combination of plants was used for treatment. For instance, for treatment of burning sensations during urination, frequent urination, urinary tract infections, and irregular urination, whole plants of Celosia argentea were mixed with roots of Cyperus difformis, young stems of Curculigo orchioides and female elephant's teeth, and small pills were made from the mixture. Two pills were advised to be taken 2-3 times daily and depending on the severity of the problem continued up to 6 days. A notable use in this case was use of an animal part, namely a female elephant's teeth within the ingredient mixture. Whether the use of such an animal part really had any beneficial effect or merely served as a placebo effect, remains to be determined scientifically. Another example of a formulation containing combination of plant parts was the combination of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula for treatment of fever and body ache as well prescribed as an aphrodisiac and an energizer. Notably, the fruits of these three plants in combination are well known as Triphala in Ayurvedic medicine and also used in Ayurveda for multiple disease treatment as well as an energizer.
A number of plants/plant parts were used as aphrodisiacs and for treatment of urinary tract infections, suggesting that sexual problems and infections of the urinary tract may be common afflictions at least within these Tonchongya communities surveyed. Leaves and barks of Alstonia scholaris, infusion of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula, whole plants of Cuscuta reflexa, leaves of Desmodium motorium were all used as aphrodisiacs. Similarly, for treatment of urinary tract infections, the various plants or plant parts used included whole plants of Celosia argentea (along with roots of Cyperus difformis and stems of Curculigo orchioides), leaves of Desmodium laxiflorum, seeds of Hyptis suaveolens, whole plants of Lycopodium clavatum, roots of Melastoma malabathricum, and roots of Oxyspora paniculata. That urinary tract infections may be common among the Tonchongya communities come as no surprise, considering the forest habitat and the generally unhealthy conditions of living. The same applies to prevalence of various gastrointestinal disorders including diarrhea (treated with Eryngium foetidum), and acidity, stomach ache, diarrhea (treated with Alpinia nigra or Curcuma aromatica). The forest habitat and the generally unhealthy conditions of living may also be responsible for the occurrence of various skin diseases (treated with a number of plants, e.g. Bridelia scandens or Cassia alata) as well as helminthiasis.
Some of the diseases treated by the Tonchongya TMPs are worth mentioning. Malaria was treated with Justicia adhatoda or Eryngium foetidum. In 2006, it was estimated that Bangladesh had 2.9 million malaria cases with 15,000 deaths (Alam et al., 2010). Malaria is prevalent throughout Bangladesh, the highest prevalence being noted in the southeast and the northeast regions of the country (Chittagong and Sylhet Divisions, respectively). In a survey conducted in Khagrachari district in the southeastern part of Bangladesh, the average malaria prevalence was found to be 15.47% (Haque et al., 2009a). It has been reported that Bangladesh has hypo-endemic malaria with P. falciparum as the dominant parasite species (Haque et al., 2009b). Thus any of these two plants, if proved scientifically to be really effective against malaria as claimed by the Tonchongya TMPs can be beneficial for the whole world in isolating possibly new anti-malarial compounds. Rheumatism was treated by the Tonchongya TMPs with Kalanchoe pinnata. This disease has no known cure in allopathic medicine and as such, any compound capable of curing rheumatism can also prove beneficial to millions of human beings throughout the world, who suffer from this disease.
Diabetes is another disease which cannot be cured with allopathic medicine. The Tonchongya TMPs used Cuscuta reflexa and Cassia fistula to treat this disease. The anti-hyperglycemic activity of Cuscuta reflexa and Cassia fistula has been described (Rahmatullah et al., 2010h; Nirmala et al., 2008). The scientific results not only validated the Tonchongya TMPs use of these two plants for treatment of diabetes but suggest that the
plants may prove useful in the discovery of compounds, which if not effective in total diabetes cure, will be effective in the lowering of blood sugar levels, which is a clinical manifestation in diabetic patients. The TMPs used the plant Entada phaseoloides for treatment of skin cancer. As to the precise mechanisms how the TMPs diagnosed skin cancer or diabetes in the absence of any modern diagnostic procedures remain an open question. However, they claimed to know these two diseases and further claimed the efficacy of treatment with the aforementioned plants. The validity of the latter claim remains to be scientifically validated. However, three new compounds have been reported from this plant, two of which, namely, 2-hydroxy-5-butoxyphenylacetic acid and 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid methyl ester gave [ED.sub.50] values of 1.0 and 1.7 microg per ml, respectively, with cultured P-388 cells (Dai et al, 1991).
Ailments treated with two of the plants, namely Abroma augusta and Vitex negundo, seemed to be esoteric in nature. The first plant was used for treatment of mental sickness 'due to possession by ghosts or evil spirits', while the second plant was used for treatment of fear due to 'evil spirits or ghosts'. Whether such beings exist or not is scientifically debatable. However, since the Tonchongyas live in forest areas where total darkness ensues at night whenever there is not sufficient moonlight, or even during sufficient moonlight (when the forest takes on an eerie appearance), such ailments might reflect the primordial fear of man of darkness, when human beings cannot see and may start imagining things. Notably, Vitex negundo has a very pungent odor, which odor is supposed to repel ghosts and evil spirits. Mustard oil, which also has a very pungent odor, is also occasionally used by the rural mainstream population of Bangladesh for the same purpose.
Solanum lasiocarpum, a plant used by the Tonchongya TMPs to treat syphilis is also used in the Philippines for the same purpose. Oxyspora paniculata, used by the Tonchongya TMPs to treat jaundice and urinary tract infection is used by the Adi tribe of Arunachal Pradesh of India for shining of teeth (Srivastava and Adi community, 2009). Justicia gendarussa, used by the Tonchongya TMPs for treatment of liver disorders and as an astringent, is used by the Mullu kuruma tribe of Wayanad district in Kerala, India for treatment of rheumatism (Silja et al., 2008). Sansevieria roxburghiana, a plant used by the Tonchongya TMPs for treatment of ear infections and as an abortifacient, has been reported to be used by the Mali tribe of Munchingiputtu Mandal of Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India for treatment of dysentery, jaundice, malaria, and fever (Padal et al., 2012). Celosia argentea, used by the Tonchongya TMPs for urinary tract infections and urinary disorders is reportedly used by the Konda Reddi and Koyas tribes of Khammam district of Andhra Pradesh, India for treatment of dysentery and diarrhea (Raju and Reddy, 2005). Spondias pinnata, used by the Tonchongya TMPs for treatment of wounds, otitis and otalgia, is used by the Tai Ahom tribe of Dibrugarh district, Assam, India for treatment of dysentery (Kalita and Phukan, 2010). The plant is also used by villagers around Gingee Hills of Villupuram district in Tamil Nadu, India for treatment of stomach ache (Muralidharan and Narasimhan, 2012).
Desmos chinensis is used by the tribals of Mizoram in northeast India for treatment of painful urination (Rai and Lalramnghinglova, 2010); the Tonchongya TMPs used this plant for treatment of nausea and dysentery. Eryngium foetidum, used by the Tonchongya TMPs for treatment of pain, diarrhea, and malaria is reportedly used by the Kurichya tribe of Kannur district, Western Ghats, Kerala, India for treatment of muscular pain (Rajith and Ramachandran, 2010). Alstonia scholaris was used by the Tonchongya TMPs for treatment of inflammation, fever, as antidote to poison, and as an aphrodisiac; the tribal people of Mizoram in India use this plant for treatment of wounds, boils, and ear ache (Bhardwaj and Gakhar, 2005), while the Santhal, Kolha, Bathudi, Kharia, Mankudia, Gond, and Ho tribes of Mayurbhanj district in Orissa, India use the plant for treatment of lice infestations (Rout and Panda, 2010). From the limited discussion (above), it appears that the use of the various plant species for treatment by the Tonchongya TMPs is more or less unique to this tribe. This only highlights the importance of conducting more ethnomedicinal surveys among other Tonchongya communities to get a fuller account of their ethnomedicinal plants.
The above point gets more importance if the survey results from a previous survey conducted among a Tonchongya community in Keyaju Para in Bandarban district (Rashid et al., 2012) is compared with the present survey results. Of the 21 plant species obtained in the previous survey and the 54 plant species obtained in the present survey, only two plant species were found in common, and even then these two plant species were used for treatment of different diseases. The two plant species were Cassia alata and Hyptis suaveolens. But while the TMPs of Keyaju Para used Cassia alata for treatment of stomach pain due to bloating or indigestion, the TMPs of the present survey used the same plant species for treatment of ringworm, eczema, itch, scabies, and other skin diseases. Similarly, the TMPs of Keyaju Para used Hyptis suaveolens for treatment of diabetes, jaundice, and burning sensations during urination, the TMPs of the present survey used this plant for treatment of kidney diseases, urinary tract infections, dysuria, and as a laxative and cooling agent. The only common feature between the two treatments is urinary disorder. The results are shown in Table 2.
To conclude, the use of various plant species used by the Tonchongya TMPs in this survey (for treatment of various disorders) show unique features in the sense that such uses have not been recorded with the other Tonchongya community surveyed previously. A short analysis of ethnomedicinal uses of various plant species by a number of tribes in India (which is adjacent to Bangladesh) also shows that the presently surveyed Tonchongya community uses plant species for treatment of different types of disorders than that noted for other tribes of India. It is therefore important to conduct ethnomedicinal surveys among all communities of the same tribe (even though they may reside in adjacent areas) to get a comprehensive picture of the traditional medicinal practices of the whole tribe. Also gathering of such detailed information opens up new pathways for scientists to study various pharmacological properties of any given plant species.
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Md. Shahadat Hossan, Prozzal Roy, Syeda Seraj, Sadia Moin Mou, Mirza Nipa Monalisa, Sharmin Jahan, Tania Khan, Auditi Swarna, Rownak Jahan, Mohammed Rahmatullah
Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.
Corresponding Author: Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh Phone: 88-01715032621; Fax: 88-02-8157339; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1: Medicinal plants and formulations of the tribal medicinal practitioners of the Tonchongya tribal community residing in three villages of Roangchaari Upazila in Bandarban district, Bangladesh. Serial Scientific Name Family Name Local Name Utilize Number Part 1 Justicia Acanthaceae Bondugi Leaf adhatoda L. 2 Justicia Acanthaceae Moghajam Leaf gendarussa Burm.f. 3 Thunbergia Acanthaceae But-taluri Stem grandiflora Roxb. 4 Sansevieria Agavaceae Chondrokirchi Leaf, roxburgiana root Schult. & Schult. F. 5 Celosia Amaranthaceae Suichhang Whole argentea L. shak plant 6 Spondias Anacardiaceae Aamagula Fruit, pinnata bark (L.f.) Kurz 7 Desmos Annonaceae Fualing-gait Leaf, chinensis fruit Lour. 8 Eryngium Apiaceae Sabung Leaf/ foetidum L. whole plant 9 Alstonia Apocynaceae Sechena Leaf, scholaris bark (L.) R.Br. 10 Calotropis Asclepiadaceae Aangaith Leaf gigantea R.Br. 11 Begonia Begoniaceae Shilterui Whole barbata Wall. (laal) plant ex A.DC. 12 Begonia Begoniaceae Shilterui Whole silhetensis (shada) plant (A. DC.) C. B. Clarke) 13 Oroxylum Leaf, indicum Vent. Bignoniaceae Kongcha-gula bark 14 Terminalia Combretaceae Boara Fruit belerica infusion (Gaertn.) Roxb. 15 Terminalia Fruit Combretaceae infusion Oittal chebula Retz. 16 Kalanchoe Crassulaceae Jionpata Leaf pinnata (Lam.) Pers. 17 Cuscuta Cuscutaceae Toruluri, Whole reflexa Roxb. Toinluri plant 18 Cyperus Cyperaceae Daralek Root difformis L. 19 Dioscorea Dioscoreaceae Khoiaa aalo Leaf, belophylla rhizome (Prain) Haines 20 Dioscorea Dioscoreaceae Jabaul kochu Leaf wallichii Hook.f. 21 Antidesma Euphorbiaceae Khurungait Leaf acuminatum Wall. ex Wight 22 Bridelia Euphorbiaceae Seetalung Leaf, scandens root (Roxb.) Wild 23 Phyllanthus Euphorbiaceae Kalamala Fruit emblica L. infusion 24 Cassia alata Fabaceae Dostolong Leaf L. 25 Cassia Fabaceae Bandorsirole Leaf, fistula L. hupa root, fruit 26 Cassia Fabaceae Echihe Leaf sophera L. 27 Desmodium Fabaceae Roghing Leaf laxiflorum DC. 28 Desmodium Fabaceae Turgimoton Leaf motorium (Houtt.) Merr. 29 Ganoderma Ganodermataceae Baghedud Whole applanatum fungus (Pers.) 30 Curculigo Hypoxidaceae Milonipara Young orchioides stem Gaertn. 31 Gomphostemma Lamiaceae Dubahoksha Root crinitum Wallich ex Bentham 32 Hyptis Lamiaceae Chungfulgait Seed suaveolens (L.) Poit. 33 Leucas aspera Lamiaceae Dondo-upon Root (Willd.) Link. 34 Ocimum Lamiaceae Ranga tulshe Leaf, sanctum L. root 35 Asparagus Liliaceae Shotmul Leaf, racemosus root Willd. 36 Lycopodium Lycopodiaceae Jurbing Whole clavatum L. plant powder 37 Melastoma Melastomataceae Gach putti Root malabathricum L. 38 Oxyspora Melastomataceae Luri putti Root paniculata DC. 39 Stephania Menispermaceae Patalput Root japonica (Thunb.) Miers 40 Entada Mimosaceae Gilagait Leaf, phaseoloides fruit (L.) Merr. 41 Passiflora Passifloraceae Gulahing Fruit foetida L. 42 Plumbago Plumbaginaceae Aagunijira Leaf, zeylanica L. flower 43 Drynaria Polypodiaceae Poshla Rhizome quercifolia (L.) J.Sm. 44 Mussaenda Rubiaceae Aitgait Young corymbosa leaf Roxb. 45 Scoparia Scrophulariaceae Roapatakher Leaf dulcis L. 46 Solanum Solanaceae Betbiongula Root, lasiocarpum fruit Dunal 47 Abroma Sterculiaceae Gaicchola Flower augusta L.f. 48 Buettneria Sterculiaceae Siamgaith Leaf, pilosa Roxb. root 49 Grewia Tiliaceae Khing-ar-khial Fruit laevigata Vahl 50 Vitex negundo Verbenaceae Choinmain Leaf L. 51 Cissus adnata Vitaceae Chamthorthegait Root Roxb. 52 Vitis sp. Vitaceae Kangamelaw Young leaf 53 Alpinia nigra Zingiberaceae Palek Young (Gaertn.) stem, B.L.Burtt rhizome 54 Curcuma Zingiberaceae Palek Leaf, aromatica rhizome Salisb. Serial Scientific Name Ailment Number 1 Justicia Malaria, coughs, cold. adhatoda L. 2 Justicia Liver disorder, astringent. gendarussa Burm.f. 3 Thunbergia Conjunctivitis, eye inflammation, grandiflora Roxb. 4 Sansevieria Ear infection, abortifacient. Leaf is heated roxburgiana over a fire and then leaf juice collected Schult. & which is applied to ear canal for ear Schult. F. infection. Roots are inserted into the vagina to induce abortion. 5 Celosia Burning sensations during urination, frequent argentea L. urination, urinary tract infections, irregular urination. Whole plants of Celosia argentea are mixed with roots of Cyperus difformis, young stems of Curculigo orchioides and female elephant's teeth and small pills made from the mixture. Two pills are taken 2-3 times daily and depending on the severity of the problem continued up to 6 days. 6 Spondias Vitamin source, wounds, otitis (inflammation pinnata or infection of the ear), otalgia (ear ache). (L.f.) Kurz Fruits are eaten as vitamin source. Juice obtained from macerated fruits and bark is applied to ears for otitis and otalgia. 7 Desmos Nausea, dysentery. chinensis Lour. 8 Eryngium Pain, diarrhea, malaria. Whole plant is taken foetidum L. as curry. Alternately, leaf juice is taken (one tea spoon for 4-5 days). 9 Alstonia Aphrodisiac, antidote to poisoning, scholaris inflammation, fever. (L.) R.Br. 10 Calotropis Elephantitis, emollient, pain, boils, gigantea abscess. Leaf paste is rubbed on affected R.Br. places. 11 Begonia Irregular menstruation, dysmennorhea (pain barbata Wall. during menstruation), headache. Juice ex A.DC. obtained from macerated whole plant is taken two tea spoons twice daily for 3 days. 12 Begonia Irregular menstruation, dysmennorhea (pain silhetensis during menstruation), headache. Juice (A. DC.) obtained from macerated whole plant is taken C. B. Clarke) two tea spoons twice daily for 3 days. 13 Oroxylum Liver disease, arthritis, diarrhea, indicum Vent. cicatrizant (wound healing). 14 Terminalia Aphrodisiac, energizer, fever, body ache. belerica Infusion of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, (Gaertn.) Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula is Roxb. taken daily on an empty stomach on a regular basis. 15 Terminalia Aphrodisiac, energizer, fever, body ache. Combretaceae Infusion of fruits of Phyllanthus Oittal chebula Retz. 16 Kalanchoe Pain, boils, abscess, rheumatism, eczema. pinnata Crushed leaf or leaf paste is applied (Lam.) Pers. topically to affected areas of the body. 17 Cuscuta Aphrodisiac, diabetes, anti-oxidant. Whole reflexa Roxb. plant is taken orally in the form of chutney or curry. 18 Cyperus Burning sensations during urination, frequent difformis L. urination, urinary tract infections, irregular urination. Whole plants of Celosia argentea are mixed with roots of Cyperus difformis, young stems of Curculigo orchioides and female elephant's teeth and small pills made from the mixture. Two pills are taken 2-3 times daily and depending on the severity of the problem continued up to 6 days. 19 Dioscorea Astringent, jaundice, topical pain. Rhizome belophylla is eaten as curry. Leaf juice is taken for (Prain) jaundice. Crushed leaves are applied Haines topically to painful areas. 20 Dioscorea Dandruff, itch on scalp. Leaf juice is wallichii applied to head. Hook.f. 21 Antidesma Arthritis, gout, snake bite. acuminatum Wall. ex Wight 22 Bridelia Inflammation, scabies, dermatitis. scandens (Roxb.) Wild 23 Phyllanthus Aphrodisiac, energizer, fever, body ache. emblica L. Infusion of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula is taken daily on an empty stomach on a regular basis. 24 Cassia alata Ringworm, eczema, itch, scabies, skin L. disease. Coughs, helminthiasis, diabetes, irregular urination, edema, 25 Cassia fistula L. Coughs, helminthiasis, diabetes, irregular urination, edema, constipation. 26 Cassia Gall bladder stone. Leaves are eaten as sophera L. vegetable. Alternately, juice obtained from crushed leaf is taken (half tea spoon) for 10 days. 27 Desmodium Fainting, urinary tract infection, burning laxiflorum sensations. DC. 28 Desmodium motorium Aphrodisiac, loss of appetite, cicatrizant (Houtt.) (wound healing), scabies. Merr. 29 Ganoderma Energizer, anti-spasmodic, anti-oxidant. applanatum (Pers.) 30 Curculigo Burning sensations during urination, frequent orchioides urination, urinary tract infections, Gaertn. irregular urination. Whole plants of Celosia argentea are mixed with roots of Cyperus difformis, young stems of Curculigo orchioides and female elephant's teeth and small pills made from the mixture. Two pills are taken 2-3 times daily and depending on the severity of the problem continued up to 6 days. 31 Gomphostemma Malaria, asthma, hepatic disorders. Infusion crinitum of root is taken orally for 3 days. Wallich ex Bentham 32 Hyptis Cooling agent, kidney disease, urinary tract suaveolens infections, dysuria (painful urination), (L.) Poit. laxative. Seeds are soaked in water and taken as a drink. 33 Leucas aspera Excessive menstrual bleeding. Juice obtained (Willd.) from macerated root is taken with table salt Link. twice daily for 7 days. 34 Ocimum Coughs, cold. Juice obtained from macerated sanctum L. leaves and roots is taken (one tea spoon) twice daily for 3-5 days. 35 Asparagus Asthma, cough, cold. racemosus Willd. 36 Lycopodium Urinary tract infections, irregular urination. clavatum L. 37 Melastoma Urinary tract infection. Juice obtained from malabathricum macerated root is taken (one tea spoon) with L. yogurt daily in the morning for 3 days. 38 Oxyspora Urinary tract infection, jaundice. Juice paniculata obtained from macerated root (one tea spoon) DC. is taken daily in the morning with yogurt for 3 days. 39 Stephania Pneumonia, cold, coughs, fever in children. japonica Pill made from crushed root (one pill each (Thunb.) time) is taken twice daily for one week. Miers 40 Entada Energizer, skin cancer, wound healing. phaseoloides (L.) Merr. 41 Passiflora Helminthiasis, asthma. Ripe fruits are eaten. foetida L. 42 Plumbago Dysmennorhea, asthma, irregular menstruation. zeylanica L. 43 Drynaria Epilepsy, skin disease, anti-bacterial. Pill quercifolia made from rhizome is taken orally (one pill (L.) J.Sm. twice a day for 6-12 months). 44 Mussaenda Arthritis, gout, joint pain. Crushed young corymbosa leaves are warmed and applied or rubbed onto Roxb. affected areas. 45 Scoparia Snake bite, insect bite, antidote to poison. dulcis L. Juice obtained from macerated leaves is topically applied for snake and insect bites and taken orally as antidote to poison. 46 Solanum Syphilis, toothache, also eaten as food. lasiocarpum Dunal 47 Abroma Mental sickness due to possession by ghosts augusta L.f. or evil spirits. 48 Buettneria Blood purifier. pilosa Roxb. 49 Grewia Eaten as food, liver disease, dyspepsia. laevigata Vahl 50 Vitex negundo Fear due to evil spirits or ghosts, L. tranquilizer, headache, allergy. Leaves are kept or carried alongside the body. 51 Cissus adnata Coughs, dyspepsia, asthma. Roxb. 52 Vitis sp. Jaundice, burning sensations, dermatitis. Young leaves are eaten as curry following cooking with crabs as treatment for burning sensations or dermatitis. Leaf juice is taken for jaundice. 53 Alpinia nigra Gastrointestinal disorders (acidity, stomach (Gaertn.) ache, diarrhea), sudden bouts of faintness, B.L.Burtt vertigo. Juice obtained from macerated young stem and rhizome mix is taken with table salt twice daily for 7 days. 54 Curcuma Gastrointestinal problem, acidity, stomach aromatica ache, fainting, vertigo, diarrhea, asthma. Salisb. Juice obtained from macerated mix of leaf and rhizome is taken orally. Table 2: Comparison of medicinal plants used by the Tonchongya TMPs of Keyaju Para (earlier study) versus the Tonchongya TMPs in the present survey. Plant (previous study) Family Acorus calamus Acoraceae Holarrhena antidysenterica Apocynaceae Chromolaena odorata Asteraceae Mikania cordata Asteraceae Spilanthes paniculata Asteraceae Ipomoea quamoclit Convolvulaceae Brassica juncea Cruciferae Diplazium esculentum Dryopteridaceae Ca/anus cajan Fabaceae Cassia alata Fabaceae Derris elliptica Fabaceae Desmodium alata Fabaceae Hyptis suaveolens Lamiaceae Ocimum americanum Lamiaceae Cinnamomum camphora Lauraceae Sida rhombifolia Malvaceae Ficus hispida Moraceae Plantago ovata Plantaginaceae Thysanolaena maxima Poaceae Smilax zeylanica Smilacaceae Clerodendrum viscosum Verbenaceae Plant (present survey) Family Justicia adhatoda Acanthaceae Justicia gendarussa Acanthaceae Thunbergia grandiflora Acanthaceae Sansevieria roxburghiana Agavaceae Celosia argentea Amaranthaceae Spondias pinnata Anacardiaceae Desmos chinensis Annonaceae Eryngium foetidum Apiaceae Alstonia scholaris Apocynaceae Calotropis gigantea Asclepiadaceae Begonia barbata Begoniaceae Begonia silhetensis Begoniaceae Oroxylum indicum Bignoniaceae Terminalia belerica Combretaceae Terminalia chebula Combretaceae Kalanchoe pinnata Crassulaceae Cuscuta reflexa Cuscutaceae Cyperus difformis Cyperaceae Dioscorea belophylla Disocoreaceae Dioscorea wallichii Dioscoreaceae Antidesma acuminatum Euphorbiaceae Bridelia scandens Euphorbiaceae Phyllanthus emblica Euphorbiaceae Cassia alata Fabaceae Cassia fistula Fabaceae Cassia sophera Fabaceae Desmodium laxiflorum Fabaceae Desmodium motorium Fabaceae Ganoderma applanatum Ganodermataceae Curculigo orchioides Hypoxidaceae Gomphostemma crinitum Lamiaceae Hyptis suaveolens Lamiaceae Leucas aspera Lamiaceae Ocimum sanctum Lamiaceae Asparagus racemosus Liliaceae Lycopodium clavatum Lycopodiaceae Melastoma malabathricum Melastomataceae Oxyspora paniculata Melastomataceae Stephania japonica Menispermaceae Entada phaseoloides Mimosaceae Passiflora foetida Passifloraceae Plumbago zeylanica Plumbaginaceae Drynaria quercifolia Polypodiaceae Mussaenda corymbosa Rubiaceae Scoparia dulcis Scrophulariaceae Solanum lasiocarpum Solanaceae Abroma augusta Sterculiaceae Buettneria pilosa Sterculiaceae Grewia laevigata Tiliaceae Vitex negundo Verbenaceae Cissus adnata Vitaceae Vitis sp. Vitaceae Alpinia nigra Zingiberaceae Curcuma aromatica Zingiberaceae Common plant names are indicated in bold lettering.
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|Title Annotation:||Original Articles|
|Author:||Hossan, Md. Shahadat; Roy, Prozzal; Seraj, Syeda; Mou, Sadia Moin; Monalisa, Mirza Nipa; Jahan, Shar|
|Publication:||American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture|
|Date:||Oct 1, 2012|
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