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Ethnobotany of folk medicinal aquatic plants in Jordan.

Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusions
Literature Cited


Introduction

Jordan is located between longitudes 53[degrees]40'E and 39[degrees]E and between latitudes 29[degrees]30'N and 34[degrees]N. Most of its area is desert, especially the southeastern and northeastern parts: Maan, Jafer, Bayer, Azraq, Safawi, and Ruwayshid. The area of study is dominantly in the Saharo-Arabian phytogeographic zone, which has an annual precipitation not exceeding 100 mm, but the southern and northern heights are dominantly Mediterranean, with an annual precipitation of about 400 mm, and the Irano-Turanian and Nubo-Sindian regions of the Saharo-Arabian zone are dominated by desert oases, winter-collecting ditches, marshes, and bogs, found along the Jordan rift valley and the strip from Tafilah to the Aqaba region. The western regions, with high altitudes of more than 1000 m above sea level and a high annual precipitation, in the Shawbak, Karak, and Sharah mountain ranges, are dominated by vegetation types similar to those found in the northern heights of the Ajlun Mountains, while Artemisia characterizes the Irano-Turanian region, which extends from Petra to Tafilah (Zohary, 1973: Bender, 1974; Boulos, 1977: Boulos & El-Eisawai, 1977: Boulos & Lehham, 1977; Al-Eisawi, 1982; Zohary & Feinbrun-Dothan, 1986; Adailkan & Gauthaman, 2001).

The aquatic species are distributed mainly in or around the water resources in Jordan, which are very limited, since Jordan is considered to be one of the ten most poorly watered countries in the world. The banks of the Jordan and Yarmouk rivers, marshes, swamps, ditches, geothermal springs (such as Hammah, Shouneh, and Afra), desert oases (such as Azraq, Jafer, and Bayer), in addition to small ponds and springs distributed throughout Jordan, are the most popular common sorts of water bodies, where few highly diversified aquatic species with therapeutic effects are found (Karim & Al-Qura'n, 1986; Zohary & Feinbrun-Dothan, 1986; Heinrich, 2000, 2002).

It is obvious that plants have been used for medication since early in human history, and herbal medicine is very old and popular worldwide. Those who practice these methods are called herbalists. Medicinal plants continue to be widely used in many areas of the world, especially in southern Jordan, even with the recent flourishing of the study of plant chemistry (phytochemistry). The Greeks and the Egyptians were particularly famous in this field, and their knowledge was spread via the ancient trade routes, which influenced how the medicinal potentiality of the plants developed (Zohary, 1973; Karim & Al-Qura'n, 1986, 1988; Zohary & Feinbrun-Dothan, 1986).

The therapeutic effects of the medicinal plants of Jordan and neighboring countries have been investigated in recent years. Most of these plants are wild inhabitants of the Mediterranean and Saharo-Arabian phytogeographic zones. They are considered a major natural resource for folk medication by local rural inhabitants, and experienced cattle owners also pay attention to these plants while considering foraging requirements and grazing movements because most of these medicinal plants are toxic to cattle (Khayyat & Mursi, 1981; Karim & Al-Qura'n. 1986, 1988; Zohary & Feinbrun-Dothan, 1986).

Many botanists and pharmacologists all over the world have investigated medicinal plant species especially used in traditions and folklore in order to extract the active constituents. The proper scientific means and techniques of extraction and identification are used to determine finally their therapeutic effects and dosages (Harborn, 1997; Heinrich, 2000, 2002; Joud et al., 2001; Eddouks et al., 2002).

The use of plants in medicine has promoted the chemical analysis of medicinal plants to extract, identify, and later synthesize their active chemical constituents (Khayyat & Mursi, 1981; Karim & Al-Qura'n, 1986, 1988; Stickel et al., 2000; Krebs, 2001; Prance, 2001; Rates, 2001). Many botanical resources are available for comparing the ethnobotany in southern Jordan with that of neighboring countries, especially Syria, Palestine, and Iraq. This kind of comparison may be helpful for learning the degree of similarity among countries, which consequently gives evidence for therapeutic effects not previously recorded.

This study aimed to verify the phytomedicinal wealth present in the investigated area and to determine the levels of popularity of different plants, since the investigated area has a uniquely high level of species diversity. The inhabitants of this region have an intimate relationship with the earth and its natural resources as sources of their food and medication. The majority of the people are Bedouin and rural, as well as knowledgeable and well-experienced in this field of science, which therefore increases their sense of responsibility for protecting these species from factors that threaten and endanger them. Consequently, this cultural heritage may be reinforced because it is aligned with scientific measures (Karim & Al-Qura'n, 1986; Zohary & Feinbrun-Dothan, 1986; Stickel et al., 2000; Rates, 2001).

Materials and Methods

During the period February 2001 to October 2002, a field investigation was done to formulate the ethnobotanical information and verify the medicinal use of plants in the area of study. Eighty informants were interviewed; 50 men and 30 women from different parts of the area whose ages ranged from 40 to 70 years. Most of the interviewees (60 persons) were more than 60 years old, and they belonged to families with strong links to folk medicine. Most were either native or had been living in the area for more than 30 years. They comprised mainly local healers, herbalists, shepherds, other experienced adults, and elderly patients.

During the first phase, preliminary data were collected from the informants through the field work. Experienced people were asked where the medicinal species were found and what their major therapeutic effects were. Structured interviews were then conducted to collect more specific information, which was used to determine the traditional methods of preparation and the remediation target of each species mentioned.

The taxonomic identity of medicinal taxa mentioned by interviewees was precisely confirmed by several methods: specimens were compared with already identified specimens preserved in the herbaria of universities in Jordan or the Ministry of Agriculture, and fresh plant specimens or dried samples were shown to the interviewees for precise recognition. Questions addressed to the informants focused mainly on the purpose of plant application, ways of preparation, medicinal plant parts, and dosages required.

Each medicinal species whose name was not known by the interviewees was photographed before collection. Flora Palaestina (Zohary & Feinbrun-Dothan, 1986) in its four volumes, and the herbaria of research centers of Jordanian universities and the Ministry of Agriculture were used for identifying the specimens collected. Thirteen geographical sites were investigated: (1) Ajlun Springs, (2) Araba Valley, (3) Rum Valley, (4) Aqaba region, (5) Maeen, (6) Azraq, (7) Maan, (8) Afra, (9) Tafilah Springs (10) Hammeh, (11) Jafer, (12) Bayer, and (13) Burbaitah.

The pharmacological terms used in this study were taken from various pharmacological resources and specialized dictionaries (Khayyat & Mursi, 1981; Karim & AlQura'n, 1986; Stickel et al., 2000; Prance, 2001; Rates, 2001), which deal mainly with the terms in the field of pharmacognosy relating to the medicinal and pharmaceutical materials of the plants.

The therapeutic effects of a medicinal species were accepted if they were mentioned by at least three informants either native to the area of the survey or who had been living in the area for at least 30 years. Those mentioned by fewer than three informants were not accepted, and were excluded from further consideration. Three verifying parameters were used: fidelity level (FL), relative popularity level (RPL), and rank-order priority (ROP), similar to that calculated by Friedman et al. (1986).

FL was calculated as [I.sub.p]/[I.sub.u], where [I.sub.p] is the number of informants who mentioned a specific therapeutic effect of a given plant, and [I.sub.u] is the number of informants who mentioned any therapeutic effect of the plant. RPL of a plant was calculated as [I.sub.u]/30, except for plants mentioned by 15 or more informants; 30 was the highest number of informants mentioning any therapeutic effect for a particular plant, so all plants mentioned by a least half that number were given an RPL score of 1. A plant with an RPL of 1 was considered "popular"; a plant mentioned by 3 to 14 informants was considered "nonpopular"; and those mentioned by fewer than three informants were excluded. ROP, which ranks the medicinal plants by their relative popularity and fidelity, was calculated as FL x RPL x 100, with those having the highest ROP being highest in both popularity and fidelity.

Results

Eighty-seven native medicinal species were mentioned by the 80 informants interviewed in this study. Of these, 26 species (29.9%) were mentioned by fewer than three informants, and so were excluded from further consideration; 33 species (38%) were mentioned by at least three but fewer than 15 informants and were therefore classed as nonpopular medicinal plants; and 23 species (32.1%) were classed as popular medicinal plants since they were mentioned by 15 or more informants (Table I).

The reported medicinal uses and therapeutic effects of marly of the medicinal species (63 species, 72.4%) had no similarity with those recorded in the neighboring countries, especially Iraq and Palestine. However, 24 species (27.6%) had such similarities. Therefore the former group was considered to have newly recorded medicinal uses and therapeutic effects.

The medicinal species recorded belonged to 59 genera and 33 families. Forty-one species were well-known wild plants, and 46 species were investigated and photographed in the field. Twenty-one species (24%) had ROP values of 50 or more and thus were the most popular among the medicinal species investigated (Table II).

Discussion

Only 21 species (24%) in this study were highly ranked medicinal plants with ROP values of 50 or more; these can be classified according to their medicinal uses and therapeutic effects into many different categories, depending on their internal or external uses.

1. Aquatic medicinal plants useful for impotency, and as an expectorant, an astringent, a muscular relaxant for the uterus and arteries, a carminative, an antispasmodic, an antiepileptic, a narcotic, an antipyretic, a diaphoretic, a cathartic, a hypnotic, an analgesic, an antineuralgic, an antiarthritic, an antirheumatic, and an antitussive: Atropa belladonna L. (ROP 80), Lavandula coronopifolia Lam. (ROP 75), Mentha aquatica L. (ROP 73), Mentha graveolens Ehrh. (ROP 76), Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson (ROP 64), Myosotis discolor Pets. CROP 50), Salix acmophylla Boiss. (ROP 65), Salix triandra L. (ROP 71), and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. (ROP 71).

2. Aquatic medicinal plants useful for intestinal colic, gastric disturbances, and renal calculi, and as an antilithic, an antidysentric, a cholagogue, an emmenagogue, and an antiseptic: Inula crithmoides L. (ROP 83), Salix acmophylla Boiss. (ROP 65), Salix alba L. (ROP 56), Salix babylonica Boiss. (ROP 53), and Verbena officinalis L. (ROP 60).

3. Aquatic medicinal plants useful in skin diseases, for antiscabies, and as an anti-inflammatory: Euphorbia exigua L. (ROP 80), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (ROP 89), and Inula viscosa (L.) Aiton (ROP 82).

4. Medicinal plants useful as an aphrodisiac, a diuretic, and a cardiac tonic: Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (ROP 89), Nasturtium officinale R. Br. (ROP 53), and Populus euphratica Oliver (ROP 53).

5. Medicinal plants useful for hypoglycemia and as an antidiabetic, for hemorrhoids, for internal bleeding, for relieving flatulence, as a vermifuge, and as a purgative: Heliotropium supinum L. (ROP 71), Inula graveolens (L.) Desf. (ROP 76), Inula viscosa (L.) Aiton (ROP 82), Mentha aquatica L. (ROP 73), Mentha graveolens Ehrh. (ROP 75), Nasturtium officinale R. Br. (ROP 53), Populus euphratica Oliver (ROP 53), Populus nigra L. (ROP 81), and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (ROP 71).

Conclusions

It is obvious from the above data, that Jordan has many highly diversified wild aquatic medicinal species (87 species belonging to 59 genera and 33 families), which could be confirmed by three or more informants. This diversity reflects the fact that Jordan has at least four main phytogeographical zones, including the lowest point in the Dead Sea area (altitude, -400 m) and the highest point in the Sharah Mountains (1440 m).

This high diversity is due, in part, to the type of people inhabiting this area that we interviewed; most of them are Bedouins and rural inhabitants with long experience in folk medicine as local healers, herbalists, shepherds, and other well-experienced people.

It is essential that researchers pay attention to this natural resource to ensure that this plant wealth, especially the rare and endemic species, is protected from threatening and endangering factors.

This ethnobotanical survey of folk medicine in Jordan provides clear evidence for an intimate interconnectedness between the local people and the Earth's natural resources, and supports a return to the earth to rediscover these cultural and traditional ties by encouraging sustainable development.

This study opens the doors widely to the scientific approach to determine the validity of folk medicine and improve the pharmaceutical industry by using natural resources. This challenge requires further investigations to determine the active constituents in each species.

It is obvious that the number of medicinal plants in Jordan, verified by calculating FL, RPL, and finally ROP as three main indicators of popularity, is relatively high, a result contrary to that reported by Friedman et al. (1986) for Bedouins in the Negev Desert. Friedman et al. (1986) found only eight medicinal species with ROP values above 50 (12.7%), while in this study 21 medicinal species were found with ROP values above 50 (24%). This number of medicinal species is because the people of southern Jordan retain close links with folk medicine and natural resources.

Literature Cited

Adailkan P. G. & K. Gauthaman. 2001. History of herbal medicines with an insight on the pharmacological properties of Tribulus terrestris. Aging Male 4: 163-169.

Al-Eisawi, D. 1982. List of Jordan vascular plants. Jordan University Press, Amman, pp. 22-39.

Bender, F. 1974. Geology of Jordan. Gebruder Borntraeger Press, Berlin.

Boulos, L. 1977. On the flora of El-Jafer-Bayir desert. Candollea 32: 99-110.

--, & D. El-Eisawi. 1977. On the flora of Ras en Naqab. Candollea 32: 81-98.

--, & J. Lehham. 1977. On the desert flora northeast of Aqaba. Candollea 32: 99-110.

Eddouks, M., M. Maghrani, A. Lemhadri, M. L. Quahidi & H. Joud. 2002. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiac diseases in the south-eastern region of Morocco (Tafilalet). J. Ethnopharmacol. 82: 97-103.

Friedman, J., Z. Yaniv, A. Dafni & D. Palevitch. 1986. A preliminary classification of the healing potential of medicinal plants, based on a rational analysis of an ethnopharmacological field survey among Bedouins in the Negev Desert, Israel. J. Ethnopharmacol. 16: 275-278.

Harborn, J B. 1997. African ethnobotany--poisons and drugs. Phytochemistry 45: 1095-1096.

Heinrich, M. 2000. Plant resources of South-East Asia, no. 12 (1). Medicinal and poisonous plants 1. Phytochemistry 53: 619-620.

--. 2002. Plant resources of South-East Asia, no. 12 (2). Medicinal and poisonous plants. J. Ethnopharmacol. 81: 139-140.

Joud, H., M. Haloui, H. Rhiouani, J. Ehilaly & M. Eddouks. 2001. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes, cardiac diseases in the north center region of Morocco (Fez-Boulemane). J. Ethnopharmacol. 77: 175-182.

Karim, F. & S. Al-Qura'n. 1986. Medicinal plants of Jordan. Yarmouk University Press, Irbid, Jordan, pp. 11-30.

--, & --, 1988. Wild Flowers of Jordan. Yarmouk University Press, Irbid, Jordan.

Khayyat, A. A. & M. Mursi. 1981. Pharmacology and veterinary toxicology in Iraq, Ed. 1. Ministry of Higher Education Press, Baghdad, pp. 14-33.

Krebs, H. C. 2001. Toxic plants: dangerous to humans and animals. Toxicon 39 :429-429.

Prance, G. T. 2001. A dictionary of natural products: terms in the field of phamacognosy relating to medicinal and pharmaceutical materials and the plants, animals, and minerals from whom they are derived. Biodivers. & Conservation 10: 301-302.

Rates, S. M. K. 2001. Plants as source of drugs. Toxicon 39: 603-613.

Stiekel, F., G. Egerer & H. K. Seitz. 2000. Hepatotoxicity of botanicals. Public Health Nutr. 3: 113-124.

Zohary, M. 1973. Geobotanical foundations of the Middle East. Gustav Fisher Verlag, Stuttgart, pp. 30-55.

--, & N. Feinbrun-Dothan. 1686. Flora Palaestina. Hebron University Press, Jerusalem, pp. 77-90.

SALEH AL-QURA'N

Mu'tah University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 26, Karak 61710, Jordan
Table I
List of folk medicinal aquatic plants in Jordan with their families,
common names, number of vouchers, quotation frequency, medicinal
parts, and whether similar effects are reported in neighboring
countries also indicated Key: W = well-known wild plant;
A = amphibious (both land and water habitats possible); E = emerged;
F = floating; S = submerged; Fl = flower; Fr = fruit; L = leaf;
Se = seed; St = stem; R = root; Wh = whole plant; * = low; ** = medium;
*** = high.

Plant
No. Plant species Family Common name

1 Alternanthera sessilis Amaranthaceae Cock's comb
 (L.) DC.
2. Anagyris foetida L. Leguminosae Stink herb
3 Apium graveolens L. Umbelliferae Celery
4 Apium nodiflorum (L.) Umbelliferae Celery
5 Atropa belladonna L. Solanaceae Nightshade
6 Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell Scrophulariaceae Thyme-leaved
 gratiola
7 Boerhavia repens L. Nyctaginaceae Water herb
8 Ceratophyllum demersum L. Ceratophyllaceae Wind herb
9 Cercis siliquastrum L. Legmninosae Shade tree
10 Cistus creticus L. Cistaceae Stick plant
11 Commicarpus africanus Nyctaginaceae Water herb
 (Lour.) Dandy
12 Commicarpus verticillatus Nyctaginaceae Water herb
 (Poiret) Standl.
13 Corchorus olitorius L. Tiliaceae Jew's mallow
14 Corchorus trilocularis L. Tiliaceae Jew's mallow
15 Cynanchum acutum L. Asclepiadaceae Field ivy
16 Digera muricata (L.) Mart. Amaranthaceae Cock's comb
17 Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. Compositae Water spurge
18 Epilobium hirsutum L. Onagraceae Water rose
19 Eupatorium cannabinum L. Compositae Water hemp
20 Euphorbia exigua L. Euphorbiaceae Wolf's spurge
21 Gisekia pharnacioides L. Molluginaceae Wolf's mallow
22 Glinus lotoides L. Molluginaceae Dwarf mallow
23 Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Leguminosae Liquorice
24 Grewia tenax (Forssk) Fiori. Tiliaceae Water mallow
25 Grewia villosa Willd. Tiliaceae Water mallow
26 Heliotropium supinum L. Boraginaceae Turnsole
27 Inula crithmoides L. Compositae Inula
28 Inula graveolens (L.) Desf. Compositae Inula
29 Inula viscoso (L.) Aiton Compositae Inula
30 Jasminum fruticans L. Oleaceae Jasmine
31 Laurus nobilis L. Lauraceae Laurel
32 Lavandula coronopifolia Lam. Labiatae Lavender
33 Lavandula pubescens Decne. Labiatae Lavender
34 Lippia nodiflora (L.) Rich. Verbenaceae Bird's foot
35 Ludwigia stolonifera Onagraceae Water spurge
 (Guill. et Perr.) Raven.
36 Lycium europaeum L. Solanaceae Snake berry
37 Lycopus europaeus L. Labiatae Water
 horehound
38 Lythrum hyssopifolia L. Lythraceae Sally
39 Lythrum junceum Banks Lythraceae Sally
 et Sol.
40 Lythrum salicaria L. Lythraceae Red sally
41 Mentha aquatica L. Labiatae Mint
42 Mentha graveolens Ehrh. Labiatae Mint
43 Mentha longifolia (L.) Labiatae Horsemint
 Hudson
44 Mentha piperita L. Labiatae Peppermint
45 Mentha pulegium L. Labiatae Mint
46 Mentha spicata L. Labiatae Spearmint
47 Mirabilis jalapa L. Nyctaginaceae Four o'clock
48 Myosotis discolor Pers. Boraginaceae Honeysuckle
49 Myriophyllum spicatum L. Haloragaceae Soft mallow
50 Nasturtium officinale Cruciferae Watercress
 R. Br.
51 Nerium oleander L. Apocynaceae Oleander
52 Nuphar lutea (L.) Nymphaceae Water lily
 Sibth. & Sm.
53 Oxystelma alpini Decne. Asclepiadaceae Milk herb
54 Platanus orientalis L. Platanaceae Oriental
 plane tree
55 Polygonum acuminatum Kunth Polygonaceae Peachwort
56 Polygonum arenastrum Bor. Polygonaceae Peachwort
57 Polygonum equisetiforme Polygonaceae Peachwort
 Sibth. et Sm.
58 Polygonum persicaria L. Polygonaceae Sorrel
59 Polygonum salicifolium Polygonaceae Sorrel
 Brouss. ex Willd
60 Populus euphratica Oliver Salicaceae Abbey
61 Populus nigra L. Salicaceae Abbey
62 Potentilla reptans L. Rosaceae Five leaf
 grass
63 Pulicaria dysenterica Compositae Fleabane
 (L.) Bernh.
64 Ranunculus aquatilis L. Ranunculaceae Buttercup
65 Rubus sanguineus Friv. Rosaceae Water vine
66 Ruppia maritima L. Ruppiaceae Black water
 herb
67 Salix acmophylla Boiss. Salicaceae Willow
68 Salix alba L. Salicaceae Willow
69 Salix babylonica Boiss. Salicaceae Willow
70 Salix fragilis L. Salicaceae Willow
71 Salix triandra L. Salicaceae Willow
72 Sambucus nigra L. Caprifoliaceae Black elder
73 Samolus valerandi L. Primulaceae Duck herb
74 Sonchus maritimus L. Compositae Milky herb
75 Tamarix amplexicaulis Tamaricaceae Tamarisk
 Ehrenb.
76 Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst. Tamaricaceae Tamarisk
77 Tamarix arvensis Zohary Tamaricaceae Tamarisk
78 Tamarix jordanis Boiss. Tamaricaceae Tamarisk
79 Tamarix palaestina Bertol. Tamaricaceae Tamarisk
80 Trifolium fragiferum L. Leguminosae Clover
81 Verbena officinalis L. Verbenaceae Horsewhip
82 Verbena supina L. Verbenaceae Horsewhip
83 Veronica anagallis- Scrophulariaceae Turtle herb
 aquatica L.
84 Vinca herbacea Waldst. Apocynaceae Herbaceous
 periwinkle
85 Vinca rosea L. Apocynaceae Periwinkle
86 Vitex agnus-castus L. Verbenaceae Chaste tree
87 Withania somnifera Solanaceae Winter cherry
 (L.) Dunal.

Plant No. of Frequency Medicinal Similar
No. vouchers Habit of mention part effects

1 454 A *** Wh No

2. W A * L, Fl Yes
3 W E *** Wh Yes
4 W E *** Wh Yes
5 W A *** L, Fl Yes
6 477 E *** Wh Yes

7 459 A * Wh Yes
8 469 E *** Wh No
9 W A *** L, Fl Yes
10 W A * L, Fl Yes
11 478 E * Wh Yes

12 481 E * Wit Yes

13 W E *** L Yes
14 W E *** L No
15 455 A *** Wh Yes
16 482 A * Wh No
17 488 E * Wh Yes
18 458 E ** L, St Yes
19 480 E * L, Fl No
20 491 E *** Wh No
21 476 E * Wh No
22 457 E * Wh Yes
23 W A *** Wh No
24 489 E * Wh No
25 490 E * Wh No
26 483 A *** Wh No
27 487 E *** Wh Yes
28 467 E *** Wh Yes
29 456 E *** Wh Yes
30 W E *** Fl Yes
31 W A *** L, Fl Yes
32 W A *** L, Fl No
33 W E,A *** L, Fl Yes
34 479 E,A *** Wh Yes
35 468 E * Wh Yes

36 460 E *** L, Fr Yes
37 470 E *** Wh Yes

38 484 E *** L, Se Yes
39 453 E * L, Se Yes

40 466 E * L, Se No
41 W E *** L, St Yes
42 W E *** L. St Yes
43 W E *** L, St Yes

44 W E * L, St Yes
45 W E * L, St No
46 W E * L, St Yes
47 493 E * L. St Yes
48 493 E * Wh No
49 452 E * L Yes
50 494 E,A * Wh Yes

51 W E,A *** Wh Yes
52 W F * Wh Yes
 *
53 471 E ** Wh No
54 473 A * L. Se Yes

55 461 E * Wh No
56 485 E * Wh Yes
57 486 E * Wh No

58 W E * Wh Yes
59 472 E *** Wh Yes

60 W E *** L Yes
61 W E *** L Yes
62 462 E *** L, Se Yes

63 465 E * Wh No

64 451 E * L, Se , R Yes
65 W E,A * L, Fr Yes
66 W E * Wh No

67 W A,E *** L Yes
68 W E *** L Yes
69 W E *** L Yes
70 W E *** L Yes
71 W E *** L No
72 W A ** L Yes
73 464 E ** Wh Yes
74 500 E ** Wh Yes
75 W A *** L, Fr No

76 W A * L, Fr Yes
77 W A ** L, Fr Yes
78 W A * L. Fr No
79 W A * L. Fr Yes
80 475 E * Wh Yes
81 W E *** L, Se Yes
82 474 E *** L, Se Yes
83 463 E,A * Wit Yes

84 W A * L, Se Yes

85 W A * L, Se Yes
86 450 A * L No
87 W A *** Wh No

Table II
Folk medicinal aquatic plants with major therapeutic effects, FL, RPL,
ROP, [I.sub.u] and [I.sub.p], values, whether effective for humans
or cattle, mode of administration, and references Key: FL = fidelity
level: [I.sub.p] = no. of informants for specific effect: [I.sub.u]
= no. of informants for any effect; ROP = rank-order priority; RPL =
relative popularity level; C = cattle; H = human.

Plant
No. Plant species [I.sub.u] FL RPL ROP

1 Alternanthera sessilis 12 0.30 0.40 12.00
 (L.) DC.
2 Anagyris foetida L. 5 0.40 0.17 06.80
3 Apium graveolens L. 10 0.70 0.33 23.10

4 Apium nodiflorum (L.) 14 0.71 0.47 33.40
5 Atropa belladonna L. 15 0.80 1.00 80.00
6 Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell 10 0.80 0.33 26.40
7 Boerhavia repens L. 5 0.40 0.33 13.30
8 Ceratophyllum demersum L. 2 0.37 0.07 01.90
9 Cercis siliquastrum L. 2 0.23 0.07 01.75
10 Cistus creticus L. 2 0.25 0.07 10.00
11 Commicarpus africanus 2 0.38 0.07 38.00
 (Lour.) Dandy
12 Commicarpus verticillatus 2 0.36 0.07 36.00
 (Poiret) Standl.
13 Corchorus olitorius L. 2 0.50 0.06 03
14 Corchorus trilocularis L. 1 1.00 0.03 03
15 Cynanchum acutum L. 3 0.67 0.10 6.70
16 Digera muricata (L.) Mart. 2 0.50 0.07 3.50
17 Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. 5 0.40 0.17 6.80
18 Epilobium hirsutum L. 16 0.31 1.00 3.10
19 Eupatorium cannabinum L. 12 0.33 0.40 13.20
20 Euphorbia exigua L. 15 0.80 1.00 80.0
21 Gisekia pharnacioides L. 3 0.33 0.10 3.30
22 Glinus lotoides L. 2 0.50 0.06 3.00
23 Glycyrrhiza glabra L. 18 0.89 1.00 89.0
24 Grewia tenax (Forssk) Fiori. 1 1.00 0.03 3.00
25 Grewia villosa Willd. 2 0.50 0.07 3.50
26 Heliotropium supinum L. 17 0.71 1.00 71.0
27 Inula crithmoides L. 18 0.83 1.00 83.0
28 Inula graveolens (L.) Desf. 17 0.76 1.00 76.0
29 Inula viscoso (L.) Aiton 17 0.82 1.00 82.0
30 Jasminum fruticans L. 2 0.50 0.07 3.50
31 Laurus nobilis L. 14 0.57 0.47 26.80
32 Lavandula coronopifolia Lam. 16 0.75 1.00 75.0
33 Lavandula pubescens Decne. 15 0.27 1.00 27.0
34 Lippia nodiflora (L.) Rich. 02 0.50 0.07 3.50
35 Ludwigia stolonifera 02 0.50 0.07 3.50
 (Guill. et Perr.) Raven.
36 Lycium europaeum L. 10 0.70 0.33 23.10
37 Lycopus europaeus L. 11 0.54 0.37 19.99
38 Lythrum hyssopifolia L. 02 0.50 0.07 3.50
39 Lythrum junceum Banks 01 1.00 0.03 3.00
 et Sol.
40 Lythrum salicaria L. 02 0.50 0.07 3.50
41 Mentha aquatica L. 15 0.73 1.00 73.0
42 Mentha graveolens Ehrh. 16 0.75 1.00 75.0
43 Mentha longifolia (L.) 14 0.64 0.47 64.0
 Hudson
44 Mentha piperita L. 16 0.31 1.00 31.0
45 Mentha pulegium L. 16 0.38 1.00 38.0
46 Mentha spicata L. 16 0.31 1.00 31.0
47 Mirabilis jalapa L. 11 0.45 0.37 45.0
48 Myosotis discolor Pers. 02 0.50 1.00 50.0
49 Myriophyllum spicatum L. 02 0.50 0.07 3.50
50 Nasturtium officinale 17 0.53 1.00 53.0
 R. Br.
51 Nerium oleander L. 18 0.11 1.00 11.0
52 Nuphar lutea (L.) 03 0.33 0.10 3.30
 Sibth. & Sm.
53 Oxystelma alpini Decne. 02 0.50 0.07 3.50
54 Platanus orientalis L. 11 0.45 0.37 16.65
55 Polygonum acuminatum Kunth 14 0.21 0.47 9.87
56 Polygonum arenastrum Bor. 12 0.30 0.40 12.0
57 Polygonum equisetiforme 02 0.50 0.07 3.50
 Sibth. et Sm.
58 Polygonum persicaria L. 13 0.46 0.43 19.78
59 Polygonum salicifolium 13 0.46 0.43 19.78
 Brouss. ex Willd
60 Populus euphratica Oliver 17 0.53 1.00 53.0
61 Populus nigra L. 16 0.81 1.00 81.0
62 Potentilla reptans L. 03 0.33 0.10 33.0
63 Pulicaria dysenterica 02 0.50 0.07 3.50
 (L.) Bernh.
64 Ranunculus aquatilis L. 02 0.50 0.07 3.50
65 Rubus sanguineus Friv. 16 0.19 1.00 19.0
66 Ruppia maritima L. 03 0.67 0.10 6.70
67 Salix acmophylla Boiss. 17 0.65 1.00 65.0
68 Salix alba L. 18 0.56 1.00 56.0
69 Salix babylonica Boiss. 17 0.53 1.00 53.0
70 Salix fragilis L. 17 0.59 1.00 59.0
71 Salix triandra L. 17 0.71 1.00 71.0
72 Sambucus nigra L. 10 0.40 0.33 13.2
73 Samolus valerandi L. 02 0.50 0.07 3.50
74 Sonchus maritimus L. 14 0.43 0.47 20.2
75 Tamarix amplexicaulis 03 0.33 0.03 0.99
 Ehrenb.
76 Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst. 07 0.43 0.23 9.90
77 Tamarix arvensis Zohary 12 0.25 0.40 0.10
78 Tamarix jordanis Boiss. 10 0.20 0.33 6.60
79 Tamarix palaestina Bertol. 08 0.25 0.27 6.75
80 Trifolium fragiferum L. 02 0.50 0.07 3.50
81 Verbena officinalis L. 15 0.60 1.00 60.0
82 Verbena supina L. 14 0.36 0.47 16.92
83 Veronica anagallis- 06 0.50 0.20 0.10
 aquatica L.
84 Vinca herbacea Waldst. 10 0.60 0.33 19.80
85 Vinca rosea L. 10 0.40 0.33 13.2
86 Vitex agnus-castus L. 16 0.31 1.00 31.0
87 Withania somnifera 17 0.71 1.00 71.0
 (L.) Dunal.

Plant Major therapeutic
No. effects [I.sub.p] H, C Administration

1 Cough healing, 4+4 H, C Internal
 astringent
2 Antineuralgic 2 H External
3 Carminative, 7+7 H, C Eaten
 antispasmodic
4 Carminative, 10+10 H Eaten
 antispasmodic
5 Narcotic, 12+12 H External
 antispasmodic
6 For mania and epilepsy 8+8 H External
7 Astringent in diarrhea 2+2 H External
8 Astringent, carminative 1+1 H, C External
9 Demulcent, cardiac 1+1 H Internal
 tunic
10 Carminative, anthel- 1+1 H External
 mintic
11 Antispasmodic 1+1 H, C External
12 Antispasmodic 2+2 H External
13 Demulcent, Nutritive 1+1 H Eaten
14 Demulcent, nutritive 1+1 H, C Eaten
15 Astringent 2 C Internal
16 Antispasmodic 1 H External
17 Emmenagogue 2 H Internal
18 Hypertensive 5 H Internal or
19 Narcotic, diuretic 4+4 H, C External
20 Anthelmintic, antirheu- 12+12 H External
 matic
21 Laxative, analgesic 1+1 H Eaten
22 Laxative, analgesic 1+1 H Internal
23 Hypertensive, antitus- 16+16 H Eaten
 sive
24 Demulcent, cardiac 1+1 H Eaten
 tonic
25 Demulcent, cardiac 1+1 C Eaten
 tonic
26 Expectorant 12 H External or
27 Cholagogue, emmena- 15+15 H External
 gogue
28 Anthelmintic, expecto- 13+13 C External
 rant
29 Anthelmintic, expecto- 14+14 H, C External
 rant
30 Sedative, analgesic 1+1 H External
31 Antirheumatic, anti- 8+8 C Eaten
 spasmodic
32 Antirheumatic, anti- 12+12 H Internal
 spasmodic
33 Antiscabies, antirheu- 4+4 H, C Internal
 matic
34 Laxative, for gout pain 1+1 H Internal
35 Analgesic, sedative 1+1 H, C Internal or
 external
36 Antispasmodic 7 C Internal or
 external
37 Febrifuge, astringent 6+6 H Internal or
 external
38 Hemorrhoids, internal 1+1 H External
 bleeding
39 Hemorrhoids, internal 1+1 H External
 bleeding
40 Hemorrhoids, internal 1+1 H, C External
 bleeding
41 Relieves flatulence, 1+1 H Eaten
 antispasmodic 11
42 Relieves flatulence, 12 + H Eaten
 antispasmodic 12
43 Relieves flatulence, 9 + 9 C Eaten
 antispasmodic
44 Relieves flatulence, 5 + 5 C Eaten
 antispasmodic
45 Relieves flatulence, 6 + 6 H Eaten
 antispasmodic
46 Relieves flatulence, 5 + 5 H Eaten
 antispasmodic
47 For healing of wounds 5 + 5 H External or
 and abscesses internal
48 Cough healing, astrin- 1+1 H, C External
 gent
49 Diuretic 1 C Internal
50 Vermifuge, diuretic 9+9 H External
51 Cardiac tonic 2 H Eaten
52 Vermifuge 1 H External
53 Antipyretic 1 H Internal
54 For ophthalmia, anti- 5+5 H, C Internal
 rheumatic
55 Anti-inflammatory. 3+3 H External
 astringent
56 Anti-inflammatory, 4+4 H, C Eaten
 astringent
57 Anti-inflammatory, 1+1 C Eaten
 astringent
58 Anti-inflammatory, 6+6 H Eaten
 astringent
59 Anti-inflammatory, 6+6 H Eaten
 astringent
60 Febrifuge, diuretic 9+9 H Eaten
61 Febrifuge, diuretic 13+13 H Internal
62 Antidysenteric, anti- 1+1 H Internal
 diarrheal
63 Astringent 1 C External
64 Diuretic 1 H, C External
65 Emmenagogue 3 H, C External
66 Antispasmodic 2 H Eaten
67 Antiseptic, antipyretic 11+11 H Eaten
68 Antiseptic, antipyretic 10+10 H Eaten
69 Antiseptic, antipyretic 9+9 H Eaten
70 Antiseptic, antipyretic 10+10 H Eaten
71 Antiseptic, antipyretic 12+12 H Eaten
72 Purgative, diuretic 4+4 H Eaten
73 Vermifuge 1 H Internal
74 Antiseptic 6 C External
75 Antirheumatic, astrin- 1+1 H Internal
 gent
76 Antirheumatic, astrin- 3+3 H, C Internal
 gent
77 Antirheumatic, astrin- 3+3 H, C Internal
 gent
78 Antirheumatic, astrin- 2+2 H External
 gent
79 Antirheumatic, astrin- 2+2 H External
 gent
80 Diuretic 1 H Internal
81 Cholagogue, emmena- 9+9 H Internal
 gogue
82 Cholagogue, emmena- 5+5 C Internal
 gogue
83 Antispasmodic 3 C External
84 Antirheumatic 6 H External
85 Antirheumatic 4 C External
86 For colic and gastric 5 H Internal
 disturbances
87 Vermifuge 12 H, C External

Plant
No. References

1 Boulos, 1977: Friedman
 et al., 1986
2 Harborn, 1997: Heinrich,
 2002
3 Eddouks et al., 2002:
 Harborn, 1997
4 Adailkan & Gauthaman,
 2001: Boulos, 1977
5 Al-Eisawi, 1982, Bender,
 1974
6 Boulos & Lehham, 1977:
 Friedman et A., 1986
7 Boulos & El-Eisawi,
 1977: Heinrich, 2000
8 Joud et al., 2001: Karim
 & Al-Qura'n, 1986
9 Karim & Al-Qura'n,
 1986: Khayyat &
 Mursi, 1981
10 Boulos, 1977: Eddouks
 et al., 2002
11 Bender, 1974: Boulos &
 Lehham, 1977
12 Adailkan & Gauthaman,
 2001: Al-Eisawi, 1982
13 Bender, 1974: Boulos &
14 Bender, 1974; Boulos &
 Lehham,1977
15 Boulos & El-Eisawi,
 1977: Boulos & Leh-
 ham, 1977
16 Boulos, 1977; Boulos &
 Lehham, 1977
17 Bender, 1974, Boulos &
 Lehham, 1977
18 Bender, 1974
19 Boulos & Lehham, 1977:
 Eddouks ct al., 2002
20 Boulos & Lehham, 1977;
 Eddouks et al., 2002
21 Boulos & Lehham, 1977;
 Eddouks et al., 2002
22 Friedman et al., 1986;
 Heinrich, 2000
23 Bender, 1974; Boulos &
 Lehham, 1977
24 Boulos & El-Eisawi,
 1977: Boulos & Leh-
25 Bender, 1974: Boulos &
 Lehham, 1977
26 Friedman et al., 1986
27 Boulos & El-Eisawi,
 1977; Boulos & Leh-
 ham, 1977
28 Bender, 1974; Boulos &
 Lehham, 1977
29 Joud et al., 2001; Kha-
 yyat & Mursi, 1981
30 Boulos, 1977; Boulos &
 El-Eisawi, 1977
31 Bender, 1974; Boulos &
 Lehham, 1977
32 Boulos, 1977: Boulos &
 Lehham, 1977
33 Boulos, 1977: Boulos &
 Lehham, 1977
34 Heinrich, 2002: Karim &
 Al-Qura'n, 1988
35 Boulos, 1977: Eddouks
 et al., 2002
36 Boulos & Lehham, 1977
37 Boulos & Lehham, 1977
38 Boulos & Lehham, 1977:
 Joud et al., 2001
39 Friedman et al., 1986:
 Karim & Al-Qura'n,
 1986
40 Joud et al., 2001: Kha-
 yyat & Mursi, 1981
41 Boulos, 1977: Eddouks
 et al., 2002
42 Boulos & El-Eisawi,
 1977: Boulos & Leh-
 ham, 1977
43 Bender, 1974: Boulos &
 Lehham, 1977
44 Boulos, 1977: Eddouks
 et al., 2002
45 Boulos & El-Eisawi,
 1977: Boulos & Leh-
46 Bender, 1974: Boulos &
 Lehham, 1977
47 Boulos & El-Eisawi,
 1977
48 Friedman et al., 1986
49 Al-Eisawi, 1982
50 Boulos & Lehham, 1977;
 Joud et al., 2001
51 Al-Eisawi, 1982; Boulos
 & Lehham, 1977
52 Karim & Al-Qura'n,
 1986; Khayyat &
 Mursi, 1981
53 Boulos & Lehham, 1977
54 Boulos, 1977; Karim &
 Al-Qura'n, 1988
55 Boulos & El-Eisawi,
 1977; Boulos & Leh-
 ham, 1977
56 Eddouks et al., 2002;
 Khayyat & Mursi,
 1981
57 Harborn, 1997; Heinrich,
 2002
58 Boulos, 1977; Eddouks
 et al., 2002
59 Boulos & Lehham, 1977;
 Heinrich, 2000
60 Eddouks et al., 2002;
 Joud et al., 2001
61 Bender, 1974; Boulos &
 El-Eisawi, 1977
62 Al-Eisawi, 1982; Ed-
 douks et al., 2002
63 Boulos & El-Eisawi,
 1977; Friedman et al.,
 1986
64 Eddouks et al., 2002;
 Heinrich, 2000
65 Eddouks et al., 2002:
 Harborn, 1997
66 Al-Eisawi, 1982: Boulos,
 1977
67 Boulos & Lehham, 1977:
 Heinrich, 2000
68 Al-Eisawi, 1982: Karim
 & Al-Qura'n, 1986
69 Adailkan & Gauthaman,
 2001: Boulos & El-
 Eisawi, 1977
70 Al-Eisawi, 1982: Har-
 born, 1997
71 Boulos & El-Eisawi,
 1977: Khayyat &
72 Boulos & Lehham, 1977:
 Heinrich, 2000
73 Boulos & Lehham, 1977:
 Heinrich, 2002
74 Eddouks et al., 2002:
 Joud et al., 2001
75 Boulos, 1977: Boulos &
 El-Eisawi, 1977
76 Karim & Al-Qura'n,
 1988
77 Karim & Al-Qura'n,
 1986
78 Eddouks et al., 2002:
 Harborn, 1997
79 Boulos, 1977: Karim &
 Al-Qura' n, 1986
80 Joud et al., 2001; Kha-
 yyat & Mursi, 1981
81 Adailkan & Gauthaman,
 2001; Al-Eisawi, 1982
82 Boulos & El-Eisawi,
 1977
83 Boulos & Lehham, 1977
84 Boulos, 1977; Eddouks
 et al., 2002
85 Boulos & El-Eisawi,
 1977, Karim & Al-
 Qura'n, 1988
86 Boulos & Lehham, 1977
87 Eddouks et al., 2002;
 Heinrich, 2000
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Author:Al-Qura'n, Saleh
Publication:The Botanical Review
Geographic Code:7JORD
Date:Jan 1, 2007
Words:6042
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