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Ethnohistory of the Kayanic peoples in Northeast Borneo (Part 2): expansion, regional alliance groups, and Segai disturbances in the colonial era.

Datu Mancang (1) came up the Kayan River searching for local inhabitants. He found a village on the island of Busa:ng Aru:, near the mouth of the Pengian tributary (on the lower Kayan). There lived the Hopan, descendants of a female chief, Lahay "Bara:," (2) and Datu Mancang made a marriage alliance with this village ... His daughter Kanawai Lumu (3) married a Sulu (Yausug) chief, Abdurrasid, with the title "Raja Laut," (4) and settled in the Suluk (a tributary of the Kayan river mouth). Abdurassid was one of three sons of an Arab, Sech Abdurrahman Al-Magribi, who had once lived in the Johor kingdom. He had run away to the Sulu islands because of the Portuguese occupation of Johor. Later, he fled to Bulungan because of quarrels about religion in Sulu.

Oral History of the Bulungan Malay and Tarakan Tidung

Introduction

In a previous paper (Okushima 2006), I described the sociocultural background of the Kayanic peoples, who originated in northwestern Borneo, chiefly in the Baram basin. In this paper I describe their expansion into areas of northeastern Borneo based on an analysis of various oral sources. The genealogies of chiefs and nobles (hapoy/hipuy/paten) are the most important of these sources, particularly for evidence of time depth and interethnic relations. The longest Kayanic genealogies I have collected extend back 40 generations from present-day descendants ("egos" in Tables 1-14), who are now in their 60-80s, hence, about one thousand years, if we roughly calculate one generation as 25 years. Some chiefs from more recent times are referred to in the colonial records and other written sources, as we will indicate in the Tables (the names which are framed).

The Kayanic peoples, or Segai/Segei/Segai-i, (5) are commonly known in the history of northeastern Borneo as aggressive headhunters who burst onto the scene at the end of the eighteenth century, pushing the area into a state of terror. However, from chronological reconstructions, we find that some early Kayanic migrants like the Hopan and Hwang Siraw had already settled in the area and allied themselves with coastal groups in Bulungan and the eastern Mahakam by at least the seventeenth century. Also, some later migrants, such as the Kayan Meka:m (Mahakam Kayan) and Long Glat, started to open the headwaters of the Mahakam some 14 generations, or [+ or -] 350 years ago. Earlier settlers in the Kayan and Berau prevented these latecomers from entering the upper Kayan, especially under the leadership of the Long Way chief, Baeng Wuang "Ngo:k," who similarly dates to 14 generations ago. Later, the Long Way and their allies moved gradually to the Kelai and the eastern Mahakam tributaries, while later migrants were blocked by the former and so shifted to the western Mahakam. Finally, from the late eighteenth century to the first half of the nineteenth century, or 9 to 6 generations ago, Kayanic peoples migrated downriver in large numbers, after having established footholds in these new upriver territories.

The great Kayanic migration and Segai disturbance in northeast Borneo probably corresponded to the power shift between the neighboring sultanates, especially from the Johor to the Sulu Sultanate. Since Johor as well as its ally Brunei were occupied by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century, many Malay rulers and Arab traders fled intermittently to Sulu and elsewhere, including northeast Borneo as a political buffer area, as seen in the oral history above (see also Section 5). Then, some time later they joined the Buginese from Johor-Singapore-Riau, as well as Buginese directly from Sulawesi, and also other Malays and Arabs from Java, Sumatra, Banjarmasin, and so on. Those runaways made intermarriage alliances with the natives, the Kayanic inlanders as well as the coastal Muruts/Tidung, and they developed the local sultanates of Kutai, Pasir and Berau. They even established a new one, the Bulungan.

For as long as local oral histories record, Brunei and Johor continued to influence the Kayanic migrants to northeast Borneo and also other inhabitants, as we saw in the preceding paper (Okushima 2006). Brunei never became a significant trading center like Johor or Malacca according to colonial records. But, this doesn't mean that its trading activities or communication with Johor ceased (cf., Dr. Bassett's suggestion in Horton 2006: 176-177). There are two hypothetical reasons to explain this: First, the trading activities of Johor and Brunei were not centralized, but rather scattered between several centers, and these centers were often moved in response to migrations, wars, or enviromental changes. For example, Nicholl suggests (1980) that the location of the ancient Brunei port seems not to be that of the present Brunei port, but rather on the mouth of the Lawas River (at the north end of Sarawak). The oral histories of the Kayanic peoples, the Tidung, and Bisaya also mention some old centers in the lower Baram, Sipitang (near Labuan Island), in the Pulau Tiga islands. They even remember that the Malay and Arab migrants came from Johor by way of Singapore and Batam before the nineteenth century. A recent archaeological survey bears this out, showing that Singapore has been a trading center since the fourteenth century (Miksik and Low Mei Gek 2005). Batam was also a main port after the Bugis married into the Johor royal family and established a foothold in the Riau islands.

Secondly, some of the main trading centers of Brunei were formed in inland regions and so were hidden from foreigners. By the eighteen century, the Kayanic peoples opened the broad hinterlands of Brunei and came out to the northeast coasts of the island. So, there must have existed satellite towns, like present-dady Marudi and Long Lama along the Baram. In fact, the early Long Glat living in the Baram had contact with the inhabitants of the 'town' (akowng puyn) downriver, and also with Malay traders wearing Batavian-styled hats (Okushima 2006: 111-112). Those inland centers were much more easily moved or abandoned on the occasion of migrations or wars than coastal centers.

In the following discussion, we will start with several oral histories that are shared by regional alliance groups, consisting of villages or subgroups that live, or used to live, together, under the control of a powerful village/subgroup and its paramount chief ("a supralocal organization" in Rousseau's terms (1990: 255-262)). Such groups often share ancestors or an old settlement as their common point of origin, although some members may not share these commonalities, but, instead, look to the dominant group for protection and status. Or, in some cases, the dominant group may adopt the ancestors or homeland of its subjects as a strategy to conciliate them.

In the following four sections, we shall examine the process of Kayanic expansion by noting various regional alliance groups as they formed or absorbed one another. The pioneers of the Kayan basin, mainly the Mengga'ay and their allies the Wehea, settled in the middle and lower regions, and from there they easily expanded to the Berau, including Kong Kemul (kong, kowng = a conic mountain <G>) at the Kelai headwaters (Section 2-1). These early migrants gradually advanced to the upper Kayan, having been supplanted by the Long Way during the reign of the chief Baeng Wuang "Ngo:k." This chief conquered the Kayan basin by driving out its former inhabitants, the Menung/Ot Danum, as well as latecomers, like the Long Glat and their allies (2-2). In fact, these early settlers defended the upper Kayan by, in some cases, specializing in patroling and self-defense. Such bands later became "Punan" hunter-gatherers and followed their relatives as they migrated (see 2-3).

Being blocked by these defenders, later Kayanic migrants changed direction and moved to the western Mahakam (see Section 3). The Kayan Meka:m and Long Glat arrived first with their allies. They spent, perhaps, a century driving out or assimilating the older inhabitants, such as the Ot Danum, Ping/Penihing and the Benua'/TunjungBenua'. Later they moved to the middle-lower Mahakam and established inland hegemony under the Long Glat (3-1, 3-2). Their relatives, namely, the Hwang Siraw and related Bahau subgroups, had settled in the area even earlier and intermarried with Kutai nobles beginning in the seventeenth cenutry (3-3).

Meanwhile, as discussed in Section 4, some later migrants returned to Sarawak or moved to West Kalimantan. The Urea:' Juman under the famous chief "Lake' Dia:n"/Dia:n Kula:n led his allies back to the Baluy because of rivalry with the Long Glat and Uma:' Laran (4-1). The final battle between the paramount chiefs Ngaw Wa:n Luhung of the Uma:' Laran and "Lejiw Aya'"/ Lejiw Do:m Ba:ng Lawing of the Long Glat is still remembered by the Kenyah, as it establishes the legitimacy of their land claims to the Kayan basin (4-2).

In the final stage, the Kayanic peoples/Segai expanded even to the lower and coastal regions of northeast Borneo, where they allied and mixed with the migrants and runaways from Johor, Sulu, and Sulawesi (5-1). In fact it is these Malays and Arabs that ruled the local Borneans. They strategically emphasized the names of their Kayanic allies in their origin myths, chronicles and royal genealogies, not only because of the Kayan's power to control other inlanders and to protect trade in forest products, but also because their "nativeness" legitimatized supremacy over rivals. The most typical was the case of the early Bahau and Ga'ay settlers in the lower Kayan, Hopan/Uma:' Apan and Seloy/Ga'ay Gong Kiya:n, who were mixed with Tidung, Sulu, Malays, and Arabs, and finally established a new sultanate, Bulungan, independent of Sulu.

Another considerable Bahau subgroup, the Merap, who migrated to the Malinau basin on the middle Sesayap, also allied with local Tidung chiefs and monopolized forest products, especially bird's nests, in rivalry with the Kayanic alliance group under the Uma:' Laran and Ga'ay Long Ba'un, as well as the older settlers, the Burusu and Tenggalan (5-2). The other Segai did as the Merap, everywhere from Kutai to the southeast coast of Sabah, very rebelliously at first, but later often under the direction of local sultans. Peace was established throughout northeastern Borneo only in the end of the nineteenth century (5-3).

1. Ancestors and Homelands Shared by Regional Alliance Groups

The oral myths and stories shared by Kayanic villages or subgroups, particularly those about ancestors and homelands, are a key to understanding the makeup of regional alliance groups. Within these groups, subjects have often adopted the oral myths and genealogies of the hegemonic group or its paramount chief.

Let us look at some examples. Table 1 shows the genealogy of the Long Way nobles, some of whom are described in traditional epics (takna'). Epics 1-3 constitute a series known as the Takna' Po' ('Stories of Our Ancestors'), while epics 4-6 belong to a series, Takna' Hejowng Kejin ('Stories of the Kayan Basin Era'). The Takna' Po' is widely shared among other Ga'ay subgroups, especially the Mengga'ay of Berau. The early nobles, including the famous chiefs Jiw "Ngean," (6) Dea "Puen" (ngean, nga:n, puen, 'big, elder'), and Teguen Baeng Dlay, (7) the main characters of Epics 1, 2, and 5, are also known as the "descendants of Doh Boang" (doh boang, a kind of bird, as the incarnation of Hoang Ben Wean Wowng, 35 generations before present-day informants). On the other hand, the Takna' Hejowng Kejin are known among the Long Way and other Ga'ay in the Kutai (Melean, Long Nah, Long Glat, and Ga'ay-ized Wehea). The Mengga'ay actually recite Epic 6 (Takna' Baeng Wuang Ngo:k) in the Long Way dialect.

The relation between the two series of epics suggests a shift in hegemony from the Mengga'ay to the Long Way, chiefly during the reign of the conquerer of the Kayan basin, Baeng Wuang Bit Petowng, (8) alias Baeng Wuang "Ngo:k" (ngo:k, 'neck'), in Epic 6. Baeng was descended from the legendary early settlers, the "descendants of Doh Boang," but only through his grandmother, Boang Deho:ng (Table 1). On the other hand, his paternal descent line (see Djeng 1969; Guerreiro 1983a: 55-57; also, partially in Okushima 1999: 83, Table 1) consisted of the original Long Way ancestors, although the Long Way themselves acknowledge that they remained nameless until Eng Kan Yaw (5 generations before Baeng) settled near the Awun/Avon rapids on the middle Kayan. Beginning at that time, the Long Way gradually promoted marriage alliances with their Kayanic neighbors. Finally, during the reign of Baeng, they seized hegemony over the Kayan basin by defeating two dominant groups in the headwaters region, namely, the Menung/Ot Danum and related hunter-gatherers, and the most powerful Ga'ay village under Ding Boang (seemingly Long Glat or a related subgroup), as we will see in Section 2-2.

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By contrast, the descendants of the early migrants, such as the "descendants of Doh Boang," declined. Some of them were absorbed by the Long Way or other powerful subgroups, while others migrated to the headwaters of the Berau (Segah and Kelai) and eastern Mahakam (Belayan and Telen), especially around Kong Kemul at the Kelai headwaters. Those who concentrated at Kong Kemul were largely the Mengga'ay and Wehea. These people preserved an old myth about the birth of the first humans, "Kiw Kit" and "Kit Kiw," from a tooth of the Thunder God (kiw, 'tooth' <G>). Reference to this myth occurs in the genealogy of another famous Mengga'ay chief, Baeng Heat Tung "Puen," (9) who married his son to the daughter of Baeng Wuang Ngo:k (see Table 2). After living for a long time at Kong Kemul, they seem to have altered the myth, so that the descendants of Kiw Kit are now said to have lived at Kong Kemul. They emphasized this new version in contrast to the old version still held by the Long Way and their allies, to differentiate themselves from the latter. Later, the chiefs of the Long Bleh (part of the Long Way in the Belayan) also began to emphasize their descent from this "Kong Kemul group," because of their rivalry with other Long Way who moved to the Kelinjau (see 2-2). The regional alliance group under the Ga'ay Long Ba'un in the lower Kayan shares this same myth, though their allies, like the Uma:' Laran, Ngorek, and Pua', probably never lived at Kong Kemul or anywhere else in the Berau.

Similar cases occurred among later Kayanic migrants to the Kayan basin. Among them were the Long Glat, who for a long time lived together with Busa:ng/ Kayan subgroups in the Baram basin. Although they had their own original epic series, Takna' Po 'Jenayng ('Stories of the war-chief Jenayng/Jening'; see Okushima 2006: 111-112), they adopted another series from their allies, namely, the Takna' Inay Aya' ('Stories of the Mother Ancestor' <K>), and its sequels, Takna' (H)Unay and Takna' Uma: 'Away ('Stories of Inay Aya's descendant Hunay' and 'Stories of the Uma:' Away village') (see Table 3), all of which are recited in Kayan dialects. The Long Glat adopted these takna' probably after settling in Apo Sio: and Apo Gera:ng on the upper Baram, where they came to ally themselves with the Busa:ng under a descendant of Inay Aya', Lo:ng Luhung/Lo:ng Tekhin Lejiw (10) (see Okushima 1999: 84, Table 2), and also with the Uma:' Tua:n, who had the title "Urea:' Away."

Unfortunately, the Uma:' Tua:n and other Busa:ng have forgotten their genealogies dating back to Inay Aya' because of their assimilation by the dominant Long Glat. Though the Takna' Inay Aya' and its sequels have become mythologized and partially eroded, (11) they seem to have originally constituted a long chronicle of the proto-Kayan nobles. According to these texts, Inay Aya', a female chief (hipuy) living in Tana:' Leda:ng, envied the prosperity of her sister, Buring Bangaw (Table 3), who reigned over Apo Laga:n (the most famous homeland among the Kayan and Bahau) and was a skillful priestess of rice farming, house-building, and so on. Buring moved to Apo Sio: in despair after Inay Aya' had swallowed her two daughters, (H)Avuy Ipuy and (H)Avuy Pa:r. As a result, Inay' Aya' became the master of Apo Laga:n, as recited in many Kayanic oral histories, chants, and prayers. Later, the great-granddaughter of Inay Aya', (H)Unay, married the chief of the first human village on earth, Uma:' Away (away, 'salient' <K>).

As the last example of shared ancestors and homelands, the Long Glat and Long Way share a belief in a world after death (Tela:ng Jula:n) (12) toward which their souls pursue an invisible path starting from the Kasau (Mahakam headwaters) and leading to "Mahanday <G, K>" (Mandai), and then to "Pang Kong Pelowng <G> / Tukung Pilung <K>" (Batu Tepilung) on the upper Kapuas in West Kalimantan (see the photos in Sellato 1989: 91). (13) In fact, this belief came from their old allies, hunter-gatherers like the Ot Danum and Penihing, who originated from West and Central Kalimantan. The Ot Danum were driven out from the Kayan headwaters by the Long Way, while the Penihing and other related groups were sedentarized by the Long Glat (see 2-2, 3-1). Thus, the two Ga'ay subgroups came eventually to share myths of the same afterworld located in an area where they themselves had never lived.

2. Exploration of the Kayan Basin: Early Ga'ay and Bahau Migrants

2-1. Early Migrants, the "Kong Kemur" Group: Mengga'ay and Wehea

We Meda:ng <LN>/Medaeng <LW> (the Modang, or Ga'ay in the Kutai) are the descendants of the Ga'ay coming from the Malaysian side... In the early days of settlement in the Kayan basin, the Modang occupied the lower regions, while the Ken 'yah/Ken 'yeah (=Wehea and other non-Ga'ay subgroups) settled more upriver. In the headwaters were also the Menung/Menowng (Ot Danum and related huntergatherers), who consisted of two subgroups living in caves and forests. In the beginning the Modang had good relations with the Menung, until this alliance was broken during the reign of Beang Wang Ngo: k/Baeng Wuang Ngo:k (see 2-2). The Menung were gradually pushed out by the Long Way and their Melean (Melan) allies ... The Menung finally decided to migrate away from the Kayan, rather than to choose do-or-die resistance.

Oral History of the Long Nah and Long Way, Kelinjau

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Today, only the Ga'ay subgroups of the Berau and Bulungan still preserve their old name, "Ga'ay/Mengga'ay," probably because these regions were their earliest settlement sites in northeastern Borneo. By contrast, the later Ga'ay preferred to differentiate themselves from the others by using village names, such as "Long Way" and "Long Glat." The Ga'ay pioneers first opened the middle and lower Kayan. From there they easily spread to the Berau by passing through the Pengian tributary, which runs from the Segah basin. Takna' Hejowng Kejin lists the village locations of these early Ga'ay and their Ken'yeah/Lembueh allies (Bahau and Ga'ay-ized Wehea), such as "Long Melinje:/Melinji:" (Long Telanjau), "Long Bela'" (Long Bala'/Mam), and "Hengoy Mesea'/Hengoy Bela:'" (Telang Bala). Among these groups were the "descendants of Doh Boang" under their famous chief, Teguen Baeng Dlay.

As the number of Kayanic migrants increased, these early settlers gradually expanded into the upper Kayan, including the Kayan Iut and Kong Kemul tributaries (Map 1). Some new powers appeared, for example, the Long Way, who came from the middle Kayan to the Kayan Iut, and the Melean/Melan, who settled along the upper Kayan. (14) Also, the Long Glat migrated from the Baram to the Kayan headwaters, leading their numerous Ken'yeah allies.

As a result of the increasing population, the Kayanic peoples began to war with each other as well as with the older inhabitants of the Kayan, like the Menung/Ot Danum, who were finally defeated by the Long Way (see 2-2). The first settlers tried to prevent the later migrants from entering their lands. For example, the chief of the Ga'ay Long Ba'un, Anye' Luhung "Aya'," (15) defended the upper Kayan regions against the Ken 'yeah from the Baluy. Some of the early settlers even specialized in scouting and patroling by wandering in the forests and living like hanter-gatherers (2-3).

Finally, however, the early Kayanic settlers delivered the Kayan to the later migrants, including the Kenyah, and scattered into the Berau and eastern Mahakam (Belayan, Telen, etc.). Settlers of the Berau intensified their raids, not only internally but also in alliance with the local sultanate to protect forest products against rivals like the Sulu, Bugis, and others. The Long Way and their Ga'ay allies settled in the Belayan and Kelinjau and fought against the Wehea, who were concentrated in the Telen and Wahau, until the Kutai sultan arranged a truce through the intermarriage of the Long Way paramout chief, "Raja Dinda" (Adinda), with Wehea and Long Tesak nobles (see Table 2 and 14).

The Mengga'ay and Wehea have lost most of their oral history relating to past times in the Kayan because of the rise of the Long Way and Long Glat, and also because of incessant wars after their dispersal from the Kayan. However, they still share an origin myth from Kong Kemul, where the Mengga'ay, Wehea, and also local inhabitants ("Lebbo'" or Lebu/Basap) once lived together (see Okushima 2006: 95). From there, the Mengga'ay moved to the tributaries of the Segah and Kelai, while the Ga'ay Long Ba'un returned to the upper Kayan and continued to fight against later migrants in alliance with the Uma:' Laran (see Section 4). The Wehea of Long Batloh (upper Kayan), (16) who moved to Kong Kemul under Lejiw Kepbung, as recited in their traditional poem (ken'iah) Siw Ma' Do:m, joined the other Wehea in the Telen.

Among the Kong Kemul group mentioned earlier, there existed also some subgroups that did not originate in Kong Kemul and thus did not share the same origin myth. For example, a small faction of the Long Way under Eng Bit Haw came from the Kayan Iut to the upper Kelai (now in Long Lesan) apart from others who migrated to the Belayan, as recited in the Ken'iah Wong Waih Wong. The allies of the Ga'ay Long Ba'un, who had never lived around Kong Kemul, such as the Uma:' Laran, Ngoreak, and Pua', insist their origin myths were adopted from the Ga'ay Long Ba'un. On the other hand, part of the Wehea prefer to identify themselves with other regions of the upper Kayan, like E'an and Laham, probably because of their alliance with the Long Way and Long Glat. For instance, the villagers of Benhes (Benhes) state that one of their past chiefs, Wang Dang Kan Jung (17) in Long Penyinga' on the upper Kayan, was allied with the Long Way chief Baeng Wuang Ngo:k, mentioned above.

Subgroups of the Kong Kemul group also share some socio-cultural features, many of which seem to be of Bahau or Bahau-Murut origin. For example, both the Mengga'ay and Wehea tend to form small, fragmented villages, some of them led not by nobles but by a chief's right-hand man or a commoner. The use of stone tools is another important feature that is often mentioned in their oral histories (see Arifin and Sellato 2003). Their origin myth states, for example, that the people of Kong Kemul felled a giant tree, Kia'Yo' ('tree of omen birds'), bearing a nest of man-eating hawks (Okushima 2006: 95) by using stone axes. Also, Sengguk Wuk, one of the Mengga'ay chiefs who migrated to the upper Segah, had a special stone axe, ashy Ngean Lenget (Axe 'the Great Arch of the Sky'), as an heirloom, which he used to quarry a stone boat from a riverside bluff in order to unite with the Divine. However, he was later defeated by another Mengga'ay chief, his rival Senwin Ding Lenget, and forced to concede his axe.

The Mengga'ay and Wehea also shared a unique system of personal naming. In general, the Kayanic peoples choose the names of their children from those of their ancestors. To this name they add one of the parents' names, for instance, Lo:ng Luhung or "Lo:ng, daughter of her mother Luhung,'" or Baeng Wuang Bit Petowng or "Baeng, son of his father Wuang Bit Petowng (son of Bit, son of Petowng ...)." In contrast, the Kong Kemul group and related subgroups (Long Tesak and others) name their children not from their direct ancestors, but at random, and they do not add the parents' name (see Tables 13 and 14). This system makes it difficult for descendants to memorize their genealogies, as well as to retain details of other memories of the past. Some informants explain that this peculiar system resulted from the extinction of high-status nobles (hepoy puen, hepuy ngan) due to incessant wars and headhunting. (18) In fact, the Long Way also adopted this system from their allies the Wehea for similar reasons during the reign of "Raja Dinda." (19)

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2-2. Conquerors of the Kayan: the Long Way and their Allies

The name Belayan (tributary of the Mahakam) was derived from the Kutai words bala Kayan, or 'lines of Kayan people,' because of the many Kayanic migrants who arrived in the Kutai kingdom walking in file from the headwaters of the Kayan River. They also replaced the original name of the main stream, Kutai, with Mahakam, the name used today.

Oral History of the Kutai Malays

The successors to the early Kayanic migrants, the Long Way and their Ga'ay allies, were actually of low status until the reign of Baeng Wuang Ngo:k. The Long Way split into four subgroups during their migration from the Kayan to the Mahakam, namely, the Long Lesa:n on the upper Kelai (2-1), the Long Bleh (also, Bleah <LW> / Bilah <K>) on the middle Belayan, the "Long Way Pen"/Long Way on the middle Kelinjau, and the "Long Way Lung"/Long Tesak formerly of the Pari, a tributary of the middle Mahakam. Today, the Long Way Pen have the largest village, Long Bentuk (Long Bung Taw'), where there still exists a rich storehouse of oral histories, not only of their own, but also of their neighbors, such as the Long Tesak, Melean, and Long Nah.

The ancestors of the Long Way migrated to the Kayan under Eng Kan Yaw as described above. They settled first near the Hewon/Avun rapids (Map 1). Then, they gradually moved upriver and entered the Kayan Iut. In the reign of the Eng's grandson, Petowng, they settled at the mouth of a tributary, Way Pen. Here they intermarried with some powerful subgroups, including early Mengga'ay settlers under Teguen Baeng Dlay. Thus, they became known as the "Long Way."

One product of this intermarriage was Wuang Bit Petowng and his son Baeng Wuang Ngo:k. As stated in many oral histories, Baeng was very ill-behaved and violent. He disobeyed the elders and did not follow his people's religious practices, the most serious crime in the old Kayanic culture. At one point, Baeng's followers ran away and his family was forced to rely on the Wehea chief, Wang Dang Kan Jung (2-1). He eventually recovered his honor by defeating two dominant groups in the Kayan headwaters, the Menung/Ot Danum and the Long Glat or the related Ga'ay under Ding Boang Wuang Dea Lejiw. (20) According to the Takna' Hejowng Kejin, the Long Way moved to the upper Kayan, Long Baeng Mew', to seek Ding Boang's protection from the Menung, because they were worried about a revenge attack by Baeng's right-hand men and their Menung allies. (21) However, Ding Boang's half-brothers made trouble with Baeng's father and killed him. Hence, the two villages began to fight, which turned later into an all-out war throughout the Kayan basin. (22) Ding Boang and all of his family died in this war, except for Ding's youngest sister Heyea' (Anya:' <K,B>) who ran away with some villagers to the "Wehea Bap," or the Merap of today (see 5-1). (23)

The victory of the Long Way resulted in the Kayanic peoples occupying the whole basin. However, they gradually moved to the Berau and eastern Mahakam as they were pushed there by later migrants like the Long Glat and Busa:ng, as seen in 2-1. In comparison with the Mengga'ay and part of the Wehea, who were concentrated around Kong Kemul, the Long Way and their allies gathered further south, especially around three rocky mountains (hanga') between the headwaters of the Kayan Iut, Belayan, and Telen (Map 1). (24) Some of the Long Way temporarily moved to the upper Kayan, such as the Laham tributary. It is likely that in this period some of the Long Way split from the main group and became known as "Long Way Lung," (25) or later as "Long Tesak" after their migration to the Pari:'/Pari on the Mahakam. If we examine genealogies of the Long Tesak, we see that they had adopted the naming system of the Kong Kemul group (2-1), beginning before their migration to the Kelinjau and re-assimilation by the other Long Way. Also, another party under Eng Bit Haw settled at the Kelai.

The rest of the Long Way arrived in the Tewaeng/Tava:ng/Tabang (26) (on the Belayan, see Map 2) during the reign of Baeng Lewi:ng, five generations after Baeng Wuang Ngo:k, together with their allies the Long Nah, the Long Jengean (a faction of the Melean), the Wehea, and some other Bahau subgroups like the Hwang Muyut (see 3-3). The Belayan was the main gateway to the Mahakam basin for these early Kayanic migrants, which resulted in it being named "Belayan/Bala Kayan" by the Kutai inhabitants, as mentioned at the beginning of this section. The Ga'ay, from the time of Baeng Wuang Ngo:k, continued to attack the earlier inhabitants of the Mahakam such as the Tunjung-Benua' who then still lived on the upper Telen and Kelinjau.

During the age of Baeng Lewing's grandson, Liah Ping Baeng Lewi:ng, (27) and his first cousin, Ding Hejaeng (Table 2), the Long Way split into several subgroups and moved to the Kelinjau, except for one subgroup, the Long Bleh under Liah. In this period, the Long Way formed several farming groups along the Bengen, a tributary of the upper Belayan (Map 2). These groups, however, secretly fled to the Senyur and Atan, tributaries of the Kelinjau, to support other nobles. The Long Bleh then attacked the rest of the Long Way as well as all other Kayanic peoples on the Mahakam, until Liah's great-grandson, Ding Liah Baw, was defeated by a Kutai force and converted to Islam in the middle of the nineteenth century (see also Dewali 1848-49:22-27 October).

Settlements on the Senyur and Atan consisted of three main villages, Long Genwah (upper Atan) under Ding Hajaeng in alliance with the Long Nah, Long Suwi' (middle Kelinjau) under La' Soang Hoang, and Long Menwea (Muara Ancalong) under Baeng Heat Tung "So'" (Map 2). These villages continued to fight with the Long Bleh and Wehea, and also with the Hwang Sa' of the middle Mahakam. A few generations later, they were finally reunified in the Long Tekowng (near Long Bentuk of today), also absorbing the Long Jengean. The other Ga'ay, such as the Long Nah, We' Hela' (another Melean faction), and Long Tesak, also joined one another in the middle Kelinjau. (28)

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This reunification was promoted by the Kutai sultans who sought to regain hegemony from the Kayanic migrants. One of the sultan's right-hand men, Pengeran Mangku, appointed the Long Way chief Lenget Lung Hela' Haeng (Table 2) as paramount chief of the eastern Mahakam, and Lenget arranged a truce throughout the Mahakam basin by means of intermarriage alliances between the Long Way, Long Tesak, and Wehea. Lenget was given the Malay title "Raja Dinda/Adinda" ('Sultan's Brother') and married noble women of these groups, including Diang But or "Tana:' Yo:ng" of the Long Tesak (see also Bock 1881 ; Spaan 1901; Knappert 1905). As a result, the Long Way ceded part of their land to the Long Tesak and the latter sent a party under Tana:' Yo:ng to govern this new territory, including her followers selected from their subjects, the Hwang Sa' (H. Tri:ng, H. Anah, H. Dali:', and H. Siraw) and Laham in the middle Mahakam. Later, the whole Long Tesak group moved to the Kelinjau and became assimilated with the Bahau, as well as with their neighbors, the Tunjung-Benua'.

2-3. Forest-wandering for self-defense: The Punan Kelay, Secondary Hunter-gatherers from the Long Nab

In the Kayan, there were not only hunter-gatherers who fought and allied themselves with Kayanic peoples, like the Lebbo'/Lebu and Menung/Ot Danum, but also some Kayanic peoples who specialized in scouting and patroling and who later became "Punan," as we shall see from the oral history of the Long Nah.

As I wrote previously (Okushima 1999, 2006), the Kayanic peoples succeeded in maximizing mobility and corporateness by means of various social institutions, like stratification, house groups, and kinship. They developed an efficient division of labor for farming, hunting, trading, and war-making. Sometimes this involved cooperation with neighboring hunter-gatherers, whom they later called "Punan." The Kayanic term "Punan/Penan/Penman," originally meant 'someone who brings rice souls from deep forest' or 'forest spirits,' though later the term came to refer to hunter-gatherers. Hence, this title was given to old allies who brought them practical benefits, for example, game and other forest products, or information about distant places and their inhabitants.

Kayanic migrants used to rely on their relatives or allies among the Punan to guide them to new settlements in northeast Borneo. They distinguished these Punan from other hunter-gatherers who were the older inhabitants of the area, such as the Lebu, Ot Danum and Penihing, because the latter were, potentially at least, enemies. The Kayanic peoples sometimes stationed the Punan according to their convenience, in order to protect their territory or sources of forest products. This was the case, for example, with the Merap and the Punan and Beketan on the Malinau (see 5-2), and with the the Uma:' Laran and Ga'ay Long Ba'un and the Punan Menyaung/Benyaung, P. Belahun/Berun and P. Lejuh on the lower Kayan.

A similar relationship developed among the regional alliance groups under the Long Way, but with Punanized Ga'ay. The Long Nah, who were originally related to the Kong Kemul group, allied later with the Long Way and followed them to the eastern Mahakam. They formerly lived in Long Setjaw' (or, Sekjew'/Sekji:'/Tekeja' etc.), a tributary of the Kayan Iut, where there was a saline spring (nab <LN> / noah <LW>). There they split into two factions. The Long Nah chief at that time, Beyt Ba:w Dam Taw' (Bit Baw Doam Tew' <LW>), had a younger sister, Ye" Ba:w Dam Taw', who loved farming and cattle breeding. One day, however, it happened that one of her domestic pigs ran away and ruined the farm of Bit. He became so angry that he prohibited Ye' from farming or staying in the village. Therefore, Ye' led a small party from the Kayan to Long Gueh, (29) and they became "Punan Long Way," namely, hunter-gatherers who follow after the Long Way and Long Nah. Later, they mixed with other hunter-gatherers and divided into several Punan subgroups, such as the Punan Kelay (Kelai), P. Lesey', P. Abang, and P. Lepdean. (30)

In fact, those Punan subgroups were probably divided according to the convenience of the Long Way alliance group to guard the headwaters of the Kelai and Belayan against later Kayanic migrants. As we shall see in Section 4, these later migrants, like the Long Glat, Long Huvung, and Uma:' Juman, suffered from the furious attacks of the Punan Kelay and therefore were forced to migrate to the western headwaters of the Mahakam. They called the Punan Kelay not "Punan," but rather "Li' Kelay" (li', lib, "a group of" <G>), or simply "Ken'yah/Kenyah" in their oral histories. Guerreiro also suggests (1985: 108, 115-116) that the Punan Kelay, or Mnan as is their autonym, are physically and linguistically very close to the Ga'ay, especially the Wehea and the Mengga'ay of the Kelai.

Such "Punanization" or creation of "secondary hunter-gatherers" (Hoffman 1986) among Kayanic peoples seems to have sometimes occurred in the past. Also, according to Kutai oral history, the Lebu are descended from Chinese forest-product traders (Adham 1979, vol. 1: 49). Other possible factors such as quarrels, social sanctions, religious segregation, tyranny, and desertion from wars could also have motivated some Kayanic peoples to escape into the forest and become forest wanderers (see Okushima 2006: 120-121).

3. Discovery of the "Big Mahakam": Long Glat, Kayan Meka:m, and Hwang Sa'

The broad, fertile basin of the Mahakam was very attractive for many Kayanic migrants from the Kayan. They replaced its old name "Kutai" with Mekiam Puen/Meka: m Aya', or "Big Mahakam, Ocean,' to distinguish it from their older settlement, Mekiam/ Mahkam on the upper Segah.

After the defeat of the Menung/Ot Danum on the upper Kayan, Kayanic peoples gained easier access to the Mahakam, not only from the Belayan and Telen, but also via western tributaries like the Boh, Ogah, and Tepai, all of which flow from the Kayan headwaters (Map 1). Most later Kayanic migrants passed these western tributaries in order to avoid the attacks of the Long Way and their allies, including the Punan Kelay. Among these migrants were three main alliance groups. On the upper Mahakam (above the Riam rapids), the pioneer Kayan Meka'm and some other Bahau and Murut subgroups lived scattered along the uppermost part of the river (see 3-2), while the Long Glat and their Busa:ng allies spread from the upper to the middle Mahakam (3-1), and the "Hwang Sa'" and other Bahau, who were largely controlled by the Long Glat and its small faction the Keliway, concentrated along the middle Mahakam (3-3). In addition, some Ga'ay, like the Long Huvung/Hubung, part of the Melean (We' Hela' above), and the Long Tesak, also migrated to the Mahakam.

Examining genealogies reveals that some Kayanic peoples, including the Kayan Meka:m and Long Glat, arrived at the headwaters of the Mahakam during the reign of the Long Glat chief Luhat Ba:ng, 14 generations before present-day informants, or [+ or -] 350 years ago (see Table 4). Some of the Hwang Sa', such as the H. Siraw and H. Anah, who migrated from the Belayan and Telen, may have come to the Mahakam a bit earlier, if we consider the evidence of intermarriage alliances with the coastal Kutai (see 3-3). From this it would seem that the Kayanic migrants spent more than a century, 5 to 6 generations, opening the forest and driving out the local inhabitants, not only the Ot Danum but also the "Ping'/Penihing, "Tera:n"/Pira Toran, and "Benua"/Tunjung-Benua,' until they were able to settle safely along the main river. Later, they allied and became assimilated with these local groups, creating the Hwang Boh, H. Temha:, H. Meka:m/Mahakam, (31) Uma:' Pala:', and U. Tepay/Tepe:. In contrast, others like the Kayan Meka:m were linguistically changed by the influence of their Penihing subjects as well as their Busa:ng neighbors. After securing a foothold along the upper Mahakam, Kayanic peoples spread to the middle Mahakam in the late eighteenth century, 6 to 7 generations ago, triggering disturbances throughout the Kutai sultanate, until a final peace-making was concluded during the reign of Raja Dinda, as described earlier.

3-1. The Long Glat and Busa:ng, or the "Descendants of Inay Aya'"

When our ancestors (later Long Glat migrants under Ding "Tung") still lived in Long Jemahang (see Map 1), some of them went fishing in the Kayan Iut and saw a shining silver sengala:ng tree (32) drifting from the Danum Nyivung tributary. They picked it up and made a long drum (tuvung) from it, which they named "Teloy Lengayt <LG>/ Tuluy Langit <K,B>" ('Flood in the Sky,' a poetic expression for a thunderbolt). Because the sengala:ng was in fact the sacred tree for the funeral rituals of the Ot Danum (adat Turay), one of them, Lambang, who was descended from "Tambun Bungay," (33) later came to get the drum back from the Long Glat, who by this time had migrated to Long Puti:' (at Riam). But, he could not find the village because of the supernatural power of Tuluy Langit. Years later, the Long Glat under Lejiw Lie' and Ibo: Lie' (see Table 4) experienced a sudden attack of the Long Huvung, who came with their allies the Long Tesak and Hwang Tri:ng (Muyut). Thus, the Long Huvung took away Tuluy Langit as well as other heirlooms. (34)

Oral History of the Long Glat, upper Mahakam

[TABLE 4 OMITTED]

Originating in the Baram, the first Long Glat chief, Ba:ng <K, B> / Beang <LG>, 25 generations before his present-day descendants (see Okushima 1999: 84, Table 2), settled at Napo' Bem Biha:' Tela:ng (an area of rapids with a waterfall) next to the Busa:ng tributary, in the Apo Sio: highland. His great-grandson, Lejiw Lie' (Lejaw Li:' <K, B>), married Lo:ng Tekhin Lejiw / Lo:ng Luhung and gave birth to Ibo: (also (H)Ibaw <K, B> / Ba:, Baw <G>). From his reign, the Long Glat started to differentiate themselves from the others, with the subgroup name Puhu: Ibo: Lo:ng Luhung <K> / Su:n Ba: Lowng Leho:ng <LG> (puhu:, meso:n, su:n, 'a grandchild, descendant(s)'). Remember that the name Apo Sio: appears also in the old Kayan epics and chants, including the Takna' Inay' Aya' above, as the homeland of the sister of Inay' Aya'/Ine: Aya', Buring Bangaw (Table 3). In fact, the genealogy of Ibo:'s mother dates back to this legendary noble (see footnote 9). Hence, we can see that the birth of Ibo: was symbolic of the alliance between the Long Glat and some powerful proto-Kayan subgroup.

The Long Glat began at this time to rule over these proto-Kayans, who differentiated themselves from other Ken'yeah by their use of the name "Busa:ng." Their power grew during the period of Ibo: Lo:ng Luhung's great-grandson, Ba:ng Lejiw, and his son, Ding Ba:ng, alias Ding "Tung." Ba:ng once dreamed of a fire in his village and so moved his village to Apo Gera:ng and became known as "Bo' Tung" (tung, 'burnt out'). There they encountered another large Busa:ng population, the Uma:' Tua:n, who were allegedly also descendants of Inay Aya' and the "U.Away/Awe:." The chief Kwe:ng Belawa:n married his daughter-in-law, Usun Ut, to Ding "Tung." Thereafter, the Uma:' Tua:n became important allies, always following the Long Glat and were given the title, "Our Favorite (like the central bead of a necklace)" (beluwa: ting kelbd: <K>). There were also Uma:' Sam, who came to Apo Gera:ng seeking protection. By the time they migrated to the Kayan, the other orignal Busa:ng, the Uma:' Lekwe:, U. Mehak, and U. Wak, also came under the control of the Long Glat.

The Long Glat arrived in Apo Kayan (35) during the reign of Ding's great-grandson, Luhat Ba:ng (Hi:t Beang <LG>), 14 generations before present-day descendants (see Table 4). This seems to have occurred during almost the same period as that of the famous Long Way chief, Baneg Wuang Ngo:k, who also lived 14 generations ago. The son of Luhat Ba:ng, Ding Luhat decided to migrate to the Boh, hearing that Singa Melu:n, chief of the Kayan Meka:m, had just moved to the Mahakam. This migration may also have been the result of battles between Baeng and Ding Boang (2-2), although the name of the latter is not mentioned in the Long Glat genealogies I collected. Some of the Long Glat soon left for the Mahakam, while the rest stayed in the Kayan headwaters, such as the Long Jemahang and Long Danum (Map 1). The two later rejoined in the upper Mahakam, during the reign of Lejiw Aja:ng or "Kerta" in the nineteenth century.

Having moved from the Boh to its tributary, the Ogah, Ding Luhat's son, Ba:ng Ding searched a long time for a good place to settle along the main river and finally settled at Long Deho' (near Batu Kelau) on the Riam rapids. There, the Long Glat were fully occupied with expeditions to the upper and middle Mahakam for several generations. Ba:ng's great-granddaughter, Do' Ding, alias Do' "Langit," married "Sultan Kutai," or some Kutai noble at least, (36) who visited the upper Mahakam to make allies with the Kayanic newcomers. Although he himself could not stand a "Dayak" life style and later returned to the lower Mahakam (Long Keputus), the Long Glat obtained their first inroad into controlling the Mahakam basin by means of this marriage. The hegemony of the Long Glat was almost established by the time of Do's grandson, Aja:ng Lejiw, or "Po' Hejieng <LG> / Bo' (H)Aja:ng <K>" (see Dewall 1846-47:9 and 14 June, "Bokk-Djing," "Bohha-Djang" etc.).

Colonial records relating to the Long Glat seem quite confused, written as if only one chief, whose name was "Lejiw," performed all of these deeds, such as arranging a marriage alliance with the Kutai sultan, conquering the Mahakam basin, and sending expeditions to West Kalimantan. In fact, however, there were at least four different "Lejiws" between the late eighteenth and middle of the nineteenth century.

The earliest "Lejiw" was one of Aja:ng Lejiw's sons, Lejiw Aja:ng, who was also known as "Lejiw Bela:'/Lejaw Bela:'" (bela:'<K, B> 'turning red in anger'), or by his Malay title "Kerta" given to him by the Kutai sultan (see Table 4, and also Table 7). (37) In this Lejiw's time, the Long Glat attacked the inhabitants of the Mahakam one after another in alliance with other Kayanic migrants. They also fought against the Long Way and Wehea in the eastern tributaries. Aja:ng once migrated for a time to the Tabang (Belayan), seemingly to take temporary refuge from some conflict with the We' Hela' or other Ga'ay. Lejiw Aja:ng later became a Kutai officer, while his younger brother Ibo: Aja:ng was mainly engaged in suppressing the peoples of the upper Mahakam, including the Uma:' Tepay, U. Pala:' and U. Suling (see also 4-1).

Some time later, the late-arriving Long Glat came to the upper Mahakam, under the direction of three children of another Ibo: Lo:ng Luhung, Do', Lie' and Aja:ng (Table 4). Do' married another Lejiw, Lejiw Do:m Ba:ng Lawing (a Long Way, or Melean, noble), who fought against the Uma:' Juman and U. Laran in Apo Kayan, together with his son Ding, another Ding "Tung," as we will see in 4-2. This aggressive chief Ding "Tung" often quarreled with neighboring people. For example, he once tried to abduct Do' Langit, the beautiful daughter of the Long Huvung chief Langit Ding, (38) and the Long Huvung soon left Batu Kelaw and moved downriver to avoid war with Ding. Before or after this period, the Long Glat drove other neighbors to the middle Mahakam, such as the Hwang Meka:m, Uma:' Luhat or "Tunjung Linggang" (Kayanized Penihing), and other Tunjung-Benua'. The Melean and Uma:' Mehak also migrated to the middle Mahakam, probably seeking protection from Lejiw Aja:ng or Kerta, who had married another Long Huvung noble, Hipuy Lawing Ding, and moved down to Long Meroh by this time.

Two first cousins of Ding "Tung," Lejiw Lie' and Ibo: Lie' (Table 4), who were still young at the time of the migration from the Kayan to the Mahakam, later had to reap the harvest of Ding's aggressive behavior when the Long Huvung returned from Kota Bangun (Map 2) and conterattacked the Long Glat in the upper Mahakam, reinforced by the Long Tesak and Hwang Muyut. The Long Glat were forced to flee to the headwaters of the Seratah. After these hardships, Lejiw and Ibo: devoted themselves to restoring their power by attacking and annexing their neighbors for better defense, such as the Bang Kelaw and Uma:' Suling between the Seratah and Meraseh, the Penihing and other hunter-gatherers in the Mahakam headwaters region, and even the Turi:/Maloh (Taman) of West Kalimantan (see also Nieuwenhuis 1904: 279; Ngo 1988: 52-53; Sellato 1986: 304-305, 317-318).

Some of the children of Lejiw and Ibo: split from the group and moved to the middle Mahakam under the hegemony of the Kutai sultans, taking with them some of their Busa:ng, Uma:' Pala', and U. Tepay allies. The rest of the Long Glat maintained their independence along the upper Mahakam under Kerta's brother's son, Kuleh Ibo:. (39) Among them was the nephew of Ding "Tung," another Lejiw Lie', who took several wives from among the hunter-gatherers of the Seriku, Sekeh, Tibang, and Kasau (see Table 5). (40) This younger Lejiw Lie' settled these allies along the main stream and taught them to cultivate rice. Other hunter-gatherers preferred to migrate further upriver, or to West and Central Kalimantan. Lejiw also married one of his daughters, Bula:n Lejiw of Penihing origin, to the Kutai Sultan, Muhammad Salehudin, in the 1820s (Table 4 and 6, see also Dalton 1837; Dewall 1846-47). (41) However, because the sultan had many wives, Bula:n begged him to allow her to return to the upper Mahakam. She had repeated secret abortions, until she finally came home and married again, this time to a Penihing chief, Blare'.

Intermarriage alliances were frequently promoted. The son of the elder Lejiw Lie', Ba:ng Lejiw, married the granddaughter of Kerta, who gave birth to Lejaw Ba:ng, or "Raden Temanggung" in Hwang Anah's village (see 3-3). Lejiw Lie's first-cousin, Do' Ibo:, sister of the chief Kuleh Ibo: mentioned above, married a Kayan Meka:m noble, Uvat Tuko: (Table 5). Uvat's daughter Unya:ng married the son of Lejiw's second cousin, Ibo: Aja:ng. The brother of Bula:n Lejiw, Dalung Lejiw, was also asked to marry his daughter to the sultan. Thus, political networks were established in this period throughout the Mahakam.

In the second half of the nineteenth century, the Long Glat of the upper Mahakam were further split into several villages. Ibo: Lie's grandson, Liah Lo:ng (Table 4), led his party to Lirung Ba'an, then to Long Tepay, together with his wife's village, Uma:' Lekwe:' (see also Nieuwenhuis 1904: 281). They finally settled in Long Tuyo' at the beginning of the twentieth century. On the other hand, the great-grandson of Lejiw Lie' (Ibo:'s brother), Ibo: Aja:ng, split from the village of his second cousin, Ba:ng Juk, and moved to Long Meroh, then to Long Melaham, until his group rejoined the latter in Ujoh Bilang in the 1960s because of depopulation. Ba:ng Juk seized hegemony as the paramount chief over the middle and upper Mahakam at the end of the nineteenth century, but he and his siblings had no heir to succeed them. After the death of Ba:ng Juk in the 1930s (see Vossen 1936), his first cousin Ha:ng Lejaw or "'Mat Saleh," son of Raden Temanggung (see Table 7), became the Kutai official until the Japanese occupation. During this time, Long Glat influence in the middle Mahakam region gradually decreased.

3-2. The Kayan Meka:m and the Related Murutie Group

... The Ping Sekay, Ping Uvo:ng, Ping Kenyo:ng, Ping Bahva:ng, Ping Talun, nobles of the Hwang Kaya:n, nobles of the Tera:n, (42) and the female chief Unya:ng Lalaw, (43) all who have long possessed the Pahangai basin, until today, and who live in the sacred land in the sky, from where this basin originated. We order them to wake up and hear our voices call for them. We order them to come and take up our souls, we, the inhabitants of this basin.

Land purifying prayer of the Uma:' Suling, upper Mahakam

Among the Kayanic migrants to northeastern Borneo, there were many "in-between" subgroups, that is, people who were already allied with some of the Kayanic peoples but not so strongly as to become assimilated. These miscellaneous in-between peoples were Muruts, hunter-gatherers, Malays, and any other local peoples, all whom were the Ken 'yeah/Kenyah in the original sense of the term (see Okushima 2006). Some migrated to the upper Mahakam and became known as the Kayan Meka:m, Bang Kelaw, Lutan, and Laham. Thus, they were labeled by their neighbors, the Long Glat, Busa:ng, and Hwang Sa', as being "like the Kenyah."

Over the generations, however, these Ken' yeah or in-between groups were assimilated into the Busa:ng and Long Glat, while those of the middle Mahakam were Bahau-ized by the Hwang Sa'. The dialect of the Kayan Meka:m is a very interesting example of this assimilation. They are said to have formerly spoken a dialect close to Hwang Sa' before assimilation with their Penihing subjects as well as their Busa:ng neighbors. However, their language also shows some Murutic remnants, derived, perhaps, from the language of the people living today along the Kerayan and northern Baram, where the early Ga'ay and Bahau had contacts (Okushima 2006: 103-105).

[TABLE 5 OMITTED]

As seen in Long Glat oral history as well as from the prayer of the Uma:' Suling, the Kayan Meka:m are generally known as the first Kayanic migrants to the upper Mahakam, under the leadership of chief Kwe:ng Ira:ng, alias "Singa Melu:n." (44) Tromp mentions (1888: 62-63) their oral history which includes a typical, widely-shared Kayanic legend of a falling bridge (butat ja'it <K>). The Kayan Meka:m came to be split in two during their migration from the Kayan to the Bob because some of them cut down a rattan bridge that crossed a ravine after mishearing a cry of payaw (a deer) as ayaw (enemies). (45) Because of this, the followers of Kwe:ng's sister ("Oeboeng Lirang") could not reach the Boh and were obliged to return to Brunei, while the others headed towards Danum Paray/Pare: on the upper Mahakam.

Unfortunately, the oral historical details were lost by the early twentieth century, as the Kayan Meka:m themselves acknowledge. According to Nieuwenhuis's genealogy (1904: 283), Kwe:ng Ira:ng/"Singa Melu:n" corresponds to 8 generations before present-day informants, which is close to the reign of the Long Glat chief, Aja:ng Lejiw/Po' Hejieng (see Table 5). However, if we follow Long Glat oral history, as seen in section 3-1, the first "Singa Melu:n" should have been alive during the reign of Ding Luhat, 6 generations before Aja:ng Lejiw. Hence, we can speculate that there were several descendants of the first "Singa Melu:n" with the name Kwe:ng, and that all of them were given the alias "Kwe:ng Ira:ng" or "Singa Melu:n", just as in the cases of "Lejiw Bela:'" and Ding "'Tung" described above. Moreover, these descendants originated not from the first "Singa Melu:n" but from his brother, Unya:ng, very likely the Unya:ng Lalaw referred to in the Uma:' Suling prayer quoted above.

Arriving in the upper Mahakam region, the Kayan Meka:m joined other Kayanic migrants to attack the old inhabitants and enlarge their new territory. (46) Because they were the pioneers of the region and also because they had numerous subjects like the Penihing, even their rivals, the Long Glat, dared not to attack them directly. The Kayan Meka:m were still considered in general as the ruling group of the upper Mahakam in the 1890s, during the reign of Kwe:ng Uvat, alias "Kwe:ng Ira:ng" (see Table 5), although his first-cousin's son, the Long Glat chief Ding Ngo:, insisted on his own hegemony by stressing his descent from Ibo: Aja:ng (brother of "Kerta" above) (see Nieuwenhuis 1904: 282). Nevertheless, because of their preference for staying in the uplands, just as their Murutic ancestors had done, the Kayan Meka:m were gradually left behind, in contrast to the Long Glat, who were eager to organize regional alliances and political networks.

Two related groups of Kayan Meka:m, the Uma:' Pala:' and U. Tepe:/Tepay, share linguistic and cultural features. The Uma:' Urut and Bang Kelaw may also have had relations with them, because the U. Urut came from the Mount Murut/Murud area of Sarawak together with the Bang Kelaw. According to their oral histories, the Uma:' Urut once fought with the Bang Kelaw during their migration to the Mahakam, but later allied with them. The Bang Kelaw themselves consisted originally of several different subgroups, like the "Uma:' Bawa:ng" (Kenyah U. Tela:ng now living in the Tabang and Baluy), (47) "U. Sabben" (the Saban?), and "U. Dia:n."

These various in-between subgroups were caught and annexed by the Long Glat. When the Long Glat attacked the Uma:' Pala:' (pala: ', 'to be taken, conquered' <K>), they lived on the rocky mountain Bato' Uko:t (uko:t, uting <K>, 'a domestic pig'). (48) The U. Tepay once lived in Data: Talun around Bang Bro'/Brok, (49) before moving to the Tepai basin. There, according to local legends, they prospered as rice farmers in cooperation with several "Ping"/Penihing subgroups. However, the Penihing eventually became extinct because the U. Tepay chief harrassed them. The U. Urut settled in the southern region, ranging to Central Kalimantan. Here the Sihang and other local groups often came to attack them. They finally sought protection from the Long Glat when they lived on the Belso', a tributary of the Pahangai. (50)

Only the Bang Kelaw remember some details of their past migrations. They migrated from Batu Maga:ng between the Kayan and Boh, then settled near lake Mesa'ay on the Ogah. All subgroups such as the U. Bawa:ng and U. Sabben migrated together but built separate longhouses. Then, the Bang Kelaw gradually migrated westwards, from the upper Tepai to the Lunok. In this period, they became well-known for their invincible villages protected by various devices, (51) as expressed in the local saying: Tiah ta 'uli: 'men Bang Kelaw ('We obtained nothing, just like our expeditions to the village of the Bang Kelaw' <K>). The Long Glat were barely able to defeat them when the Bang Kelaw lived on Mount Hapa:ng Palok (between the Meraseh and Seratah), seemingly sometime after the counterattacks of the Long Huvung described above. Thus, the Long Glat gave them the title of 'Sharp Swords' (mala:t nyiet/nya 'at <K>).

3-3. Alliance and Assimilation with the Coastal Malay: The Hwang Sa'

Ngaw Wa:n Luhung (chief of the Uma:' Laran; see Section 4) attacked the Kaya:n (here, the Long Glat) and Kenyah (non-Ga'ay peoples, here, the Hwang Sa') in Apo Kayan. Many dead bodies turned the lake red, so that it came to be called Bawa:ng Baluy (near Long Ampung, Map 1). The rest of the Kaya:n and Kenyah then moved to the Mahakam; the Kenyah in fact consisted of two subgroups, the "Hwang Tri:ng" and the "Hwang Tembaw."

Oral History of the Uma" Laran, lower Kayan

In contrast with the in-between subgroups of the upper Mahakam, the "Hwang Sa'" were strongly Kayanized from their time in the Baram, and so they were more subservient to the Ga'ay and Kayan chiefs. They consisted of the Hwang Anah, H. Dali:'/ Dalih, H. Siraw, and H. Tri:ng/Tering, including their faction, the H. Muyut/Muyub, (52) as well as Bahau-ized local groups, H. Boh, H. Temha:, and H. Meka:m, all of whom had once been under the rule of the Long Glat and Keliway in the middle Mahakam. The Hwang Patak (mixed with the H. Muyut) and H. Huray are considered not to belong to the original Hwang Sa' group, seemingly because they were allied with the Long Way.

[TABLE 6 OMITTED]

The identity of the Hwang Sa'or 'original Bahau' (sa'= "sah" in Malay, 'real, correct') (53) seemingly developed in rivalry with the Ga'ay-ized Wehea along the eastern tributaries. Also, they may have been proud that they were the first Kayanic group along the Mahakam to form alliances with Kutai nobles. In fact, some Bahau seem to have been settled in the Mahakam before the arrival of the Kayan Meka:m and Long Glat, according to Kutai oral histories. Thus, in the Kutai royal chronicle, Salasilah Kutai (Adham 1979, vol. 1: 122, 126, 156-157, 182, see also Tromp 1888; Mees 1935; Kern 1936), Aji Barata Agung Paduka Nira (the second Kutai king in Table 6) is said to have arranged a marriage between his youngest daughter and Puncan Karna, a Tunjung chief from the Linggang region on the middle Mahakam (see Map 2). As the Dutch controllers heard (Dewall 1846-47; Veth 1870; Tromp 1888), Puncan's family was actually known to be descended from the Bahau. Indeed, his parents, Aji Tulur Jangkat and Muk Bandar Bulan, are memorialized with the typical symbol of Bahau nobles, namely, being born with an offering of eggs in their hands (tulur= telor <Malay>, 'egg') (Okushima 2006: 116). Furthermore, one of Puncan's brothers, Jeliva:n Benah ("Jeliban Bena"), (54) became the chief of the Hwang Siraw ("Sirau").

Cross-checking the Kutai and Ga'ay genealogies, we find that both Aji Barata Agung Paduka Nira and Puncan's parents lived 17 generations ago, which means that they lived almost at the same time as, or a little bit earlier than, the reign of Ding Luhat, the first Long Glat chief of the Mahakam. Hence, Puncan's family was probably descended from the Hwang Siraw, just as the oral history above notes, and possibly also from the H. Patak and H. Muyut, all of whom came to the middle Mahakam after passing the Belayan and Wahau. (55) These Bahau themselves remember that they migrated very early to the mouths of these tributaries and partially mixed with the coastal Malay. In fact, the early Wehea migrants found Bahau-ized inhabitants who had already settled on the upper Wahau, such as the Long Tung Nang (see the descendants in Table 14 later). There were also Kayanized Penihing, the Uma:' Luhat, who came from the upper Mahakam to the Linggang because of attacks by the Long Glat (see Knappert 1905: 592-593). These "Tunjung Linggang" were thus assimilated into the earlier Tunjung of the Linggang, very likely because they knew about these earlier relatives.

Veth also heard (1870: 456-457) that "Aji di Mendirsa," the first king to convert to Islam, was a Bahau. If he meant Raja Mandarsyah, the fourth Kutai king in Table 6, a nephew of Puncan's wife, (56) this king may have been related to some early Kayanic migrants to the Wahau and Kelinjau basins, like the Hwang Siraw described above, because he was allied with the old kingdom of Martapura at Muara Kaman (Map 2), near the mouths of these tributaries. In addition, Dewall notes (1846-47:14 June) that the Kutai nobles were also descended from the Hwang Anah. This seems to refer to "Kerta" or the Long Glat chief Lejiw Aja:ng's intermarriage alliances with the Tunjung-Benua' and Malay neighbors.

In the late nineteenth century, opponents of the Kutai sultans called together their Kayanic relatives in order to spark a revolt. Indeed, there were many discontented men who had gathered in the lower Mahakam over the previous two centuries. The Martapura kingdom in Muara Kaman, for example, was conquered by the eighth Kutai king, Ki Dipati Jayapura, around the seventeenth century. Kota Bangun was also a place where criminals were exiled. And, in the late eighteenth cenutry, an opponent faction against Sultan Muhammad Muslihudin (Salehudin's father, Table 6), who had been supported by Buginese allies, put forward the sultan's first cousin, Aji Kado, as the legitimate sultan. Among these opponents were Aji Mas and his cousin, Aji Raden, and some Kutai nobles or local chiefs, who led a force of Ga'ay, Bahau, and Malays to attack the palace as well as Kota Bangun in the 1780s or 1790s (Dewall 1846-47:9 June). When Westerners arrived in the first half of the nineteenth century, Kutai was still in a state of all-out war, but the sultan had already formed alliances with some of the powerful Kayanic chiefs, like Lejiw Aja:ng and Lejiw Lie' (3-1).

The Hwang Sa' lost a large part of their oral history. Only the Hwang Tri:ng, including the H. Muyut faction, still remember well their past migrations and genealogies, probably because of their large population and late arrival along the Mahakam.(57) In the Baram, they lived in the Apaw Tri:ng Aya'/Apaw Aya' highland, under their first legendary chief Dale:' Bahuma:n, as recited in the old chant, Latal Pedah (see Tukau 1984), 21 generations before the late regional chief (kepala adat daerah), Ding Tukau (Table 7). Sometime later, the Hwang Tri:ng migrated to another highland in the upper Bahau, Apaw Tri:ng (near Long Pujungan), under the direction of two chiefs, (H)Aye:' Wang Lalaw Lalah ((H)Anye'<K>), and his cousin, Ibaw Ya:ng. (58) They seem to have had influence on their neighbors in the Bahau region, because people like the Uma:' Laran, Pua', and Merap who live today in lower Kayan and Malinau still remember the name Hwang Tri:ng in their oral histories.

[TABLE 7 OMITTED]

After an intermarriage alliance with a Long Way chief with the title "Lejaw Hile:'" (Table 7), part of the Hwang Tri:ng split from the main group and followed the Long Way from the upper Kayan to the Belayan. This party, who later came to be called "Hwang Muyut," assimilated with the H. Patak in the Belayan area and split further to the Belayan, Pari, Wahau, and the main Mahakam. The rest of the Hwang Tri:ng placed themselves under the protection of the Long Glat (late migrants under Lejiw Do:m Ba:ng Lawing and his son, Ding "Tung" in 3-1) and moved to the Boh, together with some other Bahau. When the Uma:' Laran chief Ngaw Wa:n Luhung attacked the Long Glat and Kenyah in Apo Kayan, as described in their oral text quoted above, the latter were recognized only as the "H. Tri:ng" and "H. Tembaw" (Tembaw = Ita:m Baw, 'we Bahau,' still in use in the Bulungan and Malinau regions). This suggests that these Hwang Tembaw could be the present-day H. Boh, H. Temha:, and H. Meka:m, or possibly some of the in-between groups discussed in 3-2.

The Hwang Tri:ng and some of the H. Muyut arrived along the upper Mahakam during the reign of the two chiefs Lejaw "Ara:n" and his cousin, Paran Ju:ng/"Paran Tinga:ng Uk," listed in Table 7, (59) and for a time they settled along the Boh. (60) Then, the Hwang Muyut of the Belayan, under chief Hilaw Ura:, joined their relatives at Batu Kelaw (at the Riam rapids); in fact, they split from the H. Patak chief, Tiling Abing Liway, who led his followers to Muara Muntai (the mouth of the Belayan). Those who continued to migrate down the Belayan also came up later to the middle Mahakam, except for those who stayed in the coastal regions and mixed with the local Malays. The other H. Patak followed the H. Siraw who migrated to the Wahau and then moved down to Muara Kaman and Selerong, and finally rejoined the others along the middle Mahakam.

In the middle Mahakam, the Hwang Tri:ng and Muyut were subject to successive raids by the Long Way, especially the former rulers of the H. Muyut, the Long Bleh. They migrated further downriver to seek protection from the Keliway in Ujoh Benteng (benteng, 'fort'), near their village location of today. They once made peace with the Long Bleh through a marriage between Lalaw Tinga:ng and Ho:ng Ding Liah Ha:ng Lawing, (61) granddaughter of the warlike chief, Liah Ping Baeng Lewing/Liah Ha:ng Lawing (Table 2). But later, they were again attacked by Liah's great-grandson, Ding Liah Baw. The struggle was finally ended by means of a single combat between Ding and the Muyut chief, Kwe:ng Lahay Bata:ng, (62) arranged by the Kutai sultan to promote peace-making in the Mahakam.

In this period, the Hwang Tri:ng and H. Muyut formed marriage alliances with their neighbors, like the Long Glat, Hwang Anah, and Mataliva', and also within their own two groups (see Table 7). One of the Paran Ju:ng's descendants in the H. Muyut village, Tukaw Laha:t, married two famous Ga'ay chiefs, first Ba:ng Ago:ng, or probably Ba:ng Lawing, who died around 1885 (Tromp 1889; see also "Bang-Lawin" in Dewall 1846-47, "Obang Lawing" in Knappert 1905), and later the great-grandson of "Kerta," Lejaw Ba:ng or "Raden Temanggung," mentioned earlier. (63) On the other hand, the Hwang Tri:ng living in Ujoh Tepoh were ruled for a while by a Mataliva' noble, Ding Luhung (see also Dewall 1846-47:9 June), who was married to Tukaw's cousin, Meba:ng Lirung. Being childless, Ding and Meba:ng adopted Hibaw Dale:'/Hibaw Meba:ng, who became a Hwang Tri:ng chief in the late nineteenth century ("Bau Mobang" in Tromp 1889).

In the twentieth century, the Dutch controllers determined the subdistrict border of Long Iram, the inland center of Kutai, and thus the Hwang Muyut who had previously divided themselves into several farming groups (laleh &lt;B&gt;) in the border area began to live separately in the villages of Muyub and Tukul.

4. Return to Sarawak and entry of the Keuyah into Apo Kayan: Uma:' Juman, U. Laran, U. Suling, Long Huvung, etc.

After defeating Ngaw Wa:n Luhung (Uma:' Laran chief), Lejiw "Aya'" (Long Glat chief) and his Kenyah allies held a feast in the upper Danum (Kayan headwaters). Lejiw "Aya'" built a big pillar of ironwood, onto which was affixed a hornbill sculpture. Then he spoke to the Kenyah: "This is the symbol of our everlasting alliance and brotherhood. We Ga'ay are leaving for the Mahakam. From this moment, you Kenyah may visit everywhere, as far as you hear hornbills calling, and we will always welcome you." The Kenyah were thus permitted to settle in Apo Kayan. This is the reason why we Kenyah have been making sculptures of hornbills for marriage ceremonies and other rituals since that time, as a symbol of peace and hospitality.

Oral History of the Kenyah Uma:' Tukung, middle Mahakam

In contrast to the Kayan Meka:m and Long Glat who thrust into the upper Mahakam region, there were other subgroups who preferred to return to the Baluy and Baram, mainly the late-arriving Kayan and Kayanized Bahau. Many Kenyah of today still remember the final stage of this Kayanic dispersal from the Kayan basin, as it gives proof of their land rights, since they were ceded land from one of the paramount chiefs (see Whittier 1973: 24; Kaboy 1974: 287; Sandin 1980:1; Jessup cited in Rousseau 1990: 331). Some of their oral histories include the names of these paramount chiefs, such as "Dia:n Lulaw" (also, Dia:n Luio: Kasok, Lake' Dia:n), "Ngaw Wa:n Luhung" (Ngo: Wa: n, Lake' Langat), and "Lejiw" (Lejaw Aya') (Nyipa 1956; Harrisson 1961; Kaboy 1974; Uyo 1980; Sandin 1980; Devung et al. 1985: 24; Lawai 2003: 187).

By cross-checking with Kayanic oral histories collected in East Kalimantan, I am able to verify that the chiefs mentioned were the Uma:' Juman chief, Dia:n Kula:n (Table 8), the U. Laran chief, Ngaw Wa:n Luhung, together with some siblings, including Pay Wa:n Luhung (Pay Luhung "Aya'," see 5-1), and the Long Glat chief, Lejiw Do:m Ba:ng Lawing, and his son, Ding "Tung" (Table 4). In the following section, we will examine the struggle between these Kayan and Ga'ay subgroups, and also their suffering at the hands of the aggressive Punan of the Kelai and Belayan on the basis of data presented by Tom Harrisson (1961) and of the oral histories of the Long Huvung/Hubung and Uma:' Suling who were once allied with Dia:n Kula:n.

The Uma:' Laran are said to have consisted of two old Kayan subgroups, the U. Layo: and U. Away, which indicates the possiblity of their relation with the Busa:ng like the U. Tua:n in the past. After the wars in Apo Kayan intensified, however, they moved to the Laran on the Bahau and assimilated with the Ga'ay Long Ba'un. Referring to the genealogy of the Ga'ay Long Ba'un (Table 9), Ngaw Wa:n Luhung seems to belong to the same generation as Ping Wa:n Ding Wa:n Luhung, great-granddaughter of the first chief Bit Ivung, because Ping's son, Jiw Luhung, is said to have married Ngaw's daughter, Luhung Ngaw. If this is correct, Ngaw dates back 6 generations from present-day informants, which almost coincides with the generation of Ding "'Tung." On the other hand, Dia:n Kula:n lived 8 or 10 generations before Tom Harrisson's informants around 1960. (64) Hence, it is likely that Lejiw and Ngaw fought not directly with Dia:n Kula:n, but rather with his children or other descendants. In fact, the Long Huvung chief Liah married Dian Kula:n's daughter, and Liah's cousin's great- granddaughter was claimed by Ding "Tung" as we shall see in 4-1.

4-1. Alliance Group under the Uma:' Juman: Long Huvung and U. Suling

To summarize first the oral history collected in the Baluy by Harrisson (1961, Vol. 2, retyped by J. Rousseau), the daughter of the Thunder God, Blare' Ubung Daw ("Aki Belarik Ubong Do'"), (65) Paya' Blare' ("Payak Belarik"), married a human hunter on earth, Saran Gahay ("Saran Gahai," or Hara:n?), and gave birth to a baby boy (see Table 8). Her father put the baby in a durian fruit (dia:n <K>) and threw it into the river to carry it back to the earthly world. Drifting to Long Matan on the upper Kayan, the baby was picked up by an Uma:' Juman man, Saluy ("Bok Saloi"), who adopted the child and named him Dia:n ("Dian Lulo Kasok").

Dia:n grew up and became a powerful warrior, which triggered jealousy on the part of the Uma:' Juman chief, Ding Lejiw ("Ding Leju"). At that time, the Kayanic peoples of Apo Kayan were divided into two alliance groups, one under Ding Lejiw and the other his rival, Ngaw Wa:n Luhung ("Ngo Wan Luhong"). These two paramount chiefs had a common enemy, the Punan chief of the upper Tabang (Belayan), Haju:ng Palo' ("Hajong Palok," or Haja:ng/Hajaeng?). Ding ordered Dia:n to fight with this chief. After Dia:n defeated him, he gained numerous supporters and finally revolted against Ding and Ngaw. The allies of Ding, 24 villages that consisted of Kayanic subgroups and their neighbors (Penihing, Maloh, etc.), ran away to the Mahakam, while those of Ngaw, 23 villages, including those of the Tenggalan and Burusu', fled to coastal Bulungan. Dia: n captured all 23 of those villages and led them to Long Itam, at the headwaters of the Baluy.

[TABLE 8 OMITTED]

[TABLE 9 OMITTED]

Later, Dia:n's great-grandson, Dia:n Juk ("Dian Jok"), (66) migrated to Long Bahau and attacked the old inhabitants of the area, the Kejaman, Sekapan, and Punan Bah. His sons Avun ("Abun") and Bato' ("Batok") separately led their followers and settled along the upper Baluy.

The text suggests that the first Dia:n, or Dia:n Kula:n, was not the original Uma:' Juman chief, although he belonged to the noble stratum on his mother's side. (67) According to the Kayan Penghulu, Ha:ng Nyipa' (Nyipa 1956), Dia:n was adopted by the Uma:' Juman chief and married Bula:n Lejiw ("Bulan Lejiu"), who was possibly the sister of Ding Lejiw. Ding himself might have been of Ga'ay origin, because the villages of Ding's faction described above contained the Long Way ("Wai" and "Belah"), Long Glat ("Gelat"), and Busa:ng (e.g., "Tuhun"= Uma:' Tua:n <K> / Me' Tuhuyn <LG>). In fact, the Uma:' Laran under his rival, Ngaw Wa:n Luhung, were also mixed with the Ga'ay Long Ba'un. If my supposition is correct, it would have been remarkable that a Kayan chief won his independence from the Ga'ay paramount chiefs. Thus, as Rousseau suggests (1990: 165), most of the Kayan returning to the Baluy came to stress their descent from Dia:n Kula:n.

There are some sequels to the story of Dia:n Kula:n after his migration to the Baluy headwaters. The Long Huvung/Hubung made a marriage alliance with him, while the Uma:' Suling failed to do so because of troubles described below. The Long Huvung, who had once lived near the mouth of the Kayan Iut during the reign of chief Lejiw and his son, Liah Lejiw, alias Liah "Telap" ('Liah the swordman,' telap, 'lightning' &lt;B&gt; (68)), migrated to Long Nawang. By then, the Kenyah migrants had already arrived at the Iwan and Bahau, but they were prevented from entering Apo Kayan by the aggressive Punan Kelay and other hunter-gatherers. The Punan Kelay attacked the Uma:' Heban and drove them away to the lower Bulungan. Liah "Telap" permitted the Kenyah to join the Kayan against them, and so he faced single combat with the Punan Kelay chief, Ba:ng Anak Lung/Ba:ng Lung, (69) at Bato' Mespap (also, Bato' Jepak/Sepap/Nyepap etc.) in Long Ampung (Map 1).

Instead of respecting Liah's victory, the Punan Kelay continued to attack the people of Apo Kayan. Finally, the Long Huvung decided to migrate to the Baluy, following Liah's wife's father, Dia:n Kula:n, (70) and to the Mahakam under the direction of Liah's siblings, Luhat Lung Ye' and Dayung Sambung (davung, 'a priest' <K, B>, Sambung = Hembowng <G>). Intermarriage between the Long Huvung and Uma:' Juman seems also to have been memorized by the Baluy Kayan, for Dia:n's daughter, Buring, is said to have married the "Dragon King" (see Table 8). In tact, Liah "Telap" had the title Lejaw Ba: 'Long Kayan Uk (' Dragon at the mouth of Kayan Iut'&lt;B&gt;), since he had once fought a river spirit (lejaw hida:' hungav, 'river tiger, dragon') and nearly drowned in his youth.

On the other hand, the followers of Luhat Lung Ye'and Dayung Sambung migrated from the Barang (Kayan headwaters) to Long Puti:' (near Long Deho') on the upper Mahakam, where they allied themselves with the Long Glat under Ding "Tung." However, the Long Huvung eventually began to antagonize them, because Ding wanted to bring the great-granddaughter of Luhat, Do' Langit Ding Luhat, to live with his people (3-1). Because Do' was the only descendant from the original Long Huvung noble family, the Long Huvung refused Ding and ran away to the lower Mahakam, to Kota Bangun, where they called for allied forces to seek revenge against the Long Glat. Thus, the Long Glat under Lejiw Lie' and Ibo: Lie' fled to the headwaters of the Mahakam and met with another subgroup of Dia:n's allies, namely, the Uma:' Suling then living on Bato' Masa:n.

The Uma:' Suling were not of Busa:ng origin, but rather they had long lived on the upper Bahau together with the Uma:' Lekan/U. Lasa:n, and apparently also with the U. Laran. When Dia:n Kula:n left the Kayan, the Uma:' Suling followed him to the Baluy. It happened that Dia:n visited them to propose to a Uma:' Suling noble woman, Silaw. However, in the middle of Dia:n's speech, as he was sitting on the platform in the noble apartment (amin aya'<K>), many U. Suling villagers saw Dia:n's testicles (abi: k, abe:k <K>) slightly hanging out of his loincloth, and they could not stop giggling. At last, Dia:n became angry and cancelled the marriage.

After that event, the Uma:' Suling left Baluy to avoid the attack of Dia:n. While passing through Long Mangiyung/Mayivung (the Baleh River), they split into groups going to the Mahakam and to Kapuas (West Kalilnantan). The party journeying to the Mahakam had to fight against the early Long Glat migrants under Lejiw Aja:ng/"Kerta" and Ibo: Aja:ng (3-1). The Uma:' Suling war-chief, Lejaw Baya:n, defeated Ibo, and the U. Suling hid up on Bato' Masa:n. Sometime later, other Long Glat chiefs, Lejiw Lie' and Ibo: Lie', described above, came to ask them to help in defending against the Long Huvung. Thus, the Uma:' Suling came to migrate down to Nyangan (the Meraseh River) some 6 to 8 generations ago (see Okushima 1999: 85, Table 3).

4-2. Final Battle and Entry of the Kenyah: Uma:' Laran and Long Glat

Of all the material I collected from the Kenyah of East Kalimantan, the oral text of the Uma:' Tukung of the middle Mahakam describes in greatest detail the last phase of the Kayanic dispersal from Apo Kayan (partially mentioned also in Devung et al. 1985: 24). They remember it as the story of the "'Kayan Ga'ay" or "the origin of our hornbill sculpture," as described above.

At the time, the Apo Kayan region was divided between two paramount chiefs, Ngaw Wa:n (Ngaw Wa:n Luhung above, Uma:' Laran) in Long Kejanan, and Lejiw "Aya'" (Lejiw Do:m Ba:ng Lawing in Table 4) and his son Ding "Tung" at the headwaters of the Jemahang and Danum rivers (see Map l). The paramount chiefs determined their territorial border to be the Ubung Aja:ng river. One day, Ngaw sent his subjects Bit Bua:' and Jangto' (71) to borrow a long drum for the rice harvest ritual (jatung bunut <Kenyah> / tuvung, ketubung lenaw <K>) from Kuleh Lalang Awa:ng, chief of the village of Long Pengian. Because Bit and Jangto' bore an old grudge against Ngaw, they conspired to make trouble. They returned to Ngaw's village without bringing the drum and pretended to have been attacked by Kuleh. Ngaw became angry and attacked Kuleh and his followers, who were then occupied with farming in Apo Kejo' (peek ', 'to be occupied with').

After the death of Kuleh, his brother, Lejiw "Aya'," in Long Jemahang declared he would seek revenge against Ngaw Wa:n. He sent a message to Ding "Tung," who was then living in the village of Long Danum, to tell him to come back so that they could fight together. The son, however, disobeyed his father, because he had married Ngaw's daughter. (72) However, Ngaw sent his followers at night to secretely bring back his daughter, and she chose to go home with her child. The forces of Lejiw and Ngaw clashed at Bato' Nyepak on the Long Ampung (same as Bato' Mespap in 4-1). Because it looked like Lejiw's forces were losing, he temporarily retreated.

Meanwhile, numerous Kenyah subgroups advanced from the Iwan to Apo Kayan (Map 1). On the way, they allied themselves with the Punan Aput to get information about the Apo Kayan. Among them was the chief of the Kenyah Uma:' Tukung, Bilung Apuy, (73) who then visited Lejiw "Aya'" to ask his permission to settle in the Apo Kayan. Hearing about the war against Ngaw Wa:n, Bilung offered to help Lejiw with his Kenyah forces. While Lejiw was still reluctant, Bilung proposed: "Let us first seek a good omen, and we will certainly win." After wandering for eight days in Apo Kayan, Bilung saw in the Bem Uro' rapids a large belut fish jump through his bracelet. The Kenyah became excited and confident about their victory.

The allied forces of Lejiw "Aya'" and the Kenyah finally defeated Ngaw Wa:n. Then, Lejiw tied Bit Bua:' and Jangto' to the grave of Kuleh and killed them as the sacrifices to purify the bloodshed, and he ordered the people to bury all the swords there. After that, Lejiw decided to join his relatives (the early Long Glat migrants) on the Mahakam, and he held a feast for peace-making with the Kenyah in the upper Danum, at which he built a pillar with a hornbill sculpture. Thus, the Kenyah came to occupy the Apo Kayan. Later, some of them migrated to the middle Mahakam, where they were governed by their long-time allies, the Long Glat.

The survivors of the Uma:' Laran fled to the Bahau and then to the lower Kayan, where they assimilated with the neighboring Ga'ay Long Ba'un and Uma:' Heban, as we will see in the next section.

5. Destruction and Reorganization in Northeast Borneo: Bulungan, Merap, and Other Segai

Raia Muda Kaharudin (third Bulungan sultan) was a clever strategist. He called for the Dayak Kayan, namely, Ma' Alim and Ma' Kulit (the Kenyah Uma:' Alim and U. Kulit) from the upcer Kayan, as his guardsmen. Then, he also called for his uncle living in the Berau, through whom he recruited the Dayak Kayan Segai (Mengga'ay) ... Thus his power got stronger and stronger, but he was still uncertain of his ability to defeat his half-brother (Sultan Aji Achmad Maulana). Hence, he tried to attack other regions, first the Sebuku basin, passing secretly through desolate hinterlands. (74)

Oral Hisory of the Tarakan Tidung (Translated from Badarudin 1998)

5-1. The Bulungan: Malay-Arab Power, Kayanic Identity

The Kayanic peoples, who had migrated separately to northeast Borneo, Sarawak, and West Kalimantan as described in Section 1-4, made incessant, destructive raids, especially from the second half of the 18th century to the end of the 19th century. However, their operations became more premeditated and intensified after coming under the direction of coastal rulers or of their rivals, for example, the Kutai sultans who allied with the Hwang Sirau and Long Glat, and the Bulungan who were mixed with the Hopan and other early Bahau and Ga'ay migrants. There were also uncontrollable subgroups, especially between the Kelai basin and eastern Kutai, where some of the Long Way (L. Bleh), Mengga'ay and Wehea preferred forming small, closed villages to settling around communicable riverbanks in touch with the Muslims. (75)

There was also an intermittent flow of Malays and Arabs from neighboring sultanates. When the Portuguese occupied Johor and Brunei, many local rulers, chiefs, and traders fled to Sulu, Java, and elswhere including northeast Borneo. In the eighteenth century, the Sulu sultanate advanced into the area and made chiefs and Bajau (Sama) subjects collectors of tribute. The Buginese-Makassarese diaspora occurred at the same time. It was these Islamic migrants who established or enlarged the power of the petty kingdoms of northeast Borneo. The Bornean inhabitants relied on these strangers, because they generally lacked maritime technology, except for coastal groups like the Brunei, Bisaya, and Tidung.

The most successful case is perhaps that of Bulungan. Early Bulungan was a colony of the Tidung kingdom on Tarakan Island, and the migrants were mixed with the Kayanic peoples and other local inhabitants. Then, the Bulungan nobles allied with Sulu, Johor, and Sulawesi, as well as with Pasir, Banjannasin, and Berau, and finally began to fight against Tarakan for their independence. From the second half of the eighteenth century to the first half of the nineteenth century, furious Segai raids continued under the direction of the first to third Bulungan sultans, who sought independence not only from Tarakan but also from Sulu (see Okushima 2002, 2003a, 2003b). From the 1830s to the 80s, the former trading centers of Sulu chiefs along the northeast Borneo coast became almost depopulated (Warren 1985: 92).

In fact, the Bulungan achieved state-formation in association with the Malay- Arab runaways as described above. For example, the first Bulungan sultan, Wira Amir/ Sultan Amiril Mukminin (76) (see Table 10), had a powerful tactician, "Kumbayat"/ Cambay (Gujarat) Arab merchant prince Muhammad Al-Musyarafah, who married the sultan's sister, Dayang Sempurajaya (see also Okushima 2003b). (77) Muhammad's son Zainal Abidin seems to have seized actual control over local economics and politics (see Hageman 1855: 81), because the sultan himself often left the palace for expeditions. Also, the third sultan, Kaharudin (1)/Raja Muda mentioned in the oral history above, married one of his sisters to a Johor prince, Datu Haji Raja Laut, who came leading his Bugis fleet. He is said to have been the eldest son of the Johor-Singapore sultan and had run away from a struggle for the throne with his younger brother who was of higher status (gahara). (78) There were also many other influential migrants who came during this period, as shown in Table 10.

Nevertheless, the actual rulers of northeast Borneo continued to emphasize their descent from the Kayanic peoples in their origin myths and genealogies as in the cases of the Kutai and Bulungan, not only in order to overawe enemies with the name Segai, but also as part of the following strategy. First, they protected forest products and monopolized inland trading by using Kayanic forces. In fact, the local sultanates moved the political centers from the coast or coastal islands to inland regions. Then, the rulers legitimatized their right over the hinterlands by means of their "nativeness," namely, their relationships to these local inhabitants who had been collecting forest products for a long time. This diplomatic identity had once been with the older inhabitants, the Tidung, at least in Bulungan and Berau, whereas the name Tidung came to be erased and switched to "Kayan/Segai" after the Sulu conquest of northeastern Borneo.

In a similar way, another Segai subgroup took over the Malinau basin (tributary of the Sesayap). They fought against the other Kayanic subgroups living along the middle-lower Kayan, especially the alliance group under the Uma:' Laran and Ga'ay Long Ba'un above, and finally they allied with the local Tidung chiefs who were the subjects of the Bulungan (see 5-2). Then we will look at some additional data on other Segai in 5-3.

[TABLE 10 OMITTED]

5-2. invasion and Monopolization of Forest Products: Merap and Murutie Allies

In the Bulungan, there were three main regional alliance groups struggling with each other. The oldest settlers were the Hopan and their rulers, the Seloy/Ga'ay Gung Kiya:n on the lower Kayan. Their rivals were the latecomers, the Ga'ay Long Ba'un and U. Laran, part of the Kong Kemul group, who returned to the Kayan and attached themselves to the Ngoreak, Pua', and other groups. The last to come were the Merap, who remained independent of these other alliance groups, and migrated to the Malinau on the middle Sesayap.

As Kaskija (1992, 1995) and Sellato with the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) survey team (Sellato 1995, 2001) report, perhaps for the first time, the Merap (also, Berap/Beraw/Melaw) are currently living in six villages on the middle-lower Malinau, and partially also in resettlement villages (RESPEN) around the river mouth. These strongly Ga'ay-ized Bahau have a notable feature in their dialects, namely, nasal vowels that are rarely found in Bornean languages. Today, besides the Merap, only the Long Glat of the Mahakam and the Long Kiput of the Baram are known to share this feature (see Guerreiro 1995 and Blust 2002), as well as diphthongs and triphthongs. This suggests that these three subgroups probably lived together somewhere on the Baram, or that some of their neighbors had nasal vowels but that these were later lost in the process of migration and assimilation with other groups. Remember that in the reign of the Long Way chief, Baeng Wuang Ngo:k, the Merap had already appeared in the upper Bahau and were called "Wehea Bap" (2-2). It seems reasonable to conclude that Ding Boang's villagers fled to the Wehea Bap to seek protection.

On the other hand, the Merap themselves preserve no memory of their early days on the Baram or Kayan. They only emphasize their identity as a Bahau subgroup, as can be seen by their endonym, "Baw/Mbaw." They claim to share the same origin as other Bahau of the lower Kayan, the "Hopa:n Mayewn" (early Hopan on the river island of Busa:ng Mayun, see Map 3; mayewn/mayun/mayul etc., 'to drift') and the Ngoreak. (79) The first Merap chief mentioned in their oral histories was Ngiham Caw, 9 generations before present-day descendants (Table 11), about one century after the reign of Baeng Wuang Ngo:k, described above. He was the son of legendary parents with Malay poetic titles, Encaw Tincung Bukun Jangaw (or, Ncaw Tencung/Kincung etc.; Encaw/Ncaw = Lejiw, Lejaw <G, K, B>/Lenjaw <Kenyah>) and Dayang Ankung Telor Jelaw, (80) who were born from eggs given by the Thunder God (Blaley') to Lua' Ay and Lua' Yo: (lua'= teknonym after the death of the father), just like the case of the early Bahau in the Kutai kingdom (3-3). Encaw Tincung is said to have led the Merap from the Iwan to the Bahau, then further to the Malinau. This chief was possibly not Ngiham's real father, but rather some older ancestor whose name was also Encaw.

During their time along the Bahau, the Merap lived in the uppermost area, (81) while another Merap group, the Uma:' Liya:ng Kalu:ng, lived in the middle area, and the Kayan Uma:' Laran and U. Heban lived in the lower area. Later, the Merap moved to Batu Kuceh, below Batu Lalaw (Map 3) in the Malinau headwaters. Conflict broke out during the reign of Ngiham Caw's grandson, Encaw Ala:ng, because the chief of the Uma:' Liya:ng Kalu:ng, Encaw Ubang Kuwot (in the Ngaran/Aran on Bahau), brought gossip to his father-in-law, the U. Laran chief Pay Luhung (probably Pay Luhung "Aya'"/ Pay Wa:n Luhung, a sibling of Ngaw Wa:n Luhung, described in Section 4). Attacked by Pay Luhung and the Uma:' Heban chief, Bit Do:m, the Merap fled to the Tubu (a tributary of the Mentarang, on the upper Sesayap). There, they allied themselves with the Lun Dayeh chiefs living on the Semamu and Tamalang (tributaries of the Mentarang) and counterattacked Pay and Bit.

The Merap stayed on the Kerayan for several years, annually paying a slave as tribute to the Lun Dayeh. During this rime, the Tembaw of the Tubu made trouble with the Merap, so the Merap moved from Pa' Upan back to the Kalun (a tributary of the Tubu), where they allied themselves with the local Punan hunter-gatherers, whom they posted at sites around the Malinau basin, such as the Sidi, Sengayan, and Tubu rivers, to block other Kayanic peoples. The bird's nest caves in the Malinau were divided among three ethnic groups, namely, the Seturan under the Merap, the Gong Solok under the Burusu', and the Bengalun under the Tidung and others on the lower Sesayap. Therefore, many Segai attacked the area, coming not only from the Kayan but also from the Berau. To better control these forest resources, the Merap spent several generations advancing downriver and driving out the old inhabitants, the "Hwing Diaw" (Hwang Daut)/Burusu', as well as other rivals, such as the Tenggalan, Tembaw, and Bajau.

The hegemony of the Merap over the Malinau was established during the reign of Encaw Ala:ng's son, Ala:ng Caw, and his first cousin, Ala:ng Empang (Table 11). The two spent most of their lives at war. They defeated the Uma:' Laran and U. Heban and killed Encaw Ubang Kuwot. His wife, the daughter of Pay Luhung, was taken back to the U. Laran, while the rest of the U. Liya:ng Kalu:ng fled to the lower Malinau where they mixed with other Merap and local groups. (82) Then, Ala:ng Caw married Lahay Ibung, a sister of the local Burusu' chief, Kumboy Ibung. After the death of Ala:ng Caw, Ala:ng Empang became custodian of his cousin's son, Lungu Ala:ng, by marrying Lungu's sister, Uncung. (83) Lungu's brother, Ara:n Ala:ng, disappoved of this marriage of convenience and his faction split from the village and migrated to the Luwe tributary.

In spite of these difficulties and separations, the Merap continued to attack neighboring groups, including the "Baw"/Ngoreak, Tembaw, Burusu', and Tenggalan. Ala:ng Empang sent Bekatan/Bakatan hunter-gatherers to spy on the Burusu' of the Sekatak, who had once killed, during the reign of Ala:ng Caw, many Merap refugees from the attacks of Pay Luhung and Bit Do:m. In alliance with the Bekatan and other Segai, he finally succeeded in wreaking revenge on the Burusu'. On the other hand, Ala:ng Empang's son, Empang Ala:ng, was poisoned by the Tembaw chief of Long Mabung (Tubu), lvung Segar/ Ibung Sigar. Also, one of the Ngoreak chiefs of Long Kemuat (upper Bahau, Map 3), Bilung Wat Laue (= Bilung Uvat Laway <K>?), carne to ask for a marriage alliance with the Merap, and his sister, Buring Wat Usat, married Ara:n Ala:ng. Another Ngoreak chief, Bilung La'ing, later joined the Malinau.

[TABLE 11 OMITTED]

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

During the reign of Ala:ng Caw's children, the Merap renewed trade with the coastal polities. Ala:ng Empang and Lungu Ala:ng had met and formed alliances with the chief of the Malinau Tidung, Penambahan Raja Besar. (84) Years later, Lungu's brother and son, Ibung Ala:ng and La'ing Lungu, who often patroled around the mouths of the Sesayap and Sembakung against the Bajau, met a relative of Penambahan Raja Besar, named Penambahan Raja Tua (Table 12). Thus, the Merap and Tidung started to trade forest products and other commodities, and as a consequence, they gradually moved their villages towards the river mouth for convenience. The Malinau Tidung also sometimes asked the Merap to send reinforcements to fight their enemies, the Tenggalan and Burusu'.

This reconstruction of trading networks seems to have started in the second half of the nineteenth century, as in the neighboring Sebuku and Sembakung basins. (85) Trading in the Malinau was taken over by the sons of La'ing and Penambahan Raja Tua, Kelit La'ing and Penambahan Raja Pendeta, alias "Sapu Jangat" ('Sweeper of the World'). Having settled in Langap and at the mouth of the Malinau by this time, the two chiefs cooperated in defense against the other Segai. Finally, the Dutch controllers came to arrest the Penambahan, because he encouraged Kelit and his followers to continue headhunting. According to governmental reports (Koloniaal Verslag 1896, 1897, 1901, "Si Sapoe" and "Si Kelit"), the Penambahan was exiled to Central Java in 1896, and he died there in 1900. His grandson, Penambahan Sayyid Abdurrahman (Table 12), succeeded him.

5-3: Peace-Making with Other Segai

Finally, we will take a brief look at the Segai of other regions.

In the nineteenth century, to suppress the all-out wars of the Kayanic peoples, the sultans of northeastern Borneo promoted intermarriage alliances between themselves and the chiefs, and also between the chiefs or nobles of other Kayanic subgroups. Then, they led those who obeyed them in wars against their enemies, namely, neighboring sultanates, including Sulu and Banjarmasin. In Kutai, the sultans used the early Kayanic migrants, like the Hwang Siraw and Long Glat, as we saw in Section 3, to contain the Long Bleh, Long Tesak, and others. (86) Later, the sultans sent Kayanic peoples to Banjarmasin to struggle for forest products in the border regions (see Vossen 1936: 263). The Bulungan also had old allies, such as the Hopan and Seloy, through whom they could call for help from other Kayanic peoples, as described in Tarakan Tidung oral history. Some of these warriors even joined the Bulungan-Tidung fleet against the Sulu (Okushima 2006: 86).

[TABLE 12 OMITTED]

It is in the Kelai and Wahau that Segai violence continued the longest. In Berau, intensified conflicts and Islamization may have also kindled the hostility of the Kayanic peoples, especially in the Kelai, under the rule of the Sambaliung and their Buginese alijes. The Mengga'ay of the Kelai came under the hegemony of the Long Way descendants of Long Lesan (see 2-2) around the mid nineteenth century. (87) Those of the Segah came to be controlled by the Ga'ay Long Ba'un chiefs, Anye' Luhung and his nephew, Liah Pay <K>/ Lih Pay <G> (88) (Table 9), who took the place of older groups like the Hopan. The Ga'ay Long Ba'un nobles married into many neighboring villages, including Gah Bo:ng Nyuk So:ng as the chief of the Hopan in Long Bala'/Mara, and Wa:n Pay as the Ngorek chief in Long Balau. Liah also controlled the Segah through his sister Ho:ng Pay, who married Ket Miw Ba' Lo:ng (Table 13). After the death of Ket in 1894, his relative, Leho:ng Lih Jiw Ba:ng or "Aji Intan," succeeded him as chief until 1905. She was succeeded by another Ga'ay Long Ba'un, Bit Jiw Luhung/"Datuk Bandar," the adopted son of the Bulungan sultan. The other Mengga'ay village in the Segah was ruled by Ket's cousin, Ping Hela' or "Aji Tua," who was also married temporarily to Bit Do:m Eng Ya:ng. Their daughter, Mang Jung/"Aji Kesuma," succeeded her mother around 1899 (see Koloniaal Verslag 1895: 24; Spaa:n 1902: 526-528, 974, 966; Walchren 1907: 759).

The Wehea used to attack the Kelai and Kelinjau frequently. One of the powerful chiefs of the village of Long Mesa' Ting (at the mouth of the Wahau), Jiang Heang Le', alias "Jot," had been obedient to the Kutai since the first half of the nineteenth century (see Dewall 1846-47:6 Mei 1847) (Table 14). On the other hand, the village Bea Ling under Lung Jea, who originally migrated from Mount Kulat in the Kelai headwaters, continuously fought with the other Wehea and Long Way. Finally, in the reign of "Raja Dinda"/Lenget, described above, the Kutai sultan succeeded in arranging intermarriages between the daughters of Lung and the other chiefs of the eastern Mahakam, including Jot's son, Bit Lua'/"Raja Alam." In addition, the daughters of "Raja Dinda" and his Long Tesak wife, Tana:' Yo:ng, married the Long Nah chief, Beang Nyuk So:ng or "Mas Wongso Tua" (see Okushima 1999: 83, Table 1), who became the customary chief of the Melean. Thus, peace-making was established throughout the Mahakam region by the end of the nineteenth century.

[TABLE 13 OMITTED]

[TABLE 14 OMITTED]

Concluding Remarks

By cross-checking the genealogies reported in oral and written sources, we find that early Kayanic migrants arrived in northeastern Borneo and began to mix with coastal peoples between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. As their population increased, they advanced from the middle-lower Kayan and Berau to the upper Kayan, then further to the Mahakam, or partially back to the Baluy and Baram, driving out or assimilating earlier inhabitants like the Ot Danum, Lebu, Penihing, Tunjung- Benua', Maloh, and various Punan and Murutic groups. Through intermarriage alliances with Kayanic peoples, both dissidents and sultans in northeast Borneo came to use Kayanic newcomers for wars, defense, and the collection of forest products, which contributed to their dramatic expansion throughout the area from the late eighteenth to the end of the nineteenth century.

The experiences of the Kayanic peoples seem to have been quite similar to those of the Iban of Sarawak in their response to increasing colonial pressures. However, the situation was much more conservative and hierarchical, because the broad hinterland of northeast Borneo consisted of a kind of political buffer area, or a sanctuary, for the refugees from the drastic changes of colonial times. The Kayanic peoples themselves also had some crucial disadvantages in trying to adapt, such as a strong sense of ethnocentrism and exclusiveness based on their hereditary chieftainship, a preference for inland life, and a lack of maritime technology. Thus, instead of realizing actual rule over coastal centers, except in the case of the Bulungan sultanate, most Kayanic peoples remained upriver where they came to be looked upon as primitive headhunters by their Islamized relatives on the coast, who came under the influence of the Malay and Arab migrants/runaways from Johor and Sulu. Those men of power strategically stressed their identity as Kayan/Segai in order to legitimize their rights to land and forest products. In contrast, the name of the older dominant group of this area, Tidung/Tirun/Berayu, came to be omitted from the oral histories and noble genealogies.

In future writings, I plan to share more details of Kayanic oral history, including excerpts from the takna', describing in particular early life on the Baram and the Kayan.

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Corrections to Part I (BRB Vol. 37, 2006)

P. 90, L. 8: "D Bek" [right arrow] Dea Bek, "'Bala (no. 54)" [right arrow], Bala' (no. 53)

P.97, L. 18, P. 108, Footnote 16, and P.112, Footnote 26: "'Ken'eah" [right arrow] Ken'yeah

P. 97, L. 41 : "Tepe" [right arrow] Tepe:

P. 97, L. 43, and P. 98, Footnote 10: "Lekwe" [right arrow] Lekwe:

P. 98, L.22: "ul:" [right arrow] ule:

P. 100, L. 16: "pa':" [right arrow] pa:'

P. 102, L. 8: "mixed with" [right arrow] including

P. 108, Footnote 16: "the term ina-" [right arrow] the term kinaP. 110, Footnote 22: "manga:n" [right arrow] ngaya:n, "ngaya:n?" [right arrow] ngaya:m?

P. 111,34: "Juan River" [right arrow] Julan River

P. 112, Footnote 25: "'Dalye Blalye" [right arrow] Dale:' / Blaley', "Blare" [right arrow] Blare'

P. 114, L. 38: "keluna:n aya' lun puen" [right arrow] keluna:n aya', lun puen, "lun lun kehea" [right arrow] lun kehea

Mika Okushima

Kanda University of International Studies

Chiba 261-0014, Japan

(e-mail) lalang@peach.ocn.ne.jp

(1) Also Datu Lancang. He is usually known as a Brunet prince, except by the Tarakan Tidung, who state that he was a descendant of the original Datu Mancang, who had married into the Tarakan several generations earlier.

(2) Also known as the Uma:' Apan. They once lived on the Hopan/Hupan. a tributary of the Bahau. From here. they moved downriver under a female chief, Lahay "Bara:" (bara: = "to speak a magic spell, prayer').

(3) This name probably comes from the Ga'ay dialect: kenway lemok (kenwa)= a kind of bird, lemok = small, little). She was the great-grandmother of the first Bulungan sultan, Wira Amir (see Section 5 and Table 10).

(4) The years of his reign vary between different oral histories, e.g., 1551-71 (Datu Norbek 1994), 1540-70 (Badarudin 1998). Akbarsyah (1997: 10) refers to him as "Singa Laut" in 1595-1631, whereas this title belonged to Raja Laut's grandson. Abdurrasid (2) (see Table 12).

(5) On the term Segai, see Okushima 2006: 86, Note 2.

(6) His story is also mentioned in Dewall 1848-49 (22-27 October).

(7) Also, Tepgun Beang Dlay <W>, Tinga:ng Ba:ng Blare' <K>.

(8) Also, Beang Wo:ng Beyt Petowng <LG>, Beang Wang Bit Petung <W>.

(9) Also, Beang Hi:t Tung <LG>, Ba:ng Luhat Tung <K, B> etc.

(10) According to Long Glat funeral chants, she is the 10th generation from Inay Aya' through maternal descent (Lo:ng Luhung Unya:ng Da:ng Bua:" Luga:n Luhung Hiping Bawe: Inay' Aya' <K> / Lowng Leho:ng Yeang Deyng Buwe Legien Leho:ng Hapayn Buway Hanay Aya' <LG>).

(11) Many characters are described as animal spirits, for example, Doh tiara (ham. an anteater), Tinga:ng Kungwat (kungwat, a kind of owl). and Lalang To' Wak (to'wak. spirit of night hawk) (Table 3).

(12) This heaven, a river name in Kayan as well as in some Bahau dialects, could also have been adopted from their old allies, the Long Glat, who had once lived in Jelien (Julan River). a tributary ot'the upper Baram (see Okushima 2006: 111).

(13) Tromp mentions (1888: 65) that the same belief was told during the death of the Hwang Tri:ng (Muyut) chief, Ba:ng Lawing (probably "Ba:ng Ago:ng" in Table 7).

(14) Some informants state that the term Melean/Mela:n probably corresponds to the Aran tributary on the Bahau.

(15) His name is not mentioned in their genealogy, but seemingly he ruled sometime before or after Bit Ivung (see Table 9). Anye' Luhung in Table 9 is called "the third Anye' Luhung" from this Anye' Luhung "Aya'."

(16) The descendants have scattered among the present-day Wehea villages. Dia Lai (Dia' Lay), Dabek (Dea Bek), and Jak Luay (Dia' Luway).

(17) Also. Wuang Diang Kan Jo:ng <LW>.

(18) Indeed, the Mengga'ay chief acknowledged that his tribe was war-captives of their enemies, the Mengga'ay or Long Way (Spaan 1901: 12).

(19) Raja Dinda/Lenget Lung Hela' is said to have been a noble of low status (hepoy so'), although he was descended from famous chiefs like Baeng Wuang Ngo:k and Teguen Baeng Dlay in Table 2. He eventually became the paramount chief of the eastern Mahakam by succeeding to the position through one of his wives' father, Jaw Bawng (Long Jengean chief; also mentioned in Dewall 1846-47:28 April), because almost all of the other Ga'ay chiefs were already dead.

(20) His village, Suen Buet Bew' Lem Weluen, was located near the Pen'ian. or Pengian on Kayan headwaters in Map 1 (not the Pengian on the lower Kayan).

(21) His epic (Epic 6 in Table 1) describes that two right-hand men of Baeng. Ledaeng and Teguen, ran away from the village because of his behavior and sought protection from the Menung.

(22) Baeng won the other Kayanic peoples to his side by setting special prizes, namely, his two beautiful sisters, Soang Bum and Dea Ley', on Ding Boang's family heirloom jars (tajaw). Sentuk and Ke:ng Downg. Competition for these prizes is the highlight of Takna' Hejowng Kejin.

(23) It is said that these Ga'ay-ized Bahau were linguistically and culturally very close to the Ga'ay. Some Long Way state that they lived in an area of the highlands of Bahau which was often covered with fog (hap). and the word Bap seems to be a dialect variant of Berap/Merap.

(24) These mountains are Hanga' Ley' Soang Seloyng (name of the chief who had once settled there), Hanga' Downg Tung, in the middle (downg tung, 'bum from lightning'), and Hanga' Mendea, with no vegetation on the top (mendea, 'reflecting the sun').

(25) Some informants state that the subgroup was named after their chief, Lung. The term "Long Way Lung" was still in use at the end of the 19th century (see Tromp 1889: 287).

(26) This name was originally the Kayanic name for the Belayan basin.

(27) He was also known as "Liah Ha:ng Lawing" (see Knappert 1905: 594).

(28) The Long Nah, seemingly a faction of the Mengga'ay from the Kayan Iut (see 2-3), once lived in the Wahau, in alliance with the Wehea. On the other hand, the We' Hela' moved from Long Nawang (Kayan headwaters) to the upper Mahakam in alliance with the Long Glat (see 3-1), but they later split off and migrated to the lower Mahakam, and then to the Kedang Kepala (Map 2).

(29) It is uncertain whether this river corresponds to the Long Gueh of the Kelai or of the Kelinjau.

(30) There are two Lesey' rivers on the upper Kelinjau and Telen. The other locations are obscure.

(31) The Hwang "Jinaway," who also existed in the 19th century, were either extinct or, they might have changed their name to "H. Meka:m" (compare Dewall 1846-47 and Tromp 1889).

(32) A kind of rambutan tree with a white trunk <K>.

(33) These famous war-chiefs of Central Kalimantan, Tambun and his cousin Bungay (Bungai), came from the Kapuas headwaters and are generally said to be the ancestors of the Ot Danum as well as other Kapuas inhabitants (Lambang himself was from the Bungan). The Indonesian National Army (KODAM) of Central Kalimantan was named after them.

(34) Functioning also as an ensign of a village, the tuvung often became the target of enemies in the past.

(35) In this paper I use the term "Apo Kayan" to indicate the regions of the upper Kayan, just as it is today, although it originally referred to the highlands between the upper Kayan and the Iwan tributary (see Map 1).

(36) He could not be purely Malay but rather was a descendant of the Hwang Siraw or Tunjung Linggang under the chief Puncan Karna. who had assimilated with the Kutai nobles (see 3-3).

(37) His mother is said to have been a Long Way noble. Soang Jiw Belowng.

(38) Nieuwenhuis also mentions (1904: 279) Ding's quarrel with the Long Huvung ("Long Howong"), but he mistakenly describes Lejiw and Ibo: ("Ibau und Ledju") as Ding's sons.

(39) According to Dewall (1846-47:14 June), there was also Kuleh's brother, Tekhean <LG>/Tekhin <K> ("Tekhoean"), who is absent from local genealogies. Tromp writes (1889) that the Long Glat split in two after the death of "Lidok Langit," that is, Ding Tung's brother, Lie' Do' (Table 4).

(40) "Ledjieoew-Ngooi" in Dewall's report (1846-47:14 June) seems to correspond to this youngest Lejiw, but the details are obscure (ngo:y <G> 'an arm'; or, hango:y, 'river, water'?).

(41) Knappert (1905) seems to confuse him with his father, Md. Muslihudin.

(42) The term Ping corresponds to the Penihing (e.g., Sekay. Seke:= 'Sekeh River at the headwaters'), Hwang Kaya:n to the Kayan Meka:m. and Tera:n to the Pira Toran now living in West Kalimantan (pira= bilah <K>, "a coffin with four pillars').

(43) It is unclear whether she was an Uma:' Suling noble or a sister of the first Kaya:n Meka:m chief, Kwe:ng Ira:ng.

(44) It is obscure how he got such a Malay-styled title. Tromp translates (1888: 63) this honorific title as 'Big Tiger" (groote tijger). (Or. "Melu:n"= mela:n, maran, mara:n. "sacred. noble"?)

(45) Also. pay: and ayo: <Busa:ng>. penyiw and enyiw <G>.

(46) It is said that they once lived together with some Ihvang Sa'. like the II. Tri:ng.

(47) Their old words indeed show some similarity with those of the Kenyah; e.g., hu'e:' (I, me), kelian (water), tango' (side dish), and du:' (to drink).

(48) The location is obscure. Some informants wonder if Batu Uting of the Tabang (Belayan) was also one of their old territories.

(49) This seems to refer to the Mount Batu Brok at the river's headwaters. In addition, the term Bang Bro' originally referred to the most fertile land for rice farming in Kayan myths.

(50) It is obscure whether the name Belso' is related to Burusu' ("Belso'/Beluso'" in Kayan) of the lower Kayan and the Malinau (see 5-1).

(51) Their most famous device was a trap of falling logs (bata:ng bave:).

(52) The Hwang Anah and H.Siraw might have descended from, or at least be related to, the Long Nah and the Seloy/Ga'ay Gung Kiya:n, as suggested by their subgroup names in Ga'ay dialects, Noah/Nah and Seloa /Seloy.

(53) Another possibility is that the term Sa' came from the river island Busa:ng Sa' and Lep 'un Sa' (an old village near the island) in the upper Kayan (lower side of Data Dian).

(54) Not only Jeliva:n Benah but also his ancestors in Table 6 seem to have had Kayanic names, such as "Hirong" (Hirung / Hiru:ng), "Gah" (Gah / Geh), and "Beran" (Bera:n).

(55) There were also some Ga'ay and Wehea. According to Takna' Hejowng Kejin, Baeng Wuang Ngo:k (of the same generation as Ding Luhat) had relatives who had already settled in the headwaters of the Wahau and Atan (Kelinjau) by this time.

(56) Adham writes (1979: 35-37) that not Mandarsyah, but his grandson Raja Makota (6th king in Table 6), converted officially to Islam.

(57) According to them. at the time the Hwang Tir:ng and H. Muyut moved to the middle Mahakam, the Hwang Anah. H. Siraw. Uma:' Luhat. and another H. Muyut party had already settled there.

(58) While Haye:'s aunt married a Long Way noble, as shown in Table 7. Ibaw Ya:ng married his daughters to the chiefs of the Mataliva'/Uma:' Lekan and Kaya:n (=Kayan Meka:m?), Huluy Naga' Mering and Tinga:ng Aju:ng (see also Devung 1978).

(59) Lejaw "'Ara:n'" could be the son-in-law of Kwe:ng Meh ("Ara:n" = Bahau dialect of aran, aren "sacred. noble' <K>?).

(60) According to the Hwang Boh (mixed with the Long Huvung), the Hwang Tri:ng once lived together with the other Hwang Sa' in Data:' Lingay (on the Boh), where they were unified under the H. Boh chief, Huvang Lire:'.

(61) Also known as Ho:ng Ding Ho:ng Aja:ng among the H. Muyut.

(62) He was the son of Hilaw Ura:, mentioned above. Kwe:ng's son Murib married a Muyut noble, Hwaw Lalaw, who gave birth to Tayung Murib, as shown in Table 7.

(63) He died in 1890 and was succeeded by his son Ding (brother of Ha:ng or "Mat Saleh" in Table 7) (Koloniaal Verslag 1895: 23).

(64) Sandin (1980:37-38) records another genealogy of Dia:n's descendants, which also dates back 8 generations from Tajang La'ing, who was appointed as a Sarawak officer in 1965.

(65) Here. I try to transliterate the names in the Busa:ng dialect, which is quite close to the Uma:' Juman.

(66) Hugh Low (1882: 54, 62) met Dia:n Bato' and his father Bato' Dia:n. He heard that Dia:n's great-grandfather was Dia:n Kula:n, conqueror of the Rejang. However, according to Harrisson's data, Dia:n Bato's real great-grandfather was Dia:n Juk (or, his mother's name was Kula:n?) as in Table 8. In addition, Low also met Dia:n Bato's brothers-in-law, Mering Baling (Punan Bah chief) and Avun Matu (Sekapan chief) (compare with Harrisson 1961: 33).

(67) The descendants from this legendary Paya' Blare' also exist among the Busa:ng of the upper Mahakam (such as the Uma:' Lekwe:). Dia:n might also have been related to other legendary ancestors, Dia:n Lulaw and his wife Dia:n Ugu, who founded the family Mesu:n Dia:n ('descendants of Dia:n' <K>) (see also Nyipa 1956).

(68) The oral text was told in Bahau (which is quite similar to Kayan), for the Long Huvung have assimilated with their neighbors, the Hwang Sa'.

(69) Another version suggests (H)Ibaw Anak Lung (Baw Neak Lung <G>).

(70) Dia:n said he would allow Liah to marry his daughter, if Liah could defeat the chief of the Uma:' Daro', who had refused to obey the U. Juman.

(71) Bit Bua:' is said to have been from the Kenyah Uma:' Kulit (see Rousseau 1990: 331). The name Jangto'/Gangto' might have been a Punan name.

(72) Some state that her name is Buring, or Jela:n.

(73) He is 8 generations before my informant (see Devung et al. 1985: 24-25).

(74) Sudden attack is a typical Segai tactic. For details about these wars in the Scbuku region, see Okushima 2002.

(75) The Mengga'ay of Kelai seem to have increased antagonism against the Sambaliung after the penetration of the Buginese under Raja Alam (Table 6) into the palace.

(76) He was the first cousin of the Tarakan king, Maharaja Lela (see Table 12 later, and also Okushima 2002:154, Genealogy 2). Wira Amir defeated the Sulu-Bajau fleet advancing on Salim Batu with the help of another Arab tactician, Sayyid Abdul Rahman bin Abdullah Bilfaggih from the Demak, in Hijrah Nabi 1211 (1709-10). The date appears to be correct: According to the buku nasab (certifications of the Hadhramaut sayyid issued by the Al-Rabita al- 'Alawiyya in Jakarta) of Abdul Rahman's descendants (7 generations after him), this tactician was the 6th generation from the first Bilfaggih/Bal Faqih, Sayyid Abdul Rahman bin Muhammad, who died in Tarim (Yemen) in 1545.

(77) The details of his profile are obscure, but he likely originated from Johor or its surroundings.

(78) According to his descendants living in Borneo, he was Tengku Abdul Jalil, the eldest son of Sultan Hussein Shah who died in 1835. His younger brother, Tengku Ali, was appointed as the successor, because of his higher status from the mother. Tengku Abdul Jalil disappeared from historical records after his father's funeral, but he left his wife and children in the domain of his father-in-law in Muar (near Johor) (see CO 273/416; Hj Buyong Adil 1980:210- 211 etc.). I haven't checked this oral history with his descendants in Muar (if any).

(79) Furthermore, they suggest that the Kayan subgroups of West Kalimantan (Uma:' Aging, U.Suling, and U.Pagong, see Ngo 1988) also belonged to the Ngoreak. In fact, those Kayan are linguistically related to the Bahau. Some of them, like the Uma:' Pagong, may be Kayanized Bahau.

(80) Bukun= buku, tembuku <Malay>, 'a gnarl (of tree)'; telor, 'egg.' These expressions suggest that the names of these early Merap nobles were once recited as a Malay poem, seemingly after an alliance with their old sovereign, Brunei. Similar cases are seen among the Tidung.

(81) According to Sellato ( 1995: 39), the Merap once inhabited two villages on the lower Lurah of the Bahau (Map 3), on the Kedayan and Belaka tributaries.

(82) The descendants of these people are said to live in the village of Gong Solok.

(83) Kaskija writes (1992) that her name was Ura.

(84) It is obscure whether he was one of the Malinau Tidung chiefs or a Bengawong chief of the lower Sesayap, Pengeran Besar (see Table 12). In addition, the Malinau Tidung still lived around Sebawang (lower Sesayap) at that time.

(85) For example, the Tidung Sumbol chiefs, Pengeran Anum and Aji Raden (Table 12), returned to the Sebuku in 1849-50 (see Okushima 2002).

(86) This is also mentioned in Knappert (1905: 594): Liah Haeng Lewi:ng ("Leah Heng Loeing") was the Long Bleh chief, while Ngeo Pegeah and Lung Tethean ("Ngio Pagit" and "Long Tekhin") were the Long Tesak chiefs.

(87) Wung Ba' La' and her daughter, Ping Hong, in Guerreiro's genealogy (1985:119) seem to correspond to the Long Lesa:n chiefs, "Hong-boulah/Adji-Bini" and "Ping," both of whom met with Dewall in 1848 (Dewall 1855: 449, 453).

(88) Liah was appointed as the officer of the Onderdistrict Segai by the Dutch.

(84) It is obscure whether he was one of the Malinau Tidung chiefs or a Bengawong chief of the lower Sesayap, Pengeran Besar (see Table 12). In addition, the Malinau Tidung still lived around Sebawang (lower Sesayap) ar that time.

(85) For example, the Tidung Sumbol chiefs, Pengeran Anum and Aji Raden (Table 12), returned to the Sebuku in 1849-50 (see Okushima 2002).

(86) This is also mentioned in Knappert (1905: 594): Liah Haeng Lewi:ng ("Leah Heng Loeing") was the Long Bleh chief, while Ngeo Pegeah and Lung Tethean ("Ngio Pagit" and "Long Tekhin") were the Long Tesak chiefs.

(87) Wung Ba' La' and her daughter, Ping Hong, in Guerreiro's genealogy (1985:119) seem to correspond to the Long Lesa:n chiefs, "Hong-boulah/Adji-Bini" and "Ping," both of whom met with Dewall in 1848 (Dewall 1855: 449, 453).

(88) Liah was appointed as the officer of the Onderdistrict Segai by the Dutch.
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Title Annotation:RESEARCH NOTES
Author:Okushima, Mika
Publication:Borneo Research Bulletin
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:90SOU
Date:Jan 1, 2008
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