Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants from Er-Rich region (Moroccan High Atlas).
This study is part of the development of Moroccan High Atlas resources with a focus on medicinal plants and traditional knowledge. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in February, March, April and May 2014 with the population of Er-Rich circle using 150 questionnaires. Analysis of the results allowed us to establish a list of 67 plants, divided into 29 families with a dominance of Asteraceae and Lamiaceae families. Analysis of the results of this ethnobotanical survey also shows that in traditional medicine, the most frequently cited and used species by the local population are : Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus satureioides, Mentha suaveolens, Artemisia herba-alba, Foeniculum vulgare and Mentha pulegium . Moreover, leaves are the most used parts of the plants, the majority of the remedies are prepared as a decoction. Most recipes are orally administered and digestive disorders are among the most frequently treated. These results can be considered as a source of information for scientific research in the field of plant chemistry in order to identify new natural active principles that can be used in pharmacology.
KEYWORDS: Medicinal plants, Ethnobotanical study, Er-Rich, Moroccan Eastern High Atlas.
Ethnobotany has become a primordial discipline which proposes to analyze reciprocal relations that unite human being to plants. Through this purpose it represents a key for the development of the societies.
Research in ethnobotany is mainly based on results of field surveys and bibliographic data gathering. These surveys are generally carried out as interviews and observation of practices with resource persons identified as having knowledge and /or know-how related to the plant materials. There is no ideal recipe for a good investigation, but there are rules to be followed at each step of the investigation.
In addition, the ethnobotanical study allowed discovery of several active substances for pharmaceutical firms. Active ingredients currently used in modern medicine are derived from popular and traditional medicinal knowledge. Moreover, the discovery of these substances is based on the observation of the efficacy of certain plants from various pharmacopoeias (Arab-Muslim, European, Indian or Chinese pharmacopoeias), but also mainly from the observations of plants uses in traditional medicine.
The sector of aromatic and medicinal plants (AMP) remains highly promising since it promotes the creation of income-generating activities. This sector offers the possibility to create small and medium-sized enterprises that promote plant biodiversity in respect with development and the protection of natural and cultural heritage. Traditional medicine continues to be the main use of a large majority of populations to solve their health problems, not only because it constitutes an important element of cultural heritage, but also because of limited financial resources of populations towards conventional products. It was orally transmitted from a generation to the next one, exposing it to the danger of loss. The ethnobotanical survey is essential to acquire knowledge about medicinal plants and their uses.
Morocco is a mediterranean country with a long medicinal tradition and a traditional know-how based on medicinal plants . Indeed, traditional medicine has always played an important role in medication habits in Morocco. Er-Rich region (Eastern High Atlas of Morocco) is very rich in aromatic and medicinal plants but this wealth is not properly exploited by the population. The aim of this study is to give value to the plant traditional heritage in the region (Er-Rich) by listing aromatic and medicinal plants of the region and discovering traditional uses. The study is also extended to traditional exploitation of the plant species in the region.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Created in 2009, the Province of Midelt is subdivided in to two circles: Midelt and Er'rich. This landlocked province shares borders with several other provinces: at the north, the province of Ifrane, at the south is found the province of Er-Rachidia, the province of Khenifra is at the west and the eastern border lead to the province of Boulmane. Er-Rich is a town located at the foot of Atlas Mountains, at the confluence of Ziz river and Sidi Hamza river. The town is located 75 km of Midelt and 66 km of Er-Rachidia.
Er-Rich circle comprises seven townships: Guers Tiaallaline, En-Nzala, M'Zizel, Sidi Aayad, Zaouiat Sidi Hamza, Guir and Gourrama (Figure 1) and is part of Midelt province which is now part of Draa-Tafilalet region. This circle covers about 5969 Km (2) . According to 2014's national census, its population is estimated at 83707 inhabitants (Table 1). The arid climate of this presaharian region is characterized by a dry and cold winter and a hot summer. Precipitation fluctuates from a year to the next one with an annual average between 120 and 276 mm. In winter, snowfall can begin from mid-November at altitudes above 1 800 m. Temperatures range from -2 in winter to 35 [degrees]C in summer.
With a pre-established questionnaire (appendix 1), we have conducted an ethnobotanical survey in February, March, April and May 2014 in Er-Rich circle. Random and stratified sampling technique  was used in order to have the most complete floristic inventory as possible and to easily carry out various ethnobotanical surveys from one area to another in Er-Rich region.
To bring out a representative study of the area, we have selected ten strata (ten Douar): Er-Rich, Tabia, Zawiat sidi boukil, Oulal, Tamagourt, Aitkhoujmane, Aitaatou, Zaouiat sidi Hamza, Nezala and Gourama. In each stratum, a sample of 15 individuals was selected for the survey (Table 2). Thus, one hundred and fifty (150) persons were spontaneously and directly interviewed.
People favorably responded during this preliminary study that encompasses specific questions such as informants profile (ie age, education level, gender,...), the most abundant plants, the most used plants with their vernacular identity, part of the plant used, the methods for remedies preparation, the routes of administration and the treated pathologies. Then, taxonomic identification of the samples collected in each stratum was performed in the laboratory and was confirmed at the Scientific Institute of Rabat in the Laboratory of Botany and Plant Ecology. Most species' names are only known in Tamazight language.
Raw data were transferred in to a database and processed by SPSS statistical analysis software.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Interviewees' profile :
1) Choice between traditional plant therapy and modern medicine :
The survey revealed that 88.67% of this population prefer medicinal plants (Figure 2) rather than modern medicines.
Fig. 2 : Percentage of people using traditional medicine Yes 88,67% No 11,33% Note: Table made from pie graph.
2) Distribution by gender:
In our study area women and men have shown their interest in traditional medicine with plants: 64% of respondents were men and 36% were women (Figure 3).
Fig. 3: Frequency of Aromatic and Medicinal Plants (AMP) usage by gender Women 36,00% Men 64,00% Note: Table made from pie graph.
3) Distribution by Age :
Fig. 4: Frequency of AMP usage by age group less than 20 6,00% between 20 and 29 14,67% between 30 and 39 27,33% between 40 and 49 20,00% between 50 and 59 16,67% More than 60 15,33% Note: Table made from bar graph.
Analysis of questionnaires reveals that although the usage of MAP is widespread in all age groups, it is predominant within the age group of 30-40 years old (27.33%), then comes the group of 40-50 years old (20%).
The following age groups: 50-60 years, above 60 years and 20-30 years, come after with respectively 16.67%, 15.33% and 14.67% (Figure 4). However, use of traditional medicine is not very common among people younger than 20. Knowledge about the uses and properties of medicinal plants is usually accumulated through long-time experience and it is then transmitted from one generation to the next. Therefore, older people are more familiar to traditional herbal medicine compared to the other age groups. This difference in use, depending on the age group could be explained by the fact that older people are more knowledgeable about tradition, including traditional herbal medicines. The difference could be also explained by new behavior adopted by the youth who trust science and modernity rather than tradition.
4) Distribution by education level :
From the survey, we find in the ten strata that 46% of plants users are illiterate people. 20.76% had primary school level of education while 22.67% had secondary school level and 10.67% reached the university (Figure 5). These results show that 19.75% of school-going users have a university-level education. Indeed, since recent times, the use of herbal medicine and the return back to natural substances are being rediscovered thanks to scientific research in ethnopharmacology. This confirmed the therapeutic efficacy of traditional remedies that astonished scientists, doctors and pharmacologists. Moreover, considering the emergence of drug resistance, the need for therapeutic alternatives against resistant pathogens, the limits of modern medicines and the existence of diseases without effective treatment, traditional medicine could be a great advantage.
Fig. 5: Frequency of AMP usage by education level Illiterate 46,00% Primary school 20,67% Secondary school 22,67% University 10,67% Note: Table made from pie graph.
Social pharmacological aspects:
5) Families of the inventoried plants:
The use of plants for medicinal purposes is not a recent phenomenon. Despite the importance of the medicinal plants reported, much of this potential remains undervalued for multiple reasons starting from the lack of knowledge to the lack of effort to preserve this heritage. The combination of environmental conditions and the availability of resources are key conditions for determining distribution, distinctiveness and functionality of species in a particular region . Ethnobotanical surveys in the Er-Rich region enabled us to develop a list of 67 medicinal species belonging to 29 families. Among these families, the most frequent in this region are: Asteraceae (11 species), Lamiaceae (10 species), Apiaceae (5 species), Fabaceae (4 species) and Poaceae (4 species) (Figure 6 Slimani et al. (2016) found in a study carried out in the Zerhoun region of Morocco that of the 43 families encountered, three families accounted for 32.43% of the total population with Lamiaceae (13.51%), Apiaceae (9.91%) And Asteraceae (9%) .
Fig. 1: Plant families in the study area Family names Asteracees 11 Lamiacees 10 Apiacees 5 Poacees 4 Fabacees 4 Brassicacees 3 Rosacees 3 Capparacees 2 Myrtacees 2 Amaranthacees 2 Cupressacees 1 Cactacees 1 Buxacees 1 Apocynacees 1 Tamaricacees 1 Steracees 1 Rutacees 1 Rubiaceae 1 Rhamnacees 1 Pinacees 1 Oleacees 1 Nitariacees 1 Lythracees 1 Juncacees 1 Juglandacees 1 Euphorbiacees 1 Cucurbitacees 1 Chenopodiacees 1 Caryophyllacees 1 Note: Table made from bar graph.
6) The most popular plants:
We found in the study that among the 67 inventoried species 13 were very much cited and very often used by people (Figure 7). These plants are ranked according to their importance (Table 3).
We also notice that some of these plants have never been studied: they have neither been mentioned in the literature nor reported in ethnobotanical studies in Morocco.
Fig. 7: Usage frequency of the most popular species in Er-Rich Rosmarinus officinalis 95 Thymus satureioides 74 Mentha suaveolens 63 Artemisia herba-alba 48 Foeniculum vulgare 39 Mentha pulegium 37 Peganum harmala 37 Chenopodium ambrosioides 25 Dittrichia viscosa 24 Citrullus colocynthis 23 Lactuca serriola 20 Juniperus phoenica 18 Capparis spinosa 14 Note: Table made from bar graph.
7) Plant parts used:
The ethnobotanical survey revealed that leaves are the most commonly used part in this region with a percentage of 68.06% while aerial parts in general are used with a percentage of 9.46%. Then, come seeds (8.85%) and fruits (7.25%) (Figure 8). The other parts, namely stems, flowers, roots, bark, latex, stigma and whole plant are gathered with a cumulative percentage of 18.46%. Also, the predominance of use of a specific organ compared to another in the therapeutic domain is strongly linked to its concentration in active ingredients. Leaves are the most used because they are at the same time the site where photochemical reactions take place and a source of organic matters derived from these reactions. They provide the majority of alkaloids, heterosides and essential oils content. Fruits importance can be attributed to the concentrations of certain bitter compounds, carbohydrate or aromatic substances associated with some pigments which give them a specific coloring. Roots and seeds are rich in sugars and vitamins . These results confirm those of other ethnobotanical studies [7-8].
Fig. 2: Use frequency of plant parts Leaves 68,06% Aerial parts 9,46% Seeds 8,85% Fruits 7,25% Roots 2,09% Whole plant 1,60% Latex 0,86% Flowers 0,86% Bark 0,49% Stigma 0,49% Note: Table made from bar graph.
8) Remedies preparation mode :
Different therapeutic practices are used by the local population, namely decoction, infusion, powder preparation, fumigation, poultice, maceration and cooking. Decoction is the most frequent mode of preparation (69.57%) in the region (Figure 9). It is followed by powder (11.29%), and poultice (6.5%). The other modes (maceration, infusion, raw plant part, cooked part, fumigation and essential oil) represent 12.64%. These results confirm the data obtained in other national ethnobotanical studies [7,9].
The best preparation should be the one which preserves all plant properties during the process of extraction and the process of assimilation of the active ingredients . Decoction is a good method to warm the body and disinfect the plant in order to suppress the toxic effect of some recipes, but it can also destroy certain active compounds of the species. Additionally, medicinal plants have adverse effects when they are not used in a proper way by patients. Therefore, medication by plants should be carefully practiced according to precise parameters and dosage.
Fig. 3: Main preparation modes of remedies Decoction 69,57% Powder 11,29% Poultice 6,50% Infusion 4,91% Fumigation 2,58% Raww 1,96% Maceration 1,96% Cooked 0,74% Hulle essentielle 0,49% Note: Table made from bar graph.
9) Medicinal use:
Analysis of the collected information allowed us to list a number of diseases that are treated by medicinal plants in this region. The majority of medicinal plants are mainly used in the treatment of digestive diseases with a percentage of 53.74% followed by osteoarticular affections (11.53%), neurological disorders (10.92%) respiratory diseases (6.5%) and metabolic disorders (5.64%) (Fig.10). Urogenital diseases, skin diseases, cardiovascular diseases, kidney diseases, hair care, etc account for 11.65%. These results are similar to those of Maryama H. et al., 2015 in the city of Khenifra, Zerkani H. et al. 2015 in the province of Khenifra, Rhattas M. et al., 2016  in the Western Rif region, Lahsissene et al. 2009  in the region of Zaer, Mehdioui and Kahouadji, 2007  in the province of Essaouira and Hseini et al. 2011  in the region of Rabat. These authors reported that digestive diseases are the first cause of medicinal plants use.
Fig. 10: Frequency of plant use according to the disease Digestive diseases 53,74% Osteoarticular diseases 11,53% Neurological disorders 10,92% Respiratory diseases 6,50% Metabolic diseases 5,64% Skin diseases 3,68% Urogenital diseases 2,82% Hair care 2,45% Other diseases 1,84% Kidney diseases 0,61% Cardiovascular diseases 0,25% Note: Table made from bar graph.
10) Routes of administration:
Figure 11 shows that most of the remedies are orally administered with a very high percentage (82.70%). The other routes of administration: whitewashing (2.58%), massage (3.68%), rinsing (1.1%) and other ways (9.4%) are less common.
Fig. 4: Main administration routes of remedies Oral 82,70% Others 9,94% Massage 3,68% White wishing 2,58% Rinsing 1,10% Note: Table made from pie graph.
11) Health outcomes:
Fig. 12: Health outcomes after plant therapy Betterment 54,85% Recovery 44,66% Inneficacy 0,49% Note: Table made from pie graph.
According to 44.66% of the surveyed, use of traditional remedies lead to a total cure. However, 54.85% of them affirm that these remedies improve health condition and 0.49% found that the remedies are ineffective (Figure 12). These results confirm those of other ethnobotanical studies carried out at the national level .
12) Source of knowledge about medicinal plants:
70.76% of the population acquired knowledge about medicinal use of plants as remedy for specific diseases through others' experiences (Figure 13). This reflects the relative transmission of traditional practices from a generation to the next one. 17.33% practice herbal medicine according to herbalists' advices and 12% had built this knowledge by reading books about traditional Arab medicine, by watching television programs or by their own experience with a large number of medicinal plants in their surroundings. The environment and others' experience remain therefore the most effective means to transmit knowledge about medicinal purposes of plants.
Fig. 13: Traditional knowledge acquisition modes Others' experience 70,67% Herbalists 17,33% Own experience 12,00% Note: Table made from pie graph.
13) Floristic catalog :
Monographs of the inventoried AMP are presented by alphabetical order of the families and species. For each plant, the monograph contains the scientific name, the French name, the vernacular name, the part used and the local use (Table 4).
First, We would like to thank of all the people from the Er-Rich region whom we met. We also thank the professors of Scientific Institute OF Rabat for species identifications.
 Mehdioui, R., A. Kahouadji, 2007. Etude ethnobotanique aupres de la population riveraine de la foret d'Amsittene: cas de la Commune d'Imi n'Tlit (Province d'Essaouira). Bulletin de l'Institut Scientifique, Rabat, section Sciences de la Vie 29: 11-20.
 Cercle Er-Rich, Monographie de cercle d'Er-Rich, 2014. Province de Midelt, Maroc.
 Kahouadji, A., 1986. Recherches floristiques sur le massif montagneux des Beni Snassene (Maroc oriental).These, Univ. Sc. Tech. Languedoc. Montpellier, pp: 235.
 Noman, A., 2003. Influence of different doses of nitrogen fertilizer on ajwain. M.Sc. Dissertation.pp-1. Univ. Of Agric. Faisalabad.Pakistan, pp: 751-759.
 Slimani, I., M. Najem, R.Belaidir, L. Bachiri, E. Bouiamrine, L. Nassiri and J. Ibijbijen, 2016. Etude ethnobotanique des plantes medicinales utilisees dans la region de Zerhoun.Maroc. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, 15: 846-863.
 Babba, A., 1999, Flore d'Algerie et du Maghreb. Encyclopedie des plantes utiles. Substances vegetales d'Afrique, d'Orient et d'Occident. Ed. Librairie Moderne Rouiba, EDAS, Alger, p: 368.
 Maryama, H., T. Hachi, N. Belahbib, J. Dahmani, L. Zidane, 2015. Contribution a l'etude floristique et ethnobotanique de la flore medicinale utilisee au niveau de la ville de Khenifra (Maroc). International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies ISSN 2028-9324 11(3): 754-770.
 Daoudi, A., M. Bammou, S. Zarkani, I. Slimani, J. Ibijbijen, L. Nassiri, 2015, Etude ethnobotanique de la flore medicinale dans la commune rurale d'aguelmouss province de khenifra (Maroc), Phytotherapie, pp: 1-9.
 Benlamdini, N., M. Elhafian, A. Rochdi, L. Zidane, 2014. Etude floristique et ethnobotanique de la flore medicinale du Haut Atlas oriental (Haute Moulouya). Journal of Applied Biosciences, 78: 6771-6787.
 Dextreit, R., 1984. La cure vegetale, Toutes les plantes pour se guerir, Vivre en harmonie, [3.sup.eme] ed, p: 118.
 Zerkani, H., I. Tagnaout, T. Zair, 2015. Ethnobotanical survey and inventory of medicinal flora in the rural municipalities of Ait Ishaq, Tighassaline, El-Hammam and Ageulmam azegza--Khenifra province, Morocco. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 7(8): 611-627.
 Rhattas, M., A. Douira, L. ZidaneI, 2016. Etude ethnobotanique des plantes medicinales dans le Parc National de Talassemtane (Rif occidental du Maroc). J. Appl. Biosci., 97: 9187-9211.
 Lahsissene, H., A. Kahouadji, M. Tijane, S. Hseini, 2009. Catalogue des plantes medicinales utilisees dans la region de Zaer (Maroc Occidental). Lejeunia, 186: 1-27.
 Hseini, S., A. Kahouadji, H. Lahsissene, M. Tijane, 2011. Analyses floristique et ethnobotanique des plantes vasculaires medicinales utilisees dans la region de Rabat (Maroc occidental). Lazaroa, 28: 93-100.
(1,2) Kamal Fadili, (1,2) Chakib Sekkate, (1,2) Fathia Alistiqsa, (1,2) Zoubida Haloui, (1,2) Said Chakir, (1,2) Touriya Zair
(1) Research team of Bioactive Molecules Chemistry and Environment, Faculty of Sciences, B.P 11201 Zitoune, Moulay Ismail University, Meknes, Morocco.
(2) Laboratory of Materials Chemistry and Biotechnology of Natural Products, Faculty of Sciences, B.P 11201 Zitoune, Moulay Ismail University, Meknes, Morocco.
Address For Correspondence:
kamal Fadili. Research team of Bioactive Molecules Chemistry and Environment, Faculty of Sciences, B.P 11201 Zitoune, Moulay Ismail University, Meknes, Morocco.
Tel : +212646102475; E-mail: email@example.com
Table 1: Townships of Er-Rich circle Townships Population Er-Rich (Municipality) 25985 Guers Tiaallaline 12924 En-nzala 4390 M'Zizel 7380 Sidi Aayad 8629 Zaouiat sidi Hamza 5454 Gourrama 14923 Guir 4022 Total 83707 Table 2: Geographic strata covered by the survey Stratum associated number Stratum's name (Douar) Number of interviewees 1 Er-Rich 15 2 Tabia 15 3 Zawiat sidi boukil 15 4 Oulal 15 5 Tamagourt 15 6 Aitkhoujmane 15 7 Aitaatou 15 8 Zawiat sidi hamza 15 9 Nezala 15 10 Gourama 15 Total : 150 Table 3: The most used species in Er-Rich region Rank Species name Rank Species name 1 Rosmarinus officinalis 6 Mentha pulegium 2 Thymus satureioides 7 Peganum harmala, 3 Mentha suaveolens 8 Chenopodium ambrosioides 4 Artemisia herba-alba 9 Dittrichia viscosa 5 Foeniculum vulgare 10 Citrullus colocynthis Rank Species name 11 Lactuca serriola 12 Juniperus phoenica 13 Capparis spinosa Table 4: Floristic catalog of AMP of Er-Rich Scientific name of the Vernacular names (in Family name species French and Tamazight) Amaranthaceae Chenopodium Anserine-Mekhenza ambrosioides L. Fredolia aretioides Chou-fleur du desert-Aknoud Hammada scoparia Saligne a balai-Tissait Apiaceae Bupleurum atlanticum Buplevre Murb. Carum carvi L Carvi-karouia Coriandrum sativum L. Coriandre -Kozbar Foeniculum vulgare L Fenouil sauvage Besbasse Petroselinum sativum Persil des jardins-Maadnous Hoffm. Apocynaceae Nerium oleander L. Laurier-rose-Alili Artemisia absinthium L. Absinthe-Chiba Artemisia herba-alba Armoise blanche-Ifsi Asso. Anvillea radiata Coss Ajjirge (kramouch) & Dur Asteraceae Dittrichia viscosa Inule visqueuse-Terrahla (L.)Greuter Hertia maroccana Garou -Alezzaz (Batt.) Maire Lactuca serriola L. Laituescariol-Tougha n'ssem Launaea arborescens Launaea arboreemelbina (Batt.) Maire Launaea lanifora Asnane Pulicaria mauritanica -Toufe telba Santolina Santoline-Ouezouaza rosmarinifolia L. Scolymus hispanicus Assnan Brassicaceae Farsetia hamiltonii Zaazaa Moricandia suffruticosa awlgaz Zilla spinosa Pois chiche sauvage-Boukhelala subsp.castata Buxaceae Buxus balearica Lam. Buis des baleares-Azazer Cactaceae Opuntia ficus indica L Figuier de barbarie - lhendia Capparaceae Capparis spinosa L. Caprier-Tailaloute Coleome arabicaL. Cleome d'arabie-Toukhmejte Caryophyllaceae Herniaria glabra L. Herniaire glabre-Hrasset lehjar Chenopodiaceae Atriplex Halimus L. l'arroche marine+Armas Cucurbitaceae Citrullus colocynthis L. Coloquinte-Taferzizte Cupressaceae Juniperus oxycedrus L. Genevrier cade- Taqqa Juniperus phoenica L. Genevrier rouge- Taoualte Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia nicaeensis Tanougha All. Fabaceae Adenocarpus bacquei Adenocarpus - Aghoultmte Batt.et Pitard Ceratonia siliqua L. Caroubier -Tisslighwa (khrouba) Ononis natrix Awdach Retma sphaerocarpa retama amarilla-Algou (L.)Boiss Juglandaceae Juglans regia L. Noyer- Douge Juncaceae Juncus acutus Jonc piquant -Azmou Marrubium deserti Marrube du desert Mentha pulegium L. Menthe pouliot- Fliyyo Mentha suaveolens Menthe a feuilles Ehrh. rondes_Timrssad Mentha viridis L. Menthe verte-Na'nae Origanum majorana L. Marjolaine a coquilles -merdedouch Lamiaceae Rosmarinus officinalis Romarin-Assir L. Salvia officinalis L. Sauge-Salmia Thymus satureioides L. Thym-Azoukni Teucrium fruticans L. Germandree arbustive - Mirou Teucrium mideltense Attimeloul Lythraceae Punica granatum L. Grenadier -Erramane Myrtaceae Eucalyptus grandis Kalitous Tetraclinis articulata Aaraar (Vahl) Masters Nitrariaceae Peganum harmala L. Harmel-Alharmel Oleaceae Olea europaea L. Olivier - Zitoune Pinaceae Pinus halepensis Mill. Pin d'Alep-Tayda Poaceae Arundo donax Canne de Provence-Aghanime Avena sativa Elkhrtal Stipatena cissima L L'alfa-Agouri Zea mays L. Mais- Dra Rhamnaceae Ziziphus lotus (L.) Lam jujubier sauvage-Azouggar Rosaceae Crataegus monogyna Aubepine monogyne - Admam Jacq. Crataegus laciniata Aubepine -Tabgha Ucria. Rosa damascena Mill. Lward Rubiaceae Rubia tinctorum L. Garance udes teinturiers- Taroubia Rutaceae Ruta montana L. Rue sauvage-Iwrmi Steraceae Taraxacum officinalis Iwjtem F.H.Wjgg Tamaricaceae Tamarix africana aarich Family name Local use Amaranthaceae Decoction of aerial parts is used against typhoid and gastrointestinal pain. The plant poultice is used to treat children in case of fever. Fresh leaves mixed with orange juice are also used for the same purpose. Plant decoction is used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Infusion or decoction of aerial parts is used against digestive pain. Apiaceae Not mentioned Seed infusion is used for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. seeds decoction is used against kidney stones Infusion, decoction or seeds powder serve to treat gastrointestinal pain (diarrhea, nausea and colon pain) Decoction of aerial parts is used to treat urogenital ailments Apocynaceae Leaves infusion is used against diabetes. Plant infusion is used against chills. Decoction of aerial parts or leaves powder is used against digestive ailments and intestinal worms. This plant also serves as stomachic, anthelmintic and anti diabetes agent. Not mentioned Asteraceae Leaves decoction and leaves powder are used against typhoid fever, diarrhea, diabetes and urogenital diseases. In fumigation, leaves are used against headaches. Leaves powder is mixed with henna and olive oil for hair care (growth and softening). Leaves decoction serves against scorpion stings and snake bites (antidote). Latex of the plant can be used against boils Not mentioned Iinfusion or decoction of aerial parts is used against fever, high blood pressure and diabetes. Decoction of flowers' heads is used as stomachic and anthelmintic agent. Not mentioned Brassicaceae Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned Buxaceae Fruits powder with honey is widely used against stomach pain, colon pain and anemia. Cactaceae Seeds powder serves to treat stomach pain. Capparaceae Fruits decoction and powder are used against chills and diabetes. Leaves poultice with olive oil is effective against back chills Not mentioned Caryophyllaceae In decoction, the whole plant is used against kidney stones. Chenopodiaceae Not mentioned Cucurbitaceae Fruit half portion filled with some olive oil is used against rheumatism. The patient has to soak his feet in for a few hours. The fruit is also used to treat reproductive system diseases. Cupressaceae Not mentioned Leaves decoction serves against digestive ailments and osteoarticular diseases. Fruits powder is used to treat kidney diseases. Euphorbiaceae Latex is used against alopecia. Fabaceae Leaves decoction is used against chills and rheumatism Seeds powder with honey is used against stomachaches. Not mentioned Poultice of roots powder with other plants is used for hair care Juglandaceae The fruit an antihypertensive agent. Juncaceae Seeds decoction is used against digestive ailments. Not mentioned Decoction of the whole plant is recommended to treat cold and cough . Infusion of the plant in milk or tea is indicated for cold and flu. It serves also to lower body temperature. Lamiaceae Leaves decoction is used against abdominal pain, chills and flu. The plant possesses insecticide properties. Aerial parts infusion is used to treat stomach pain. Plant infusion is much used as sedative, antispasmodic and warming agent Leaves decoction and flowering tops are orally used to treat digestive disorders, tiredness, headaches, rheumatic pains and painful menstrual periods. The plant decoction associated with 38e ais reputed to be a tonic. Plant essential oil is used against foot eczema and chills. Leaves infusion is used against hypertension.. Aerial parts decoction or infusion is used against gastrointestinal ailments, cold, fever, chills, headaches, digestive infections and menstrual period pain. In addition, in fumigation, its is used against respiratory diseases, digestive ailments. It is also an antispasmodic agent. Leaves decoction is used against chills Leaves decoction or infusion is used against digestive ailments. Lythraceae Powder of the fruit peel is recommended against stomachaches Myrtaceae Decoction of leaves is used against respiratory problem. As poultice leaves are used on the head against fever and the leaves powder is used against abdominal ailments and cold. Nitrariaceae Seeds powder mixed with olive oil and henna is used as hair loss treatment. Seeds macerate in olive oil is used, in poultice, for the treatment of rheumatism and joint pain. Oleaceae Leaves infusion and macerate are used against high blood pressure and diabetes. Olive oil is widely used for the treatment of ear infections. Pinaceae Not mentioned Roots powder is used as hair loss treatment. Poaceae Seed decoction is used against diabetes and cholesterol Decoction of aerial parts is used for diabetes. Decoction of corn silk is used against urinary system diseases Rhamnaceae Fruit powder with honey is widely used against stomach pain, colon pain and anemia. Rosaceae Fruit powder is used for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Flower infusion is used to treat diarrhea and heart palpitations. Fruit decoction is consumed to treat anxiety. Flowers decoction is used against gastrointestinal and urinary problems Rubiaceae Root decoction is used against anemia Rutaceae Infusion of aerial parts is orally or externally used against respiratory ailments, gout, edema, paralysis and headaches. Plant fumigation of the associated with harmel is used to treat epilepsy. Steraceae aerial part is used as food Tamaricaceae Not mentioned Appendix I: Questionnaire sheet on the uses of medicinal plants Place : Dated : Informants details 1. Sex: Male Female 2. Family situation: Single Married 3. Level of study: Illiterate Primary Secondary University 4. Profession : 5. Age: The medicinal plants used by informants Are you a user of medicinal plants: Yes : No: * If not why? * If yes, What are the medicinal and aromatic plants you use? 1. Medicinal species : Vernacular name : Scientific name : 2. Plant usage : Therapeutic, Cosmetic, Other 3. Used part of the plant : Stem; Flowers; Fruist; Seeds; Bark; leafs; Whole plant ; Aerial part ; Latex ; Stigma 4. Preparation mode : Infusion ; Decoction ; Maceration ; Fumigation Powder ; Poultice ; Wine ; Cooked ; Essential oil 5. Administration mode : Oral ; Massage ; Rinsing ; Painting ; Other 6. Diagnostic : Based in experience of the others ; herbalist ; Doctor ; Other 7. Type of disease treated : Dermatological affections; Respiratory affections; Cardiovascular affections; Genitourinary diseases; Metabolic disorders ; Digestive system disorders ; Neurological affections; Renal disease ; Hair care ; Others. 8. Origin of the information : 9. Results : Healing, Improving, Ineffective 10. Toxicity : No ; Yes : 11. Side effects: No; Yes: