Printer Friendly

Ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants among the Muslim Maranaos in Iligan City, Mindanao, Philippines.

INTRODUCTION

Traditional or folk medicine that has been developed by various rural indigenous communities over centuries is still widely practiced in most developing countries throughout the world. It has been estimated that as many as 70-95% of the people living in developing countries rely on medicinal plants for their primary healthcare needs [1] because of its better cultural acceptability, better compatibility with the human body and lesser side effects, and it is affordable and locally available [2, 3, 4]. Medicinal plants used by virtually all cultures do not only serve as a source of affordable healthcare but also as a source of income and livelihood [5,6]. Medicinal plants contain a wide range of metabolites that can be used to treat and cure various forms of diseases [7]. Thus, many of today's drugs have been derived from plant resources. Fourteen countries in the Asia-Pacific region are actively involved in research and development on medicinal plants [8] amongst is the Philippines. In the Philippines, the Department of Science and Technology-Philippine Council for Health Research and Development and the National Research Council of the Philippines and other major academic Institutions such as University of the Philippines and the University of Santo Tomas have been supporting many studies on medicinal plants for several years now [9].

Nowadays, several ethnobotanical studies were carried out in different parts of the world to document the indigenous knowledge on the uses of medicinal plants. This knowledge on the utilization of medicinal plants is passed on from one generation to the next based on indigenous knowledge system (IKS) and orally by the traditional herbal practitioners or local healers [10]. Ethnomedicinal healing systems vary across cultures [11]. The different Philippine ethnic groups are a rich source of this indigenous knowledge. One of these indigenous groups is the Maranao tribe in Mindanao. The Maranaos are one of three related indigenous Moro groups (along with the Iranun and Maguindanao) native to the island of Mindanao [12]. These groups also share genes, linguistic and cultural ties to non-Muslim Lumad groups such as the Tiruray or Subanon. About 90% of the Maranaos live in the province of Lanao del Sur, with the remainder living in Lanao del Norte and parts of Cotabato, Zamboanga del Sur, and Bukidnon [13]. This ethnic group occupy the most strategic place in Mindanao owing to their access to Iligan bay in the north and Illana bay in the south. Literally, "Maranao" means "people of the lake" [14]. The Maranao version of Islam includes many elements of pre-Islamic belief and ritual, particularly those connected with agriculture, the spirit world, and the cycles of nature [15]. This study aimed to record the indigenous knowledge of the Maranaos in Iligan City on their uses of locally available medicinal plants to meet their daily healthcare needs. Ethnobotanical studies that document the indigenous knowledge of a particular group is significant for the conservation and sustainable utilization of the medicinal plants. Thus, the data generated out of this research work would be helpful in preserving the IKS and traditional healthcare practices of the Maranaos in Iligan City and would serve as baseline information for future pharmacological investigations of these plants.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Ten barangays in Iligan City were selectively chosen as sampling sites, namely: Bonbonon, Dalipuga (Tagibo), Del Carmen, Digkilaan, Hinaplanon (Cabaro), Mahayahay, Mandulog, Maria Cristina, Sta. Elena, and Tomas Cabili because mostly of the Maranaos are occupying in these areas. A semi-structured questionnaire consisting of the demographic (age, gender, source of livelihood, etc) and ethnobotanical (medicinal plants and its uses) information was used in conducting the survey through a series of interviews carried out between January to May 2014. The interviews were developed as informal conversations in order to let them speak spontaneously and not feel pressured. A total of 228 individuals were interviewed with ages between 27 to 85 years old including some local healers ("pamomolong") and "datus" (community leader). The data acquired for each plant consists of the plant's family, common (English) and local names (Maranao name), the part of the plant used, the mode of preparation and administration, and its medicinal uses. Photos were taken on each plant during short field walks with some of the respondents and samples were collected for scientific identification. The medicinal plants were identified with the help of an expert botanist and literatures [16-22]. The total number of medicinal plants, number of botanical families and genera, most reported medicinal uses, and the most commonly mentioned method of preparation and mode of application were determined. The most commonly used plant part for herbal preparations was evaluated in order to assess if the survival and continuity of the medicinal plants in the area are maintained and protected by the locals to ensure sustainability in the utilization of these plants.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 1 shows the list of the medicinal plants utilized by the Maranaos to treat various forms of diseases or ailments. A total of 122 (two are pteridophytes) plant species distributed to 113 genera (including Solanum verbascifolium) and 53 families was recorded. The highest number of species (8) were represented by families Asteraceae/Compositae and Malvaceae followed by Poaceae/Gramineae with seven (7) species, Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae/Leguminosae with six (6) species, Lamiaceae/Labiatae and Solanaceae (including Solanum verbascifolium) with five (5) species, four (4) species in families Cucurbitaceae, Meliaceae, and Verbenaceae, and three (3) in families Annonaceae, Musaceae, Rubiaceae, and Rutaceae. Families Acanthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae/Umbelliferae, Apocynaceae, Araceae, Arecaceae/Palmae, Boraginaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae, and Zingiberaceae were represented by two (2) species and the rest of the families were all represented by only one (1) species. The obtained results revealed the considerable diversity of the medicinal plants and the vast indigenous knowledge of the Maranaos in Iligan City. Despite of the fact that Iligan is a highly urbanized city the Maranao people still rely on traditional healthcare practices and medicinal plants probably because most of them are living in remote areas (barangays) where traditional medicine is mostly the accessible and affordable treatment available for them. According to Diallo and others [23], the vast knowledge on how to use the medicinal plants against different illnesses may be expected to have accumulated in areas where the use of the plants is still of great importance.

Out of the 51 medicinal uses, the top five (most frequently claimed) uses were: (1) cough and stomachache, (2) fever and urinary tract infections (UTI), (3) diarrhea, (4) hypertension and cuts or wounds, and (5) muscle pain or over fatigue ("bughat") in women. The species Blumea balsamifera, Annona muricata, and Tinospora crispa have the most number (8) of different medicinal uses. The preparation and mode of administration of the medicinal plants vary depending on the kind of disease or ailment treated. Mostly the medicinal plants were prepared by boiling it (usually the leaves) with water and administered internally by drinking the sap or juice thrice a day. External administration of the medicinal plants was done by spreading out the plant part (mostly leaves) directly (as bandage) on any part of the body or the plant material is applied over the body wrapped with a piece of cloth ("hampol") or roasted and/or pounded and directly applied on the body (skin) either by squeezing or rubbing the sap through massage (usually with liniment oil) on the affected area or as poultice. To abate bleeding on cuts or wounds, either the leaves were crushed or the barks of stems were scraped and the juice is extracted and administered topically or as poultice. Moreover, some plants were used as bath/wash after boiling it with water such as the leaves of Spondias pinnata (first bath for person who recovers from measles and chickenpox), Curcuma longa (first bath of the newly born child), Musa sapientum var. compressa (first bath in women who gave birth), and Hyptis capitata, Lantana camara, and Psidium guajava (vaginal wash in postpartum care) as an antiseptic wash for wounds and scabies. In some plants only the smoke from its roasted leaves (Urena lobata) and the steam (vapor) of boiled leaves (Ficus septica) were used to treat diseases. In the other hand, the fruit of Citrullus lanatus, Morinda citrifolia, Musa sapientum var. cinerea, Annona muricata, and Solanum lycopersicum can be eaten raw for treating UTI, diabetes, diarrhea, and cancer, respectively. Also the leaves of Centella asiatica and Costus igneus can be chewed and eaten raw to lower hypertension and blood sugar, respectively. Conversely, the leaves of some plants such as Basella rubra (as laxative), Ipomoea aquatica (enhance proper blood circulation in anemic), Ipomoea batatas (for diabetics), and Erythrina variegata (promotes sleep in person with insomnia) as well as the fruit of Cucurbita maxima (in diabetics) and Luffa cylindrica (for hypertension and hepatitis) should be cooked first and eaten as vegetable.

The most cited plant part for their herbal preparation was the leaves (81 uses). The use mostly of the leaves of plant ensures sustainability in the utilization of the plants, thus the survival and continuity of these valuable medicinal plants are greatly protected by the Maranaos in Iligan City. As mentioned by Lulekal [24] harvesting of roots has a negative influence on the survival and continuity of the medicinal plants and hence affects its sustainable utilization. The use more on leaves than other plant parts implies that traditional medical culture in the area does not threaten biological diversity [11]. Stems (bark), roots, flowers, and fruits (seeds) as well as modified plant parts (bulb, rhizome, or tuber) were sometimes used in their herbal preparations. There were various uses of the roots in their herbal preparations. Mostly the roots of the medicinal plants were used to treat stomachache (Gendarussa vulgaris, Elephantopus scaber, Gliricidia sepium, Coleus blumei, Swietenia mahogani, and Moringa oleifera), urinary tract infections (Polyscias scutellaria, Vernonia cinerea, Carica papaya, and Imperata cylindrica), muscle pain or over fatigue ("bughat") in women (Bidens pilosa, Eleusine indica, Malvastrum coromandelinum, and Ficus septica, and Solanum verbascifolium), fever (Gendarussa vulgaris, Carica papaya, and Macaranga tanarius), diarrhea (Elephantopus scaber, Diplazium esculentum, Carica papaya, and Lansium domesticum), and enhance proper blood circulation (Catharanthus roseus, Bixa orellana, and Ixora macrothyrsa). Further, the roots or stem of some plants were claimed to cause (induce) abortion, like Tinospora crispa (stem), Moringa oleifera (roots), and Ixora macrothyrsa (roots).

The medicinal plants utilized by the Maranaos are the same with the plants used by the Higaonon tribe in barangay Rogongon (Iligan City). This might be due to the proximity of the two tribal groups because they are both occupying in Iligan City, for example barangays Digkilaan and Bonbonon are adjacent to barangay Rogongon. Moreover, some Higaonons are married to the Maranaos from the two aforementioned barangays. Their modes of preparation and medicinal uses of plants are very similar. Like for example, both groups used boiled leaves of Annona muricata, Persea americana, Mangifera indica, Artocarpus heterophyllus, and bark of Chrysophyllum cainito to treat diarrhea. Also, both utilized Allium sativum, Cymbopogon citratus, and Curcuma longa in lowering hypertension. As reported by Olowa et al. [25], the Higaonons used boiled leaves of Blumea balsamifera, Coleus amboinicus, and Vitex negundo to cure cough and pounded leaves of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis and Chromolaena odorata to abate bleeding on cuts or wounds. Relative to the findings of this study, Balangcod and Balangcod [26] reported that the Kalanguya tribe in Tinoc, Ifugao (Luzon) used boiled roots of Imperata cylindrica and young hairs of Zea mays to treat kidney (urinary tract) infections as it induces urination, crushed leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata to lower fever, boiled leaves of Lantana camara relieves dry cough, and fruits of Areca catechu when chewed and kept in mouth strengthens teeth. Thus, other indigenous groups in the Philippines such as the Higaonons in Iligan City, Kalanguya tribe of Tinoc in Ifugao, Pinatubo Negritoes [27], Tasaday of Mindanao [28], Itawes of Cagayan [29], and Ibalois of Tabaan Norte [30] have the same pattern of medicinal plant utilization with the Maranaos, wherein these groups also used boiled leaves of Psidium guajava as an antiseptic wash for wounds and other skin diseases. Moreover, a mixture of two or more plants were claimed to be more effective in treating a particular ailment, for example, the leaves of Persea americana, Mangifera indica, Artocarpus heterophyllus, and Chrysophyllum cainito are boiled together in treating diarrhea. It is a function of the traditionally-held belief that the synergistic combination of several active principles in some herbal preparations is responsible for their beneficial effects (IARC monographs). In the other hand, a particular medicinal plant can be used to treat two or more different diseases. Conversely, two or more plants can treat the same ailment or disease.

The results of this study are comparable to other ethnobotanical researches conducted in other parts of the world. In the ethnobotanical survey of Camejo-Rodrigues and others [31] in the Natural Park of Serra de Sao Mamede (Portugal) the most frequently used medicinal plants belonged to families Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae, and Apiaceae and boiling (decoction) the plant part was the common practice. In the study of Ripunjoy [7], families Fabaceae/Leguminosae and Malvaceae were represented by the highest number of medicinal plant species utilized by the Sonowal Kachari tribe of Dibrugarh district in Assam, North-East India. Ugulu [4] documented that the most common families of medicinal plants used to make Therapeutic Turkish Baths were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae. Fabaceae and Lamiaceae were the most commonly reported medicinal plants used by the local people in the lowlands of Konta Special Woreda in South-Western Ethiopia [11. Thus, the aforementioned families of plants were commonly used in the traditional healing practices of various tribal and rural communities worldwide, especially Asteraceae. Plants from Asteraceae family are commonly used in the treatment of various diseases due to their bioactive properties [32]; they produce a broad range of secondary plant products such as terpenes and sesquiterpenes which give them their medicinal properties [33-37. Also, Asteraceae is probably the largest family of flowering plants, with more than 25,000 species world-wide [38], which are cosmopolitan in distribution, except in Antarctica [39]. In addition, the most frequently utilized plant part was the leaves in all of the studies cited, which indicated that indigenous people are providing protection and maintenance in the sustainable use of their plants. The preference of leaves to other plant parts could be due to the easiness of preparation [40], and the presence of more bioactive ingredients in the leaves developed in response to phytophagous organisms since they are the most vulnerable parts of a plant [41].

Based on the obtained results, various ethnic groups in the Philippines share the same patterns in the utilization of their medicinal plants probably because their knowledge on traditional medicine is intrinsic among them and inherited from their great ancestors. It is a common knowledge that indigenous peoples have known the healing properties of several medicinal herbs for generations [42]. Generally, this indigenous knowledge on the use of medicinal plants is passed on orally by traditional local healers to their younger generations. There are about 250,000 practitioners of traditional medicine in the Philippines [43]. Mainly, the reason for the belief in the powers of traditional local healers is that most cultural societies are strongly bound with their cultural traditions [26]. Most of the tribal and rural communities have strong beliefs on spirits, thus their ethnobotanical healing practices are done in conjunction with this supernatural beings. Also they have a strong conviction that diseases or ailments are caused by these supernatural beings. For this reason, rituals or ceremonies are conducted prior to their use of the medicinal plants which are believed to improve the efficacy of these plants in treating the disease or ailments. These series of ceremonies are also done in a way of asking permission to the spirits in using the plants because they believed that the bountiful resources of nature, like plants, are protected by these beings. As stated by Balangcod and Balangcod [26], this is a common practice shared by most indigenous groups in the Philippines and perhaps by other countries too. For the Maranaos, "kiparat" or offerings are given to traditional local healers or "pamomolong" as a form of gratitude for sharing their indigenous knowledge and for the efficacy of the treatment.

Documenting indigenous knowledge through ethnobotanical approach is not only significant for species conservation and sustainable use of resources [44] but also for community healthcare and drug development [45] as well as for economic development [46]. The documentation of traditional knowledge on medicinal plants has gained a wide recognition due to an escalating faith in herbal medicines [47, 48]. However, the traditional knowledge on medicinal plant uses of various ethnic and rural communities, accumulated over centuries, may disappear in only a couple of generations [49] due to the advent of modern technology and transformation of traditional culture [50]. During the last decades, the rapid population growth, commercial logging, and scarcity of alternative agricultural lands have led to a drastic reduction of forest cover in the Philippines [51]. In this study most of the trees and some herbs used as medicinal plants by the Maranaos were collected from the wild (small forests and thickets). Their medicinal plants (most herbs and some shrubs) were usually cultivated as ornamental plants, like Gendarussa vulgaris, Cordyline fruticosa, Catharanthus roseus, Polyscias scutellaria, Impatiens balsamina, Nopalea cochinellifera, Coleus blumei, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Phalaenopsis amabilis, Ixora macrothyrsa, Quisqualis indica, and Aloe vera. Some tree species are domesticated for its fruits, like Mangifera indica, Annona muricata, A. squamosa, Cocos nucifera, Carica papaya, Persea americana, Lansium domesticum, and Psidium guajava. Although the Maranaos practice sustainability in the use of their plants, still many of these valuable species are facing great danger from disappearing. Lense [49] stated that the process of transferring traditional knowledge appears to be the main factor leading to the decline of knowledge of traditional medicine, since there is no formal school or traditional institution involved in passing on this knowledge. Further, most of the younger generations are adopting new lifestyles and technologies. If the present pace of cultural changes continues to exist amongst the Maranaos in Iligan City, then the indigenous knowledge (IK) within this ethnic group may disappear. Thus, there is an urgent need to document this IK before it is completely lost.

There is a need to evaluate the active constituents of the plants by conducting bioassays especially the rarely used species or when its phytochemicals are not yet analyzed. This is to validate the effectiveness and safety in using these medicinal plants in treating various diseases. In the other hand, there is an urgent need to conserve the medicinal plants and the IKS of the Maranaos because of the continued deforestation and land conversion in the different areas in the country and the current pace of cultural changes, respectively, that might lead to the extinction of both. Coordination and cooperation among various sectors in the country in promoting public awareness in the importance of the medicinal plants for the achievement of well-established protection of this biodiversity, and ensures the transmission of the IKS to the next generations.

Conclusion:

The obtained results of this study revealed the significant diversity of the medicinal plants and the vast indigenous knowledge system (IKS) of the Maranaos in Iligan City in terms of their healthcare practices using these plants. It indicated that the Maranaos have managed to protect and maintain the sustainable utilization of these valuable plants especially in their use of mostly the leaves of the plants. The preservation of these practices could be due to their continued dependence on medicinal plants. They exhibited the same pattern of their traditional healthcare practices with other ethnic groups in the Philippines and some tribal and rural communities in other countries too. This could be due to the inherent quality of this indigenous knowledge and because IK has been practiced by these groups for several decades.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 10 November 2015

Accepted 22 December 2015

Available online 30 December 2015

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to thank all the Maranao informants who contributed to the accomplishment of this study, particularly the datus and the folk healers for sharing their valuable knowledge.

REFERENCES

[1] WHO (World Health Organization), 2011. The world medicines situation. Traditional Medicines: Global situation, issues and challenges. WHO press, Geneva, Switzerland.

[2] Kamboj, V.P., 2000. Herbal Medicine. Curr Sci, 78: 35-39.

[3] Pal, S.K. and Y. Shukla, 2003. Herbal medicine: Current status and the future. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 4: 281-288.

[4] Ugulu, I., 2012. Fidelity Level and Knowledge of Medicinal Plants Used to Make Therapeutic Turkish Baths. Ethno Med, 6(1): 1-9.

[5] World Bank, 1997. Medicinal plants; rescuing a global heritage. Washington, D.C.20433, USA.

[6] Adnan, M., 2011. Diversity and abundance of medicinal plants among different forest-use types of the Pakistani Himalaya. Georg-August-University of Gottingen. A Dissertation.

[7] Ripunjoy, S., 2013. Indigenous knowledge on the utilization of medicinal plants by the Sonowal Kachari Tribe of Dibrugarh District in Assam, North-East India. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 2(4): 44-50.

[8] Butola, J.S., A.R. Malik, M.A.A.A. Siddique, and P.A. Sofi, 2011. Ethnomedicinal practices and conservation status of medicinal plants of North Kashmir Himalayas. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants.

[9] Penecilla, G. and C.P. Magno, 2011. Antibacterial activity of extracts of twelve common medicinal plants from the Philippines. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5(16): 3975-3981.

[10] Nwachukwu, C.U., N.C. Ume, M.N. Obasi, G.U. Nzewuihe and C.U. Onyirioha, 2010. Qualitative uses of some medicinal plants in Ikeduru L.G.A of Imo State, Nigeria. New York Science Journal, 3(11): 129-134.

[11] Bekalo, T.H., S.D. Woodmatas, and Z.A. Woldemariam, 2009. An ethnobotanical study of medi cinal plants used by local people in the lowlands of Konta Special Woreda, southern nations, nationalities and peoples regional state, Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 5: 1-26.

[12] http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=601155832. Maranao People.

[13] http://www.everyculture.com/East-Southeast-Asia/Maranao.html).

[14] Bara, H., 2011. The History of the Muslim in the Philippines. National Commission for Culture and the Arts. http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?i=232&igm=4

[15] http://www.everyculture.com/East-Southeast-Asia/Maranao.html. Maranao.

[16] Merrill, E.D., 1903. A Dictionary of the Plant Names of the Philippine Islands. Manila: Bureau of Public Printing.

[17] Madulid, D.A., 1995. A Pictorial Cyclopedia of Philippine Ornamental Plants. Metro Manila, Philippines: Bookmark, Inc., 7.

[18] Madulid, D.A., 2001. A Dictionary of Philippine Plant Names, 1. Local name-scientific name. Makati City, Philippines. The bookmark Inc.

[19] Fernando, E.S., B.Y. Sun, M.H. Suh, H.Y. Kong and K.S. Koh, 2004. Flowering plants and ferns of Mt. Makiling. Korea: ASEAN-Korea Environmental Cooperation Unit (AKECU).

[20] http://www.stuartxchange.org

[21] http://www.phytoimages. siu. edu

[22] http://www.philippineplants.org. Co's Digital flora of the Philippines

[23] Diallo, D., B. Hveem, M.A. Mahmoud, G. Berge, B.S. Paulsen, A. Maiga, 1999. An ethnobotanical survey of herbal drugs of Gourma district, Mali. Pharmaceutical Biology, 37: 80-91.

[24] Lulekal, E., E. Kelbessa, T. Bekele and H. Yineger, 2008. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Mana Angetu District, southeastern Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 4:10.

[25] Olowa, L.F., M.A.J. Torres, E.C. Aranico, and C.G. Demayo, 2012. Medicinal Plants Used by the Higaonon Tribe of Rogongon, Iligan City, Mindanao, Philippines. Advances in Environmental Biology, 6(4):1442-1449.

[26] Balangcod, T.D. and A.K.D. Balangcod, 2011. Ethnomedical knowledge of plants and healthcare practices among the Kalanguya tribe in Tinoc, Ifugao, Luzon, Philippines. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 10(2): 221- 238.

[27] Fox, R.B., 1952. The Pinatubo Negritoes: their useful plants and material culture. Philippine Journal of Science, 81(3-4): 173-391.

[28] Yen, D.H. and H.G. Guttierrez, 1974. The ethnobotany of the Tasaday: the useful plants. Philippine Journal of Science, 103(2): 97-140.

[29] Rocero, M., 1982. Ethnobotany of the Itawes of Cagayan Province Philippines. National Museum, Manila, Philippines.

[30] Balangcod, T.D., 2001. The useful flora of Tabaan Norte, Tuba, Benguet Province, In: towards understanding peoples of the Cordillera: A review of research on history, governance, resources, institutions and living traditions. Cordillera Studies Center, UP Baguio., 3: 82-83.

[31] Camejo-Rodrigues, J., L. Ascensaob, M.A. Bonetc, J. Vallesc, 2003. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal and aromatic plants in the Natural Park of "Serra de Sao Mamede" (Portugal). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 89: 199-209.

[32] Wegiera, M, H.D. Smolarz, M. Jedruch, M. Korczak, and K. Kopro, 2012. Cytotoxic effect of some medicinal plants from Asteraceae family on j-45.01 leukemic cell line--pilot study. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica--Drug Research, 69(2): 263-268.

[33] Seaman, F.C., 1992. Sesquiterpene lactones as taxonomic characters in Asteraceae. Bot. Rev. 48:121-595.

[34] Sofowora, A., 1993. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. Spectrum books Ltd. Ibadan, Nigeria.

[35] Adjanohoun, J.E., N. Aboubaka, K. Dramane, M.E. Ebot, J.A. Ekpere, E.I. Enow-Orock, D. Focho, Z. Gbrile, A. Kamanyi, J. Kamsukom, A. Keita, B. Nkongmeneck, B. Satabie, A. Sofowora, V. Tamze, and C.K. Wirmum. 1996. Traditional medicine and pharmacopoeia. Contribution to Ethnobotanical and floristic studies in Cameroon. OAU/STRC Lagos, Nigeria. 640p.

[36] Bussmann, R.W., 2006. Ethnobotany of the Samburu of Mt.Nyiru, South of Turkana, Kenya. J. Ethnobio. Ethnomed., 2: 35.

[37] Focho, 2009. Focho D.A., E.A.P. Nkeng, C.F. Lucha, W.T. Ndam and A. Afegenui, 2009. Ethnobotanical survey of plants used to treat diseases of the reproductive system and preliminary phytochemical screening of some species of malvaceae in Ndop Central Sub-division, Cameroon Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 3(4), 301-314.

[38] Herman, P.P.J., 2004. Family: Asteraceae (Compositae). National Herbarium, Pretoria. South African National Biodiversity Institute's plant information website. www.plantzafrica. com

[39] Mabberley, D.J., 1997. The Plant Book. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[40] Gazzaneo, L,.S., R.F.P. Lucena and U.P. Albuquerque, 2005. Knowledge and use of medicinal plants by local specialists in an region of Atlantic Forest in the state of Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil), J. Ethnobio. and Ethnomed, 1:9.

[41] Bhattarai, S., R.P. Chaudhary and R.S.L. Taylor, 2006. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the people of Manang district, central Nepal, J. Ethnobio. and Ethnomed, 2: 41.

[42] Dela Cruz and Ramos, dela Cruz, P. and A.G. Ramos, 2006. Indigenous Health Knowledge Systems in the Philippines: A Literature Survey. Paper presented at the XIIIth CONSAL Conference, Manila, Philippines.

[43] WHO, 2001. Ethnomedical knowledge of plants and healthcare WHO (World Health Organization). Legal status of traditional medicine and complementary/alternative medicine: a worldwide review.

[44] Balangcod, T.D. and A.K.D. Balangcod, 2011. practices among the Kalanguya tribe in Tinoc, Ifugao, Luzon, Philippines. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 10(2): 221- 238.

[45] Gemedo-Dalle, T., B.L. Maass, and J. Isselstein, 2005. Plant biodiversity and ethnobotany of Borana pastoralists in Southern Oromla, Ethiopia. Econ Bot, 59:43-65.

[46] Pei, S.J., 2001. Ethnobotanical approaches of traditional medicine studies: Some experiences from Asia. Pharmaceutical Biology, 39: 74-79.

[47] Uprety, Y., H. Asselin, E.K. Boon, S. Yadav, and K.K. Shrestha, 2010. Indigenous use and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa District, Central Nepal. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 6:3.

[48] Jain, S.K., 1991. Dictionary of Indian folk medicine and ethnobotany. Deep publications, New Delhi.

[49] Kaul, M.K., P.K. Sharma and V. Singh. 1995. Crude drugs of Zanskar (Ladakh) used in Amchi system of traditional medicine. Glimpses of Indian Ethno Pharmacology, India, 163-172.

[50] Lense, O., 2012. The wild plants used as traditional medicines by indigenous people of Manokwari, West Papua. Biodiversitas, 13(2): 98-106.

[51] Singh, R.K., D. Mishara and R.K. Srivastava. 2012. Ethno-medicinal plants used to cure different diseases by rural folks and tribes of North Eastern Tarai districts of Uttar, Pradesh, India. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants, 6(4): 286-299.

[52] Prigge, V., G. Langenberger, K. Martin, 2005. Ethnobotanical survey among farmers in Leyte, Philippines, and comparison with indigenous Filipino plant lore. Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development, Stuttgart-Hohenheim, Germany.

[53] Soha El-Sayed Khalil and Abdel-Salam Ali El-Noemani, 2015 "Effect of bio-fertilizers on growth, yield, water relations, photosynthetic pigments and carbohydrates contents of Origanum vulgare L. plants grown under water stress conditions" American-Eurasian Journal Of Sustainable Agriculture ISSN: 1995-0748, EISSN: 1998-1074, 9(4): 60-73.

[54] Nilima Mahnoor, Ive Farha Moonmoon, Tonmoy Saha, Kaosar Mahamud, Suborna Biswas, Erena Islam, Mohammed Rahmatullah, 2015. "Medicinal Plants of a Folk Herbalist in Tangail District, Bangladesh" American-Eurasian Journal Of Sustainable Agriculture ISSN: 1995-0748, EISSN: 1998-1074, 9(4): 74-82.

[55] Leithy, S.M., B. Abou Leila, E.F. Abdallah, M.S. Gaballah, "Response of Canola Plants to Antitranspirant Levels and Limited Irrigation " American-Eurasian Journal Of Sustainable Agriculture ISSN: 1995-0748, EISSN: 1998-1074, 9(4): 83-87.

[56] Mervat Sh. Sadak, Salwa, A. Orabi and Bakry A. Bakry, 2015. "Antioxidant Properties, Secondary Metabolites and Yield as Affected by Application of Antioxidants and Banana Peel Extract on Roselle Plants" AMERICAN-EURASIAN JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE ISSN: 1995-0748, EISSN: 1998-1074, 9(4): 93-104.

[57] Isrer Tasannun, Farhana Akter Ruba, Borhan Uddin Bhuiyan, Kazi Mahbub Hossain, Jamila Khondokar, Ishita Malek, A.B.M. Anwarul Bashar, Mohammed Rahmatullah, "Indigenous medicinal practices: medicinal plants of Chakma tribal medicinal practitioners in Rangamati district" AMERICAN-EURASIAN JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE ISSN: 1995-0748, EISSN: 1998-1074 2015, volume (9), issue (5): pages(28-35)

[58] Salwa Ahmed Orabi, Abdel-Salam Ali El-Noemani, 2015. "Role of Proline in Improving Drought Tolerance of Faba Bean Plants Via Antioxidant Responses to Enhanced Generation of Superoxide Anion Radical and Hydrogen Peroxide" American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture ISSN: 1995-0748, 9(1): 31-42.

[59] Saidi Boubakr, Latrech Ali, Mehdadi Zoheir, Hakemi Zahra, Dadache Mohamed, Ammar Boukeur., Floristic, Ethnobotanical and Phytotherapy Studies of Medicinal Plants Spontaneous in the Area of Tessala Mounts, Western Algeria. Adv. in Nat. Appl. Sci., 3(5): 1-16, 2015

Lilybeth Olowa and Cesar G. Demayo

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics, MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines

Corresponding Author: Cesar G. Demayo, Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics, MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines.

E-mail: cgdemayo@gmail.com.
Table 1: Medicinal plants used by the Maranaos in their
healthcare practices.

Family &             English/      Maranao name     Plant part
Scientific          common name                        used
name

Acanthaceae

Andrographis          King of         Ampion          leaves
paniculata            bitters
(Burm. f.)
Wall. ex Nees

Gendarussa           Gandarusa      Salimbagoan       leaves
vulgaris Nees                        or Palyas

                                                       roots

Asparagaceae (Agavaceae)

Cordyline            Good luck        Kilala           bark
fruticosa              plant
(L.) A.
Chev.

Amaryllidaceae (Alliaceae)

Allium                Garlic         Lasona a       stem (bulb)
sativum L.                            tukapun

Allium             Garlic chives       Ganda          leaves
tuberosum
Rottler ex
Spreng.

Anacardiaceae

Mangifera              Mango          Mangga          leaves
indica L.

                                                       bark

Spondiaspinnata     Common hog       Alubihid         leaves
(L. f) Kurz.           plum

                                                       bark

Annonaceae

Annona                Soursop         Gabana          leaves
muricata L.

                                                   young leaves

                                                      flower

                                                       fruit

                                                    dried seeds

Annona              Sugar apple        Atis            bark
squamosa L.

Annona             Custard apple     Sarikaya      leaves, bark
reticulata L.

Apiaceae/Umbelliferae

Centella              Asiatic        Tangila a        leaves
asiatica (L.)        pennywort         lopa
Urb.

Daucus carota         Carrots         Carrots          root
L.

Apocynaceae

Catharanthus           Pink          Kumintang         roots
roseus (L.)         periwinkle
G. Don

Plumeria               White       Kalatsutsing-      leaves
obtusa L.           calachuche         puti

Araceae

Acorus              Sweet flag       Karomenga         roots
calamus L.

Rhaphidophora      Shingle plant    Likop-likop       leaves
celatocaulis
(N.E. Brown)
F. Knoll

Araliaceae

Polyscias           Saucer-leaf      Salapiin         leaves,
scutellaria                                            roots
(Burm.f)
Fosb.

Arecaceae/Palmae

Cocos                 Golden         Lubi nga       bark, roots
nucifera L.           coconut        limbahon

                                                    water/juice

                                                    white flesh
                                                    (endosperm)

Areca catechu        Betle nut        Mamaan          leaves
L.                     palm

                                                    fruit (nut)

Asteraceae/Compositae

Artemisia             Mugwort        Bawkasina        leaves
vulgaris L.

Bidenspilosa       Beggar ticks     Dagum-dagum        roots
L.

Blumea             Camphor plant     Punas or         leaves
balsamifera                        Salimbewangen
(L.) DC.

                                                   young leaves
                                                      & roots

Chromolaena           Hagonoy         Hagonoy         leaves
odorata

Elephantopus         Prickly-         Tambda          leaves
scaber L.             leaved
                    elephant's
                       foot

                                                       roots

Emilia             Lilac tassel     Pisaw-pisaw       leaves,
sonchifolia           flower        (used with      whole plant
(L.) DC. ex                           Punas)
Wight

Erigeron               T all       Mango-aw (use      leaves
sumatrensis          fleabane         with T
Retz.                              alawatawa and
                                     Rambiyowa
                                      leaves)

Vernonia             Ironweed         Katabas         leaves,
cinerea (L.)                                           roots
Less.

Balsaminaceae

Impatiens          Touch-me-not      Sarengka         leaves
balsamina L.

Basellaceae

Basella rubra         Malabar        Alugbati         leaves
L.                  nightshade

Bixaceae

Bixa orellana      Annatto tree       Galoga           roots
L.

Boraginaceae

Carmona             Philippine     Tsaang gubat       leaves
retusa               tea tree
(Vhal.)
Masam.

Heliotropium          Indian         Elepante       whole plant
indicum L.          heliotrope

Brassicaceae

Brassica           White cabbage      Ripolyo         leaves
oleracea L.
var. capitata
L.

Cactaceae

Nopalea              Cochineal        Bontor          leaves
cochinellifera        cactus
(L.) Salm.-
Dyck

Caricaceae

Carica papaya         Papaya          Kopaya          leaves,
L.                                                     roots

                                                       fruit

Chrysobalanaceae

Atuna               Makita tree     Tabon-tabon        fruit
racemosa
Rafin.

Clusiaceae/Guttiferae

Garcinia            Mangosteen      Mangosteen         fruit
mangostana L.

Combretaceae

Quisqualis            Chinese      Niyog-niyogan      leaves
indica L.           honeysuckle

                                                    dried seeds

Convolvulaceae

Ipomoea            Water spinach     Kangkong         leaves
aquatica
Forsk.

Ipomoea            Sweet potato        Rapa           leaves
batatas (L.)
Lam.

Costaceae

Costus igneus       Spiral flag    Insulin plant      leaves
Nak

Crassulaceae

Kalanchoe           Life plant       Danggaw/         leaves
pinnata                              Angelika
(Lam.) Pers.

Cucurbitaceae

Citrullus           Water melon       Dagita       fruit (pulp)
lanatus
(Thunb.)
Mansf.

                                                    dried seeds

Cucurbita             Squash         Kalabasa          fruit
maxima Duch.

Luffa              Sponge gourd        Sikwa           fruit
cylindrica
(L.) M. Roem

Momordica          Bitter melon       Paliya           fruit
charantia L.

Sechium edule         Chayote         Sayoti           fruit
(Jacq.) Sw.

Cyperaceae

Cyperus              Whitehead        Gontor        whole plant
kyllingia           spikesedge
Endl.

Dioscoreaceae

Dioscorea           Purple yam          Ubi        stem (tuber)
alata L.

Elaeocarpaceae

Muntingia          Panama cherry    Mansanitas         bark
calabura L.

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia           Cat's hair      Talawatawa      whole plant
hirta L.

Jatropha             Tuba-tuba       Katangan-         stem
curcas L.              plant          tangan

                                                   leaves (with
                                                     petiole)

Macaranga           Elephant's         Bonga       young leaves
tanarius (L.)           ear
Muell.-Arg.

                                                       root

Manihot               Cassava        Banggala         leaves
esculenta
Crantz

Melanolepis           Mo lin           Alum           leaves
multiglandulosa
(Reinw. ex
Blume)
Rchb.f. &
Zoll.

Phyllanthus         Seed-under-    Kaniyo-niyog     whole plant
niruri L.              leaf

Fabaceae/Leguminosae

Caesalpinia         Sappanwood        Sibokaw          stem
sappan L.

Erythrina          Tiger's claw       Dapdap           bark
variegata L.

                                                   young leaves

Gliricidia          St. Vincent     Madre-kakaw       leaves
sepium                 plum
(Jacq.) Kunth
ex Walp.

                                                       bark

                                                       roots

Leucaena             Lead tree       Ipil-ipil         seeds
leucocephala
(Lam.) de Wit

Mimosapudica         Sensitive         Kimpo           roots
Mart.                  plant

Pterocarpus          Rosewood          Narra           bark
indicus
Willd.

Lauraceae

Persea               Alligator        Abukado          bark
americana              pear
Mill.

                                                      leaves
                                                     (fresh or
                                                      dried)

Lamiaceae/Labiatae

Coleus                Oregano          Kapal          leaves
amboinicus
Lour.

Coleus blumei         Painted      Mayana (often      leaves
Benth.                nettle/        used with
                      Mayana          Kapal)

                                                       roots

Hyptis               Knobweed         Arbaka         leaves or
capitata                                            roots (for
Jacq.                                                 cough)

                                                       roots

Mentha                 Mint            Biks           leaves
arvensis L.

Orthosiphon            Cat's        Balbas pusa       leaves
aristatus           whiskers or
(Blume) Miq.         Java tea

Lythraceae

Lagerstroemia         Queen's         Banaba          leaves
speciosa (L.)         flower
Pers.

Malvaceae

Abelmoschus            Okra            Okra            fruit
esculentus
(L.) Moench

                                                      leaves

Ceibapentandra         Kapok           Kamir          leaves
(L.) Gaertn.

                                                       bark

Durio                 Durian          Durian          leaves
zibethinus
Murr.

Hibiscus             Hibiscus        Antulanga      flower bud
rosa-sinensis
L.

                                                      leaves

Malvastrum         False mallow        Sapar           roots
coromandelinum
(L.) Garcke

Theobroma              Cacao           Kakaw          leaves
cacao L.

                                                       seeds

Urena lobata        Caesar weed      Dalupang         leaves
L.

                                                   dried leaves

Meliaceae

Azadirachta          Neem tree       Neem tree        leaves
indica A.
Juss.

Lansium            Langsat/Duku       Bowaan        bark, roots
domesticum
Corr. Serr.

                                                       bark

Sandoricum             Wild           Santol           bark
koetjape            mangosteen
(Burm. f.)
Merr.

Swietenia            Mahogany        Mahogany       bark, roots
mahogani
Jacq.

                                                       seeds

Menispermaceae

Tinospora            Heavenly        Patawali          stem
crispa (L.)           Elixir
Hook. F. &
Thoms.

                                                      leaves

Moraceae

Artocarpus          Jack fruit         Budak          leaves
heterophyllus
Lam.

Ficus septica       Septic fig       Maganonok        leaves
Burm.f var.
septica

                                                    roots (with
                                                     roots of
                                                     Tabako sa
                                                       lako,
                                                      Solanum
                                                   verbascifoliu
                                                         m

Moringaceae

Moringa            Horse radish     Kalamunggay       leaves
oleifera Lam.          tree

                                                       roots

Musaceae

Musa                Banana saba       Saging       dried leaves
sapientum L.                       kardaba/saba
var.
compressa
(Blco.) Teod.

                                                   young leaves

                                                    stem (bark)

Musa                  Banana       Saging tundan       fruit
sapientum L.        (Latundan)
var. cinerea
Blco.

Musa textilis          Abaca           Abaka        shoot (leaf
Nee                                                    bud)

Myrtaceae

Psidium                Guava          Bayaba       young leaves
guajava L.

                                                      leaves

Syzygium            Malay apple        Toal            bark
malaccense
(L.) Merr.
and Perry

                                                      leaves

Orchidaceae

Phalaenopsis        Moth orchid      Manan-aw         flower
amabilis (L.)
Bl.

Piperaceae

Peperomia           Shiny bush      Sinaw-sinaw     whole plant
pellucida
(L.) HBK

Piper betle         Betel leaf         Namat          leaves
L.                    pepper

Poaceae/Gramineae

Bambusa            Common bamboo      Kawayan         leaves
vulgaris
Schrad. ex
J.C. Wendl.

Chrysopogon        lesser spear      Amorsiko          roots
aciculatus             grass
(Retz.) Trin.

Cymbopogon          Lemon grass       Bawing        whole plant
citratus
(DC.) Stapf

Eleusine            Goosegrass       Rambiyowa         roots
indica (L.)                         (often used
Gaertn                             with roots of
                                     T ambda)

                                                      leaves

Imperata            Speargrass         Bros            roots
cylindrica L.

Saccharum            Sugarcane         Tubuh           stem
oficinarum L.

Zea mays L.            Corn           Kamais        young hairs

Portulacaceae

Portulaca            Purslane          Biala        whole plant
oleracea L.

Rubiaceae

Cofea arabica         Coffee           Kape        young leaves
L.

Ixora              Garden Ixora     Santan pula        roots
macrothyrsa
Teijism. &
Binn.

Morinda                Noni           Gunkaw       fruit (ripe)
citrifolia L.

                                                      leaves

Rutaceae

Citrus                Pomelo        Pega (with        leaves
grandis (L.)                         leaves of
Osb.                               Atis, Mangga,
                                     and Apel)

Citrus              Kafir lime       Marina-ot     young leaves
hystrix DC.

Citrus                Chinese        Limonsito         fruit
microcarpa            orange
Bunge

Sapotaceae

Chrysophyllum       Star apple         Apel          leaves or
cainito L.                                          bark (inner
                                                       part)

Solanaceae

Capsicum            Red pepper      Loya tidek         fruit
frutescens L.

                                                      leaves

Cestrum                Night       Dama de noche      flowers
nocturnum L.         blooming
                     jessamine

Nicotiana             Tobacco          Lagut       dried leaves
tabacum L.

Solanum               Tomato          Kamatis          fruit
lycopersicum
L.

Urticaceae

Pipturus            Luo wei mu      Handalamay        leaves
arborescens
(Link) C.B.
Rob.

Verbenaceae

Gmelina               Gmelina        Gemilina         leaves
arborea Roxb

Lantana              Wild sage         Sapor          leaves
camara L.

                                                       roots

                                                       bark

Stachytarpheta        Bastard       Kabirobiro        leaves
famaicensis           vervain
L.

Vitex negundo       Five-leaved       Lagundi         leaves
L.                  chaste tree

Xanthorrhoeaceae

Aloe vera              Aloe           Sabila          leaves
(L.) Burm. f.

Zingiberaceae

Curcuma longa        Turmeric         Kalawag          stem
L.                                                   (rhizome)

                                                   young leaves

Zingiber              Ginger           Loya           leaves
officinale                           pagirisun
Roscoe

                                                       stem
                                                     (rhizome)

FERNS

Athyriaceae

Diplazium            Vegetable         Pako            roots
esculentum             fern                          (rhizome)
(Retz.) Sw.

Equisetaceae

Equisetum sp.        Horsetail       Horsetail         stem

Family &           Preparation and mode       Medicinal uses
Scientific            of application
name

Acanthaceae

Andrographis         boil with water,      relief of stomachache
paniculata          drink thrice a day       and dysmenorrhea;
(Burm. f.)                                 enhance proper blood
Wall. ex Nees                                   circulation

Gendarussa           boil with water,         cures cough and
vulgaris Nees       drink thrice a day          stomachache

                   roast partly, put in    relief severe twinge
                      chest and back       in the body (sides &
                   wrapped in a piece of    back) or "sinda" (a
                     cloth or "hampol"      severe flatulence)
                                             and stomachache;
                                            cures cough & fever

                   clean thoroughly, cut
                   into pieces, and soak
                     in lukewarm water
                   (with Punas roots for
                   cough & fever); drink
                       thrice a day

Asparagaceae (Agavaceae)

Cordyline          scrape inner portion,       lowers fever
fruticosa            soak in lukewarm
(L.) A.             water, and drink as
Chev.                     needed

Amaryllidaceae (Alliaceae)

Allium             chew and eaten raw or   lowers hypertension;
sativum L.         cut into small pieces     cures sore throat
                     and swallow with
                           water

                   cut into small pieces    relief of toothache
                     and put on aching
                           tooth

Allium              wash, squeeze with       easy labor during
tuberosum           lukewarm water, and         childbirth
Rottler ex           rub on the belly
Spreng.

Anacardiaceae

Mangifera            boil with water,      cures indigestion and
indica L.           drink thrice a day         typhoid fever

                     boil with water,      relief of flatulence
                    drink thrice a day         or "panuhot"

Spondiaspinnata      squeeze, soak in      for fast recovery and
(L. f) Kurz.         water, and use as         prevents the
                   first bath for person    reoccurrence of the
                     who recovers from            disease
                   measles & chickenpox

                     scrape the inner      treats herpes simplex
                    part, squeeze, and      infection along the
                     apply around the        mouth or "ugahip"
                    mouth (as poultice)

Annonaceae

Annona               boil with water,       lowers blood sugar
muricata L.         drink thrice a day      (diabetes); lowers
                                               hypertension;
                                                 diarrhea

                   chew, use sap to rub      easy labor during
                         on belly           childbirth and for
                                             the relief of gas
                                           pain or stomach pain

                     boil with water,       lowers hypertension
                    drink thrice a day

                         eaten raw             cures cancer;
                                           stimulates fertility
                                                 in males

                     roast, pound into      cures heart-related
                    powder, and add hot          diseases
                    water (use as tea);
                           drink

Annona               boil with water,         treats diarrhea
squamosa L.         drink thrice a day

Annona               boil with water,        treats diarrhea,
reticulata L.       drink thrice a day        dysentery, and
                                                indigestion

Apiaceae/Umbelliferae

Centella           wash, chew, and eaten   lowers hypertension;
asiatica (L.)         raw; once a day            diabetes
Urb.

                    wash, squeeze, then    cures cough; induces
                     soak in lukewarm        urination; lowers
                    water; or boil with            fever
                   water; drink thrice a
                            day

                    pound until become         heals wounds
                      soft and juicy;
                   squeeze sap directly
                         on wounds

Daucus carota      scrape, squeeze, and      cures hepatitis;
L.                   drink the sap or       lowers blood sugar
                           juice

Apocynaceae

Catharanthus         boil with water,      enhance proper blood
roseus (L.)         drink thrice a day          circulation
G. Don

Plumeria           roast partly, put in    relief severe twinge
obtusa L.             chest and back       in the body (sides &
                   wrapped in a piece of     back) or "sinda"
                     cloth or "hampol"      (severe flatulence)

Araceae

Acorus             pound, wrap in banana         stimulate
calamus L.         leaf, roast, and mix       menstruation in
                    with coconut milk;     females who missed a
                       rub on belly               period

Rhaphidophora       roast partly, pound    treats herpes simplex
celatocaulis       until become soft and    infection along the
(N.E. Brown)         juicy, and apply        mouth or "ugahip"
F. Knoll           around the mouth (as
                         poultice)

Araliaceae

Polyscias            boil with water,       induce urination in
scutellaria         drink thrice a day;     person with kidney
(Burm.f)           use 7 leaves, boil in     infection (UTI);
Fosb.               3 glasses of water,    cures person vomiting
                    and drink thrice a     with blood or "sugpa"
                     day (for "sugpa")

Arecaceae/Palmae

Cocos                boil with water,       lowers hypertension
nucifera L.         drink thrice a day

                      drink as needed       induce urination in
                                            person with kidney
                                              infection (UTI)

                     scrape, fry until       cures dermatitis
                    brown and produces           (eczema)
                    oil, and rub oil on
                           skin

Areca catechu      roast partly, squeeze    treats sprains and
L.                  to get the sap, mix           bruises
                   with coconut oil, and
                      apply (rub) on
                      affected areas

                   peel, cut into small      whitens teeth and
                    pieces, chew to get     strengthens the gum
                   the sap, and allow to     and teeth; cures
                     stay in mouth for       bleeding gums and
                      several minutes            toothache

Asteraceae/Compositae

Artemisia            boil with water,      relief of flatulence
vulgaris L.                drink               or "panuhot,"
                                             stomachache, and
                                                  vertigo

Bidenspilosa       clean thoroughly, cut   relief of muscle pain
L.                 into pieces, and soak    or over fatigue or
                    in lukewarm water;       "bughat" in women
                    drink thrice a day

Blumea              wash, squeeze, then     cures cough, common
balsamifera          soak in lukewarm        colds, and fever
(L.) DC.                water (with
                   Pisaw-pisaw leaves);
                    or boil with water;
                    drink thrice a day

                      squeeze, rub or      relief of flatulence
                    massage the leaves         or "panuhot,"
                       into the body            rheumatism,
                                            arthritis, and skin
                                                 itchiness

                    use 3 shoots plus 2     appetite stimulant
                    pieces of roots and
                     boil with water,
                    drink thrice a day

Chromolaena          wash thoroughly,        abate bleeding on
odorata              pound, and apply         cuts or wounds
                    directly or squeeze
                       sap on wounds

Elephantopus         wash thoroughly,        abate bleeding on
scaber L.            pound, and apply         cuts or wounds
                    directly or squeeze
                       sap on wounds

                    crush, soak in hot        treats diarrhea
                     water, and drink
                       thrice a day

                     boil with water,      relief of stomachache
                    drink thrice a day

Emilia               wash and soak in           cures cough
sonchifolia         lukewarm water; or
(L.) DC. ex          boil with water;
Wight               drink thrice a day

Erigeron           wash, chew, and allow    relief of toothache
sumatrensis        to stay in mouth for
Retz.                 several minutes

Vernonia             boil with water,        induce urination;
cinerea (L.)        drink thrice a day       expel intestinal
Less.                                            parasites

Balsaminaceae

Impatiens           pound until become      treats abscesses on
balsamina L.       soft and juicy; apply     nails (fingers &
                   on affected area (as            toes)
                         poultice)

                   wash, pound, squeeze,        cures warts
                    and apply the juice
                   (put a drop) on warts

Basellaceae

Basella rubra      cook as vegetable or    laxative in children
L.                  boil with water and
                           eaten

                    pound until become        heals swellings
                   soft and juicy; apply    (boils and ulcers)
                   on affected area (as
                         poultice)

Bixaceae

Bixa orellana        boil with water,      enhance proper blood
L.                  drink thrice a day          circulation

Boraginaceae

Carmona              boil with water,           cures cough
retusa              drink thrice a day
(Vhal.)
Masam.

Heliotropium         boil with water,          treats kidney
indicum L.          drink thrice a day      infection (UTI) and
                                            muscle pain or over
                                            fatigue or "bughat"
                                                 in women

Brassicaceae

Brassica           wash, pound, squeeze,        cures warts
oleracea L.         and apply the juice
var. capitata      (put a drop) on warts
L.

Cactaceae

Nopalea              pound, put in the        cures inflamed
cochinellifera      affected area, and            sprain
(L.) Salm.-        wrapped with a piece
Dyck               of cloth or "hampol"

Caricaceae

Carica papaya        boil with water,       induce urination in
L.                  drink thrice a day      person with kidney
                                             infection (UTI);
                                             treats diarrhea;
                                               lowers fever

                         eaten raw         for better digestion;
                                           prevents constipation
                                                (laxative);
                                                antioxidant

Chrysobalanaceae

Atuna              cut, scrape the pulp,     cures furuncle (a
racemosa           and apply on affected       boil), as an
Rafin.              area (as poultice)      antimicrobial agent

Clusiaceae/Guttiferae

Garcinia                 eaten raw          lowers hypertension
mangostana L.                              and blood sugar level

Combretaceae

Quisqualis          wash and put it on      relief of headache
indica L.              the forehead

                   chew and swallow with     expel intestinal
                     a glass of water;           parasites
                     once only after a
                           meal

Convolvulaceae

Ipomoea              cook and eaten as     enhance proper blood
aquatica           vegetable or squeeze       circulation (in
Forsk.               to get the sap &             anemic)
                           drink

Ipomoea              cook and eaten as      lowers blood sugar
batatas (L.)             vegetable           level and enhance
Lam.                                           proper blood
                                              circulation (in
                                                  anemic)

                    pound until becomes         cures boils
                    soft and juicy and
                     apply directly on
                     affected area (as
                         poultice)

Costaceae

Costus igneus      wash, chew, and eaten    lowers blood sugar
Nak                   raw; once a day           (diabetes)

Crassulaceae

Kalanchoe            wash thoroughly,       lowers high fever;
pinnata            pound, and spread it         cures mumps
(Lam.) Pers.        out on forehead or
                   rub on body (cooling
                   effect for fever) or
                   on sides of neck (for
                          mumps)

Cucurbitaceae

Citrullus            slice, wash, and      induces urination in
lanatus                  eaten raw            person with UTI
(Thunb.)
Mansf.

                    roasted partly and       expel intestinal
                           eaten                 parasites

Cucurbita          cook as vegetable and     for good eyesight
maxima Duch.               eaten            (source of Vit. A);
                                            lowers blood sugar

Luffa              cook as vegetable and   lowers hypertension;
cylindrica            eaten; or roast         cures hepatitis
(L.) M. Roem         partly and eaten

Momordica             cut into small        lowers blood sugar,
charantia L.        pieces, squeeze or          anti anemia
                   blend, and drink the
                      juice as needed

Sechium edule        remove the skin,      lowers hypertension;
(Jacq.) Sw.          slice, blend, and     cures person vomiting
                    drink the juice as          with blood
                          needed

Cyperaceae

Cyperus              boil with water,           cures cough
kyllingia           drink thrice a day
Endl.

                   wash thoroughly, soak     egest measles to
                    in lukewarm water,       lower or diminish
                    and drink thrice a             fever
                            day

Dioscoreaceae

Dioscorea           cook with water (by    relief of flatulence
alata L.           boiling), remove the        or "panuhot"
                     skin, slice, and
                           eaten

Elaeocarpaceae

Muntingia            boil with water,      relief sickness felt
calabura L.         drink thrice a day     after missing a meal
                                                or "pasmo"

                   scrape inner portion,   relief of muscle pain
                    squeeze to get the
                      sap, and rub or
                    massage on affected
                           areas

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia             boil with water        lowers high fever
hirta L.            (together with the      (due to dengue and
                    roots of Tambda and          measles)
                   Rambiyowa) and drink
                         as needed

Jatropha           roast partly, scrape,   heals sprain; relief
curcas L.           squeeze and rub or       of flatulence or
                    massage on the body          "panuhot"
                   (can be added with a
                       liniment oil)

                    obtain a leaf from     cures canker sores or
                    the trunk (stem) by    "luas" and toothache
                    pulling it with its
                    petiole, then drop
                      the sap on the
                       affected area

Macaranga            boil with water,       treats diarrhea and
tanarius (L.)       drink thrice a day           dysentery
Muell.-Arg.

                     boil with water,        lowers high fever
                      drink as needed

Manihot             wash, squeeze, mix      lowers hypertension
esculenta          the sap/juice with a
Crantz               little water, and
                           drink

Melanolepis        roast partly, put in    relief of flatulence
multiglandulosa     chest and back and         or "panuhot"
(Reinw. ex         wrapped with a piece
Blume)             of cloth or "hampol;"
Rchb.f. &           or roast, squeeze,
Zoll.                mix the sap with
                   liniment oil, and rub
                    on the body (mostly
                      the belly part)

                    wash and put it on      relief of headache
                       the forehead

Phyllanthus          boil with water,        treats hepatitis
niruri L.           drink thrice a day

Fabaceae/Leguminosae

Caesalpinia          boil with water,       lowers blood sugar
sappan L.           drink thrice a day

Erythrina          scrape the inner part   relief of flatulence
variegata L.       of the bark, wrap it      or "panuhot" and
                     in a banana leaf          muscle pains
                      (with a little
                    vinegar & salt) and
                   roast, and spread out
                   in the chest and back
                   wrapped in a piece of
                     cloth or "hampol"

                     cook as vegetable      promotes sleep in a
                   with coconut milk and   person with insomnia
                        fish; eaten

Gliricidia          pound until become       abate bleeding on
sepium                soft and juicy;      cuts or wounds; cures
(Jacq.) Kunth      squeeze sap directly        skin diseases
ex Walp.            on wounds or rub on         (itchiness)
                      the skin (skin
                         disease)

                   soak in hot water (as     cures blurry eye
                   tea) then drink once           vision
                      a day (morning)

                    scrape, squeeze (to        relieves skin
                   extract the sap), and         itchiness
                    rub on the affected
                           area

                     boil with water,      relief of stomachache
                    drink thrice a day

Leucaena              chew and eaten         expel intestinal
leucocephala             directly                parasites
(Lam.) de Wit

Mimosapudica         boil with water,      cures person vomiting
Mart.               drink thrice a day     with blood or "sugpa"

                      boil with water       relief of arthritis
                    (together with the       and lowers fever
                   roots of Bros), drink
                       thrice a day

Pterocarpus        cut into small pieces   cures person vomiting
indicus            and boil with water,        with blood or
Willd.              drink thrice a day          "sugpa;" an
                                                antioxidant

                   scrape inner portion,   cures canker sores or
                    squeeze to get the            "luas"
                      sap, and apply
                         directly

Lauraceae

Persea               boil with water,         treats diarrhea
americana           drink thrice a day
Mill.

                      boil with water       treats indigestion
                    (often with Mangga         and diarrhea
                     leaves) and drink
                       thrice a day

Lamiaceae/Labiatae

Coleus              wash, squeeze, then     cures cough; relief
amboinicus           soak in lukewarm          of asthma and
Lour.               water, and drink as    arthritis; and lowers
                          needed                   fever

Coleus blumei       wash, squeeze, then         cures cough
Benth.               soak in lukewarm
                   water; drink thrice a
                            day

                    pound until become       heals wounds and
                   soft and juicy; apply         abscesses
                       a poultice to
                   abscesses or squeeze
                       sap (wounds)

                     boil with water,      relief of stomachache
                    drink thrice a day

Hyptis              boil with water and     cures dry cough and
capitata           drink thrice a day or       heals wounds
Jacq.              use as an antiseptic
                     wash (for wounds)

                     boil with water,       relief of toothache
                     cool, and gargle

Mentha                 wash, soak in            cures cough
arvensis L.         lukewarm water, and
                    drink thrice a day

Orthosiphon        soak in hot water or        treats kidney
aristatus           boil with water and     infection (UTI) and
(Blume) Miq.        drink thrice a day          stomachache
                       before meals

Lythraceae

Lagerstroemia        boil with water,       lowers blood sugar
speciosa (L.)       drink thrice a day             level
Pers.

Malvaceae

Abelmoschus          slice into small       relief of arthritis
esculentus           pieces, boil with
(L.) Moench        water, drink thrice a
                            day

                     boil with water,        lowers fever and
                      drink as needed       relief of headache

Ceibapentandra      pound until becomes      cures furuncle (a
(L.) Gaertn.        soft and juicy and             boil)
                     apply directly on
                       affected area

                   cut in small pieces,      lowers high fever
                    soak in hot water,
                    and drink as needed

                    use 7 small slices       treats diarrhea;
                   (thorns for teething    prevents diseases in
                    infant, with shoots      teething infants
                   of Kogon), boil with
                     water, and drink
                       thrice a day

Durio                boil with water,      relief of stomachache
zibethinus          drink thrice a day
Murr.

Hibiscus            pound until become     heals swellings; act
rosa-sinensis      soft and juicy; apply   as anti-inflammatory
L.                 directly on affected            agent
                           area

                     boil with water,          lowers fever
                      drink as needed

Malvastrum           boil with water,      relief of muscle pain
coromandelinum      drink thrice a day      or over fatigue or
(L.) Garcke                                  "bughat" in women

                   boil with water (with    post-partum care to
                    roots of Dalupang)      prevent bleeding or
                    and drink thrice a          hemorrhage
                            day

Theobroma           pound until become        treats sprains
cacao L.           soft and juicy; apply
                    on affected area as
                         poultice

                     roast, pound, and     treats skin diseases
                      apply (rub) on             (eczema)
                      affected areas

Urena lobata         roast leaves with     relief of muscle pain
L.                  charcoal in a metal     or over fatigue or
                   basin and place belly     "bughat" in women
                      above it while
                    enclosing the whole
                     body (except the
                     head) with a big
                   blanket (the process
                   is called "pauslob or
                    tuob"); direct the
                     smoke over one's
                           belly

                     roast leaves with     treats nettle rash or
                    charcoal in a metal      locally termed as
                    basin and allow the          "dupang"
                    smoke to purify the
                     whole body (this
                     process is called
                         "palina")

Meliaceae

Azadirachta          boil with water,       treats dengue fever
indica A.             drink as needed          and arthritis
Juss.

Lansium              boil with water,        treats diarrhea,
domesticum          drink thrice a day        hemorrhoid, and
Corr. Serr.                                    flatulence or
                                                "panuhot,"

                     scrape the inner      cures person vomiting
                    portion, squeeze to    with blood or "sugpa"
                    get the sap (can be    due to tuberculosis;
                     added with little        treats malaria
                   amount of water), and
                           drink

Sandoricum           boil with water,        treats diarrhea;
koetjape            drink thrice a day     relief sickness felt
(Burm. f.)                                 after missing a meal
Merr.                                           or "pasmo"

Swietenia          cut into small pieces   relief of stomachache
mahogani           and boil with water;
Jacq.               drink thrice a day

                   chew and swallow the
                       juice or sap

Menispermaceae

Tinospora          cut into small pieces   enhance proper blood
crispa (L.)        and boil with water;     circulation; relief
Hook. F. &           drink once a day         of stomachache;
Thoms.                                      lowers hypertension
                                             and blood sugar;
                                             induces abortion

                      cut into small        prevent muscle pain
                     pieces, boil with      or over fatigue or
                   water (together with    "bughat" in women who
                      roots of Sapar,           gave birth
                     Dagum-dagum, and        (postpartum care)
                    Coconut), and drink
                       thrice a day

                    cut and squeeze the     relief of toothache
                     latex or sap over
                           tooth

                   cut into small pieces    antiseptic wash of
                   and boil with water;     gangrene (diabetes)
                   wash on the affected
                           area

                   wash, squeeze to get    relief of flatulence
                     the sap (mix with         or "panuhot"
                     oil), and rub or
                    massage on affected
                           areas

Moraceae

Artocarpus           boil with water,         treats diarrhea
heterophyllus       drink thrice a day
Lam.

Ficus septica        boil with water,      relief sickness felt
Burm.f var.         transfer the boiled    after missing a meal
septica              leaves in a small          or "pasmo"
                     basin, and place
                   belly above the steam
                    while enclosing the
                    whole body (except
                   the head) with a big
                   blanket (the process
                   is called "pauslob or
                    tuob"); direct the
                     steam/vapor over
                        one's belly

                   cut into small pieces   relief of muscle pain
                   and soak in lukewarm     or over fatigue or
                    water or boil with       "bughat" in women
                   water; drink thrice a
                            day

Moringaceae

Moringa             roast, add with hot    relief of rheumatism
oleifera Lam.      water, mix, and drink   and arthritis; lowers
                    (at least thrice a     fever; ulcer; cancer
                           day)

                     boil with water,
                      drink as needed

                    pound until become       abate bleeding in
                      soft and juicy;         cuts or wounds
                      squeeze sap on
                       affected area

                      cut into small       relief of stomachache
                   pieces, squeeze, mix
                   sap with water; drink
                       thrice a day

                     boil with water,           stimulates
                   drink twice a day for      menstruation in
                     two to three days        women; induces
                           only                  abortion

Musaceae

Musa                remove petiole, cut    prevents muscle pain
sapientum L.       into smaller pieces,     or over fatigue or
var.               boil with water, and    "bughat" in women who
compressa          use as first bath for        gave birth
(Blco.) Teod.       women after giving
                           birth

                    obtain a leaf bud,       lowers very high
                    remove the petiole,    fever in person with
                    cut it into halves,         convulsion
                   and spread out in the
                      chest and back.

                       scrape (inner         abate bleeding on
                     portion), squeeze        cuts or wounds
                    (sap), and apply as
                         poultice

                      cut into small       cures person vomiting
                    pieces, squeeze to     with blood or "sugpa"
                    extract the sap and
                         drink it

Musa                eaten raw or can be       treats diarrhea
sapientum L.          roasted partly
var. cinerea        (preferably unripe)
Blco.                with its skin and
                           eaten

Musa textilis          roast partly,       relief of muscle pain
Nee                 squeeze, and drink      or over fatigue or
                       the sap; the          "bughat" in women
                     remaining sap are
                    rub/massage of the
                           body

Myrtaceae

Psidium            wash, pound, and rub     underarm deodorant;
guajava L.             or massage on       treats pimples & acne
                      affected areas

                   wash, chew, and spit      abate bleeding on
                     the sap or juice         cuts or wounds
                   directly on affected
                           area

                      wash, chew, and      cures person vomiting
                   swallow the juice or    with blood or "sugpa"
                   sap wash, pound (with
                     Marina-ot, young
                   leaves), add a little
                     water, and drink

                    boil with water and    for wounds, scabies,
                   use as an antiseptic    and post-partum care
                           wash              (vaginal wash) in
                                                   women

                     boil with water,      relieves hyperacidity
                    drink thrice a day

Syzygium             boil with water,       treats diarrhea and
malaccense          drink thrice a day           dysentery
(L.) Merr.
and Perry

                     boil with water,      lowers blood sugar in
                    drink thrice a day     person with diabetes

Orchidaceae

Phalaenopsis           wash, soak in            cures cough
amabilis (L.)       lukewarm water, and
Bl.                 drink thrice a day

Piperaceae

Peperomia            boil with water,          treats kidney
pellucida           drink thrice a day       infection; lowers
(L.) HBK                                       hypertension

Piper betle         wash and spread out    relief severe twinge
L.                 (as bandage) on belly   in the body (sides &
                   and sides of the body     back) or "sinda"
                                            (severe flatulence)

Poaceae/Gramineae

Bambusa             squeeze and soak in      cures person who
vulgaris             lukewarm water or      urinate frequently
Schrad. ex           boil with water;           (with UTI)
J.C. Wendl.         drink thrice a day

Chrysopogon          boil with water,      prevents diseases in
aciculatus          drink thrice a day       teething infants
(Retz.) Trin.

Cymbopogon           boil with water,      lowers hypertension;
citratus            drink thrice a day        treats diarrhea
(DC.) Stapf

Eleusine             boil with water,       prevent muscle pain
indica (L.)         drink thrice a day      or over fatigue or
Gaertn                                     "bughat" in women who
                                                gave birth

                     wash thoroughly,        eliminates poison
                    pound, and squeeze     (venom) of snake bite
                   sap on affected area

Imperata             boil with water,          treats kidney
cylindrica L.       drink thrice a day      infections (induces
                                           urination) and edema

Saccharum             cut into small        treats UTI; induces
oficinarum L.       pieces, squeeze to           urination
                   get the juice, drink
                       thrice a day

Zea mays L.          boil with water,          treats kidney
                    drink thrice a day      infection; induces
                                                 urination

Portulacaceae

Portulaca            boil with water,          treats kidney
oleracea L.         drink thrice a day       infection (UTI);
                       before meals          induces urination

Rubiaceae

Cofea arabica       pound until become          cures burns
L.                  soft and juicy and
                    apply (as poultice)
                     on affected area

Ixora                boil with water,      enhance proper blood
macrothyrsa         drink thrice a day     circulation; induces
Teijism. &                                       abortion
Binn.

Morinda            eaten raw (with salt)         stimulate
citrifolia L.                                 menstruation in
                                              women; diabetes

                     roast partly and        lowers fever and
                    spread out on chest        treats cough
                         and back

Rutaceae

Citrus               boil with water,      relief sickness felt
grandis (L.)        drink thrice a day     after missing a meal
Osb.                                          or "pasmo" and
                                                stomachache

Citrus               boil with water,       treats stomachache
hystrix DC.         drink thrice a day      and indigestion or
                                           dyspepsia ("impatso")

Citrus               roast partly and         cures cough and
microcarpa          squeeze, drink the         common colds
Bunge                      juice

Sapotaceae

Chrysophyllum        boil with water,       treats diarrhea and
cainito L.          drink thrice a day       vomiting; relief
                                            sickness felt after
                                             missing a meal or
                                                  "pasmo"

Solanaceae

Capsicum              crush, mix with      relief of rheumatism
frutescens L.        liniment oil, and         and arthritis
                    apply on joints and
                       aching parts

                   crush and squeeze sap    relief of toothache
                         on tooth

                     wash, squeeze to      relief of stomachache
                   extract the sap, mix        especially in
                   with liniment oil and         children
                   rub on the belly and
                     back of the body

Cestrum              smell the flower,      relief of dry cough
nocturnum L.            twice a day

Nicotiana           roast, squeeze, mix     prevents tetanus on
tabacum L.          with liniment oil,      nail puncture wound
                   and applv on affected        of the foot
                    area using the sap

                     chew and allow to      relief of toothache
                     stay in mouth for
                       several hours

Solanum             wash and eaten raw      boost immune system
lycopersicum                               (good source of Vit.
L.                                           C); an anticancer

Urticaceae

Pipturus            wash and spread out    treats skin diseases
arborescens        directly on affected     and herpes simplex
(Link) C.B.                area             infection along the
Rob.                                         mouth or "ugahip"

Verbenaceae

Gmelina            wash, then spread out   relief severe twinge
arborea Roxb       (as bandage) in chest   in the body (sides &
                    and back or can be       back) or "sinda"
                      roasted partly        (severe flatulence)

Lantana                wash, soak in        relief of dry cough
camara L.            lukewarm water or
                   boil, and drink twice
                           a day

                    pound until become       heals wounds and
                   soft and juicy; apply         abscesses
                   on affected area (as
                         poultice)

                    boil with water and      cleans and cures
                   use as an antiseptic           wounds
                           wash

                     boil with water,       relief of toothache
                     cool, and gargle

                     boil with water,          lowers fever
                      drink as needed

Stachytarpheta      pound until become       abate bleeding in
famaicensis           soft and juicy;       cuts or wounds and
L.                 squeeze sap or apply     prevents infection
                   on affected area (as
                         poultice)

Vitex negundo        boil with water,         cures cough and
L.                  drink thrice a day         lowers fever

Xanthorrhoeaceae

Aloe vera          cut it to squeeze out   treats burns and skin
(L.) Burm. f.       the gel and rub or       diseases (eczema)
                     apply on affected
                           areas

Zingiberaceae

Curcuma longa        boil with water,        treats edema and
L.                  drink thrice a day     stomachache; cancer;
                                            ulcer; cures person
                                           vomiting with blood;
                                           lowers hypertension;
                                              an antioxidant

                    boil with water and    avoids flatulence or
                   use as first bath of      "panuhot" in the
                   the newly born child           infant

Zingiber             boil with water,      relief of flatulence
officinale          drink thrice a day         or "panuhot;"
Roscoe

                   pound to extract the    relief of flatulence
                    sap, added with hot     or "panuhot;" cures
                     water, and drink         cough; induces
                                                 urination

                   cut into small pieces   relief of sore throat
                    and use as lozenges
                     (candy), allow to
                       stay in mouth

FERNS

Athyriaceae

Diplazium            boil with water,         treats diarrhea
esculentum          drink thrice a day
(Retz.) Sw.

Equisetaceae

Equisetum sp.         cut into small        treats UTI; induces
                     pieces, boil with           urination
                     water, and drink
COPYRIGHT 2015 American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2015 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Olowa, Lilybeth; Demayo, Cesar G.
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PHIL
Date:Dec 1, 2015
Words:10069
Previous Article:Academic performance through "ready for Success (R4S)" module at faculty of electrical engineering, UiTM.
Next Article:Evaluation of serum interleukin-6 levels and lipid profile as biomarkers in Egyptian patients with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters