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Ethiopian oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) from the joint Russian-Ethiopian Biological Expedition (2012), with description of a new species.

INTRODUCTION

Currently, oribatid mite (Acari: Oribatida) fauna of Ethiopia includes little more than 150 species (Ermilov et al. 2012a, b; Ermilov & Rybalov 2013a, b). This work forms part of our ongoing study of the Ethiopian oribatids. The present investigation is based on new material collected in the course of a two-month Russian-Ethiopian expedition during October and November 2012. An annotated checklist of identified oribatid mite taxa is provided (Table 1).

The genus Perscheloribates (Scheloribatidae) was proposed by Hammer (1973) with Perscheloribates clavatus Hammer, 1973 as type species. The genus comprises 44 species that collectively have pan- and subtropical distributions (Subias 2004; online version 2013). Up to now, eight species have been recorded from the Ethiopian region (Ermilov et al. 2011): P crassisetosus Ermilov, Rybalov & Franke, 2011, P ethiopicus (Mahunka, 1986), P luminosus (Hammer, 1961), P minimus (Mahunka, 1992), P minutus (Pletzen, 1965), P rustenburgensis (Pletzen, 1963), P shiraensis (Evans, 1953) and P tzitzikamaensis (Pletzen, 1963). The identification key to aforementioned species and generic diagnostic characters were presented by Ermilov et al. (2011). The new species is described as Perscheloribates paratranslamellatus sp. n.

The collected material further included Paroppia breviseta (Balogh, 1962) (Oppiidae), a species described from Tanzania (Balogh 1962). The original description of this species is, however, incomplete and brief (lacking information about the measurements of morphological structures, leg setation, and solenidia together with the morphology of the gnathosoma). P. breviseta is redescribed based on newly sampled Tanzanian specimens.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Mosses on trees were collected by hand (total volume = 0.03 m3). Litter was collected by taking 10 samples using a stainless steel frame (50 x 50 cm) and passed through a sifter (mesh size 2 x 2 cm). Oribatid mites were extracted into 75 % ethanol using Berlese funnels with ambient light for the first three days and 160 W electric lamps (at a distance of 25-30 cm) from the fourth until the seventh day.

Specimens were mounted in lactic acid on temporary cavity slides for measurement and illustration. All body measurements are presented in micrometres. The body length was measured in lateral view, from the tip of the rostrum to the posterior edge of the ventral plate. Notogastral width refers to the maximum width in dorsal view. The lengths of body setae were measured in lateral view. Formulae for leg setation are given in parentheses according to the sequence: trochanter-femur-genu-tibia-tarsus (famulus included). Formulae for leg solenidia are given in square brackets according to the sequence: genu-tibia-tarsus. General terminology used in this paper follows that summarised by Coetzer (1967-1968), and Norton and Behan-Pelletier (2009).

The holotype material is deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg, Russia (ZISP). The paratype material is deposited at the Siberian Zoological Museum, Novosibirsk, Russia (SZMN) and in the personal collection of the first author (PC).

List of collecting sites:

Et-12-10: 09[degrees]04'N 38[degrees]08'E, 10 km north of Ginchi city, Chilimo forest (Hagenia abyssinica and Juniperus sp. forming the canopy), 2900 m, mosses on trees, 25.x.2012 (collected by L.B. Rybalov and A.I. Bastrakov).

Et-12-11: 08[degrees]58'N 37[degrees]51'E, Ambo Plant Protection Research Center, xerophytic forest on vertisols, 2077 m, litter (sifter), 20.xi.2012 (collected by L.B. Rybalov and A.I. Bastrakov).

TAXONOMY

Samples from the collecting sites yielded 22 species, 19 genera and 15 families. Pedrocortesella africana Pletzen, 1963, Liacarus shipitsyni Ermilov, Rybalov & Kemal, 2011, Zetorchella pedestris Berlese, 1916 and Scheloribates discifer Balogh, 1959 were the only species recorded from mosses on trees; all other species were recorded only from forest litter (Table 1).

Family Scheloribatidae Grandjean, 1933 Genus Perscheloribates Hammer, 1973 Perscheloribates paratranslamellatus sp. n.

Figs 1-2

Etymology: From the Latin prefix para (near) referring to the the similarity between the new species and the species Perscheloribates translamellatus (Perez-Inigo & Baggio, 1991).

Diagnosis: body size 481-531 x 298-348; rostrum rounded; rudimentary translamellar line; prolamellar lines absent; prodorsal setae setiform, barbed; sensilli spindle-form, ciliate; exobothridial setae short; one pair of notogastral setaep1 present; sacculi Sa, S1 with elongate openings, S2, S3 with rounded openings; ventral setae setiform, slightly barbed, and with little difference in length; leg claws serrate on dorsal side.

Description:

Measurements. Body (length x width): 481 x 298 (holotype S); 481-531 x 298-348 (paratypes: 1S 4$).

Integument. Body brown and light brown. Dorsal and ventral surfaces of body smooth, lateral surfaces weakly microgranulate.

Prodorsum (Figs 1A, 1B, 1D; 2A, 2B). Rostrum slightly protruding, rounded. Lamellae located dorsolaterally, as long as half of prodorsum (in lateral view), without cusps. Translamellar line (tr) rudimental, at tips of lamellae. Prolamellar lines absent. Sublamellar lines distinct, long. Sublamellar porose areas (Al) very small, rounded (2-4). Keel-shaped chitinised ridges (kf) distinct. Rostral (ro, 61-69), lamellar (le, 90-102) and interlamellar (in, 114-127) setae setiform, barbed. Sensilli (ss, 110-118) spindle-form (with long stalk, elongated lanceolate head and well developed thin apex), with numerous cilia. Exobothridial setae (ex, 4-6) short, thin, smooth.

Notogaster (Figs 1A, 1C). Anterior notogastral margin convex medially. Dorsophragmata (D) of medium size, widely rounded. Nine pairs of notogastral setae represented by alveoli; only one pair of thin, smooth setae developed (p1, 8-10). Four pairs of sacculi present: Sa, S1 with elongate openings, S2, S3 with small, rounded openings. Circumgastric band of muscle sigillae distinct. Opisthonotal gland openings (gla) and lyrifissures developed in typical arrangement for genus.

Anogenital region (Figs 1B, 1C). Three pairs of adanal ([ad.sub.1]-[ad.sub.3], 16-20), one pair of aggenital (ag, 16-20), two pairs of anal ([an.sub.1], [an.sub.2], 12-16) and four pairs of genital ([g.sub.1]-[g.sub.4], 16-20) setae setiform, slightly barbed. Lyrifissures iad in para-anal position, located nearly to anal aperture.

Epimeral and lateral podosomal regions (Figs 1B, 1D). Apodemes 1, 2, 3 and sejugal apodemes distinct. Epimeral setal formula: 3-1-3-3. Setae (16-24) setiform, thin, slightly barbed; medial setae little shorter than others. Pedotecta I (Pd I) large, concave; pedotecta II (Pd II) rounded anteriorly. Discidia (dis) triangular, rounded. Circumpedal carina (cp) distinct.

Gnathosoma (Figs 2C-2E). Subcapitulum longer than wide: 118-123 x 82. Subcapitular setae setiform, barbed; h (28-32) longer than a, m (both 20). Lateral lips with two pairs of setiform, barbed adoral setae (or1, or2, 10-12). Palps (length 69-73) with setation 0-2-1-3-9 (+ra). Solenidion coupled with eupathidium acm. All setae (except some on tarsi) weakly barbed. Chelicerae (length 118-123) with two setiform, barbed cheliceral setae; cha (36-41) longer than chb (24-28).

Legs (Fig. 2F). Claw of each leg with several minute barbs on dorsally side. Formulae of leg setation and solenidia: I (1-5-2-4-19) [1-2-2], II (1-5-2-4-15) [1-1-2], III (2-3-1-3-15) [1-1-0], IV (1-2-2-3-12) [0-1-0]; homology of setae and solenidia indicated in Table 2. Almost all setae (except p) barbed or with short cilia. Famulus (e) short, straight, indistinctly dilated apically, blunted. Solenidia ra1 on tarsi I, ra1 and ra2 on tarsi II, a on genua III short, thickened, blunt-ended; other solenidia longer, thinner, setiform.

Holotype: [male] ETHIOPIA: Et-12-10. Preserved in ethanol (ZISP).

Paratypes: 1[male] 4[female] ETHIOPIA: Et-12-10. Preserved in ethanol (1[male] 2[female] SZMN; 2[female] PC).

Distribution: At present, this species is only known from the type locality.

Remarks: In having one pair of notogastral setae p1 (other setae represented by alveoli), spindle-form and ciliate sensilli, and rounded rostrum, P. paratranslamellatus sp. n. is similar to P translamellatus from Peru (Perez-Inigo & Baggio 1991); however, it differs from the latter by larger body size (481-531 x 298-348 versus 324-360 x 196-216), a rudimental translamellar line running nearly to lamellae (translamella complete in P. translamellatus), absence of prolamellar lines (present, not reaching insertions of rostral setae in P translamellatus), longer setae [p.sub.1] (minute in P translamellatus) and elongate openings of sacculi Sa, SI (rounded in P translamellatus).

From the Ethiopian species, Perscheloribates minutus (Pletzen 1965; Corpuz-Raros 1980) is the closest morphologically to P paratranslamellatus sp. n.; however, it differs from P minutus in that it has a larger body size (481-531 x 298-348 versus 343-394 x 216-303 in P minutus), absence of prolamellar lines (present in P minutus), and development of a single pair of notogastral setae p1 (versus p1-p3 developed in P minutus).

Family Oppiidae Sellnick, 1937

Genus Paroppia Hammer, 1968

Paroppia breviseta (Balogh, 1962)

Figs 3-4

Oppia breviseta: Balogh 1962: 100.

Paroppia breviseta: Sublas & Balogh 1989: 385.

Diagnosis (based on Ethiopian specimens): body size 315-332 x 182-199; rostrum rounded; rostral setae ciliate, longer than smooth lamellar and interlamellar setae; sensilli long, with elongate lanceolate, indistinctly barbed head; interbothridial region with three pairs of muscle sigillae; notogastral setae c represented by alveoli, other setae of medium size, thin, slightly barbed; anogenital setae of medium size, similar in length, smooth.

Description:

Measurements. Body (length x width): 315-332 x182-199 (2[male] 5[female]).

Integument. Body light brown. Dorsal and ventral surfaces of body smooth, lateral surfaces microgranulate.

Prodorsum (Figs 3A, 3C; 4A, 4B). Rostrum rounded. Rostral setae (24-32) setiform, unilaterally with short cilia. Lamellar and interlamellar setae similar in length (12), setiform, smooth. Sensilli (65-73) with long stalk and elongate lanceolate head; sensillar heads with several poorly developed barbs in anterior part (visible only under high magnification). Exobothridial setae and their alveoli absent. Interbothridial region with three pairs of muscle sigillae removed from each other.

Notogaster (Figs 3A, 3C, 4C). Anterior notogastral margin convex medially. A pair of small tubercles (tb) located dorsolaterally to anterior margin. Nine pairs of notogastral setae of medium size (18-24), setiform, with poorly developed barbs (visible only under high magnification); one pair (c) represented by alveoli. Circumgastric band of muscle sigillae distinct. Opisthonotal gland openings and lyrifissures developed in typical arrangement for genus.

Anogenital region (Figs 3B, 3C, 4G). Three pairs of adanal, one pair of aggenital, two pairs of anal, four pairs of genital setae similar morphologically: 12-26, setiform, thin, smooth. Lyrifissures iad in para-anal position, located near to anal aperture.

Epimeral and lateralpodosomal regions (Figs 3B, 3C). Apodemes 1, 2, 4 and sejugal apodemes distinct. Epimeral setal formula: 3-1-3-3. Setae 3c longer (24-28), barbed; other setae shorter (12-26), indistinctly barbed. Pedotecta I concave. Discidia triangular.

Gnathosoma (Figs 4D-4F). Subcapitulum anarthric, longer than wide: 65-73 x 49-53. Subcapitular setae similar in length (16-18), setiform, with one to three small barbs. Lateral lips without setae and associated alveoli. Palps (length 49-53) with setation 0-2-1-2-7 (+w). Solenidion thickened, blunt-ended, pressed to the palptarsus, not coupled with eupathidium. All setae (except some on tarsi) weakly barbed. Chelicerae (length 65-73) with one tooth on each movable and fixed digit; both cheliceral setae similar in length (10), setiform, slightly barbed.

Legs (Figs 4H-4J). Claw of each leg smooth. Apophysis on tibiae I well developed. Formulae of leg setation and solenidia: I (1-5-2-4-20) [1-2-2], II (1-5-2-4-16) [1-1-2], III (2-3-1-3-15) [1-1-0], IV (1-2-2-3-12) [0-1-0]; homology of setae and solenidia indicated in Table 3. Almost all setae (except p, s) barbed or with short cilia. Famulus short, straight, indistinctly dilated apically, blunted. Setae p on tarsi II-IV represented by poorly developed thorn-like setae. Solenidia a on genua I, II and 91 on tibia I long, setiform; other solenidia shorter, thickened, blunt-ended.

Material examined: 2 S 5$ ETHIOPIA: Et-12-10. Preserved in ethanol (PC).

Distribution: At present, this species is only known from Tanzania and Ethiopia.

Remarks: The present Ethiopian specimens of P brevipes are morphologically and in general appearance comparable to the Tanzanian specimens (Balogh 1962), although with slight differences: lamellar and interlamellar setae similar in length (interlamellar setae shorter in Tanzanian specimens), anterior part of sensillar heads with several poorly visible barbs (sensillar heads smooth in Tanzanian specimens), interlamellar muscle sigillae removed from each other (sigillae dense in Tanzanian specimens). We regard these differences as intraspecific (perhaps geographical) variability within the species.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We gratefully acknowledge Prof. Dr Gerd Weigmann (Free University of Berlin, Institute of Zoology, Berlin, Germany) and an anonymous reviewer for their valuable comments. This work was performed within the framework of the Joint Russian-Ethiopian Biological Expedition, financially supported by the Russian Academy of Sciences. We are appreciative to our Project Coordinators Dr Andrey Darkov and Ato Girma Yosef for management of the Expedition. We thank Mr Tariku Hunduma, director of the Ambo Plant Protection Research Center, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), for supporting field studies and organising laboratory operations. We are also grateful to A.I. Bastrakov of the Institute of Ecological and Evolutionary Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) for sampling assistance.

REFERENCES

Balogh, J. 1962. Acari Oribates. Annales duMuseeRoyal de I'Afrique Centrale (Serie Zoologie) 110: 90131.

Coetzer, A. 1967-1968. New Oribatulidae Thor, 1929 (Oribatei, Acari) from South Africa, new combinations and a key to the genera of the family. Memorias do Instituto de Investigagao Cientifica de Mogambique 9 (A): 15-126.

Corpuz-Raros, L. 1980. Philippine Oribatei (Acarina) V. Scheloribates Berlese and related genera (Oribatulidae). Kalikasan 9 (2-3): 169-245.

Ermilov, S.G. & Rybalov, L.B. 2013a. Two new species and new records of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) from Ethiopia. Annales Zoologici 63 (1): 45-55.

--2013b. Two new species of oribatid mites of the superfamily Oripodoidea (Acari: Oribatida) from Ethiopia. Systematic and Applied Acarology 18 (1): 71-79.

Ermilov, S.G., Rybalov, L.B. & Franke, K. 2011. Ethiopian oribatid mites of the family Scheloribatidae (Acari: Oribatida). African Invertebrates 52 (2): 311-322.

Ermilov, S.G., Sidorchuk, E.A. & Rybalov, L.B. 2012a. Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) of Ethiopia. Zootaxa 3208: 27-40.

Ermilov, S.G., Winchester, N.N., Lowman, M.M. & Wassie, A. 2012b. Two new species of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) from Ethiopia, including a key to species of Pilobatella. Systematic and Applied Acarology 17 (3): 301-317.

Hammer, M. 1973. Oribatids from Tongatapu and Eua, the Tonga Islands, and from Upolu, Western Samoa. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab Biologiske Skrifter 20 (3): 1-70.

Norton, R.A. & Behan-Pelletier, V.M. 2009. Oribatida. Chaper 15. In: Krantz, G.W. & Walter, D.E., eds, A Manual of Acarology. Lubbock: Texas Tech Univ. Press, pp. 430-564.

Perez-Inigo, C. & Baggio, D. 1991. Oribates edaphiques du Bresil (VI). Oribates de l'Etat de Sao Paulo (troisieme partie). Acarologia 32 (1): 79-92.

Pletzen, R. 1965. Studies on the South African oribatei (Acari). III. Further new species of the genus Scheloribates Berlese, 1908. Acarologia 17 (1): 113-120.

Subias, L.S. 2004. Listado sistematico, sinommico y biogeografico de los acaros oribatidos (Acariformes: Oribatida) del mundo (excepto fosiles). Graellsia 60 (numero extraordinario): 3-305. (http:// escalera.bio.ucm.es/usuarios/bba/cont/docs/RO_1.pdf; accessed in May 2013).

Subias, L.S. & Balogh, P. 1989. Identification keys to the genera of Oppiidae Grandjean, 1951 (Acari: Oribatei). Acta ZoologicaHungarica 35 (3-4): 355-412.

Sergey G. Ermilov [1] * and Leonid B. Rybalov [2]

[1] Tyumen State University, Semakova Street 10, 625003 Tyumen, Russia; ErmilovAcari@yandex.ru

[2] Institute of Ecological and Evolutionary Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskiy prospekt 33, 119071 Moscow, Russia; lrybalov52@mail.ru

* Corresponding author

TABLE 1

Oribatid mites collected from tree mosses (Et-12-10) and xerophytic
forest litter (Et-12-11) in Ethiopia.

Identification                Author

Nothridae
Nothrus crassisetus           Mahunka, 1982
Hermanniellidae
Hermanniella congoensis       Balogh, 1958
Pedrocortesellidae
Pedrocortesella africana      Pletzen, 1963
Aleurodamaeidae
Aleurodamaeus recenfesevpi    Ermilov & Rybalov, 2012
Damaeidae
Metabelba glabriseta          Mahunka, 1982
Astegistidae
Cultroribula bicuspidata      Mahunka, 1978
Gustaviidae
Gustavia longiseta            Mahunka, 1984
Liacaridae
Liacarus shipitsyni           Ermilov, Rybalov & Kemal, 2011
Oppiidae
Arcoppia rugosa               (Mahunka, 1974)
Neoamerioppia polygonata      (Mahunka, 1982)
Paroppia breviseta            (Balogh, 1962)
Phenopelopidae
Eupelops acromios             (Hermann, 1804)
Eupelops torulosus            (Koch, 1839)
Humerobatidae
Humerobates africanus         (Mahunka, 1984)
Caloppiidae
Zetorchella nortoni           Ermilov, Sidorchuk & Rybalov, 2010
Zetorchella pedestris         Berlese, 1916
Scheloribatidae
Perscheloribates
  paratranslamellatus sp. n
Scheloribates aethiopicus     Mahunka, 1982
Scheloribates discifer        Balogh, 1959
Galumnidae
Galumna lanceosensilla        Ermilov, Sidorchuk & Rybalov, 2011
Trichogalumna africana        Ermilov, Sidorchuk & Rybalov, 2011
Galumnellidae
Galumnella subareolata        Mahunka, 1969

Identification                Collecting site

                              Et-12-10    Et-12-11

Nothridae
Nothrus crassisetus                          x
Hermanniellidae
Hermanniella congoensis                      x
Pedrocortesellidae
Pedrocortesella africana          x
Aleurodamaeidae
Aleurodamaeus recenfesevpi                   x
Damaeidae
Metabelba glabriseta                         x
Astegistidae
Cultroribula bicuspidata                     x
Gustaviidae
Gustavia longiseta                           x
Liacaridae
Liacarus shipitsyni               x
Oppiidae
Arcoppia rugosa                              x
Neoamerioppia polygonata                     x
Paroppia breviseta                           x
Phenopelopidae
Eupelops acromios                            x
Eupelops torulosus                           x
Humerobatidae
Humerobates africanus                        x
Caloppiidae
Zetorchella nortoni                          x
Zetorchella pedestris             x
Scheloribatidae
Perscheloribates                             x
  paratranslamellatus sp. n
Scheloribates aethiopicus                    x
Scheloribates discifer            x
Galumnidae
Galumna lanceosensilla                       x
Trichogalumna africana                       x
Galumnellidae
Galumnella subareolata                       x

TABLE 2

Leg setation and solenidia of Perscheloribates paratranslamellatus
sp. n. Roman letters refer to normal setae (e-famulus), Greek letters
refer to solenidia. Single (') and double (") apostrophes mark
anteriorly and posteriorly placed setae on the given leg segments
respectively. Parentheses refer to a pair of setae.

Leg    Trochanter   Femur              Genu

I      V'            d, (l), bv", v"    (l) [sigma]

II     v'           d, l' l' bv", v"   (l) [sigma]

III    l', v'       d, l', ev'         l', [sigma]
IV     v'           d, ev'             d l'

Leg    Tibia

I      (l) (v), [[phi].sub.1], [[phi].sub.2]

II     (l) (v) [phi]

III    l', (v) [phi]
IV     l', (v) [phi]

Leg    Tarsus

I      (ft), (tc), (it), (p), (u), (a), s, (pv), v',
         (pl), e, [[omega].sub.1], [[omega].sub.2]
II     (ft), (tc), (it), (p), (u), (a), s, (pv),
         [[omega].sub.1], [[omega].sub.2]
III    (ft), (tc), (it), (p), (u), (a), s, (pv)
IV     ft", (tc), (p), (u), (a), s, (pv)

TABLE 3

Leg setation and solenidia of Paroppia breviseta (Balogh, 1962). See
Table 2 for explanation.

Leg   Trochanter   Femur             Genu

I     v'           d, (l), bv", v"   (l) [sigma]

II    v'           d, (l), bv", v"   (l) [sigma]

III   l', v'       d, l', ev'        l', [sigma]
IV    vr           d, ev'            d l'

Leg   Tibia

I     (l) (v) [[phi].sub.1],
        [[phi].sub.2]
II    (l) (v) [phi]

III   l', (v) [phi]
IV    l', (v) [phi]

Leg   Tarsus

I     (ft), (tc), (it), (p), (u), (a), s, (pv),
        v', (pl), l", e, [[omega].sub.1], [[omega].sub.2]
II    (ft), (tc), (it), (p), (u), (a), s,
        (pv), l", [[omega].sub.1], [[omega].sub.2]
III   (ft), (tc), (it), (p), (u), (a), s, (pv)
IV    ft", (tc), (p), (u), (a), s, (pv)
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Author:Ermilov, Sergey G.; Rybalov, Leonid B.
Publication:African Invertebrates
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Date:Jun 1, 2014
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