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Ethnomedicinal investigations among the Sigibe clan of the Khumi tribe of Thanchi sub-district in Bandarban district of Bangladesh.

Introduction

The Khumi tribe is one of the minor tribes in Bandarban district of the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in the southeast part of Bangladesh. They currently live in about 36 villages, most of which are in Thanchi sub-district of Bandarban district. According to the 1991 population census, the Khumi population stood at 1,241 persons. They belong to the Mongoloid race of people. Culturally and linguistically, the Khumis belong to the Bawm, Lusai, Khiang and Mro tribal groups. The Khumis can also be found in Myanmar, where they are known as Zomi as well as in Mizoram of India, where they are known as Mizos. They are said to have arrived in their present territory from Chin province in Myanmar. The Khumis are currently divided into more than 50 clans or sects.

Very little has been documented of the folk medicinal practices (present within the mainstream population) and tribal medicinal practices (which may be considered as variant of folk medicinal practices) of Bangladesh. Towards a proper documentation of such practices and to obtain a comprehensive picture of the medicinal plants used in these practices, we had been conducting ethnomedicinal surveys among the folk medicinal practitioners (Kavirajes) of various parts of the country as well as tribal healers of different tribes for the last few years (Nawaz et al., 2009; Rahmatullah et al., 2009a-c; Chowdhury et al., 2010; Hasan et al., 2010; Hossan et al., 2010; Mollik et al, 2010a,b; Rahmatullah et al, 2010a-g; Akber et al, 2011; Biswas et al, 2011a-c; Haque et al., 2011; Islam et al., 2011a; Jahan et al., 2011; Rahmatullah et al., 2011a,b; Sarker et al., 2011; Shaheen et al., 2011; Das et al., 2012a; Rahmatullah et al., 2012a-d). Such surveys are important for close observation of indigenous medicinal practices have already led to the discovery of many modern drugs (Balick and Cox, 1996; Cotton, 1996; Gilani and Rahman, 2005). Plant kingdom has always proved to be a useful source of medicines. The importance of plant kingdom towards discovery of newer medicines has become more important in recent years because of adverse side-effects of many modern medicines, development of resistance to many modern medicines like antibiotics, and emergence of new diseases. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Sigibe clan of the Khumi tribe residing in Hoitong Khumi Para of Thanchi sub-district in Bandarban district of Bangladesh.

Materials and Methods

The Sigibe clan of the Khumi community surveyed had one tribal healer, named Mangchai Khumi of around 32 years of age. He was Buddhist by religion. Informed consent was first obtained from the healer, who was explained the purpose of our visit, and his consent obtained to disseminate any information provided in national or international publications. The healer understood and knew how to speak the Bengali language, which was the language spoken by the interviewers. Interviews were therefore conducted in Bengali with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, the healer took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where he collected his medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. Plant specimens were photographed and collected on the spot, pressed and dried, and later brought back to Dhaka to be identified by Mr. Manjur-Ul-Kadir Mia, ex-Curator and Principal Scientific Officer of the Bangladesh National Herbarium.

Results and Discussion

The Sigibe clan of the Khumi indigenous community can be found in Thanchi Upazila (sub-district) of Bandarban district in a village called Hoitong Khumi Para (Para means village or a gathering of households). The total population of the village was 512. Of the total population, 207 were females and 305 persons were males.

They claimed to have arrived at their present habitat from Burma, presently known as Myanmar. They are mainly Buddhists, but in recent years some are converting to Christianity. The Khumis have 100 or more sects in Myanmar; however, only 20-30 sects are present in Bangladesh. The more populous sects in Bangladesh include the Sigibe, Samthang, Buinti, Amtang, Limla, Longwaichu, Umching, and Natacho. Most of these sects have recently converted to Christianity.

The main occupation of the Khumis was jhum cultivation, where a forest tract is burnt down to clear land. The land is then cultivated for a few years and when it loses its natural fertility, a new forest tract is burnt and the old tract allowed reverting back to fresh forests. Side-by-side with agricultural occupation, the Khumis also kept domesticated poultry, jungle fowl, and francolins (titir in Bengali, a sort of wild turkey but much less in size and of a different color than the American turkey). They also reared pigs and maintained herbal gardens by their homesteads. The Khumis were practically illiterate; their main livelihood was jhum cultivation.

Among the social and religious festivals of the Khumis were marriage, Buddha Purnima (celebration of Lord Buddha on the night of a full moon), Christmas day, and Khumi song festivals. Marriage was the most remarkable among these festivals. Although their daily diet consisted of rice, various hill vegetables, and poultry, during their marriage festivals, the Khumis ate pork and locally made wine. Various traditions were maintained during these marriage festivals. Since Khumi society is matriarchal, the groom' father usually takes the proposal to the bride's house. During this time, the groom's father takes with him gifts such as poultry, spears, wine and cooked food. If bride's father agrees, only then the marriage can take place. The groom's father is then gifted by the bride's father with 31 chickens, 20,000 Takas (Bangladesh currency), 20 silver coins, 11 spears, 8 bottles of wine, and 2 earthen pots of marijuana. The bride's father is gifted by the groom's father with 1 pig, 5-6 white dresses, jhinge (ridge gourd, a type of vegetable), chickens, one machete, and one axe. Following exchange of gifts, partaking of food and marriage festivals take place at the bride's home after arrival of guests and the groom with his family. Before taking the bride away, the groom's family sits on the 'uthan' (a flat stretch of clear land in front of every rural home in Bangladesh including the Khumis). The elders then bless the bride and groom. The bride is then taken to the groom's house, where another round of eating and merriment takes place. Usually, a marriage festival continues all throughout the day till the evening. During these festivals, the Khumis used to converse only in the Khumi language and wear their traditional clothings. But now under the influence of the mainstream Bengali-speaking culture, conversations may be in Bengali, and the Khumis may wear modern clothing. Among the traditional dresses of the Kumis are the 'ninalenche' of the women and the 'lungis' of the men. Khumi women also wear on their wrist during festival times, 'ghungur' (bangle like silver bells), and bangles made of wood and various metals like gold, silver or copper. The women also wear around their necks floral garlands, and necklaces made of coin-like parts with multiple lockets, various bead necklaces, and necklaces made of seeds of multiple wild plants. The women also wear ear rings during these festivals.

Ear rings occupy an important status within Khumi women. Although the ears of a girl or woman may be pierced before marriage, specially made ear rings are only worn from the day of their marriage. Silver ear rings are preferred over other metals. The ear rings are bell-shaped. The size of the ear rings increase with a girl's age of marriage. If following marriage, the woman becomes a widow, she immediately takes off the ear rings. The dead may be cremated or buried following the social and religious traditions of the Khumis.

Khumi song festivals can take place after marriage, in which festivals the marijuana and wine received as marriage gifts play an important role in turning on the festivities. All households of a Khumi village participate in these song festivals from the very young to the very old. The songs are sung till midnight. Following this song festival, the bride and groom starts their conjugal life.

A total of 36 formulations were obtained from the healer, which is shown in Table 1. In the various formulations, the healer used 41 plant species, of which 33 could be identified and 8 remained unidentified. The 33 identified plant species belonged to 23 families. The results are shown in Table 2. The Chittagong Hill Tracts is a region of remarkable plant diversity, and in the absence of a comprehensive survey till present, it is no surprise that so many plants could not be identified. Just this fact alone highlights the importance of conducting ethnobotanical surveys in this region of Bangladesh towards possible discovery of new plant species.

The Khumi healer was observed to treat mostly common diseases like various types of pain, kidney stones, dizziness induced by high fever, irregular menstruation, ringworm infection, fever with frequent passing of watery stool, gastric problems, severe fever, abscess, tearing of tendons, snake bite, jaundice, cuts and wounds, oral and anal infections, swelling due to injury, scabies and itches, asthma, and severe headache and dizziness because of adverse effects from other medicines. Various types of pain included body pain (in any part of the body), stomach pain, throat pain, ear ache, joint pain, and pain in different parts of the abdomen. Fever along with symptoms arising from fever was also treated by the healer. These included loss of appetite following fever, long-term fever, frequent passing of watery stool with fever, dizziness because of high fever, and severe fever leading to blurred eyesight. Two diseases treated could not be explained under conventional medical terms, namely blood rising to the head of the delivering mother during childbirth (Serial Number 12, Table 1), and becoming afraid (which could be an obsession and which leads to the person having blurred vision arising from fear, see Serial Number 23, Table 1).

Treatment with medicinal plants by the healer tended to be simple. As treatment of body pain, leaves of Jatropha curcas were simply folded, warmed over a fire, and applied to painful areas thrice daily. For treatment of stomach pain, which somehow the healer diagnoses as arising from clotting of blood in the stomach, roots of Typhonium trilobatum were cut into small pieces, inserted into a ripe banana, and swallowed thrice daily till cure. Throat pain due to colds and coughs were treated with oral administration of a mixture made by mixing paste of leaves and roots of Justicia gendarussa with water. The dosage was three finger widths of the mixture when put in a glass or cup. Three finger widths seemed to be a common dose form of the healer. For instance, for treatment of frequent passing of watery stool with fever, three finger width of water was mixed with macerated roots (macerated by rubbing between two pieces of stone called 'pata') of Lepisanthes senegalensis and taken orally. For treatment of irregular menstruation, three finger widths of roots of Cyclea barbata were crushed with a 'pata' and the resultant juice obtained mixed with water and taken orally.

It was of interest to compare the ethnomedicinal uses of medicinal plants by the Khumi healer with reported ethnomedicinal uses among other indigenous communities of the world, including Bangladesh. Jatropha gossypifolia, used by the Khumi healer for treatment of body pain is reportedly used by the tribals of Kinwat forest of Nanded district in Maharashtra, India for treatment of typhoid (Biradar and Ghorband, 2010). Typhonium trilobatum (used by the Khumi healer for treatment of stomach pain) is used by the Tripuri tribe of Tripura state in India for treatment of stomach complaints (Das et al., 2012b). It is to be noted that Tripura state in India is adjacent to Chittagong Hill Tracts region of Bangladesh, where the Khumi tribe resides. Cyclea barbata is used by the Chakma tribe of Chittagong Hill Tracts region in Bangladesh for treatment of allergy (Khisa et al., 2012). The Khumi healer used this plant for treatment of irregular menstruation. Derris robusta, used by the Khumi healer for treatment of ringworm infection, is also used by the Chakma tribe, but for the treatment of wounded limbs (Khisa et al., 2012). Justicia gendarussa, used by the Khumi healer for treatment of throat pain due to cold and coughs, is used by the Mullu kuruma tribe of Wayanad district in Kerala, India for treatment of rheumatism (Silja et al., 2008).

Medicinal men ('Maibas') of the sacred groves of Manipur, India use Clerodendrum viscosum for treatment of poisonous bites (Khumbongmayum et al., 2005); the Khumi healer used this plant along with Hyptis capitata for treatment of burning sensations in the chest, salty taste in mouth when burping, flatulence, and gastric pain. Hyptis capitata is used by the Marma tribe of Chittagong Hill Tracts region of Bangladesh for treatment of malaria (Biswas et al., 2010). Clausena heptaphylla, used by the Khumi healer for treatment of severe fever blurred vision due to fever, is reportedly used by the Nchangtabu and Arhiksi (Hill tribes) and Pan-Machala (Plain tribe) of Assam in India for treatment of jaundice (Purkayastha and Nath, 2006). Lygodium flexuosum, used by the Khumi healer (along with Helminthostachys zeylanica) for treatment of severe fever, red color of urine, pain in the urinary bladder is used by local peoples of Amarkantak region, Madhya Pradesh, India to treat menorrhagia, insect bite, rheumatism, sprains, scabies, ulcers, eczema, cuts, wounds, and carbuncles (Srivastava et al., 2012). Helminthostachys zeylanica is used by the local people and tribes of Kolli Hills in namakkal district of Tamil Nadu, India for vitality and as a brain tonic (Perumal, 2010).

Hedyotis scandens was used by the Khumi healer to treat abscess; the Chutia, Sonowal-kachari, Tai-Ahom and Ao-Naga ethnic groups of Disoi Valley Reserve forest of Jorhat district in Assam, India use the plant for treatment of urinary and kidney disorder (Borah et al., 2012). Datura metel, used by the Khumi healer for treating joint pain is used by tribal and rural people of West Rarrh region of West Bengal, India to treat alopecia (Ghosh, 2008). Tribals of India, Nepal and Bangladesh use the plant Rauwolfia serpentina to treat a wide variety of ailments like snake bite, insect and animal bite, mental illness, schizophrenia, hypertension, blood pressure, gastrointestinal diseases, circulatory disorders, pneumonia, fever, malaria, asthma, skin diseases, scabies, eye diseases, spleen diseases, AIDS, rheumatism, body pain, and veterinary diseases (Dey and De, 2011); the Khumi healer used the plant for treatment of constipation. The Khumi healer used the plant Tabernaemontana recurva for treatment of flatulence; the plant is used by the Chakma tribe of Chittagong Hill Tracts Division of Bangladesh to treat fever (Khisa et al., 2012). Cissus repens, used by the Khumi healer for treatment of jaundice, is used by the people of Golaghat district in Assam, India for treatment of muscular pain and stomach disorders. The plant is additionally consumed by the people as a vegetable (Barukial and Sarmah, 2011).

Eupatorium odoratum was used by the Khumi healer to treat cuts and wounds; the tribals of Mizoram State, India use the plant also for treatment of cuts and wounds (Bhardwaj and Gakhar, 2005). The plant, Ageratum conyzoides was used by the Khumi healer to treat severe headache; the Adi tribes of Lower Dibang valley district of Arunachal Pradesh, India use the plant to stop bleeding from wounds (Gibji et al., 2012). Euphorbia hirta was used by the Khumi healer to treat oral and anal infections;The plant is used in traditional medicines of Kikuku village, Muleba district of the Kagera region in north western Tanzania for treatment of non-lactation, hypertension, warts and cataracts (Moshi et al., 2012). Mimosa pudica, used by the Khumi healer to treat swelling due to injury is used by the Gond tribe of Bhandara district, Maharashtra, India as an aphrodisiac and strength promoter (Gupta et al., 2010). Azadirachta indica was used by the Khumi healer to treat scabies and itches; the traditional healers in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu, India use the plant to treat small pox, rheumatism, and skin diseases (Muthu et al., 2006). Ficus hirta was used by the Khumi healer to treat abscess on the bottom of foot. The same plant is used by the Apatani tribe of Arunachal Pradesh in the Eastern Himalayan region, India to treat cuts and wounds (Kala, 2005).

Taken together, the various reports indicate the wide diversity of ethnomedicinal uses of the same plant species in various regions of the world and among various tribes or local people. The Khumi healer's use of many of the plants as described in the present study is unique and adds significantly to the ethnomedicinal literature. It is expected that this study will go quite some way in preserving the traditional medicinal practices of the Khumi tribe and also spur conservation efforts to protect these medicinal plant species.

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Rahmatullah, M., M.N.K. Azam, Z. Khatun, S. Seraj, F. Islam, M.A. Rahman, S. Jahan, M.S. Aziz and R. Jahan, 2012d. Medicinal plants used for treatment of diabetes by the Marakh sect of the Garo tribe living in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 9: 380-385.

Sarker, S., S. Seraj, M.M. Sattar, W.M. Haq, M.H. Chowdhury, I. Ahmad, R. Jahan, F. Jamal and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. Medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of six villages in Thakurgaon district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 332-343.

Shaheen, Md.E.K., Md.A. Syef, S.S. Saha, Md.S. Islam, Md.D.A. Hossain, Md.A.I. Sujan and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. Medicinal plants used by the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners in two villages of Khakiachora and Khasia Palli in Sylhet district, Bangladesh. Advances in Applied and Natural Sciences, 5: 9-19.

Silja, V.P., K.S. Varma and K.V. Mohanan, 2008. Ethnomedicinal plant knowledge of the Mullu kuruma tribe of Wayanad district, Kerala. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 7: 604-612.

Srivastava, A., S.P. Patel, R.K. Mishra, R.K. Vashistha, A. Singh and A.K. Puskar, 2012. Ethnomedicinal importance of the plants of Amarkantak region, Madhya Pradesh, India. International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 2: 53-59.

Bijoy Sarker, Fatema Akther, Umma Ayman, Rolee Sifa, Israt Jahan, Mridul Sarker, Suman Kumar Chakma, Promith Kumar Podder, Zubaida Khatun, Mohammed Rahmatullah

Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.

Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor, University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new), Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh Phone: 88-01715032621 Fax: 88-02-8157339

E-mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com
Table 1: Medicinal plants used and ailments treated by the healer of
the Sigibe clan of the Khumi tribe.

Serial    Ailment with symptoms          Formulation and dosage
Number

1         Body pain (in any part   Leaves of Jatropha gossypifolia L.
              of the body).              (Euphorbiaceae) (red or
                                      green-stemmed varieties) are
                                     folded, warmed over a fire and
                                     applied to painful areas thrice
                                                 daily.

2             Kidney stones.          Paste of roots and leaves of
                                       Jasminum arborescens Roxb.
                                   (Oleaceae) is warmed and applied to
                                   the region under the navel for two
                                           consecutive nights.

3          Stomach pain (due to    Roots of Typhonium trilobatum (L.)
           clotting of blood in    Schott (Araceae) is cut into small
              the stomach).        pieces, inserted into a ripe banana
                                     and swallowed thrice daily till
                                                  cure.

4          Dizziness because of     Paste of leaves of Prismatomeris
               high fever.         albidiflora Thwaites (Rubiaceae) is
                                   warmed and applied to the forehead.
                                   At the same time, leaves are warmed
                                   in water and the water used to wash
                                    the head thrice daily till cure.

5               Irregular            Three fingers width of roots of
              menstruation.               Cyclea barbata Miers
                                     (Menispermaceae) is crushed by
                                      rubbing between two pieces of
                                     stones ('pata', where the lower
                                    stone is flat and rectangular and
                                    the upper stone is oval-shaped).
                                    The resultant juice is mixed with
                                   water and taken thrice daily on an
                                       empty stomach. If irregular
                                    menstruation persists, the upper
                                       part of the plant is rubbed
                                     similarly and the juice orally
                                                 taken.

6           Ringworm infection      Paste of leaves of Derris robusta
           (itching in rounded      (Roxb. ex DC.) Benth. (Fabaceae)
            spots occurring in       and leaves of  'akangde ajhuh'
           various parts of the    (unidentified plant) is applied to
                  body).             affected areas once daily for 7
                                                  days.

7           Throat pain due to        Paste of leaves and roots of
             cold and coughs.          Justicia gendarussa Burm.f.
                                   (Acanthaceae) is mixed with water.
                                   Three finger widths of this mixture
                                    are taken thrice daily (i.e. when
                                   the mixture is poured in a glass or
                                    cup, the amount should not exceed
                                     the width of three fingers when
                                   placed on the side of the glass or
                                                  cup).

8          Frequent passing of      Roots of Lepisanthes senegalensis
            watery stool with          (A. Juss. ex Poir.) Leenh.
                  fever.           (Sapindaceae) is rubbed on a  'pata
                                      ' and mixed with three finger
                                   width of water (that is when water
                                    is poured in a glass or cup, the
                                   amount should not exceed the width
                                   of three fingers when placed on the
                                     side of the glass or cup). The
                                   mixture is taken thrice daily on an
                                             empty stomach.

9         Burning sensations in       Leaves and roots (alternately
          the chest, salty taste    leaves) of Clerodendrum viscosum
          in mouth when burping,     Vent. (Verbenaceae) and Hyptis
           flatulence, gastric       capitata Jacq. (Lamiaceae) are
                  pain.            macerated together to obtain juice,
                                    which is mixed with water so the
                                   final volume when put in a glass or
                                     cup is three fingers width. The
                                        mixture is taken orally.

10          Severe fever with        Leaves of Clausena heptaphylla
           blurred eyesight due      (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn. ex
                to fever.            Steud. (Rutaceae) are boiled in
                                    water and then cooled followed by
                                   pouring over the head. This is done
                                              thrice daily.

11          Severe fever, red       Roots of Lygodium flexuosum (L.)
           color of urine, pain           Sw. (Lygodiaceae) and
              in the urinary          Helminthostachys zeylanica L.
                 bladder.          (Helminthostachyaceae) are crushed
                                   and added to three finger widths of
                                     water (when the water is poured
                                     into a cup or glass) and taken
                                       thrice on an empty stomach.

12        If blood rises to the    Leaves and roots of Lehu tai jhung
          head of the delivering     (unidentified) are made into a
              mother during         paste and mixed with water, Three
               childbirth.         finger widths of the mixture (when
                                     put in a cup or glass) is taken
                                     thrice daily. At the same time,
                                   leaves are boiled in water and the
                                    water cooled and poured over the
                                                  head.

13               Abscess.              Paste of leaves of Hedyotis
                                      scandens Roxb. (Rubiaceae) is
                                        applied over the abscess.

14              Ear ache.             Paste prepared from leaves of
                                   Streblus asper Lour. (Moraceae) is
                                    mixed with water. Three drops are
                                    put inside the ear canal thrice.

15         Tearing of tendons.      Paste of leaves of Blau chay adi
                                    (unidentified) is applied to the
                                     affected area and the area tied
                                    with a piece of cloth for 7 days.
                                   During this time, the affected area
                                      should not be in contact with
                                                 water.

16             Joint pain.         Leaves and roots of Datura metel L.
                                     (Solanaceae) are turned into a
                                   paste and applied to affected areas
                                    followed by bandaging the area(s)
                                   with a piece of cloth. The bandage
                                   is changed every morning. At first,
                                      leaves are used. But if pain
                                      persists, roots are used with
                                                 leaves.

17             Snake bite.          Roots of Sterculia colorata Roxb.
                                    (Sterculiaceae) are applied first
                                     to the bitten area followed by
                                    application of the middle part of
                                    fruits of Amorphophallus krausei
                                   Engl. (Araceae) to the bitten area.

18            Constipation.        Roots of Rauwolfia serpentina (L.)
                                    Benth. ex Kurz. (Apocynaceae) are
                                   crushed, mixed with water and taken
                                    thrice daily on an empty stomach
                                               till cure.

19          To stop vomiting.           Roots of Bivvi tai jhung
                                     (unidentified) are crushed and
                                    mixed with sugar and water. Three
                                    fingers width of the mixture when
                                    poured in a glass or cup is taken
                                              thrice daily.

20             Flatulence.          Roots of Tabernaemontana recurva
                                    Roxb. ex Lindl. (Apocynaceae) are
                                     crushed to obtain juice. Three
                                     finger widths of the juice when
                                    poured in a cup or glass is taken
                                    thrice daily on an empty stomach.

21         Jaundice (yellowish      Stems and leaves of Cissus repens
          coloration of eyes and   Lam. (Vitaceae) are cooked with two
            urine, headache).        freshwater crabs [Pyxidognathus
                                           fluviatilis Alcock
                                    (Parathelphusidae)] and eaten as
                                               vegetable.

22           Cuts and wounds.         Paste prepared from leaves of
                                   Eupatorium odoratum L. (Asteraceae)
                                     are applied to cuts and wounds.

23         Becoming afraid (may     Roots of Lahi kiu are tied with a
          be an obsession, sees      gold or silver piece around the
           with blurred vision                   throat.
              due to fear).

24         Severe stomach ache.       Roots of Clerodendrum nutans
                                   Wallich (Verbenaceae) are macerated
                                     and mixed with water and salt.
                                   Three finger widths of the mixture
                                   when put in a glass or cup is taken
                                     orally thrice daily on an empty
                                                stomach.

25                Severe              Paste prepared from leaves of
                headache.          Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae)
                                     and Kola acha (unidentified) is
                                          applied to the head.

26           Long-term fever.        Leaves and stems of Anisomeles
                                       ovata R.Br. (Lamiaceae) are
                                   macerated to obtain juice, which is
                                   then taken with sugar thrice daily.
                                   Dosage is three finger widths when
                                     the juice is poured in a cup or
                                                 glass.

27               Hiccups.             Juice obtained from macerated
                                     leaves of Kaempferia parviflora
                                   Wall. (Zingiberaceae) is mixed with
                                   water and sugar. Two finger widths
                                   of the mixture when poured in a cup
                                     or glass is taken orally thrice
                                                 daily.

28            Oral and anal        Juice obtained from macerated soft
               infections.             stems of Euphorbia hirta L.
                                      (Euphorbiaceae) is applied to
                                             affected areas.

29           Swelling due to           Leaves of Mimosa pudica L.
                 injury.             (Fabaceae) are boiled in water
                                    followed by washing the affected
                                          area with the water.

30        To get rid of pus and     Leaves of Cnesmone javanica Blume
          infected material from     (Euphorbiaceae) are applied to
                 abscess.                       abscess.

31           Scabies, itches.        Leaves of Azadirachta indica A.
                                     Juss. (Meliaceae) are boiled in
                                   water followed by washing affected
                                    areas of the skin with the water.

32         Severe headache and     Leaves of Pteris quadriaurita Retz.
           dizziness because of     (Pteridaceae) are warmed in water
           adverse effects from      followed by drinking the water.
             other medicines.      Alternately, leaves are cooked and
                                           eaten as vegetable.

33           Loss of appetite        Leaves of Commelina hasskarlii
             following fever.       Clarke (Commelinaceae) are cooked
                                         and eaten as vegetable.

34         Asthma (respiratory            Roots of Aamha ajhung
          difficulties, coughs).    (unidentified) are crushed, mixed
                                   in water and three finger widths of
                                    the mixture (when poured in a cup
                                   or glass) is taken thrice daily on
                                            an empty stomach.

35        Abscess on the bottom     Sap of fruit of Ficus hirta Vahl.
                 of foot.           (Moraceae) is applied to abscess
                                     and the foot is bandages for 7
                                                  days.

36        Burning sensations in     Fruits and roots of Aju kommovae
             the chest, heavy       (unidentified) are turned into a
            breathing, pain in       paste and the juice obtained is
          different parts of the     taken thrice daily on an empty
                 abdomen.            stomach. Dosage is three finger
                                   widths of the juice when poured in
                                             a cup or glass.

Serial    Ailment with symptoms     Local name of plants/ingredients
Number                                            used

1         Body pain (in any part    Jatropha gossypifolia: Litrobihom
              of the body).

2             Kidney stones.       Jasminum arborescens: Tangna chuppa

3          Stomach pain (due to     Typhonium trilobatum: Kamtha king
           clotting of blood in
              the stomach).

4          Dizziness because of     Prismatomeris albidiflora: Lumae
               high fever.                         kiu

5               Irregular             Cyclea barbata: Ajung hai kiu
              menstruation.

6           Ringworm infection        Derris robusta: Slaiachi kiu
           (itching in rounded         Unidentified: Akangde ajhuh
            spots occurring in
           various parts of the
                  body).

7           Throat pain due to       Justicia gendarussa: Haing kiu
             cold and coughs.

8          Frequent passing of          Lepisanthes senegalensis:
            watery stool with               Aborchaijung kiu
                  fever.

9         Burning sensations in      Clerodendrum viscosum: Haro kiu
          the chest, salty taste      Hyptis capitata: Haro kalaee
          in mouth when burping,       (shada, i.e. white variety)
           flatulence, gastric
                  pain.

10          Severe fever with       Clausena heptaphylla: Ushaee kiu
           blurred eyesight due
                to fever.

11          Severe fever, red        Lygodium flexuosum: Acha khung
           color of urine, pain            (choto, i.e. small)
              in the urinary        Helminthostachys zeylanica: Acha
                 bladder.             khung puin (boro, i.e. large)

12        If blood rises to the       Unidentified: Lehu tai jhung
          head of the delivering
              mother during
               childbirth.

13               Abscess.            Hedyotis scandens: Nang ree kiu

14              Ear ache.               Streblus asper: Benae kiu

15         Tearing of tendons.         Unidentified: Blau chay adi

16             Joint pain.                    Datura metel:
                                                 Dhutura

17             Snake bite.            Sterculia colorata: Pukai chi
                                    Amorphophallus krausei: Yang kiu

18            Constipation.         Rauwolfia serpentina: Mohora kiu

19          To stop vomiting.         Unidentified: Bivvi tai jung

20             Flatulence.         Tabernaemontana recurva: Aambhu kiu

21         Jaundice (yellowish         Cissus repens: Aarorae kiu
          coloration of eyes and    Pyxidognathus fluviatilis: Kakra
            urine, headache).

22           Cuts and wounds.        Eupatorium odoratum: Boila kiu

23         Becoming afraid (may          Unidentified: Lahi kiu
          be an obsession, sees
           with blurred vision
              due to fear).

24         Severe stomach ache.      Clerodendrum nutans: Tera tabba

25                Severe            Ageratum conyzoides: Kai saeprum
                headache.                Unidentified: Kola acha

26           Long-term fever.       Anisomeles ovata: Acha muchi kiu

27               Hiccups.           Kaempferia parviflora: Promui kiu

28            Oral and anal             Euphorbia hirta: Bae acha
               infections.

29           Swelling due to            Mimosa pudica: Ajing kiu
                 injury.

30        To get rid of pus and        Cnesmone javanica: Oumi kiu
          infected material from
                 abscess.

31           Scabies, itches.        Azadirachta indica: Ong way kiu

32         Severe headache and        Pteris quadriaurita: Anch kae
           dizziness because of
           adverse effects from
             other medicines.

33           Loss of appetite       Commelina hasskarlii: Aan deuchi
             following fever.

34         Asthma (respiratory         Unidentified: Aamha ajhung
          difficulties, coughs).

35        Abscess on the bottom        Ficus hirta: Mung ponga kiu
                 of foot.

36        Burning sensations in        Unidentified: Aju kommovae
             the chest, heavy
            breathing, pain in
          different parts of the
                 abdomen.

Table 2: Family-wise distribution of medicinal plants used by the
healers of the Sigibe clan of the Khumi tribe.

Serial   Plant name                               Family
Number

1        Justicia gendarussa Burm.f.              Acanthaceae

2        Rauwolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. ex      Apocynaceae
         Kurz.

3        Tabernaemontana recurva Roxb. ex         Apocynaceae
         Lindl.

4        Amorphophallus krausei Engl.             Araceae

5        Typhonium trilobatum (L.) Schott         Araceae

6        Ageratum conyzoides L.                   Asteraceae

7        Eupatorium odoratum L.                   Asteraceae

8        Commelina hasskarlii Clarke              Commelinaceae

9        Cnesmone javanica Blume                  Euphorbiaceae

10       Euphorbia hirta L.                       Euphorbiaceae

11       Jatropha gossypifolia L.                 Euphorbiaceae

12       Helminthostachys zeylanica L.            Helminthostachyaceae

13       Derris robusta (Roxb. ex DC.) Benth.     Fabaceae

14       Mimosa pudica L.                         Fabaceae

15       Anisomeles ovata R.Br.                   Lamiaceae

16       Hyptis capitata Jacq.                    Lamiaceae

17       Lygodium flexuosum (L.) Sw.              Lygodiaceae

18       Azadirachta indica A. Juss.              Meliaceae

19       Cyclea barbata Miers                     Menispermaceae

20       Ficus hirta Vahl.                        Moraceae

21       Streblus asper Lour.                     Moraceae

22       Jasminum arborescens Roxb.               Oleaceae

23       Pteris quadriaurita Retz.                Pteridaceae

24       Hedyotis scandens Roxb.                  Rubiaceae

25       Prismatomeris albidiflora Thwaites       Rubiaceae

26       Clausena heptaphylla (Roxb. ex DC.)      Rutaceae
         Wight & Arn. ex Steud.

27       Lepisanthes senegalensis (A. Juss. ex    Sapindaceae
         Poir.) Leenh.

28       Datura metel L.                          Solanaceae

29       Sterculia colorata Roxb.                 Sterculiaceae

30       Clerodendrum nutans Wallich              Verbenaceae

31       Clerodendrum viscosum Vent.              Verbenaceae

32       Cissus repens Lam.                       Vitaceae

33       Kaempferia parviflora Wall.              Zingiberaceae
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Title Annotation:Original Articles
Author:Sarker, Bijoy; Akther, Fatema; Ayman, Umma; Sifa, Rolee; Jahan, Israt; Sarker, Mridul; Chakma, Suman
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Oct 1, 2012
Words:7119
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