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Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants from Er-Rich region (Moroccan High Atlas).

ABSTRACT

This study is part of the development of Moroccan High Atlas resources with a focus on medicinal plants and traditional knowledge. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in February, March, April and May 2014 with the population of Er-Rich circle using 150 questionnaires. Analysis of the results allowed us to establish a list of 67 plants, divided into 29 families with a dominance of Asteraceae and Lamiaceae families. Analysis of the results of this ethnobotanical survey also shows that in traditional medicine, the most frequently cited and used species by the local population are : Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus satureioides, Mentha suaveolens, Artemisia herba-alba, Foeniculum vulgare and Mentha pulegium . Moreover, leaves are the most used parts of the plants, the majority of the remedies are prepared as a decoction. Most recipes are orally administered and digestive disorders are among the most frequently treated. These results can be considered as a source of information for scientific research in the field of plant chemistry in order to identify new natural active principles that can be used in pharmacology.

KEYWORDS: Medicinal plants, Ethnobotanical study, Er-Rich, Moroccan Eastern High Atlas.

INTRODUCTION

Ethnobotany has become a primordial discipline which proposes to analyze reciprocal relations that unite human being to plants. Through this purpose it represents a key for the development of the societies.

Research in ethnobotany is mainly based on results of field surveys and bibliographic data gathering. These surveys are generally carried out as interviews and observation of practices with resource persons identified as having knowledge and /or know-how related to the plant materials. There is no ideal recipe for a good investigation, but there are rules to be followed at each step of the investigation.

In addition, the ethnobotanical study allowed discovery of several active substances for pharmaceutical firms. Active ingredients currently used in modern medicine are derived from popular and traditional medicinal knowledge. Moreover, the discovery of these substances is based on the observation of the efficacy of certain plants from various pharmacopoeias (Arab-Muslim, European, Indian or Chinese pharmacopoeias), but also mainly from the observations of plants uses in traditional medicine.

The sector of aromatic and medicinal plants (AMP) remains highly promising since it promotes the creation of income-generating activities. This sector offers the possibility to create small and medium-sized enterprises that promote plant biodiversity in respect with development and the protection of natural and cultural heritage. Traditional medicine continues to be the main use of a large majority of populations to solve their health problems, not only because it constitutes an important element of cultural heritage, but also because of limited financial resources of populations towards conventional products. It was orally transmitted from a generation to the next one, exposing it to the danger of loss. The ethnobotanical survey is essential to acquire knowledge about medicinal plants and their uses.

Morocco is a mediterranean country with a long medicinal tradition and a traditional know-how based on medicinal plants [1]. Indeed, traditional medicine has always played an important role in medication habits in Morocco. Er-Rich region (Eastern High Atlas of Morocco) is very rich in aromatic and medicinal plants but this wealth is not properly exploited by the population. The aim of this study is to give value to the plant traditional heritage in the region (Er-Rich) by listing aromatic and medicinal plants of the region and discovering traditional uses. The study is also extended to traditional exploitation of the plant species in the region.

MATERIAL AND METHOD

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Created in 2009, the Province of Midelt is subdivided in to two circles: Midelt and Er'rich. This landlocked province shares borders with several other provinces: at the north, the province of Ifrane, at the south is found the province of Er-Rachidia, the province of Khenifra is at the west and the eastern border lead to the province of Boulmane. Er-Rich is a town located at the foot of Atlas Mountains, at the confluence of Ziz river and Sidi Hamza river. The town is located 75 km of Midelt and 66 km of Er-Rachidia.

Er-Rich circle comprises seven townships: Guers Tiaallaline, En-Nzala, M'Zizel, Sidi Aayad, Zaouiat Sidi Hamza, Guir and Gourrama (Figure 1) and is part of Midelt province which is now part of Draa-Tafilalet region. This circle covers about 5969 Km (2) [2]. According to 2014's national census, its population is estimated at 83707 inhabitants (Table 1). The arid climate of this presaharian region is characterized by a dry and cold winter and a hot summer. Precipitation fluctuates from a year to the next one with an annual average between 120 and 276 mm. In winter, snowfall can begin from mid-November at altitudes above 1 800 m. Temperatures range from -2 in winter to 35 [degrees]C in summer.

Methodology:

With a pre-established questionnaire (appendix 1), we have conducted an ethnobotanical survey in February, March, April and May 2014 in Er-Rich circle. Random and stratified sampling technique [3] was used in order to have the most complete floristic inventory as possible and to easily carry out various ethnobotanical surveys from one area to another in Er-Rich region.

To bring out a representative study of the area, we have selected ten strata (ten Douar): Er-Rich, Tabia, Zawiat sidi boukil, Oulal, Tamagourt, Aitkhoujmane, Aitaatou, Zaouiat sidi Hamza, Nezala and Gourama. In each stratum, a sample of 15 individuals was selected for the survey (Table 2). Thus, one hundred and fifty (150) persons were spontaneously and directly interviewed.

People favorably responded during this preliminary study that encompasses specific questions such as informants profile (ie age, education level, gender,...), the most abundant plants, the most used plants with their vernacular identity, part of the plant used, the methods for remedies preparation, the routes of administration and the treated pathologies. Then, taxonomic identification of the samples collected in each stratum was performed in the laboratory and was confirmed at the Scientific Institute of Rabat in the Laboratory of Botany and Plant Ecology. Most species' names are only known in Tamazight language.

Data processing:

Raw data were transferred in to a database and processed by SPSS statistical analysis software.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Interviewees' profile :

1) Choice between traditional plant therapy and modern medicine :

The survey revealed that 88.67% of this population prefer medicinal plants (Figure 2) rather than modern medicines.
Fig. 2 : Percentage of people using traditional medicine

Yes   88,67%
No    11,33%

Note: Table made from pie graph.


2) Distribution by gender:

In our study area women and men have shown their interest in traditional medicine with plants: 64% of respondents were men and 36% were women (Figure 3).
Fig. 3: Frequency of Aromatic and Medicinal Plants (AMP) usage by
gender

Women   36,00%
Men     64,00%

Note: Table made from pie graph.


3) Distribution by Age :
Fig. 4: Frequency of AMP usage by age group

less than 20         6,00%
between 20 and 29   14,67%
between 30 and 39   27,33%
between 40 and 49   20,00%
between 50 and 59   16,67%
More than 60        15,33%

Note: Table made from bar graph.


Analysis of questionnaires reveals that although the usage of MAP is widespread in all age groups, it is predominant within the age group of 30-40 years old (27.33%), then comes the group of 40-50 years old (20%).

The following age groups: 50-60 years, above 60 years and 20-30 years, come after with respectively 16.67%, 15.33% and 14.67% (Figure 4). However, use of traditional medicine is not very common among people younger than 20. Knowledge about the uses and properties of medicinal plants is usually accumulated through long-time experience and it is then transmitted from one generation to the next. Therefore, older people are more familiar to traditional herbal medicine compared to the other age groups. This difference in use, depending on the age group could be explained by the fact that older people are more knowledgeable about tradition, including traditional herbal medicines. The difference could be also explained by new behavior adopted by the youth who trust science and modernity rather than tradition.

4) Distribution by education level :

From the survey, we find in the ten strata that 46% of plants users are illiterate people. 20.76% had primary school level of education while 22.67% had secondary school level and 10.67% reached the university (Figure 5). These results show that 19.75% of school-going users have a university-level education. Indeed, since recent times, the use of herbal medicine and the return back to natural substances are being rediscovered thanks to scientific research in ethnopharmacology. This confirmed the therapeutic efficacy of traditional remedies that astonished scientists, doctors and pharmacologists. Moreover, considering the emergence of drug resistance, the need for therapeutic alternatives against resistant pathogens, the limits of modern medicines and the existence of diseases without effective treatment, traditional medicine could be a great advantage.
Fig. 5: Frequency of AMP usage by education level

Illiterate         46,00%
Primary school     20,67%
Secondary school   22,67%
University         10,67%

Note: Table made from pie graph.


Social pharmacological aspects:

5) Families of the inventoried plants:

The use of plants for medicinal purposes is not a recent phenomenon. Despite the importance of the medicinal plants reported, much of this potential remains undervalued for multiple reasons starting from the lack of knowledge to the lack of effort to preserve this heritage. The combination of environmental conditions and the availability of resources are key conditions for determining distribution, distinctiveness and functionality of species in a particular region [4]. Ethnobotanical surveys in the Er-Rich region enabled us to develop a list of 67 medicinal species belonging to 29 families. Among these families, the most frequent in this region are: Asteraceae (11 species), Lamiaceae (10 species), Apiaceae (5 species), Fabaceae (4 species) and Poaceae (4 species) (Figure 6 Slimani et al. (2016) found in a study carried out in the Zerhoun region of Morocco that of the 43 families encountered, three families accounted for 32.43% of the total population with Lamiaceae (13.51%), Apiaceae (9.91%) And Asteraceae (9%) [5].
Fig. 1: Plant families in the study area

Family names

Asteracees        11
Lamiacees         10
Apiacees           5
Poacees            4
Fabacees           4
Brassicacees       3
Rosacees           3
Capparacees        2
Myrtacees          2
Amaranthacees      2
Cupressacees       1
Cactacees          1
Buxacees           1
Apocynacees        1
Tamaricacees       1
Steracees          1
Rutacees           1
Rubiaceae          1
Rhamnacees         1
Pinacees           1
Oleacees           1
Nitariacees        1
Lythracees         1
Juncacees          1
Juglandacees       1
Euphorbiacees      1
Cucurbitacees      1
Chenopodiacees     1
Caryophyllacees    1

Note: Table made from bar graph.


6) The most popular plants:

We found in the study that among the 67 inventoried species 13 were very much cited and very often used by people (Figure 7). These plants are ranked according to their importance (Table 3).

We also notice that some of these plants have never been studied: they have neither been mentioned in the literature nor reported in ethnobotanical studies in Morocco.
Fig. 7: Usage frequency of the most popular species in Er-Rich

Rosmarinus officinalis     95
Thymus satureioides        74
Mentha suaveolens          63
Artemisia herba-alba       48
Foeniculum vulgare         39
Mentha pulegium            37
Peganum harmala            37
Chenopodium ambrosioides   25
Dittrichia viscosa         24
Citrullus colocynthis      23
Lactuca serriola           20
Juniperus phoenica         18
Capparis spinosa           14

Note: Table made from bar graph.


7) Plant parts used:

The ethnobotanical survey revealed that leaves are the most commonly used part in this region with a percentage of 68.06% while aerial parts in general are used with a percentage of 9.46%. Then, come seeds (8.85%) and fruits (7.25%) (Figure 8). The other parts, namely stems, flowers, roots, bark, latex, stigma and whole plant are gathered with a cumulative percentage of 18.46%. Also, the predominance of use of a specific organ compared to another in the therapeutic domain is strongly linked to its concentration in active ingredients. Leaves are the most used because they are at the same time the site where photochemical reactions take place and a source of organic matters derived from these reactions. They provide the majority of alkaloids, heterosides and essential oils content. Fruits importance can be attributed to the concentrations of certain bitter compounds, carbohydrate or aromatic substances associated with some pigments which give them a specific coloring. Roots and seeds are rich in sugars and vitamins [6]. These results confirm those of other ethnobotanical studies [7-8].
Fig. 2: Use frequency of plant parts

Leaves         68,06%
Aerial parts    9,46%
Seeds           8,85%
Fruits          7,25%
Roots           2,09%
Whole plant     1,60%
Latex           0,86%
Flowers         0,86%
Bark            0,49%
Stigma          0,49%

Note: Table made from bar graph.


8) Remedies preparation mode :

Different therapeutic practices are used by the local population, namely decoction, infusion, powder preparation, fumigation, poultice, maceration and cooking. Decoction is the most frequent mode of preparation (69.57%) in the region (Figure 9). It is followed by powder (11.29%), and poultice (6.5%). The other modes (maceration, infusion, raw plant part, cooked part, fumigation and essential oil) represent 12.64%. These results confirm the data obtained in other national ethnobotanical studies [7,9].

The best preparation should be the one which preserves all plant properties during the process of extraction and the process of assimilation of the active ingredients [10]. Decoction is a good method to warm the body and disinfect the plant in order to suppress the toxic effect of some recipes, but it can also destroy certain active compounds of the species. Additionally, medicinal plants have adverse effects when they are not used in a proper way by patients. Therefore, medication by plants should be carefully practiced according to precise parameters and dosage.
Fig. 3: Main preparation modes of remedies

Decoction           69,57%
Powder              11,29%
Poultice             6,50%
Infusion             4,91%
Fumigation           2,58%
Raww                 1,96%
Maceration           1,96%
Cooked               0,74%
Hulle essentielle    0,49%

Note: Table made from bar graph.


9) Medicinal use:

Analysis of the collected information allowed us to list a number of diseases that are treated by medicinal plants in this region. The majority of medicinal plants are mainly used in the treatment of digestive diseases with a percentage of 53.74% followed by osteoarticular affections (11.53%), neurological disorders (10.92%) respiratory diseases (6.5%) and metabolic disorders (5.64%) (Fig.10). Urogenital diseases, skin diseases, cardiovascular diseases, kidney diseases, hair care, etc account for 11.65%. These results are similar to those of Maryama H. et al., 2015[7] in the city of Khenifra, Zerkani H. et al. 2015[11] in the province of Khenifra, Rhattas M. et al., 2016 [12] in the Western Rif region, Lahsissene et al. 2009 [13] in the region of Zaer, Mehdioui and Kahouadji, 2007 [1] in the province of Essaouira and Hseini et al. 2011 [14] in the region of Rabat. These authors reported that digestive diseases are the first cause of medicinal plants use.
Fig. 10: Frequency of plant use according to the disease

Digestive diseases        53,74%
Osteoarticular diseases   11,53%
Neurological disorders    10,92%
Respiratory diseases       6,50%
Metabolic diseases         5,64%
Skin diseases              3,68%
Urogenital diseases        2,82%
Hair care                  2,45%
Other diseases             1,84%
Kidney diseases            0,61%
Cardiovascular diseases    0,25%

Note: Table made from bar graph.


10) Routes of administration:

Figure 11 shows that most of the remedies are orally administered with a very high percentage (82.70%). The other routes of administration: whitewashing (2.58%), massage (3.68%), rinsing (1.1%) and other ways (9.4%) are less common.
Fig. 4: Main administration routes of remedies

Oral            82,70%
Others           9,94%
Massage          3,68%
White wishing    2,58%
Rinsing          1,10%

Note: Table made from pie graph.


11) Health outcomes:
Fig. 12: Health outcomes after plant therapy

Betterment   54,85%
Recovery     44,66%
Inneficacy    0,49%

Note: Table made from pie graph.


According to 44.66% of the surveyed, use of traditional remedies lead to a total cure. However, 54.85% of them affirm that these remedies improve health condition and 0.49% found that the remedies are ineffective (Figure 12). These results confirm those of other ethnobotanical studies carried out at the national level [11].

12) Source of knowledge about medicinal plants:

70.76% of the population acquired knowledge about medicinal use of plants as remedy for specific diseases through others' experiences (Figure 13). This reflects the relative transmission of traditional practices from a generation to the next one. 17.33% practice herbal medicine according to herbalists' advices and 12% had built this knowledge by reading books about traditional Arab medicine, by watching television programs or by their own experience with a large number of medicinal plants in their surroundings. The environment and others' experience remain therefore the most effective means to transmit knowledge about medicinal purposes of plants.
Fig. 13: Traditional knowledge acquisition modes

Others' experience   70,67%
Herbalists           17,33%
Own experience       12,00%

Note: Table made from pie graph.


13) Floristic catalog :

Monographs of the inventoried AMP are presented by alphabetical order of the families and species. For each plant, the monograph contains the scientific name, the French name, the vernacular name, the part used and the local use (Table 4).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First, We would like to thank of all the people from the Er-Rich region whom we met. We also thank the professors of Scientific Institute OF Rabat for species identifications.

REFERENCES

[1] Mehdioui, R., A. Kahouadji, 2007. Etude ethnobotanique aupres de la population riveraine de la foret d'Amsittene: cas de la Commune d'Imi n'Tlit (Province d'Essaouira). Bulletin de l'Institut Scientifique, Rabat, section Sciences de la Vie 29: 11-20.

[2] Cercle Er-Rich, Monographie de cercle d'Er-Rich, 2014. Province de Midelt, Maroc.

[3] Kahouadji, A., 1986. Recherches floristiques sur le massif montagneux des Beni Snassene (Maroc oriental).These, Univ. Sc. Tech. Languedoc. Montpellier, pp: 235.

[4] Noman, A., 2003. Influence of different doses of nitrogen fertilizer on ajwain. M.Sc. Dissertation.pp-1. Univ. Of Agric. Faisalabad.Pakistan, pp: 751-759.

[5] Slimani, I., M. Najem, R.Belaidir, L. Bachiri, E. Bouiamrine, L. Nassiri and J. Ibijbijen, 2016. Etude ethnobotanique des plantes medicinales utilisees dans la region de Zerhoun.Maroc. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, 15: 846-863.

[6] Babba, A., 1999, Flore d'Algerie et du Maghreb. Encyclopedie des plantes utiles. Substances vegetales d'Afrique, d'Orient et d'Occident. Ed. Librairie Moderne Rouiba, EDAS, Alger, p: 368.

[7] Maryama, H., T. Hachi, N. Belahbib, J. Dahmani, L. Zidane, 2015. Contribution a l'etude floristique et ethnobotanique de la flore medicinale utilisee au niveau de la ville de Khenifra (Maroc). International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies ISSN 2028-9324 11(3): 754-770.

[8] Daoudi, A., M. Bammou, S. Zarkani, I. Slimani, J. Ibijbijen, L. Nassiri, 2015, Etude ethnobotanique de la flore medicinale dans la commune rurale d'aguelmouss province de khenifra (Maroc), Phytotherapie, pp: 1-9.

[9] Benlamdini, N., M. Elhafian, A. Rochdi, L. Zidane, 2014. Etude floristique et ethnobotanique de la flore medicinale du Haut Atlas oriental (Haute Moulouya). Journal of Applied Biosciences, 78: 6771-6787.

[10] Dextreit, R., 1984. La cure vegetale, Toutes les plantes pour se guerir, Vivre en harmonie, [3.sup.eme] ed, p: 118.

[11] Zerkani, H., I. Tagnaout, T. Zair, 2015. Ethnobotanical survey and inventory of medicinal flora in the rural municipalities of Ait Ishaq, Tighassaline, El-Hammam and Ageulmam azegza--Khenifra province, Morocco. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 7(8): 611-627.

[12] Rhattas, M., A. Douira, L. ZidaneI, 2016. Etude ethnobotanique des plantes medicinales dans le Parc National de Talassemtane (Rif occidental du Maroc). J. Appl. Biosci., 97: 9187-9211.

[13] Lahsissene, H., A. Kahouadji, M. Tijane, S. Hseini, 2009. Catalogue des plantes medicinales utilisees dans la region de Zaer (Maroc Occidental). Lejeunia, 186: 1-27.

[14] Hseini, S., A. Kahouadji, H. Lahsissene, M. Tijane, 2011. Analyses floristique et ethnobotanique des plantes vasculaires medicinales utilisees dans la region de Rabat (Maroc occidental). Lazaroa, 28: 93-100.

(1,2) Kamal Fadili, (1,2) Chakib Sekkate, (1,2) Fathia Alistiqsa, (1,2) Zoubida Haloui, (1,2) Said Chakir, (1,2) Touriya Zair

(1) Research team of Bioactive Molecules Chemistry and Environment, Faculty of Sciences, B.P 11201 Zitoune, Moulay Ismail University, Meknes, Morocco.

(2) Laboratory of Materials Chemistry and Biotechnology of Natural Products, Faculty of Sciences, B.P 11201 Zitoune, Moulay Ismail University, Meknes, Morocco.

Address For Correspondence:

kamal Fadili. Research team of Bioactive Molecules Chemistry and Environment, Faculty of Sciences, B.P 11201 Zitoune, Moulay Ismail University, Meknes, Morocco.

Tel : +212646102475; E-mail: kamal.fadili@hotmail.fr
Table 1: Townships of Er-Rich circle

Townships                Population

Er-Rich (Municipality)   25985
Guers Tiaallaline        12924
En-nzala                 4390
M'Zizel                  7380
Sidi Aayad               8629
Zaouiat sidi Hamza       5454
Gourrama                 14923
Guir                     4022
Total                    83707

Table 2: Geographic strata covered by the survey

Stratum associated number   Stratum's name (Douar)  Number of
                                                    interviewees

1                           Er-Rich                 15
2                           Tabia                   15
3                           Zawiat sidi boukil      15
4                           Oulal                   15
5                           Tamagourt               15
6                           Aitkhoujmane            15
7                           Aitaatou                15
8                           Zawiat sidi hamza       15
9                           Nezala                  15
10                          Gourama                 15
Total : 150

Table 3: The most used species in Er-Rich region

Rank   Species name            Rank  Species name

1      Rosmarinus officinalis  6     Mentha pulegium
2      Thymus satureioides     7     Peganum harmala,
3      Mentha suaveolens       8     Chenopodium ambrosioides
4      Artemisia herba-alba    9     Dittrichia viscosa
5      Foeniculum vulgare      10    Citrullus colocynthis


Rank   Species name
11     Lactuca serriola
12     Juniperus phoenica
13     Capparis spinosa

Table 4: Floristic catalog of AMP of Er-Rich

                Scientific name of the    Vernacular names (in
Family name     species                   French and Tamazight)

Amaranthaceae   Chenopodium               Anserine-Mekhenza
                ambrosioides L.
                Fredolia aretioides       Chou-fleur du desert-Aknoud
                Hammada scoparia          Saligne a balai-Tissait
Apiaceae        Bupleurum atlanticum      Buplevre
                Murb.
                Carum carvi L             Carvi-karouia
                Coriandrum sativum L.     Coriandre -Kozbar
                Foeniculum vulgare L      Fenouil sauvage
                                          Besbasse
                Petroselinum sativum      Persil des jardins-Maadnous
                Hoffm.
Apocynaceae     Nerium oleander L.        Laurier-rose-Alili
                Artemisia absinthium L.   Absinthe-Chiba
                Artemisia herba-alba      Armoise blanche-Ifsi
                Asso.
                Anvillea radiata Coss     Ajjirge (kramouch)
                & Dur
Asteraceae      Dittrichia viscosa        Inule visqueuse-Terrahla
                (L.)Greuter
                Hertia maroccana          Garou -Alezzaz
                (Batt.) Maire
                Lactuca serriola L.       Laituescariol-Tougha
                                          n'ssem
                Launaea arborescens       Launaea arboreemelbina
                (Batt.) Maire
                Launaea lanifora          Asnane
                Pulicaria mauritanica     -Toufe telba
                Santolina                 Santoline-Ouezouaza
                rosmarinifolia L.
                Scolymus hispanicus       Assnan
Brassicaceae    Farsetia hamiltonii       Zaazaa
                Moricandia suffruticosa   awlgaz
                Zilla spinosa             Pois chiche sauvage-Boukhelala
                subsp.castata
Buxaceae        Buxus balearica Lam.      Buis des baleares-Azazer
Cactaceae       Opuntia ficus indica L    Figuier de barbarie - lhendia
Capparaceae     Capparis spinosa L.       Caprier-Tailaloute
                Coleome arabicaL.         Cleome d'arabie-Toukhmejte
Caryophyllaceae Herniaria glabra L.       Herniaire glabre-Hrasset
                                          lehjar
Chenopodiaceae  Atriplex Halimus L.       l'arroche
                                          marine+Armas
Cucurbitaceae   Citrullus colocynthis L.  Coloquinte-Taferzizte
Cupressaceae    Juniperus oxycedrus L.    Genevrier cade- Taqqa
                Juniperus phoenica L.     Genevrier rouge- Taoualte
Euphorbiaceae   Euphorbia nicaeensis      Tanougha
                All.
Fabaceae        Adenocarpus bacquei       Adenocarpus - Aghoultmte
                Batt.et Pitard
                Ceratonia siliqua L.      Caroubier -Tisslighwa
                                          (khrouba)
                Ononis natrix             Awdach
                Retma sphaerocarpa        retama amarilla-Algou
                (L.)Boiss
Juglandaceae    Juglans regia L.          Noyer- Douge
Juncaceae       Juncus acutus             Jonc piquant -Azmou
                Marrubium deserti         Marrube du desert
                Mentha pulegium L.        Menthe pouliot- Fliyyo
                Mentha suaveolens         Menthe a feuilles
                Ehrh.                     rondes_Timrssad
                Mentha viridis L.         Menthe verte-Na'nae
                Origanum majorana L.      Marjolaine a coquilles
                                          -merdedouch
Lamiaceae       Rosmarinus officinalis    Romarin-Assir
                L.
                Salvia officinalis L.     Sauge-Salmia
                Thymus satureioides L.    Thym-Azoukni
                Teucrium fruticans L.     Germandree arbustive - Mirou
                Teucrium mideltense       Attimeloul
Lythraceae      Punica granatum L.        Grenadier -Erramane
Myrtaceae       Eucalyptus grandis        Kalitous
                Tetraclinis articulata    Aaraar
                (Vahl) Masters
Nitrariaceae    Peganum harmala L.        Harmel-Alharmel
Oleaceae        Olea europaea L.          Olivier - Zitoune
Pinaceae        Pinus halepensis Mill.    Pin d'Alep-Tayda
Poaceae         Arundo donax              Canne de Provence-Aghanime
                Avena sativa              Elkhrtal
                Stipatena cissima L       L'alfa-Agouri
                Zea mays L.               Mais- Dra
Rhamnaceae      Ziziphus lotus (L.) Lam   jujubier sauvage-Azouggar
Rosaceae        Crataegus monogyna        Aubepine monogyne - Admam
                Jacq.
                Crataegus laciniata       Aubepine -Tabgha
                Ucria.
                Rosa damascena Mill.      Lward
Rubiaceae       Rubia tinctorum L.        Garance udes
                                          teinturiers- Taroubia
Rutaceae        Ruta montana L.           Rue sauvage-Iwrmi
Steraceae       Taraxacum officinalis     Iwjtem
                F.H.Wjgg
Tamaricaceae    Tamarix africana          aarich


Family name     Local use

Amaranthaceae   Decoction of aerial parts is used against typhoid and
                gastrointestinal pain.
                The plant poultice is used to treat children in case of
                fever.
                Fresh leaves mixed with orange juice are also used
                for the same purpose.
                Plant decoction is used to treat gastrointestinal
                diseases.
                Infusion or decoction of aerial parts is used against
                digestive pain.
Apiaceae        Not mentioned
                Seed infusion is used for the treatment of
                gastrointestinal diseases.
                seeds decoction is used against kidney stones
                Infusion, decoction or seeds powder serve to treat
                gastrointestinal pain (diarrhea, nausea and colon pain)
                Decoction of aerial parts is used to treat urogenital
                ailments
Apocynaceae     Leaves infusion is used against diabetes.
                Plant infusion is used against chills.
                Decoction of aerial parts or leaves powder is used
                against digestive ailments and intestinal worms. This
                plant also serves as stomachic, anthelmintic and anti
                diabetes agent.
                Not mentioned
Asteraceae      Leaves decoction and leaves powder are used against
                typhoid fever, diarrhea, diabetes and urogenital
                diseases. In fumigation, leaves are used against
                headaches.
                Leaves powder is mixed with henna and olive oil for
                hair care (growth and softening).
                Leaves decoction serves against scorpion stings and
                snake bites (antidote).
                Latex of the plant can be used against boils
                Not mentioned
                Iinfusion or decoction of aerial parts is used against
                fever, high blood pressure and diabetes.
                Decoction of flowers' heads is used as stomachic and
                anthelmintic agent.
                Not mentioned
Brassicaceae    Not mentioned
                Not mentioned
                Not mentioned
Buxaceae        Fruits powder with honey is widely used against
                stomach pain, colon pain and anemia.
Cactaceae       Seeds powder serves to treat stomach pain.
Capparaceae     Fruits decoction and powder are used against chills
                and diabetes.
                Leaves poultice with olive oil is effective against
                back chills
                Not mentioned
Caryophyllaceae In decoction, the whole plant is used against kidney
                stones.
Chenopodiaceae  Not mentioned
Cucurbitaceae   Fruit half portion filled with some olive oil is used
                against rheumatism. The patient has to soak his feet
                in for a few hours. The fruit is also used to treat
                reproductive system diseases.
Cupressaceae    Not mentioned
                Leaves decoction serves against digestive ailments
                and osteoarticular diseases. Fruits powder is used to
                treat kidney diseases.
Euphorbiaceae   Latex is used against alopecia.
Fabaceae        Leaves decoction is used against chills and
                rheumatism
                Seeds powder with honey is used against
                stomachaches.
                Not mentioned
                Poultice of roots powder with other plants is used for
                hair care
Juglandaceae    The fruit an antihypertensive agent.
Juncaceae       Seeds decoction is used against digestive ailments.
                Not mentioned
                Decoction of the whole plant is recommended to treat
                cold and cough . Infusion of the plant in milk or tea is
                indicated for cold and flu. It serves also to lower body
                temperature.
Lamiaceae       Leaves decoction is used against abdominal pain,
                chills and flu. The plant possesses insecticide
                properties.
                Aerial parts infusion is used to treat stomach pain.
                Plant infusion is much used as sedative,
                antispasmodic and warming agent
                Leaves decoction and flowering tops are orally used
                to treat digestive disorders, tiredness, headaches,
                rheumatic pains and painful menstrual periods. The
                plant decoction associated with 38e ais reputed to be
                a tonic.
                Plant essential oil is used against foot eczema and
                chills.
                Leaves infusion is used against hypertension..
                Aerial parts decoction or infusion is used against
                gastrointestinal ailments, cold, fever, chills,
                headaches, digestive infections and menstrual period
                pain. In addition, in fumigation, its is used against
                respiratory diseases, digestive ailments. It is also an
                antispasmodic agent.
                Leaves decoction is used against chills
                Leaves decoction or infusion is used against digestive
                ailments.
Lythraceae      Powder of the fruit peel is recommended against
                stomachaches
Myrtaceae       Decoction of leaves is used against respiratory
                problem.
                As poultice leaves are used on the head against fever
                and the leaves powder is used against abdominal
                ailments and cold.
Nitrariaceae    Seeds powder mixed with olive oil and henna is used
                as hair loss treatment. Seeds macerate in olive oil is
                used, in poultice, for the treatment of rheumatism and
                joint pain.
Oleaceae        Leaves infusion and macerate are used against high
                blood pressure and diabetes. Olive oil is widely used
                for the treatment of ear infections.
Pinaceae        Not mentioned
                Roots powder is used as hair loss treatment.
Poaceae         Seed decoction is used against diabetes and
                cholesterol
                Decoction of aerial parts is used for diabetes.
                Decoction of corn silk is used against urinary system
                diseases
Rhamnaceae      Fruit powder with honey is widely used against
                stomach pain, colon pain and anemia.
Rosaceae        Fruit powder is used for the treatment of
                gastrointestinal diseases.
                Flower infusion is used to treat diarrhea and heart
                palpitations. Fruit decoction is consumed to treat
                anxiety.
                Flowers decoction is used against gastrointestinal and
                urinary problems
Rubiaceae       Root decoction is used against anemia
Rutaceae        Infusion of aerial parts is orally or externally used
                against respiratory ailments, gout, edema, paralysis
                and headaches. Plant fumigation of the associated
                with harmel is used to treat epilepsy.
Steraceae       aerial part is used as food
Tamaricaceae    Not mentioned

Appendix I: Questionnaire sheet on the uses of medicinal plants

Place :               Dated :
Informants details
1. Sex:   Male   Female
2. Family situation: Single   Married
3. Level of study: Illiterate  Primary   Secondary   University
4. Profession :
5. Age:
The medicinal plants used by informants
Are you a user of medicinal plants:
Yes :         No:
* If not why?
* If yes, What are the medicinal and aromatic plants you use?
1. Medicinal species :  Vernacular name :
                        Scientific name :
2. Plant usage : Therapeutic, Cosmetic, Other
3. Used part of the plant : Stem; Flowers; Fruist; Seeds; Bark; leafs;
Whole plant ; Aerial part ; Latex ;
Stigma
4. Preparation mode : Infusion ; Decoction ; Maceration ; Fumigation
Powder ; Poultice ; Wine ; Cooked ;
Essential oil
5. Administration mode : Oral ; Massage ; Rinsing ; Painting ; Other
6. Diagnostic : Based in experience of the others ; herbalist ;
Doctor ; Other
7. Type of disease treated : Dermatological affections; Respiratory
affections; Cardiovascular affections;
Genitourinary diseases; Metabolic disorders ; Digestive system
disorders ; Neurological affections; Renal
disease ; Hair care ; Others.
8. Origin of the information :
9. Results : Healing, Improving, Ineffective
10. Toxicity : No ; Yes :
11. Side effects: No; Yes:
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Article Details
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Author:Fadili, Kamal; Sekkate, Chakib; Alistiqsa, Fathia; Haloui, Zoubida; Chakir, Said; Zair, Touriya
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Date:Jun 1, 2017
Words:4893
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