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Ethnomedicinal knowledge among the Tonchongya tribal community of Roangchaari Upazila of Bandarban district, Bangladesh.

Introduction

Allopathic medicine or medicine that is mostly described as modern medicine owes a lot to observations of ethnomedicinal practices of indigenous communities throughout the world. Indigenous communities, indeed human beings from their advent, have relied on natural materials and particularly plant products for treatment and healing of diseases that have also afflicted human beings, right from the day of their advent. As such, indigenous communities have accumulated considerable knowledge in the medicinal properties of natural substances, and more so of the medicinal properties of various plant species. Close observations of medicinal practices of indigenous communities have resulted in the discovery of many modern drugs like atropine, reserpine, strychnine, quinine and artemisinin, to name only a few (Balick and Cox, 1996; Cotton, 1996; Gilani and Rahman, 2005). Such information from ethnic groups or indigenous traditional medicine has also played a vital role in the discovery of novel chemotherapeutic agents from plants (Katewa et al., 2004). Despite the tremendous advancement of allopathic medicine in bringing relief to countless millions of people suffering in the world from manifold diseases, in recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in traditional medicinal systems, otherwise also known as alternative or complementary medicinal systems. This is because of a number of factors, like development of drug resistance to various allopathic medicines, as well as to adverse reactions associated with a number of allopathic drugs. Moreover, allopathic doctors and clinics are not available or affordable in many rural communities of the world, and such communities still rely on traditional medicinal systems as their first tier of primary health-care (Goleniowski et al., 2006). Globally, about 85% of all medications for primary health care are derived from plants (Farnsworth, 1988).

Traditional medicinal systems exist in almost all countries of the world and it is said that such systems in various countries use more than 80,000 plant species for treatment of different diseases. However, such traditional medicinal practices suffer from lack of documentation or inadequate documentation. This is true for all countries of the world including Bangladesh, which has still a number of different traditional medicinal systems like Ayurveda, Unani, homeopathy, and folk medicinal systems, all of which systems have their practitioners, clients, and adherents. Side by side, the various tribes of Bangladesh also have their own individual tribal medicines, which vary widely from tribe to tribe in the nature of the ingredients used for treatment, although most such tribal practices rely heavily on medicinal plants for treatment. Since many of these tribes and folk medicinal practices are on the verge of disappearance, we had been conducting systematic ethnomedicinal surveys among the folk medicinal practitioners and TMPs for a number of years (Nawaz et al., 2009; Rahmatullah et al., 2009a-c; Chowdhury et al., 2010; Hasan et al, 2010; Hossan et al., 2010; Mollik et al., 2010a,b; Rahmatullah et al., 2010a-g; Akber et al., 2011; Biswas et al., 2011a-c; Haque et al., 2011; Islam et al., 2011; Jahan et al., 2011; Rahmatullah et al., 2011a,b; Sarker et al., 2011; Shaheen et al., 2011; Das et al., 2012; Rahmatullah et al., 2012a-d). Our objective has been not only to document such practices before they get lost, but also to bring such practices to the attention of scientists so that appropriate scientific studies can be carried out on ingredients (primarily medicinal plants) leading to possible discover of newer and more effective drugs.

The Tonchongyas are a relatively small tribal community residing in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in the southeastern corner of Bangladesh. Often they are confused with their more numerous neighbors, the Chakma tribe. In fact, the Chakmas claim that the Tonchongyas are an offshoot of the Chakmas, which claim is vigorously denied by the Tonchongyas, who claim that they are a separate ethnic group. The Tonchongyas' primary residence is in the hilly forested regions of the Bandarban district in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, where various communities of the Tonchongyas can be found scattered in different areas. We have previously conducted an ethnomedicinal survey of the tribal practitioners of the Tonchongya tribe residing in Keyaju Para in Bandarban district in Bangladesh. Another community of this tribe was located in Roangchaari Upazila and more precisely in the villages of Bottoli Bazaar, Faruk Para, and Roangchaari Bazaar, also in the Bandarban district. It was of interest to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the tribal healers of this community to get a more complete coverage of the medicinal practices of this tribe, as well as to compare the medicinal practices of the two communities of the same tribe but residing in different areas.

Materials and Methods

The area of study comprised of (I) Bottoli Bazaar, Roangchaari Upazila, Bandarban district, (II) Faruk Para, Roangchaari Upazila, Bandarban district, and (III) Roangchaari Bazaar, Roangchaari Upazila, Bandarban district. The Tonchongya communities residing in the afore-mentioned three villages had eight practicing TMPs or Vaidyas, whose details are given below.

1. Binot Chawndo, age 50, male, Bottoloi Bazaar

2. Roro Chawndro, age 56, male, Bottoli Bazaar

3. Lalliun Khum, age 42, male, Faruk Para

4. Laramthiprun, age 54, female, Bottoli Bazaar

5. Lunjum Chawndrao, age 66, female, Bottoli Bazaar

6. Salmubi Kasha, age 40, male, Bottoli Bazaar

7. Shoshivushan, age 79, male, Faruk Para

8. Zumlian Ampli, age 34, female, Roangchaari Bazaar

Informed consent was first obtained from the TMPs. The TMPs were told individually in details of the nature and purpose of our visit, and informed consent obtained to mention their names and any information obtained in any national or international publications. Several of the TMPs were quite fluent in the Bengali language, the language spoken by the mainstream population of Bangladesh including the interviewers. Other TMPs were not so fluent in the Bengali language, and conversations with them as well as detailed interviews took place through the Headman of individual Tonchongya communities, who by and large could all speak and understand fluently the Bengali language. Interviews were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, the TMPs took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where they obtained their medicinal plants, pointed out the plants and described their uses. Plant specimens were photographed and collected on the spot, dried, and later brought back to Dhaka for complete identification by Mr. Manjur-Ul-Kadir Mia, ex-Curator and Principal Scientific Officer of the Bangladesh National Herbarium.

Results and Discussion

The eight TMPs of the Tonchongya communities interviewed in the present survey used a total of 54 plants for treatment of various ailments. The results are shown in Table 1. Various parts of the plant were observed to be used including leaves, roots, barks, stems, and fruits. Some preparations included whole plants. In most cases, a single plant part was used for treatment of diverse ailments. For instance, the leaves of Justicia adhatoda were used to treat malaria, coughs, and cold. The leaves of Calotropis gigantea were used as emollient, as well as for treatment of elephantitis, pain, boils, and abscesses. Occasionally, two parts from the same plant were observed to be used for treatment of two or more different ailments. For instance, rhizomes of Dioscorea belophylla were taken in the form of curry for its astringent effect. The leaf juice of the same plant was taken orally for jaundice, but crushed leaves were applied topically as treatment for pain. These varying modes of treatment with different parts of the same plant, as well as the different modes of administration (oral versus topical) suggested an in-depth knowledge of the medicinal plants to be present among the TMPs.

In some cases, a combination of plants was used for treatment. For instance, for treatment of burning sensations during urination, frequent urination, urinary tract infections, and irregular urination, whole plants of Celosia argentea were mixed with roots of Cyperus difformis, young stems of Curculigo orchioides and female elephant's teeth, and small pills were made from the mixture. Two pills were advised to be taken 2-3 times daily and depending on the severity of the problem continued up to 6 days. A notable use in this case was use of an animal part, namely a female elephant's teeth within the ingredient mixture. Whether the use of such an animal part really had any beneficial effect or merely served as a placebo effect, remains to be determined scientifically. Another example of a formulation containing combination of plant parts was the combination of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula for treatment of fever and body ache as well prescribed as an aphrodisiac and an energizer. Notably, the fruits of these three plants in combination are well known as Triphala in Ayurvedic medicine and also used in Ayurveda for multiple disease treatment as well as an energizer.

A number of plants/plant parts were used as aphrodisiacs and for treatment of urinary tract infections, suggesting that sexual problems and infections of the urinary tract may be common afflictions at least within these Tonchongya communities surveyed. Leaves and barks of Alstonia scholaris, infusion of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula, whole plants of Cuscuta reflexa, leaves of Desmodium motorium were all used as aphrodisiacs. Similarly, for treatment of urinary tract infections, the various plants or plant parts used included whole plants of Celosia argentea (along with roots of Cyperus difformis and stems of Curculigo orchioides), leaves of Desmodium laxiflorum, seeds of Hyptis suaveolens, whole plants of Lycopodium clavatum, roots of Melastoma malabathricum, and roots of Oxyspora paniculata. That urinary tract infections may be common among the Tonchongya communities come as no surprise, considering the forest habitat and the generally unhealthy conditions of living. The same applies to prevalence of various gastrointestinal disorders including diarrhea (treated with Eryngium foetidum), and acidity, stomach ache, diarrhea (treated with Alpinia nigra or Curcuma aromatica). The forest habitat and the generally unhealthy conditions of living may also be responsible for the occurrence of various skin diseases (treated with a number of plants, e.g. Bridelia scandens or Cassia alata) as well as helminthiasis.

Some of the diseases treated by the Tonchongya TMPs are worth mentioning. Malaria was treated with Justicia adhatoda or Eryngium foetidum. In 2006, it was estimated that Bangladesh had 2.9 million malaria cases with 15,000 deaths (Alam et al., 2010). Malaria is prevalent throughout Bangladesh, the highest prevalence being noted in the southeast and the northeast regions of the country (Chittagong and Sylhet Divisions, respectively). In a survey conducted in Khagrachari district in the southeastern part of Bangladesh, the average malaria prevalence was found to be 15.47% (Haque et al., 2009a). It has been reported that Bangladesh has hypo-endemic malaria with P. falciparum as the dominant parasite species (Haque et al., 2009b). Thus any of these two plants, if proved scientifically to be really effective against malaria as claimed by the Tonchongya TMPs can be beneficial for the whole world in isolating possibly new anti-malarial compounds. Rheumatism was treated by the Tonchongya TMPs with Kalanchoe pinnata. This disease has no known cure in allopathic medicine and as such, any compound capable of curing rheumatism can also prove beneficial to millions of human beings throughout the world, who suffer from this disease.

Diabetes is another disease which cannot be cured with allopathic medicine. The Tonchongya TMPs used Cuscuta reflexa and Cassia fistula to treat this disease. The anti-hyperglycemic activity of Cuscuta reflexa and Cassia fistula has been described (Rahmatullah et al., 2010h; Nirmala et al., 2008). The scientific results not only validated the Tonchongya TMPs use of these two plants for treatment of diabetes but suggest that the

plants may prove useful in the discovery of compounds, which if not effective in total diabetes cure, will be effective in the lowering of blood sugar levels, which is a clinical manifestation in diabetic patients. The TMPs used the plant Entada phaseoloides for treatment of skin cancer. As to the precise mechanisms how the TMPs diagnosed skin cancer or diabetes in the absence of any modern diagnostic procedures remain an open question. However, they claimed to know these two diseases and further claimed the efficacy of treatment with the aforementioned plants. The validity of the latter claim remains to be scientifically validated. However, three new compounds have been reported from this plant, two of which, namely, 2-hydroxy-5-butoxyphenylacetic acid and 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid methyl ester gave [ED.sub.50] values of 1.0 and 1.7 microg per ml, respectively, with cultured P-388 cells (Dai et al, 1991).

Ailments treated with two of the plants, namely Abroma augusta and Vitex negundo, seemed to be esoteric in nature. The first plant was used for treatment of mental sickness 'due to possession by ghosts or evil spirits', while the second plant was used for treatment of fear due to 'evil spirits or ghosts'. Whether such beings exist or not is scientifically debatable. However, since the Tonchongyas live in forest areas where total darkness ensues at night whenever there is not sufficient moonlight, or even during sufficient moonlight (when the forest takes on an eerie appearance), such ailments might reflect the primordial fear of man of darkness, when human beings cannot see and may start imagining things. Notably, Vitex negundo has a very pungent odor, which odor is supposed to repel ghosts and evil spirits. Mustard oil, which also has a very pungent odor, is also occasionally used by the rural mainstream population of Bangladesh for the same purpose.

Solanum lasiocarpum, a plant used by the Tonchongya TMPs to treat syphilis is also used in the Philippines for the same purpose. Oxyspora paniculata, used by the Tonchongya TMPs to treat jaundice and urinary tract infection is used by the Adi tribe of Arunachal Pradesh of India for shining of teeth (Srivastava and Adi community, 2009). Justicia gendarussa, used by the Tonchongya TMPs for treatment of liver disorders and as an astringent, is used by the Mullu kuruma tribe of Wayanad district in Kerala, India for treatment of rheumatism (Silja et al., 2008). Sansevieria roxburghiana, a plant used by the Tonchongya TMPs for treatment of ear infections and as an abortifacient, has been reported to be used by the Mali tribe of Munchingiputtu Mandal of Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India for treatment of dysentery, jaundice, malaria, and fever (Padal et al., 2012). Celosia argentea, used by the Tonchongya TMPs for urinary tract infections and urinary disorders is reportedly used by the Konda Reddi and Koyas tribes of Khammam district of Andhra Pradesh, India for treatment of dysentery and diarrhea (Raju and Reddy, 2005). Spondias pinnata, used by the Tonchongya TMPs for treatment of wounds, otitis and otalgia, is used by the Tai Ahom tribe of Dibrugarh district, Assam, India for treatment of dysentery (Kalita and Phukan, 2010). The plant is also used by villagers around Gingee Hills of Villupuram district in Tamil Nadu, India for treatment of stomach ache (Muralidharan and Narasimhan, 2012).

Desmos chinensis is used by the tribals of Mizoram in northeast India for treatment of painful urination (Rai and Lalramnghinglova, 2010); the Tonchongya TMPs used this plant for treatment of nausea and dysentery. Eryngium foetidum, used by the Tonchongya TMPs for treatment of pain, diarrhea, and malaria is reportedly used by the Kurichya tribe of Kannur district, Western Ghats, Kerala, India for treatment of muscular pain (Rajith and Ramachandran, 2010). Alstonia scholaris was used by the Tonchongya TMPs for treatment of inflammation, fever, as antidote to poison, and as an aphrodisiac; the tribal people of Mizoram in India use this plant for treatment of wounds, boils, and ear ache (Bhardwaj and Gakhar, 2005), while the Santhal, Kolha, Bathudi, Kharia, Mankudia, Gond, and Ho tribes of Mayurbhanj district in Orissa, India use the plant for treatment of lice infestations (Rout and Panda, 2010). From the limited discussion (above), it appears that the use of the various plant species for treatment by the Tonchongya TMPs is more or less unique to this tribe. This only highlights the importance of conducting more ethnomedicinal surveys among other Tonchongya communities to get a fuller account of their ethnomedicinal plants.

The above point gets more importance if the survey results from a previous survey conducted among a Tonchongya community in Keyaju Para in Bandarban district (Rashid et al., 2012) is compared with the present survey results. Of the 21 plant species obtained in the previous survey and the 54 plant species obtained in the present survey, only two plant species were found in common, and even then these two plant species were used for treatment of different diseases. The two plant species were Cassia alata and Hyptis suaveolens. But while the TMPs of Keyaju Para used Cassia alata for treatment of stomach pain due to bloating or indigestion, the TMPs of the present survey used the same plant species for treatment of ringworm, eczema, itch, scabies, and other skin diseases. Similarly, the TMPs of Keyaju Para used Hyptis suaveolens for treatment of diabetes, jaundice, and burning sensations during urination, the TMPs of the present survey used this plant for treatment of kidney diseases, urinary tract infections, dysuria, and as a laxative and cooling agent. The only common feature between the two treatments is urinary disorder. The results are shown in Table 2.

To conclude, the use of various plant species used by the Tonchongya TMPs in this survey (for treatment of various disorders) show unique features in the sense that such uses have not been recorded with the other Tonchongya community surveyed previously. A short analysis of ethnomedicinal uses of various plant species by a number of tribes in India (which is adjacent to Bangladesh) also shows that the presently surveyed Tonchongya community uses plant species for treatment of different types of disorders than that noted for other tribes of India. It is therefore important to conduct ethnomedicinal surveys among all communities of the same tribe (even though they may reside in adjacent areas) to get a comprehensive picture of the traditional medicinal practices of the whole tribe. Also gathering of such detailed information opens up new pathways for scientists to study various pharmacological properties of any given plant species.

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Md. Shahadat Hossan, Prozzal Roy, Syeda Seraj, Sadia Moin Mou, Mirza Nipa Monalisa, Sharmin Jahan, Tania Khan, Auditi Swarna, Rownak Jahan, Mohammed Rahmatullah

Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.

Corresponding Author: Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh Phone: 88-01715032621; Fax: 88-02-8157339; E-mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com
Table 1: Medicinal plants and formulations of the tribal medicinal
practitioners of the Tonchongya tribal community residing in three
villages of Roangchaari Upazila in Bandarban district, Bangladesh.

Serial   Scientific Name Family Name        Local Name        Utilize
Number                                                        Part

1        Justicia        Acanthaceae        Bondugi           Leaf
         adhatoda L.

2        Justicia        Acanthaceae        Moghajam          Leaf
         gendarussa
         Burm.f.

3        Thunbergia      Acanthaceae        But-taluri        Stem
         grandiflora
         Roxb.

4        Sansevieria     Agavaceae          Chondrokirchi     Leaf,
         roxburgiana                                          root
         Schult. &
         Schult. F.

5        Celosia         Amaranthaceae      Suichhang         Whole
         argentea L.                        shak              plant

6        Spondias        Anacardiaceae      Aamagula          Fruit,
         pinnata                                              bark
         (L.f.) Kurz

7        Desmos          Annonaceae         Fualing-gait      Leaf,
         chinensis                                            fruit
         Lour.

8        Eryngium        Apiaceae           Sabung            Leaf/
         foetidum L.                                          whole
                                                              plant

9        Alstonia        Apocynaceae        Sechena           Leaf,
         scholaris                                            bark
         (L.) R.Br.

10       Calotropis      Asclepiadaceae     Aangaith          Leaf
         gigantea
         R.Br.

11       Begonia         Begoniaceae        Shilterui         Whole
         barbata Wall.                      (laal)            plant
         ex A.DC.

12       Begonia         Begoniaceae        Shilterui         Whole
         silhetensis                        (shada)           plant
         (A. DC.)
         C. B. Clarke)

13       Oroxylum                                             Leaf,
         indicum Vent.   Bignoniaceae       Kongcha-gula      bark

14       Terminalia      Combretaceae       Boara             Fruit
         belerica                                             infusion
         (Gaertn.)
         Roxb.

15       Terminalia                                           Fruit
         Combretaceae                                         infusion
         Oittal
         chebula Retz.

16       Kalanchoe       Crassulaceae       Jionpata          Leaf
         pinnata
         (Lam.) Pers.

17       Cuscuta         Cuscutaceae        Toruluri,         Whole
         reflexa Roxb.                      Toinluri          plant

18       Cyperus         Cyperaceae         Daralek           Root
         difformis L.

19       Dioscorea       Dioscoreaceae      Khoiaa aalo       Leaf,
         belophylla                                           rhizome
         (Prain)
         Haines

20       Dioscorea       Dioscoreaceae      Jabaul kochu      Leaf
         wallichii
         Hook.f.

21       Antidesma       Euphorbiaceae      Khurungait        Leaf
         acuminatum
         Wall. ex
         Wight

22       Bridelia        Euphorbiaceae      Seetalung         Leaf,
         scandens                                             root
         (Roxb.) Wild

23       Phyllanthus     Euphorbiaceae      Kalamala          Fruit
         emblica L.                                           infusion

24       Cassia alata    Fabaceae           Dostolong         Leaf
         L.

25       Cassia          Fabaceae           Bandorsirole      Leaf,
         fistula L.                         hupa              root,
                                                              fruit

26       Cassia          Fabaceae           Echihe            Leaf
         sophera L.

27       Desmodium       Fabaceae           Roghing           Leaf
         laxiflorum
         DC.

28       Desmodium       Fabaceae           Turgimoton        Leaf
         motorium
         (Houtt.)
         Merr.

29       Ganoderma       Ganodermataceae    Baghedud          Whole
         applanatum                                           fungus
         (Pers.)

30       Curculigo       Hypoxidaceae       Milonipara        Young
         orchioides                                           stem
         Gaertn.

31       Gomphostemma    Lamiaceae          Dubahoksha        Root
         crinitum
         Wallich ex
         Bentham

32       Hyptis          Lamiaceae          Chungfulgait      Seed
         suaveolens
         (L.) Poit.

33       Leucas aspera   Lamiaceae          Dondo-upon        Root
         (Willd.)
         Link.

34       Ocimum          Lamiaceae          Ranga tulshe      Leaf,
         sanctum L.                                           root

35       Asparagus       Liliaceae          Shotmul           Leaf,
         racemosus                                            root
         Willd.

36       Lycopodium      Lycopodiaceae      Jurbing           Whole
         clavatum L.                                          plant
                                                              powder

37       Melastoma       Melastomataceae    Gach putti        Root
         malabathricum
         L.

38       Oxyspora        Melastomataceae    Luri putti        Root
         paniculata
         DC.

39       Stephania       Menispermaceae     Patalput          Root
         japonica
         (Thunb.)
         Miers

40       Entada          Mimosaceae         Gilagait          Leaf,
         phaseoloides                                         fruit
         (L.) Merr.

41       Passiflora      Passifloraceae     Gulahing          Fruit
         foetida L.

42       Plumbago        Plumbaginaceae     Aagunijira        Leaf,
         zeylanica L.                                         flower

43       Drynaria        Polypodiaceae      Poshla            Rhizome
         quercifolia
         (L.) J.Sm.

44       Mussaenda       Rubiaceae          Aitgait           Young
         corymbosa                                            leaf
         Roxb.

45       Scoparia        Scrophulariaceae   Roapatakher       Leaf
         dulcis L.

46       Solanum         Solanaceae         Betbiongula       Root,
         lasiocarpum                                          fruit
         Dunal

47       Abroma          Sterculiaceae      Gaicchola         Flower
         augusta L.f.

48       Buettneria      Sterculiaceae      Siamgaith         Leaf,
         pilosa Roxb.                                         root

49       Grewia          Tiliaceae          Khing-ar-khial    Fruit
         laevigata
         Vahl

50       Vitex negundo   Verbenaceae        Choinmain         Leaf
         L.

51       Cissus adnata   Vitaceae           Chamthorthegait   Root
         Roxb.

52       Vitis sp.       Vitaceae           Kangamelaw        Young
                                                              leaf

53       Alpinia nigra   Zingiberaceae      Palek             Young
         (Gaertn.)                                            stem,
         B.L.Burtt                                            rhizome

54       Curcuma         Zingiberaceae      Palek             Leaf,
         aromatica                                            rhizome
         Salisb.

Serial   Scientific Name Ailment
Number

1        Justicia        Malaria, coughs, cold.
         adhatoda L.

2        Justicia        Liver disorder, astringent.
         gendarussa
         Burm.f.

3        Thunbergia      Conjunctivitis, eye inflammation,
         grandiflora
         Roxb.

4        Sansevieria     Ear infection, abortifacient. Leaf is heated
         roxburgiana     over a fire and then leaf juice collected
         Schult. &       which is applied to ear canal for ear
         Schult. F.      infection. Roots are inserted into the vagina
                         to induce abortion.

5        Celosia         Burning sensations during urination, frequent
         argentea L.     urination, urinary tract infections,
                         irregular urination. Whole plants of Celosia
                         argentea are mixed with roots of Cyperus
                         difformis, young stems of Curculigo
                         orchioides and female elephant's teeth and
                         small pills made from the mixture. Two pills
                         are taken 2-3 times daily and depending on
                         the severity of the problem continued up to 6
                         days.

6        Spondias        Vitamin source, wounds, otitis (inflammation
         pinnata         or infection of the ear), otalgia (ear ache).
         (L.f.) Kurz     Fruits are eaten as vitamin source. Juice
                         obtained from macerated fruits and bark is
                         applied to ears for otitis and otalgia.

7        Desmos          Nausea, dysentery.
         chinensis
         Lour.

8        Eryngium        Pain, diarrhea, malaria. Whole plant is taken
         foetidum L.     as curry. Alternately, leaf juice is taken
                         (one tea spoon for 4-5 days).

9        Alstonia        Aphrodisiac, antidote to poisoning,
         scholaris       inflammation, fever.
         (L.) R.Br.

10       Calotropis      Elephantitis, emollient, pain, boils,
         gigantea        abscess. Leaf paste is rubbed on affected
         R.Br.           places.

11       Begonia         Irregular menstruation, dysmennorhea (pain
         barbata Wall.   during menstruation), headache. Juice
         ex A.DC.        obtained from macerated whole plant is taken
                         two tea spoons twice daily for 3 days.

12       Begonia         Irregular menstruation, dysmennorhea (pain
         silhetensis     during menstruation), headache. Juice
         (A. DC.)        obtained from macerated whole plant is taken
         C. B. Clarke)   two tea spoons twice daily for 3 days.

13       Oroxylum        Liver disease, arthritis, diarrhea,
         indicum Vent.   cicatrizant (wound healing).

14       Terminalia      Aphrodisiac, energizer, fever, body ache.
         belerica        Infusion of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica,
         (Gaertn.)       Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula is
         Roxb.           taken daily on an empty stomach on a regular
                         basis.

15       Terminalia      Aphrodisiac, energizer, fever, body ache.
         Combretaceae    Infusion of fruits of Phyllanthus
         Oittal
         chebula Retz.

16       Kalanchoe       Pain, boils, abscess, rheumatism, eczema.
         pinnata         Crushed leaf or leaf paste is applied
         (Lam.) Pers.    topically to affected areas of the body.

17       Cuscuta         Aphrodisiac, diabetes, anti-oxidant. Whole
         reflexa Roxb.   plant is taken orally in the form of chutney
                         or curry.

18       Cyperus         Burning sensations during urination, frequent
         difformis L.    urination, urinary tract infections,
                         irregular urination. Whole plants of Celosia
                         argentea are mixed with roots of Cyperus
                         difformis, young stems of Curculigo
                         orchioides and female elephant's teeth and
                         small pills made from the mixture. Two pills
                         are taken 2-3 times daily and depending on
                         the severity of the problem continued up to 6
                         days.

19       Dioscorea       Astringent, jaundice, topical pain. Rhizome
         belophylla      is eaten as curry. Leaf juice is taken for
         (Prain)         jaundice. Crushed leaves are applied
         Haines          topically to painful areas.

20       Dioscorea       Dandruff, itch on scalp. Leaf juice is
         wallichii       applied to head.
         Hook.f.

21       Antidesma       Arthritis, gout, snake bite.
         acuminatum
         Wall. ex
         Wight

22       Bridelia        Inflammation, scabies, dermatitis.
         scandens
         (Roxb.) Wild

23       Phyllanthus     Aphrodisiac, energizer, fever, body ache.
         emblica L.      Infusion of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica,
                         Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula is
                         taken daily on an empty stomach on a regular
                         basis.

24       Cassia alata    Ringworm, eczema, itch, scabies, skin
         L.              disease. Coughs, helminthiasis, diabetes,
                         irregular urination, edema,

25       Cassia
         fistula L.      Coughs, helminthiasis, diabetes, irregular
                         urination, edema, constipation.

26       Cassia          Gall bladder stone. Leaves are eaten as
         sophera L.      vegetable. Alternately, juice obtained from
                         crushed leaf is taken (half tea spoon) for 10
                         days.

27       Desmodium       Fainting, urinary tract infection, burning
         laxiflorum      sensations.
         DC.

28       Desmodium
         motorium        Aphrodisiac, loss of appetite, cicatrizant
         (Houtt.)        (wound healing), scabies.
         Merr.

29       Ganoderma       Energizer, anti-spasmodic, anti-oxidant.
         applanatum
         (Pers.)

30       Curculigo       Burning sensations during urination, frequent
         orchioides      urination, urinary tract infections,
         Gaertn.         irregular urination. Whole plants of Celosia
                         argentea are mixed with roots of Cyperus
                         difformis, young stems of Curculigo
                         orchioides and female elephant's teeth and
                         small pills made from the mixture. Two pills
                         are taken 2-3 times daily and depending on
                         the severity of the problem continued up to 6
                         days.

31       Gomphostemma    Malaria, asthma, hepatic disorders. Infusion
         crinitum        of root is taken orally for 3 days.
         Wallich ex
         Bentham

32       Hyptis          Cooling agent, kidney disease, urinary tract
         suaveolens      infections, dysuria (painful urination),
         (L.) Poit.      laxative. Seeds are soaked in water and taken
                         as a drink.

33       Leucas aspera   Excessive menstrual bleeding. Juice obtained
         (Willd.)        from macerated root is taken with table salt
         Link.           twice daily for 7 days.

34       Ocimum          Coughs, cold. Juice obtained from macerated
         sanctum L.      leaves and roots is taken (one tea spoon)
                         twice daily for 3-5 days.

35       Asparagus       Asthma, cough, cold.
         racemosus
         Willd.

36       Lycopodium      Urinary tract infections, irregular urination.
         clavatum L.

37       Melastoma       Urinary tract infection. Juice obtained from
         malabathricum   macerated root is taken (one tea spoon) with
         L.              yogurt daily in the morning for 3 days.

38       Oxyspora        Urinary tract infection, jaundice. Juice
         paniculata      obtained from macerated root (one tea spoon)
         DC.             is taken daily in the morning with yogurt for
                         3 days.

39       Stephania       Pneumonia, cold, coughs, fever in children.
         japonica        Pill made from crushed root (one pill each
         (Thunb.)        time) is taken twice daily for one week.
         Miers

40       Entada          Energizer, skin cancer, wound healing.
         phaseoloides
         (L.) Merr.

41       Passiflora      Helminthiasis, asthma. Ripe fruits are eaten.
         foetida L.

42       Plumbago        Dysmennorhea, asthma, irregular menstruation.
         zeylanica L.

43       Drynaria        Epilepsy, skin disease, anti-bacterial. Pill
         quercifolia     made from rhizome is taken orally (one pill
         (L.) J.Sm.      twice a day for 6-12 months).

44       Mussaenda       Arthritis, gout, joint pain. Crushed young
         corymbosa       leaves are warmed and applied or rubbed onto
         Roxb.           affected areas.

45       Scoparia        Snake bite, insect bite, antidote to poison.
         dulcis L.       Juice obtained from macerated leaves is
                         topically applied for snake and insect bites
                         and taken orally as antidote to poison.

46       Solanum         Syphilis, toothache, also eaten as food.
         lasiocarpum
         Dunal

47       Abroma          Mental sickness due to possession by ghosts
         augusta L.f.    or evil spirits.

48       Buettneria      Blood purifier.
         pilosa Roxb.

49       Grewia          Eaten as food, liver disease, dyspepsia.
         laevigata
         Vahl

50       Vitex negundo   Fear due to evil spirits or ghosts,
         L.              tranquilizer, headache, allergy. Leaves are
                         kept or carried alongside the body.

51       Cissus adnata   Coughs, dyspepsia, asthma.
         Roxb.

52       Vitis sp.       Jaundice, burning sensations, dermatitis.
                         Young leaves are eaten as curry following
                         cooking with crabs as treatment for burning
                         sensations or dermatitis. Leaf juice is taken
                         for jaundice.

53       Alpinia nigra   Gastrointestinal disorders (acidity, stomach
         (Gaertn.)       ache, diarrhea), sudden bouts of faintness,
         B.L.Burtt       vertigo. Juice obtained from macerated young
                         stem and rhizome mix is taken with table salt
                         twice daily for 7 days.

54       Curcuma         Gastrointestinal problem, acidity, stomach
         aromatica       ache, fainting, vertigo, diarrhea, asthma.
         Salisb.         Juice obtained from macerated mix of leaf and
                         rhizome is taken orally.

Table 2: Comparison of medicinal plants used by the Tonchongya TMPs
of Keyaju Para (earlier study) versus the Tonchongya TMPs in the
present survey.

Plant (previous study)       Family

Acorus calamus               Acoraceae

Holarrhena antidysenterica   Apocynaceae
Chromolaena odorata          Asteraceae
Mikania cordata              Asteraceae
Spilanthes paniculata        Asteraceae
Ipomoea quamoclit            Convolvulaceae
Brassica juncea              Cruciferae
Diplazium esculentum         Dryopteridaceae
Ca/anus cajan                Fabaceae
Cassia alata                 Fabaceae
Derris elliptica             Fabaceae
Desmodium alata              Fabaceae
Hyptis suaveolens            Lamiaceae
Ocimum americanum            Lamiaceae
Cinnamomum camphora          Lauraceae
Sida rhombifolia             Malvaceae
Ficus hispida                Moraceae
Plantago ovata               Plantaginaceae
Thysanolaena maxima          Poaceae
Smilax zeylanica             Smilacaceae
Clerodendrum viscosum        Verbenaceae

Plant (present survey)       Family

Justicia adhatoda            Acanthaceae
Justicia gendarussa          Acanthaceae
Thunbergia grandiflora       Acanthaceae
Sansevieria roxburghiana     Agavaceae
Celosia argentea             Amaranthaceae
Spondias pinnata             Anacardiaceae
Desmos chinensis             Annonaceae
Eryngium foetidum            Apiaceae
Alstonia scholaris           Apocynaceae
Calotropis gigantea          Asclepiadaceae
Begonia barbata              Begoniaceae
Begonia silhetensis          Begoniaceae
Oroxylum indicum             Bignoniaceae
Terminalia belerica          Combretaceae
Terminalia chebula           Combretaceae
Kalanchoe pinnata            Crassulaceae
Cuscuta reflexa              Cuscutaceae
Cyperus difformis            Cyperaceae
Dioscorea belophylla         Disocoreaceae
Dioscorea wallichii          Dioscoreaceae
Antidesma acuminatum         Euphorbiaceae
Bridelia scandens            Euphorbiaceae
Phyllanthus emblica          Euphorbiaceae
Cassia alata                 Fabaceae
Cassia fistula               Fabaceae
Cassia sophera               Fabaceae
Desmodium laxiflorum         Fabaceae
Desmodium motorium           Fabaceae
Ganoderma applanatum         Ganodermataceae
Curculigo orchioides         Hypoxidaceae
Gomphostemma crinitum        Lamiaceae
Hyptis suaveolens            Lamiaceae
Leucas aspera                Lamiaceae
Ocimum sanctum               Lamiaceae
Asparagus racemosus          Liliaceae
Lycopodium clavatum          Lycopodiaceae
Melastoma malabathricum      Melastomataceae
Oxyspora paniculata          Melastomataceae
Stephania japonica           Menispermaceae
Entada phaseoloides          Mimosaceae
Passiflora foetida           Passifloraceae
Plumbago zeylanica           Plumbaginaceae
Drynaria quercifolia         Polypodiaceae
Mussaenda corymbosa          Rubiaceae
Scoparia dulcis              Scrophulariaceae
Solanum lasiocarpum          Solanaceae
Abroma augusta               Sterculiaceae
Buettneria pilosa            Sterculiaceae
Grewia laevigata             Tiliaceae
Vitex negundo                Verbenaceae
Cissus adnata                Vitaceae
Vitis sp.                    Vitaceae
Alpinia nigra                Zingiberaceae
Curcuma aromatica            Zingiberaceae

Common plant names are indicated in bold lettering.
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Title Annotation:Original Articles
Author:Hossan, Md. Shahadat; Roy, Prozzal; Seraj, Syeda; Mou, Sadia Moin; Monalisa, Mirza Nipa; Jahan, Shar
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Oct 1, 2012
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