Ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants among the Muslim Maranaos in Iligan City, Mindanao, Philippines.
Traditional or folk medicine that has been developed by various rural indigenous communities over centuries is still widely practiced in most developing countries throughout the world. It has been estimated that as many as 70-95% of the people living in developing countries rely on medicinal plants for their primary healthcare needs  because of its better cultural acceptability, better compatibility with the human body and lesser side effects, and it is affordable and locally available [2, 3, 4]. Medicinal plants used by virtually all cultures do not only serve as a source of affordable healthcare but also as a source of income and livelihood [5,6]. Medicinal plants contain a wide range of metabolites that can be used to treat and cure various forms of diseases . Thus, many of today's drugs have been derived from plant resources. Fourteen countries in the Asia-Pacific region are actively involved in research and development on medicinal plants  amongst is the Philippines. In the Philippines, the Department of Science and Technology-Philippine Council for Health Research and Development and the National Research Council of the Philippines and other major academic Institutions such as University of the Philippines and the University of Santo Tomas have been supporting many studies on medicinal plants for several years now .
Nowadays, several ethnobotanical studies were carried out in different parts of the world to document the indigenous knowledge on the uses of medicinal plants. This knowledge on the utilization of medicinal plants is passed on from one generation to the next based on indigenous knowledge system (IKS) and orally by the traditional herbal practitioners or local healers . Ethnomedicinal healing systems vary across cultures . The different Philippine ethnic groups are a rich source of this indigenous knowledge. One of these indigenous groups is the Maranao tribe in Mindanao. The Maranaos are one of three related indigenous Moro groups (along with the Iranun and Maguindanao) native to the island of Mindanao . These groups also share genes, linguistic and cultural ties to non-Muslim Lumad groups such as the Tiruray or Subanon. About 90% of the Maranaos live in the province of Lanao del Sur, with the remainder living in Lanao del Norte and parts of Cotabato, Zamboanga del Sur, and Bukidnon . This ethnic group occupy the most strategic place in Mindanao owing to their access to Iligan bay in the north and Illana bay in the south. Literally, "Maranao" means "people of the lake" . The Maranao version of Islam includes many elements of pre-Islamic belief and ritual, particularly those connected with agriculture, the spirit world, and the cycles of nature . This study aimed to record the indigenous knowledge of the Maranaos in Iligan City on their uses of locally available medicinal plants to meet their daily healthcare needs. Ethnobotanical studies that document the indigenous knowledge of a particular group is significant for the conservation and sustainable utilization of the medicinal plants. Thus, the data generated out of this research work would be helpful in preserving the IKS and traditional healthcare practices of the Maranaos in Iligan City and would serve as baseline information for future pharmacological investigations of these plants.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Ten barangays in Iligan City were selectively chosen as sampling sites, namely: Bonbonon, Dalipuga (Tagibo), Del Carmen, Digkilaan, Hinaplanon (Cabaro), Mahayahay, Mandulog, Maria Cristina, Sta. Elena, and Tomas Cabili because mostly of the Maranaos are occupying in these areas. A semi-structured questionnaire consisting of the demographic (age, gender, source of livelihood, etc) and ethnobotanical (medicinal plants and its uses) information was used in conducting the survey through a series of interviews carried out between January to May 2014. The interviews were developed as informal conversations in order to let them speak spontaneously and not feel pressured. A total of 228 individuals were interviewed with ages between 27 to 85 years old including some local healers ("pamomolong") and "datus" (community leader). The data acquired for each plant consists of the plant's family, common (English) and local names (Maranao name), the part of the plant used, the mode of preparation and administration, and its medicinal uses. Photos were taken on each plant during short field walks with some of the respondents and samples were collected for scientific identification. The medicinal plants were identified with the help of an expert botanist and literatures [16-22]. The total number of medicinal plants, number of botanical families and genera, most reported medicinal uses, and the most commonly mentioned method of preparation and mode of application were determined. The most commonly used plant part for herbal preparations was evaluated in order to assess if the survival and continuity of the medicinal plants in the area are maintained and protected by the locals to ensure sustainability in the utilization of these plants.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1 shows the list of the medicinal plants utilized by the Maranaos to treat various forms of diseases or ailments. A total of 122 (two are pteridophytes) plant species distributed to 113 genera (including Solanum verbascifolium) and 53 families was recorded. The highest number of species (8) were represented by families Asteraceae/Compositae and Malvaceae followed by Poaceae/Gramineae with seven (7) species, Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae/Leguminosae with six (6) species, Lamiaceae/Labiatae and Solanaceae (including Solanum verbascifolium) with five (5) species, four (4) species in families Cucurbitaceae, Meliaceae, and Verbenaceae, and three (3) in families Annonaceae, Musaceae, Rubiaceae, and Rutaceae. Families Acanthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae/Umbelliferae, Apocynaceae, Araceae, Arecaceae/Palmae, Boraginaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae, and Zingiberaceae were represented by two (2) species and the rest of the families were all represented by only one (1) species. The obtained results revealed the considerable diversity of the medicinal plants and the vast indigenous knowledge of the Maranaos in Iligan City. Despite of the fact that Iligan is a highly urbanized city the Maranao people still rely on traditional healthcare practices and medicinal plants probably because most of them are living in remote areas (barangays) where traditional medicine is mostly the accessible and affordable treatment available for them. According to Diallo and others , the vast knowledge on how to use the medicinal plants against different illnesses may be expected to have accumulated in areas where the use of the plants is still of great importance.
Out of the 51 medicinal uses, the top five (most frequently claimed) uses were: (1) cough and stomachache, (2) fever and urinary tract infections (UTI), (3) diarrhea, (4) hypertension and cuts or wounds, and (5) muscle pain or over fatigue ("bughat") in women. The species Blumea balsamifera, Annona muricata, and Tinospora crispa have the most number (8) of different medicinal uses. The preparation and mode of administration of the medicinal plants vary depending on the kind of disease or ailment treated. Mostly the medicinal plants were prepared by boiling it (usually the leaves) with water and administered internally by drinking the sap or juice thrice a day. External administration of the medicinal plants was done by spreading out the plant part (mostly leaves) directly (as bandage) on any part of the body or the plant material is applied over the body wrapped with a piece of cloth ("hampol") or roasted and/or pounded and directly applied on the body (skin) either by squeezing or rubbing the sap through massage (usually with liniment oil) on the affected area or as poultice. To abate bleeding on cuts or wounds, either the leaves were crushed or the barks of stems were scraped and the juice is extracted and administered topically or as poultice. Moreover, some plants were used as bath/wash after boiling it with water such as the leaves of Spondias pinnata (first bath for person who recovers from measles and chickenpox), Curcuma longa (first bath of the newly born child), Musa sapientum var. compressa (first bath in women who gave birth), and Hyptis capitata, Lantana camara, and Psidium guajava (vaginal wash in postpartum care) as an antiseptic wash for wounds and scabies. In some plants only the smoke from its roasted leaves (Urena lobata) and the steam (vapor) of boiled leaves (Ficus septica) were used to treat diseases. In the other hand, the fruit of Citrullus lanatus, Morinda citrifolia, Musa sapientum var. cinerea, Annona muricata, and Solanum lycopersicum can be eaten raw for treating UTI, diabetes, diarrhea, and cancer, respectively. Also the leaves of Centella asiatica and Costus igneus can be chewed and eaten raw to lower hypertension and blood sugar, respectively. Conversely, the leaves of some plants such as Basella rubra (as laxative), Ipomoea aquatica (enhance proper blood circulation in anemic), Ipomoea batatas (for diabetics), and Erythrina variegata (promotes sleep in person with insomnia) as well as the fruit of Cucurbita maxima (in diabetics) and Luffa cylindrica (for hypertension and hepatitis) should be cooked first and eaten as vegetable.
The most cited plant part for their herbal preparation was the leaves (81 uses). The use mostly of the leaves of plant ensures sustainability in the utilization of the plants, thus the survival and continuity of these valuable medicinal plants are greatly protected by the Maranaos in Iligan City. As mentioned by Lulekal  harvesting of roots has a negative influence on the survival and continuity of the medicinal plants and hence affects its sustainable utilization. The use more on leaves than other plant parts implies that traditional medical culture in the area does not threaten biological diversity . Stems (bark), roots, flowers, and fruits (seeds) as well as modified plant parts (bulb, rhizome, or tuber) were sometimes used in their herbal preparations. There were various uses of the roots in their herbal preparations. Mostly the roots of the medicinal plants were used to treat stomachache (Gendarussa vulgaris, Elephantopus scaber, Gliricidia sepium, Coleus blumei, Swietenia mahogani, and Moringa oleifera), urinary tract infections (Polyscias scutellaria, Vernonia cinerea, Carica papaya, and Imperata cylindrica), muscle pain or over fatigue ("bughat") in women (Bidens pilosa, Eleusine indica, Malvastrum coromandelinum, and Ficus septica, and Solanum verbascifolium), fever (Gendarussa vulgaris, Carica papaya, and Macaranga tanarius), diarrhea (Elephantopus scaber, Diplazium esculentum, Carica papaya, and Lansium domesticum), and enhance proper blood circulation (Catharanthus roseus, Bixa orellana, and Ixora macrothyrsa). Further, the roots or stem of some plants were claimed to cause (induce) abortion, like Tinospora crispa (stem), Moringa oleifera (roots), and Ixora macrothyrsa (roots).
The medicinal plants utilized by the Maranaos are the same with the plants used by the Higaonon tribe in barangay Rogongon (Iligan City). This might be due to the proximity of the two tribal groups because they are both occupying in Iligan City, for example barangays Digkilaan and Bonbonon are adjacent to barangay Rogongon. Moreover, some Higaonons are married to the Maranaos from the two aforementioned barangays. Their modes of preparation and medicinal uses of plants are very similar. Like for example, both groups used boiled leaves of Annona muricata, Persea americana, Mangifera indica, Artocarpus heterophyllus, and bark of Chrysophyllum cainito to treat diarrhea. Also, both utilized Allium sativum, Cymbopogon citratus, and Curcuma longa in lowering hypertension. As reported by Olowa et al. , the Higaonons used boiled leaves of Blumea balsamifera, Coleus amboinicus, and Vitex negundo to cure cough and pounded leaves of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis and Chromolaena odorata to abate bleeding on cuts or wounds. Relative to the findings of this study, Balangcod and Balangcod  reported that the Kalanguya tribe in Tinoc, Ifugao (Luzon) used boiled roots of Imperata cylindrica and young hairs of Zea mays to treat kidney (urinary tract) infections as it induces urination, crushed leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata to lower fever, boiled leaves of Lantana camara relieves dry cough, and fruits of Areca catechu when chewed and kept in mouth strengthens teeth. Thus, other indigenous groups in the Philippines such as the Higaonons in Iligan City, Kalanguya tribe of Tinoc in Ifugao, Pinatubo Negritoes , Tasaday of Mindanao , Itawes of Cagayan , and Ibalois of Tabaan Norte  have the same pattern of medicinal plant utilization with the Maranaos, wherein these groups also used boiled leaves of Psidium guajava as an antiseptic wash for wounds and other skin diseases. Moreover, a mixture of two or more plants were claimed to be more effective in treating a particular ailment, for example, the leaves of Persea americana, Mangifera indica, Artocarpus heterophyllus, and Chrysophyllum cainito are boiled together in treating diarrhea. It is a function of the traditionally-held belief that the synergistic combination of several active principles in some herbal preparations is responsible for their beneficial effects (IARC monographs). In the other hand, a particular medicinal plant can be used to treat two or more different diseases. Conversely, two or more plants can treat the same ailment or disease.
The results of this study are comparable to other ethnobotanical researches conducted in other parts of the world. In the ethnobotanical survey of Camejo-Rodrigues and others  in the Natural Park of Serra de Sao Mamede (Portugal) the most frequently used medicinal plants belonged to families Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae, and Apiaceae and boiling (decoction) the plant part was the common practice. In the study of Ripunjoy , families Fabaceae/Leguminosae and Malvaceae were represented by the highest number of medicinal plant species utilized by the Sonowal Kachari tribe of Dibrugarh district in Assam, North-East India. Ugulu  documented that the most common families of medicinal plants used to make Therapeutic Turkish Baths were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae. Fabaceae and Lamiaceae were the most commonly reported medicinal plants used by the local people in the lowlands of Konta Special Woreda in South-Western Ethiopia [11. Thus, the aforementioned families of plants were commonly used in the traditional healing practices of various tribal and rural communities worldwide, especially Asteraceae. Plants from Asteraceae family are commonly used in the treatment of various diseases due to their bioactive properties ; they produce a broad range of secondary plant products such as terpenes and sesquiterpenes which give them their medicinal properties [33-37. Also, Asteraceae is probably the largest family of flowering plants, with more than 25,000 species world-wide , which are cosmopolitan in distribution, except in Antarctica . In addition, the most frequently utilized plant part was the leaves in all of the studies cited, which indicated that indigenous people are providing protection and maintenance in the sustainable use of their plants. The preference of leaves to other plant parts could be due to the easiness of preparation , and the presence of more bioactive ingredients in the leaves developed in response to phytophagous organisms since they are the most vulnerable parts of a plant .
Based on the obtained results, various ethnic groups in the Philippines share the same patterns in the utilization of their medicinal plants probably because their knowledge on traditional medicine is intrinsic among them and inherited from their great ancestors. It is a common knowledge that indigenous peoples have known the healing properties of several medicinal herbs for generations . Generally, this indigenous knowledge on the use of medicinal plants is passed on orally by traditional local healers to their younger generations. There are about 250,000 practitioners of traditional medicine in the Philippines . Mainly, the reason for the belief in the powers of traditional local healers is that most cultural societies are strongly bound with their cultural traditions . Most of the tribal and rural communities have strong beliefs on spirits, thus their ethnobotanical healing practices are done in conjunction with this supernatural beings. Also they have a strong conviction that diseases or ailments are caused by these supernatural beings. For this reason, rituals or ceremonies are conducted prior to their use of the medicinal plants which are believed to improve the efficacy of these plants in treating the disease or ailments. These series of ceremonies are also done in a way of asking permission to the spirits in using the plants because they believed that the bountiful resources of nature, like plants, are protected by these beings. As stated by Balangcod and Balangcod , this is a common practice shared by most indigenous groups in the Philippines and perhaps by other countries too. For the Maranaos, "kiparat" or offerings are given to traditional local healers or "pamomolong" as a form of gratitude for sharing their indigenous knowledge and for the efficacy of the treatment.
Documenting indigenous knowledge through ethnobotanical approach is not only significant for species conservation and sustainable use of resources  but also for community healthcare and drug development  as well as for economic development . The documentation of traditional knowledge on medicinal plants has gained a wide recognition due to an escalating faith in herbal medicines [47, 48]. However, the traditional knowledge on medicinal plant uses of various ethnic and rural communities, accumulated over centuries, may disappear in only a couple of generations  due to the advent of modern technology and transformation of traditional culture . During the last decades, the rapid population growth, commercial logging, and scarcity of alternative agricultural lands have led to a drastic reduction of forest cover in the Philippines . In this study most of the trees and some herbs used as medicinal plants by the Maranaos were collected from the wild (small forests and thickets). Their medicinal plants (most herbs and some shrubs) were usually cultivated as ornamental plants, like Gendarussa vulgaris, Cordyline fruticosa, Catharanthus roseus, Polyscias scutellaria, Impatiens balsamina, Nopalea cochinellifera, Coleus blumei, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Phalaenopsis amabilis, Ixora macrothyrsa, Quisqualis indica, and Aloe vera. Some tree species are domesticated for its fruits, like Mangifera indica, Annona muricata, A. squamosa, Cocos nucifera, Carica papaya, Persea americana, Lansium domesticum, and Psidium guajava. Although the Maranaos practice sustainability in the use of their plants, still many of these valuable species are facing great danger from disappearing. Lense  stated that the process of transferring traditional knowledge appears to be the main factor leading to the decline of knowledge of traditional medicine, since there is no formal school or traditional institution involved in passing on this knowledge. Further, most of the younger generations are adopting new lifestyles and technologies. If the present pace of cultural changes continues to exist amongst the Maranaos in Iligan City, then the indigenous knowledge (IK) within this ethnic group may disappear. Thus, there is an urgent need to document this IK before it is completely lost.
There is a need to evaluate the active constituents of the plants by conducting bioassays especially the rarely used species or when its phytochemicals are not yet analyzed. This is to validate the effectiveness and safety in using these medicinal plants in treating various diseases. In the other hand, there is an urgent need to conserve the medicinal plants and the IKS of the Maranaos because of the continued deforestation and land conversion in the different areas in the country and the current pace of cultural changes, respectively, that might lead to the extinction of both. Coordination and cooperation among various sectors in the country in promoting public awareness in the importance of the medicinal plants for the achievement of well-established protection of this biodiversity, and ensures the transmission of the IKS to the next generations.
The obtained results of this study revealed the significant diversity of the medicinal plants and the vast indigenous knowledge system (IKS) of the Maranaos in Iligan City in terms of their healthcare practices using these plants. It indicated that the Maranaos have managed to protect and maintain the sustainable utilization of these valuable plants especially in their use of mostly the leaves of the plants. The preservation of these practices could be due to their continued dependence on medicinal plants. They exhibited the same pattern of their traditional healthcare practices with other ethnic groups in the Philippines and some tribal and rural communities in other countries too. This could be due to the inherent quality of this indigenous knowledge and because IK has been practiced by these groups for several decades.
Received 10 November 2015
Accepted 22 December 2015
Available online 30 December 2015
The authors wish to thank all the Maranao informants who contributed to the accomplishment of this study, particularly the datus and the folk healers for sharing their valuable knowledge.
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 Saidi Boubakr, Latrech Ali, Mehdadi Zoheir, Hakemi Zahra, Dadache Mohamed, Ammar Boukeur., Floristic, Ethnobotanical and Phytotherapy Studies of Medicinal Plants Spontaneous in the Area of Tessala Mounts, Western Algeria. Adv. in Nat. Appl. Sci., 3(5): 1-16, 2015
Lilybeth Olowa and Cesar G. Demayo
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics, MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines
Corresponding Author: Cesar G. Demayo, Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics, MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines.
Table 1: Medicinal plants used by the Maranaos in their healthcare practices. Family & English/ Maranao name Plant part Scientific common name used name Acanthaceae Andrographis King of Ampion leaves paniculata bitters (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees Gendarussa Gandarusa Salimbagoan leaves vulgaris Nees or Palyas roots Asparagaceae (Agavaceae) Cordyline Good luck Kilala bark fruticosa plant (L.) A. Chev. Amaryllidaceae (Alliaceae) Allium Garlic Lasona a stem (bulb) sativum L. tukapun Allium Garlic chives Ganda leaves tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng. Anacardiaceae Mangifera Mango Mangga leaves indica L. bark Spondiaspinnata Common hog Alubihid leaves (L. f) Kurz. plum bark Annonaceae Annona Soursop Gabana leaves muricata L. young leaves flower fruit dried seeds Annona Sugar apple Atis bark squamosa L. Annona Custard apple Sarikaya leaves, bark reticulata L. Apiaceae/Umbelliferae Centella Asiatic Tangila a leaves asiatica (L.) pennywort lopa Urb. Daucus carota Carrots Carrots root L. Apocynaceae Catharanthus Pink Kumintang roots roseus (L.) periwinkle G. Don Plumeria White Kalatsutsing- leaves obtusa L. calachuche puti Araceae Acorus Sweet flag Karomenga roots calamus L. Rhaphidophora Shingle plant Likop-likop leaves celatocaulis (N.E. Brown) F. Knoll Araliaceae Polyscias Saucer-leaf Salapiin leaves, scutellaria roots (Burm.f) Fosb. Arecaceae/Palmae Cocos Golden Lubi nga bark, roots nucifera L. coconut limbahon water/juice white flesh (endosperm) Areca catechu Betle nut Mamaan leaves L. palm fruit (nut) Asteraceae/Compositae Artemisia Mugwort Bawkasina leaves vulgaris L. Bidenspilosa Beggar ticks Dagum-dagum roots L. Blumea Camphor plant Punas or leaves balsamifera Salimbewangen (L.) DC. young leaves & roots Chromolaena Hagonoy Hagonoy leaves odorata Elephantopus Prickly- Tambda leaves scaber L. leaved elephant's foot roots Emilia Lilac tassel Pisaw-pisaw leaves, sonchifolia flower (used with whole plant (L.) DC. ex Punas) Wight Erigeron T all Mango-aw (use leaves sumatrensis fleabane with T Retz. alawatawa and Rambiyowa leaves) Vernonia Ironweed Katabas leaves, cinerea (L.) roots Less. Balsaminaceae Impatiens Touch-me-not Sarengka leaves balsamina L. Basellaceae Basella rubra Malabar Alugbati leaves L. nightshade Bixaceae Bixa orellana Annatto tree Galoga roots L. Boraginaceae Carmona Philippine Tsaang gubat leaves retusa tea tree (Vhal.) Masam. Heliotropium Indian Elepante whole plant indicum L. heliotrope Brassicaceae Brassica White cabbage Ripolyo leaves oleracea L. var. capitata L. Cactaceae Nopalea Cochineal Bontor leaves cochinellifera cactus (L.) Salm.- Dyck Caricaceae Carica papaya Papaya Kopaya leaves, L. roots fruit Chrysobalanaceae Atuna Makita tree Tabon-tabon fruit racemosa Rafin. Clusiaceae/Guttiferae Garcinia Mangosteen Mangosteen fruit mangostana L. Combretaceae Quisqualis Chinese Niyog-niyogan leaves indica L. honeysuckle dried seeds Convolvulaceae Ipomoea Water spinach Kangkong leaves aquatica Forsk. Ipomoea Sweet potato Rapa leaves batatas (L.) Lam. Costaceae Costus igneus Spiral flag Insulin plant leaves Nak Crassulaceae Kalanchoe Life plant Danggaw/ leaves pinnata Angelika (Lam.) Pers. Cucurbitaceae Citrullus Water melon Dagita fruit (pulp) lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf. dried seeds Cucurbita Squash Kalabasa fruit maxima Duch. Luffa Sponge gourd Sikwa fruit cylindrica (L.) M. Roem Momordica Bitter melon Paliya fruit charantia L. Sechium edule Chayote Sayoti fruit (Jacq.) Sw. Cyperaceae Cyperus Whitehead Gontor whole plant kyllingia spikesedge Endl. Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea Purple yam Ubi stem (tuber) alata L. Elaeocarpaceae Muntingia Panama cherry Mansanitas bark calabura L. Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia Cat's hair Talawatawa whole plant hirta L. Jatropha Tuba-tuba Katangan- stem curcas L. plant tangan leaves (with petiole) Macaranga Elephant's Bonga young leaves tanarius (L.) ear Muell.-Arg. root Manihot Cassava Banggala leaves esculenta Crantz Melanolepis Mo lin Alum leaves multiglandulosa (Reinw. ex Blume) Rchb.f. & Zoll. Phyllanthus Seed-under- Kaniyo-niyog whole plant niruri L. leaf Fabaceae/Leguminosae Caesalpinia Sappanwood Sibokaw stem sappan L. Erythrina Tiger's claw Dapdap bark variegata L. young leaves Gliricidia St. Vincent Madre-kakaw leaves sepium plum (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp. bark roots Leucaena Lead tree Ipil-ipil seeds leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit Mimosapudica Sensitive Kimpo roots Mart. plant Pterocarpus Rosewood Narra bark indicus Willd. Lauraceae Persea Alligator Abukado bark americana pear Mill. leaves (fresh or dried) Lamiaceae/Labiatae Coleus Oregano Kapal leaves amboinicus Lour. Coleus blumei Painted Mayana (often leaves Benth. nettle/ used with Mayana Kapal) roots Hyptis Knobweed Arbaka leaves or capitata roots (for Jacq. cough) roots Mentha Mint Biks leaves arvensis L. Orthosiphon Cat's Balbas pusa leaves aristatus whiskers or (Blume) Miq. Java tea Lythraceae Lagerstroemia Queen's Banaba leaves speciosa (L.) flower Pers. Malvaceae Abelmoschus Okra Okra fruit esculentus (L.) Moench leaves Ceibapentandra Kapok Kamir leaves (L.) Gaertn. bark Durio Durian Durian leaves zibethinus Murr. Hibiscus Hibiscus Antulanga flower bud rosa-sinensis L. leaves Malvastrum False mallow Sapar roots coromandelinum (L.) Garcke Theobroma Cacao Kakaw leaves cacao L. seeds Urena lobata Caesar weed Dalupang leaves L. dried leaves Meliaceae Azadirachta Neem tree Neem tree leaves indica A. Juss. Lansium Langsat/Duku Bowaan bark, roots domesticum Corr. Serr. bark Sandoricum Wild Santol bark koetjape mangosteen (Burm. f.) Merr. Swietenia Mahogany Mahogany bark, roots mahogani Jacq. seeds Menispermaceae Tinospora Heavenly Patawali stem crispa (L.) Elixir Hook. F. & Thoms. leaves Moraceae Artocarpus Jack fruit Budak leaves heterophyllus Lam. Ficus septica Septic fig Maganonok leaves Burm.f var. septica roots (with roots of Tabako sa lako, Solanum verbascifoliu m Moringaceae Moringa Horse radish Kalamunggay leaves oleifera Lam. tree roots Musaceae Musa Banana saba Saging dried leaves sapientum L. kardaba/saba var. compressa (Blco.) Teod. young leaves stem (bark) Musa Banana Saging tundan fruit sapientum L. (Latundan) var. cinerea Blco. Musa textilis Abaca Abaka shoot (leaf Nee bud) Myrtaceae Psidium Guava Bayaba young leaves guajava L. leaves Syzygium Malay apple Toal bark malaccense (L.) Merr. and Perry leaves Orchidaceae Phalaenopsis Moth orchid Manan-aw flower amabilis (L.) Bl. Piperaceae Peperomia Shiny bush Sinaw-sinaw whole plant pellucida (L.) HBK Piper betle Betel leaf Namat leaves L. pepper Poaceae/Gramineae Bambusa Common bamboo Kawayan leaves vulgaris Schrad. ex J.C. Wendl. Chrysopogon lesser spear Amorsiko roots aciculatus grass (Retz.) Trin. Cymbopogon Lemon grass Bawing whole plant citratus (DC.) Stapf Eleusine Goosegrass Rambiyowa roots indica (L.) (often used Gaertn with roots of T ambda) leaves Imperata Speargrass Bros roots cylindrica L. Saccharum Sugarcane Tubuh stem oficinarum L. Zea mays L. Corn Kamais young hairs Portulacaceae Portulaca Purslane Biala whole plant oleracea L. Rubiaceae Cofea arabica Coffee Kape young leaves L. Ixora Garden Ixora Santan pula roots macrothyrsa Teijism. & Binn. Morinda Noni Gunkaw fruit (ripe) citrifolia L. leaves Rutaceae Citrus Pomelo Pega (with leaves grandis (L.) leaves of Osb. Atis, Mangga, and Apel) Citrus Kafir lime Marina-ot young leaves hystrix DC. Citrus Chinese Limonsito fruit microcarpa orange Bunge Sapotaceae Chrysophyllum Star apple Apel leaves or cainito L. bark (inner part) Solanaceae Capsicum Red pepper Loya tidek fruit frutescens L. leaves Cestrum Night Dama de noche flowers nocturnum L. blooming jessamine Nicotiana Tobacco Lagut dried leaves tabacum L. Solanum Tomato Kamatis fruit lycopersicum L. Urticaceae Pipturus Luo wei mu Handalamay leaves arborescens (Link) C.B. Rob. Verbenaceae Gmelina Gmelina Gemilina leaves arborea Roxb Lantana Wild sage Sapor leaves camara L. roots bark Stachytarpheta Bastard Kabirobiro leaves famaicensis vervain L. Vitex negundo Five-leaved Lagundi leaves L. chaste tree Xanthorrhoeaceae Aloe vera Aloe Sabila leaves (L.) Burm. f. Zingiberaceae Curcuma longa Turmeric Kalawag stem L. (rhizome) young leaves Zingiber Ginger Loya leaves officinale pagirisun Roscoe stem (rhizome) FERNS Athyriaceae Diplazium Vegetable Pako roots esculentum fern (rhizome) (Retz.) Sw. Equisetaceae Equisetum sp. Horsetail Horsetail stem Family & Preparation and mode Medicinal uses Scientific of application name Acanthaceae Andrographis boil with water, relief of stomachache paniculata drink thrice a day and dysmenorrhea; (Burm. f.) enhance proper blood Wall. ex Nees circulation Gendarussa boil with water, cures cough and vulgaris Nees drink thrice a day stomachache roast partly, put in relief severe twinge chest and back in the body (sides & wrapped in a piece of back) or "sinda" (a cloth or "hampol" severe flatulence) and stomachache; cures cough & fever clean thoroughly, cut into pieces, and soak in lukewarm water (with Punas roots for cough & fever); drink thrice a day Asparagaceae (Agavaceae) Cordyline scrape inner portion, lowers fever fruticosa soak in lukewarm (L.) A. water, and drink as Chev. needed Amaryllidaceae (Alliaceae) Allium chew and eaten raw or lowers hypertension; sativum L. cut into small pieces cures sore throat and swallow with water cut into small pieces relief of toothache and put on aching tooth Allium wash, squeeze with easy labor during tuberosum lukewarm water, and childbirth Rottler ex rub on the belly Spreng. Anacardiaceae Mangifera boil with water, cures indigestion and indica L. drink thrice a day typhoid fever boil with water, relief of flatulence drink thrice a day or "panuhot" Spondiaspinnata squeeze, soak in for fast recovery and (L. f) Kurz. water, and use as prevents the first bath for person reoccurrence of the who recovers from disease measles & chickenpox scrape the inner treats herpes simplex part, squeeze, and infection along the apply around the mouth or "ugahip" mouth (as poultice) Annonaceae Annona boil with water, lowers blood sugar muricata L. drink thrice a day (diabetes); lowers hypertension; diarrhea chew, use sap to rub easy labor during on belly childbirth and for the relief of gas pain or stomach pain boil with water, lowers hypertension drink thrice a day eaten raw cures cancer; stimulates fertility in males roast, pound into cures heart-related powder, and add hot diseases water (use as tea); drink Annona boil with water, treats diarrhea squamosa L. drink thrice a day Annona boil with water, treats diarrhea, reticulata L. drink thrice a day dysentery, and indigestion Apiaceae/Umbelliferae Centella wash, chew, and eaten lowers hypertension; asiatica (L.) raw; once a day diabetes Urb. wash, squeeze, then cures cough; induces soak in lukewarm urination; lowers water; or boil with fever water; drink thrice a day pound until become heals wounds soft and juicy; squeeze sap directly on wounds Daucus carota scrape, squeeze, and cures hepatitis; L. drink the sap or lowers blood sugar juice Apocynaceae Catharanthus boil with water, enhance proper blood roseus (L.) drink thrice a day circulation G. Don Plumeria roast partly, put in relief severe twinge obtusa L. chest and back in the body (sides & wrapped in a piece of back) or "sinda" cloth or "hampol" (severe flatulence) Araceae Acorus pound, wrap in banana stimulate calamus L. leaf, roast, and mix menstruation in with coconut milk; females who missed a rub on belly period Rhaphidophora roast partly, pound treats herpes simplex celatocaulis until become soft and infection along the (N.E. Brown) juicy, and apply mouth or "ugahip" F. Knoll around the mouth (as poultice) Araliaceae Polyscias boil with water, induce urination in scutellaria drink thrice a day; person with kidney (Burm.f) use 7 leaves, boil in infection (UTI); Fosb. 3 glasses of water, cures person vomiting and drink thrice a with blood or "sugpa" day (for "sugpa") Arecaceae/Palmae Cocos boil with water, lowers hypertension nucifera L. drink thrice a day drink as needed induce urination in person with kidney infection (UTI) scrape, fry until cures dermatitis brown and produces (eczema) oil, and rub oil on skin Areca catechu roast partly, squeeze treats sprains and L. to get the sap, mix bruises with coconut oil, and apply (rub) on affected areas peel, cut into small whitens teeth and pieces, chew to get strengthens the gum the sap, and allow to and teeth; cures stay in mouth for bleeding gums and several minutes toothache Asteraceae/Compositae Artemisia boil with water, relief of flatulence vulgaris L. drink or "panuhot," stomachache, and vertigo Bidenspilosa clean thoroughly, cut relief of muscle pain L. into pieces, and soak or over fatigue or in lukewarm water; "bughat" in women drink thrice a day Blumea wash, squeeze, then cures cough, common balsamifera soak in lukewarm colds, and fever (L.) DC. water (with Pisaw-pisaw leaves); or boil with water; drink thrice a day squeeze, rub or relief of flatulence massage the leaves or "panuhot," into the body rheumatism, arthritis, and skin itchiness use 3 shoots plus 2 appetite stimulant pieces of roots and boil with water, drink thrice a day Chromolaena wash thoroughly, abate bleeding on odorata pound, and apply cuts or wounds directly or squeeze sap on wounds Elephantopus wash thoroughly, abate bleeding on scaber L. pound, and apply cuts or wounds directly or squeeze sap on wounds crush, soak in hot treats diarrhea water, and drink thrice a day boil with water, relief of stomachache drink thrice a day Emilia wash and soak in cures cough sonchifolia lukewarm water; or (L.) DC. ex boil with water; Wight drink thrice a day Erigeron wash, chew, and allow relief of toothache sumatrensis to stay in mouth for Retz. several minutes Vernonia boil with water, induce urination; cinerea (L.) drink thrice a day expel intestinal Less. parasites Balsaminaceae Impatiens pound until become treats abscesses on balsamina L. soft and juicy; apply nails (fingers & on affected area (as toes) poultice) wash, pound, squeeze, cures warts and apply the juice (put a drop) on warts Basellaceae Basella rubra cook as vegetable or laxative in children L. boil with water and eaten pound until become heals swellings soft and juicy; apply (boils and ulcers) on affected area (as poultice) Bixaceae Bixa orellana boil with water, enhance proper blood L. drink thrice a day circulation Boraginaceae Carmona boil with water, cures cough retusa drink thrice a day (Vhal.) Masam. Heliotropium boil with water, treats kidney indicum L. drink thrice a day infection (UTI) and muscle pain or over fatigue or "bughat" in women Brassicaceae Brassica wash, pound, squeeze, cures warts oleracea L. and apply the juice var. capitata (put a drop) on warts L. Cactaceae Nopalea pound, put in the cures inflamed cochinellifera affected area, and sprain (L.) Salm.- wrapped with a piece Dyck of cloth or "hampol" Caricaceae Carica papaya boil with water, induce urination in L. drink thrice a day person with kidney infection (UTI); treats diarrhea; lowers fever eaten raw for better digestion; prevents constipation (laxative); antioxidant Chrysobalanaceae Atuna cut, scrape the pulp, cures furuncle (a racemosa and apply on affected boil), as an Rafin. area (as poultice) antimicrobial agent Clusiaceae/Guttiferae Garcinia eaten raw lowers hypertension mangostana L. and blood sugar level Combretaceae Quisqualis wash and put it on relief of headache indica L. the forehead chew and swallow with expel intestinal a glass of water; parasites once only after a meal Convolvulaceae Ipomoea cook and eaten as enhance proper blood aquatica vegetable or squeeze circulation (in Forsk. to get the sap & anemic) drink Ipomoea cook and eaten as lowers blood sugar batatas (L.) vegetable level and enhance Lam. proper blood circulation (in anemic) pound until becomes cures boils soft and juicy and apply directly on affected area (as poultice) Costaceae Costus igneus wash, chew, and eaten lowers blood sugar Nak raw; once a day (diabetes) Crassulaceae Kalanchoe wash thoroughly, lowers high fever; pinnata pound, and spread it cures mumps (Lam.) Pers. out on forehead or rub on body (cooling effect for fever) or on sides of neck (for mumps) Cucurbitaceae Citrullus slice, wash, and induces urination in lanatus eaten raw person with UTI (Thunb.) Mansf. roasted partly and expel intestinal eaten parasites Cucurbita cook as vegetable and for good eyesight maxima Duch. eaten (source of Vit. A); lowers blood sugar Luffa cook as vegetable and lowers hypertension; cylindrica eaten; or roast cures hepatitis (L.) M. Roem partly and eaten Momordica cut into small lowers blood sugar, charantia L. pieces, squeeze or anti anemia blend, and drink the juice as needed Sechium edule remove the skin, lowers hypertension; (Jacq.) Sw. slice, blend, and cures person vomiting drink the juice as with blood needed Cyperaceae Cyperus boil with water, cures cough kyllingia drink thrice a day Endl. wash thoroughly, soak egest measles to in lukewarm water, lower or diminish and drink thrice a fever day Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea cook with water (by relief of flatulence alata L. boiling), remove the or "panuhot" skin, slice, and eaten Elaeocarpaceae Muntingia boil with water, relief sickness felt calabura L. drink thrice a day after missing a meal or "pasmo" scrape inner portion, relief of muscle pain squeeze to get the sap, and rub or massage on affected areas Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia boil with water lowers high fever hirta L. (together with the (due to dengue and roots of Tambda and measles) Rambiyowa) and drink as needed Jatropha roast partly, scrape, heals sprain; relief curcas L. squeeze and rub or of flatulence or massage on the body "panuhot" (can be added with a liniment oil) obtain a leaf from cures canker sores or the trunk (stem) by "luas" and toothache pulling it with its petiole, then drop the sap on the affected area Macaranga boil with water, treats diarrhea and tanarius (L.) drink thrice a day dysentery Muell.-Arg. boil with water, lowers high fever drink as needed Manihot wash, squeeze, mix lowers hypertension esculenta the sap/juice with a Crantz little water, and drink Melanolepis roast partly, put in relief of flatulence multiglandulosa chest and back and or "panuhot" (Reinw. ex wrapped with a piece Blume) of cloth or "hampol;" Rchb.f. & or roast, squeeze, Zoll. mix the sap with liniment oil, and rub on the body (mostly the belly part) wash and put it on relief of headache the forehead Phyllanthus boil with water, treats hepatitis niruri L. drink thrice a day Fabaceae/Leguminosae Caesalpinia boil with water, lowers blood sugar sappan L. drink thrice a day Erythrina scrape the inner part relief of flatulence variegata L. of the bark, wrap it or "panuhot" and in a banana leaf muscle pains (with a little vinegar & salt) and roast, and spread out in the chest and back wrapped in a piece of cloth or "hampol" cook as vegetable promotes sleep in a with coconut milk and person with insomnia fish; eaten Gliricidia pound until become abate bleeding on sepium soft and juicy; cuts or wounds; cures (Jacq.) Kunth squeeze sap directly skin diseases ex Walp. on wounds or rub on (itchiness) the skin (skin disease) soak in hot water (as cures blurry eye tea) then drink once vision a day (morning) scrape, squeeze (to relieves skin extract the sap), and itchiness rub on the affected area boil with water, relief of stomachache drink thrice a day Leucaena chew and eaten expel intestinal leucocephala directly parasites (Lam.) de Wit Mimosapudica boil with water, cures person vomiting Mart. drink thrice a day with blood or "sugpa" boil with water relief of arthritis (together with the and lowers fever roots of Bros), drink thrice a day Pterocarpus cut into small pieces cures person vomiting indicus and boil with water, with blood or Willd. drink thrice a day "sugpa;" an antioxidant scrape inner portion, cures canker sores or squeeze to get the "luas" sap, and apply directly Lauraceae Persea boil with water, treats diarrhea americana drink thrice a day Mill. boil with water treats indigestion (often with Mangga and diarrhea leaves) and drink thrice a day Lamiaceae/Labiatae Coleus wash, squeeze, then cures cough; relief amboinicus soak in lukewarm of asthma and Lour. water, and drink as arthritis; and lowers needed fever Coleus blumei wash, squeeze, then cures cough Benth. soak in lukewarm water; drink thrice a day pound until become heals wounds and soft and juicy; apply abscesses a poultice to abscesses or squeeze sap (wounds) boil with water, relief of stomachache drink thrice a day Hyptis boil with water and cures dry cough and capitata drink thrice a day or heals wounds Jacq. use as an antiseptic wash (for wounds) boil with water, relief of toothache cool, and gargle Mentha wash, soak in cures cough arvensis L. lukewarm water, and drink thrice a day Orthosiphon soak in hot water or treats kidney aristatus boil with water and infection (UTI) and (Blume) Miq. drink thrice a day stomachache before meals Lythraceae Lagerstroemia boil with water, lowers blood sugar speciosa (L.) drink thrice a day level Pers. Malvaceae Abelmoschus slice into small relief of arthritis esculentus pieces, boil with (L.) Moench water, drink thrice a day boil with water, lowers fever and drink as needed relief of headache Ceibapentandra pound until becomes cures furuncle (a (L.) Gaertn. soft and juicy and boil) apply directly on affected area cut in small pieces, lowers high fever soak in hot water, and drink as needed use 7 small slices treats diarrhea; (thorns for teething prevents diseases in infant, with shoots teething infants of Kogon), boil with water, and drink thrice a day Durio boil with water, relief of stomachache zibethinus drink thrice a day Murr. Hibiscus pound until become heals swellings; act rosa-sinensis soft and juicy; apply as anti-inflammatory L. directly on affected agent area boil with water, lowers fever drink as needed Malvastrum boil with water, relief of muscle pain coromandelinum drink thrice a day or over fatigue or (L.) Garcke "bughat" in women boil with water (with post-partum care to roots of Dalupang) prevent bleeding or and drink thrice a hemorrhage day Theobroma pound until become treats sprains cacao L. soft and juicy; apply on affected area as poultice roast, pound, and treats skin diseases apply (rub) on (eczema) affected areas Urena lobata roast leaves with relief of muscle pain L. charcoal in a metal or over fatigue or basin and place belly "bughat" in women above it while enclosing the whole body (except the head) with a big blanket (the process is called "pauslob or tuob"); direct the smoke over one's belly roast leaves with treats nettle rash or charcoal in a metal locally termed as basin and allow the "dupang" smoke to purify the whole body (this process is called "palina") Meliaceae Azadirachta boil with water, treats dengue fever indica A. drink as needed and arthritis Juss. Lansium boil with water, treats diarrhea, domesticum drink thrice a day hemorrhoid, and Corr. Serr. flatulence or "panuhot," scrape the inner cures person vomiting portion, squeeze to with blood or "sugpa" get the sap (can be due to tuberculosis; added with little treats malaria amount of water), and drink Sandoricum boil with water, treats diarrhea; koetjape drink thrice a day relief sickness felt (Burm. f.) after missing a meal Merr. or "pasmo" Swietenia cut into small pieces relief of stomachache mahogani and boil with water; Jacq. drink thrice a day chew and swallow the juice or sap Menispermaceae Tinospora cut into small pieces enhance proper blood crispa (L.) and boil with water; circulation; relief Hook. F. & drink once a day of stomachache; Thoms. lowers hypertension and blood sugar; induces abortion cut into small prevent muscle pain pieces, boil with or over fatigue or water (together with "bughat" in women who roots of Sapar, gave birth Dagum-dagum, and (postpartum care) Coconut), and drink thrice a day cut and squeeze the relief of toothache latex or sap over tooth cut into small pieces antiseptic wash of and boil with water; gangrene (diabetes) wash on the affected area wash, squeeze to get relief of flatulence the sap (mix with or "panuhot" oil), and rub or massage on affected areas Moraceae Artocarpus boil with water, treats diarrhea heterophyllus drink thrice a day Lam. Ficus septica boil with water, relief sickness felt Burm.f var. transfer the boiled after missing a meal septica leaves in a small or "pasmo" basin, and place belly above the steam while enclosing the whole body (except the head) with a big blanket (the process is called "pauslob or tuob"); direct the steam/vapor over one's belly cut into small pieces relief of muscle pain and soak in lukewarm or over fatigue or water or boil with "bughat" in women water; drink thrice a day Moringaceae Moringa roast, add with hot relief of rheumatism oleifera Lam. water, mix, and drink and arthritis; lowers (at least thrice a fever; ulcer; cancer day) boil with water, drink as needed pound until become abate bleeding in soft and juicy; cuts or wounds squeeze sap on affected area cut into small relief of stomachache pieces, squeeze, mix sap with water; drink thrice a day boil with water, stimulates drink twice a day for menstruation in two to three days women; induces only abortion Musaceae Musa remove petiole, cut prevents muscle pain sapientum L. into smaller pieces, or over fatigue or var. boil with water, and "bughat" in women who compressa use as first bath for gave birth (Blco.) Teod. women after giving birth obtain a leaf bud, lowers very high remove the petiole, fever in person with cut it into halves, convulsion and spread out in the chest and back. scrape (inner abate bleeding on portion), squeeze cuts or wounds (sap), and apply as poultice cut into small cures person vomiting pieces, squeeze to with blood or "sugpa" extract the sap and drink it Musa eaten raw or can be treats diarrhea sapientum L. roasted partly var. cinerea (preferably unripe) Blco. with its skin and eaten Musa textilis roast partly, relief of muscle pain Nee squeeze, and drink or over fatigue or the sap; the "bughat" in women remaining sap are rub/massage of the body Myrtaceae Psidium wash, pound, and rub underarm deodorant; guajava L. or massage on treats pimples & acne affected areas wash, chew, and spit abate bleeding on the sap or juice cuts or wounds directly on affected area wash, chew, and cures person vomiting swallow the juice or with blood or "sugpa" sap wash, pound (with Marina-ot, young leaves), add a little water, and drink boil with water and for wounds, scabies, use as an antiseptic and post-partum care wash (vaginal wash) in women boil with water, relieves hyperacidity drink thrice a day Syzygium boil with water, treats diarrhea and malaccense drink thrice a day dysentery (L.) Merr. and Perry boil with water, lowers blood sugar in drink thrice a day person with diabetes Orchidaceae Phalaenopsis wash, soak in cures cough amabilis (L.) lukewarm water, and Bl. drink thrice a day Piperaceae Peperomia boil with water, treats kidney pellucida drink thrice a day infection; lowers (L.) HBK hypertension Piper betle wash and spread out relief severe twinge L. (as bandage) on belly in the body (sides & and sides of the body back) or "sinda" (severe flatulence) Poaceae/Gramineae Bambusa squeeze and soak in cures person who vulgaris lukewarm water or urinate frequently Schrad. ex boil with water; (with UTI) J.C. Wendl. drink thrice a day Chrysopogon boil with water, prevents diseases in aciculatus drink thrice a day teething infants (Retz.) Trin. Cymbopogon boil with water, lowers hypertension; citratus drink thrice a day treats diarrhea (DC.) Stapf Eleusine boil with water, prevent muscle pain indica (L.) drink thrice a day or over fatigue or Gaertn "bughat" in women who gave birth wash thoroughly, eliminates poison pound, and squeeze (venom) of snake bite sap on affected area Imperata boil with water, treats kidney cylindrica L. drink thrice a day infections (induces urination) and edema Saccharum cut into small treats UTI; induces oficinarum L. pieces, squeeze to urination get the juice, drink thrice a day Zea mays L. boil with water, treats kidney drink thrice a day infection; induces urination Portulacaceae Portulaca boil with water, treats kidney oleracea L. drink thrice a day infection (UTI); before meals induces urination Rubiaceae Cofea arabica pound until become cures burns L. soft and juicy and apply (as poultice) on affected area Ixora boil with water, enhance proper blood macrothyrsa drink thrice a day circulation; induces Teijism. & abortion Binn. Morinda eaten raw (with salt) stimulate citrifolia L. menstruation in women; diabetes roast partly and lowers fever and spread out on chest treats cough and back Rutaceae Citrus boil with water, relief sickness felt grandis (L.) drink thrice a day after missing a meal Osb. or "pasmo" and stomachache Citrus boil with water, treats stomachache hystrix DC. drink thrice a day and indigestion or dyspepsia ("impatso") Citrus roast partly and cures cough and microcarpa squeeze, drink the common colds Bunge juice Sapotaceae Chrysophyllum boil with water, treats diarrhea and cainito L. drink thrice a day vomiting; relief sickness felt after missing a meal or "pasmo" Solanaceae Capsicum crush, mix with relief of rheumatism frutescens L. liniment oil, and and arthritis apply on joints and aching parts crush and squeeze sap relief of toothache on tooth wash, squeeze to relief of stomachache extract the sap, mix especially in with liniment oil and children rub on the belly and back of the body Cestrum smell the flower, relief of dry cough nocturnum L. twice a day Nicotiana roast, squeeze, mix prevents tetanus on tabacum L. with liniment oil, nail puncture wound and applv on affected of the foot area using the sap chew and allow to relief of toothache stay in mouth for several hours Solanum wash and eaten raw boost immune system lycopersicum (good source of Vit. L. C); an anticancer Urticaceae Pipturus wash and spread out treats skin diseases arborescens directly on affected and herpes simplex (Link) C.B. area infection along the Rob. mouth or "ugahip" Verbenaceae Gmelina wash, then spread out relief severe twinge arborea Roxb (as bandage) in chest in the body (sides & and back or can be back) or "sinda" roasted partly (severe flatulence) Lantana wash, soak in relief of dry cough camara L. lukewarm water or boil, and drink twice a day pound until become heals wounds and soft and juicy; apply abscesses on affected area (as poultice) boil with water and cleans and cures use as an antiseptic wounds wash boil with water, relief of toothache cool, and gargle boil with water, lowers fever drink as needed Stachytarpheta pound until become abate bleeding in famaicensis soft and juicy; cuts or wounds and L. squeeze sap or apply prevents infection on affected area (as poultice) Vitex negundo boil with water, cures cough and L. drink thrice a day lowers fever Xanthorrhoeaceae Aloe vera cut it to squeeze out treats burns and skin (L.) Burm. f. the gel and rub or diseases (eczema) apply on affected areas Zingiberaceae Curcuma longa boil with water, treats edema and L. drink thrice a day stomachache; cancer; ulcer; cures person vomiting with blood; lowers hypertension; an antioxidant boil with water and avoids flatulence or use as first bath of "panuhot" in the the newly born child infant Zingiber boil with water, relief of flatulence officinale drink thrice a day or "panuhot;" Roscoe pound to extract the relief of flatulence sap, added with hot or "panuhot;" cures water, and drink cough; induces urination cut into small pieces relief of sore throat and use as lozenges (candy), allow to stay in mouth FERNS Athyriaceae Diplazium boil with water, treats diarrhea esculentum drink thrice a day (Retz.) Sw. Equisetaceae Equisetum sp. cut into small treats UTI; induces pieces, boil with urination water, and drink
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|Author:||Olowa, Lilybeth; Demayo, Cesar G.|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2015|
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