Printer Friendly

Estudio geobotanico de los pastizales acidofilos de las provincias de Abruzzo, Lazio y el Parque Nacional del Molise.

Ageobotanical survey on acidophilous grasslands in the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park (Central Italy)

INTRODUCTION

Among phytosociological studies on the Apennines, several concern the vegetation of the National Park of Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise (BAZZICHELLI & FURNARI, 1961, 1970; BRUNO & FURNARI, 1966; BRUNO & BAZZICHELLI, 1966). Still, there are some sectors of this area which have received minor attention, with only a small number of phytosociological studies often confined to very restricted areas (PIGNATTI, 1977; PETRICCIONE, 1985; PIRONE, 1997; DI PIETRO & al., 2004).

The present paper aims at providing a phytosociological and syntaxonomical classification of the acidophilous pastures of Mount Greco (2285 m a.s.l.), which are pertinent to beech woodlands series of vegetation, pointing out the main physical criteria influencing the spatial distribution of the various communities identified. Of particular interest are the grasslands dominated by Festuca paniculata subsp. paniculata a species considered very rare in the Apennines up to 20 years ago and which is now rapidly re-colonizing large areas as a consequence of extensive-grazing abandonment.

[FIGURA 1 OMITIR]

The distributional and coenological features of Festuca paniculata are quite interesting. This species exhibits various disconnected centers of distribution ranging between Portugal to Bulgaria and up to North Africa, and in western Himalaya through. Festuca paniculata is divided into three subspecies: Festuca paniculata subsp. paniculata is spread from the Pyrenees to the French Central Massif, the Alps, the Apennines, the Balkans and western Himalaya; F paniculata subsp. spadicea (L.) Litard grows from western Portugal to the Pyrenees and the French Central Massif; F. paniculata subsp. baetica (Hackel) Markgr.-Dannenb. is to be found in southern Spain and also in Algeria and in Tunisia (Fiori, 1923-29; TUTIN, 1964-80; HARTL, 1983; MEUSEL & al., 1965). In Italy Festucapaniculata subsp. paniculata communities -always rather localized- are to be found both on the Alps (Mondino, 1965; Barbero, 1970; Braun-Blanquet, 1972; Lacoste, 1975; Berberis & al., 1987; Lasen, 1995; Poldini & Oriolo, 1997; Sburlino & al., 1996,1999) and the Apennines, where populations of limited extension are reported in the Tuscan-Emilian sector (Barbero & Bonin, 1980; Rossi, 1994; Tomaselli & al., 1996, 1997,1999), on the Central Apennines and on Vulturino, Sila and Aspromonte in the Southern Apennines (Corbetta & al., 1984; Giacomini & Gentile, 1961; Brullo & al., 2001). In central Apennines Festuca paniculata exhibits a scattered distribution although it is locally abundant in mountainous areas such as Laga Mountains, Reatini Mountains and Mount Greco where it may cover relatively large zones (Bonin, 1978; Pedrotti, 1981; Gigli & al., 1991; Pirone & Tammaro, 1995; Pirone, 1997).

STUDY AREA

The object of this study are two limestone ranges running in a north-south orientation (Serra Sparvera-M.te Curio-Serra Santa Maria; Serra del Feudo-Pratello) and the valley that runs between them (Valle Chiarano), located in the external protection area in the eastern sector of the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park (Fig.1). Geologically, this area belongs to the <<facies marsicana di transizione>> due to the alternation of coarse deposits -- which can be traced back to a situation of cliff -- and micritic-pelagic deposits of <<Maiolica>> and <<Scaglia>> (Colacicchi, 1964,1967). From a geomorphological point of view the study area appears to have been subject to glacial processes evident - especially in the Valle Chiaranofrom lateral and frontal moraines, glacial erosion escarpments, drumlins etc. (Damiani & Pannuzi, 1991; Giraudi, 1998).

The vegetation releves were carried out between 1500 and 1900 m a.s.l., a bioclimatic area which is to be included in the cold axeric region and temperate subregion (Blasi, 1994), with montane thermotype and humid ombrotype. The average annual temperature ranges between 6 and 7,5[degrees]C while rainfalls are between 1100 and 1200 mm/yr.

DATA AND METHODS

The phytosociological releves were collected in the summers of 2000 and 2001 using the phytosociological method of the zurich-Montpellier school (Braun-Blanquet, 1928). The matrix of 44 releves for 140 species was transformed in accordance with Van Der Maarel (1979), and subjected to multivariate analysis procedures (cluster analysis and ordination) using the Syntax 2000 package (Podani, 2001). The species nomenclature follows Conti (1998) while for life forms and chorotypes reference was made to Pignatti (1982 see Table 1). Each plant community identified was moreover subjected to soil survey according to Sanesi (1977). Each soil sample was air-dried, powdered in a mortar and sieved with a 2 mm sieve. According to Osservatorio Nazionale Pedologico methods (1994), the samples were then subjected to pH in H2o; total carbonates; percentage of organic carbon; percentage of organic matter; total nitrogen; aivalable phosphorus; exchange acidity; analysis of exchangeable bases; particlesize analysis; assessment of soil water availability to plant communities (AWC) according to Salter & Williams (1967-69). The soil samples were then identified to subgroup level with Soil Taxonomy (1998).

[FIGURA 2 OMITIR]

[FIGURA 3 OMITIR]

RESULTS

The dendrogram, obtained through chord distance and average linkage clustering, shows a relatively clear divisions between the communities dominated by Festuca paniculata, Nardus stricta and Brachypodium genuense, respectively (Fig. 2). The PCoA confirms the autonomy of the clusters emerged through classification, and ranges them along the first axis according to decreasing pH values (Fig. 3).

Poo violaceae-Nardetum strictae Pedrotti 1981 festucetosum circummediterraneae Biondi & al. 1999 (Table 4).

This grassland community does not occur frequently in the survey area, and is characteristic of flattish morphotypes, the bottom of dolines and slightly sloping drainage lines. The physiognomy is that of the typical central Apennines Nardus communities, which are characterized by marked floristic poorness and whose dominant species are Nardus stricta and, in the second place, Bellardiochloa variegata (Poa violacea). in the surveyed area are always present Agrostis capillaris, Dianthus deltoides and Festuca rubra subsp. commutata. on a strictly territorial scale this community lacks exclusive species, with the exception of Erodium alpinum which is occasionally to be found also in some aspects of Festuca paniculata grasslands. From a chorological point of view, the species with Boreal and oroph. S-European chorotypes reach the highest percentages among the all the grassland types identified, while structurally the tufty Hemycryptophytes are -as expected- clearly dominant (Table 1).

The reference soils belong to the Inceptisols order, suborder udepts, great group Dystrudepts, sub-group humic Dystrudepts (calcic and acid brown soils). These soils have a depth of over one meter and a low base content (base saturation= 25,7%) plus high acidity (pH=5,2-5,4) consequent to their extensive leaching. Available water content (AWC) is high: 200-400 mm (Table 2).

Potentillo rigoanae-Festucetum paniculatae Bonin 1978 corr. hoc loco (Table 5).

Festuca paniculata communities appear in the study area as widespread populations whose features are easily distinguishable from those of the surrounding grasslands. The dominant species is constantly accompanied by Potentilla rigoana, Brachypodium genuense, Galium verum, Festuca rubra subsp. commutata, and often also by Nardus stricta. From a syntaxonomical point of view, these communities should be included in Potentillo-Festucetum. This association is developed in form of three variants, related to different micro-morphotypes. The variant with Euphorbia gasparrini subsp. samnitica (Table 5, Rel. 8-13) includes those stands located at the footslopes or in the depressions embedded in ancient morainal material. The variant with Satureja vulgaris subsp. vulgaris (Table 5; Rel. 1-7) is relative to pioneer stands of limited extension, located at the border of beech woods. The variant with Armeria canescens (Table 5; Rel. 14-23) is developed in form of xerophilous stands rich in species of dry grasslands (Phleo-Bromion) and it is found mainly on southfacing slopes or where the layer of topsoil is particularly thin. This last variant shows the exclusive presence of Genista sagittalis, a plant rarely found in the Central Apennines (CONTI, 1998). A fourth group of releves (Table 5; Rel. 24-27) which is related to F. paniculata stands developed on natural terraces is recognizable for the absence of all those species indicated as differentials in the above variants. From a chorological point of view (Table 1) F. paniculata communities are mainly characterized by Boreal (18%), Oroph. S-European (17%), Eurasiatic (16%) and Endemic (14%) chorotypes. Structurally, Hemycryptophytes are absolutely dominant, and the occurrence of both Chamaephytes and Nanophanerophytes (the last ones represented only by a few scattered specimens of Juniperus communis subsp. nana) is extremely poor (Table 1).

The reference soils (Table 2) belong to the Inceptisols order, suborder udepts, great group Dystrudepts, subgroup humic Dystrudepts (calcic brown soils). These soils are deep and well-developed, showing a high water availability (AWC= 170-280 mm), and acid pH (5,3-5,6) because many of the calcium ions have already been removed (Ca++ = 14-20 meq / 100 g; base saturation= 31-45%).

Brachypodium genuense grasslands:

The grasslands dominated by Brachypodium genuense cover a large part of the study area, especially in the north-facing slopes, while they are less widespread on the south-facing slopes (where Festuca paniculata is prevalent) and in flattish areas. The two communities identified are syntaxonomycally belonging to different associations.

[FIGURA 4 OMITIR]

[FIGURA 5 OMITIR]

Nardo strictae-Brachypodietum genuensis Pignatti 1977 corr. hoc loco (Table 6).

These are typically close grasslands which are located in flattish areas generally occurring at the footslopes of mountain sides. Apart from Brachypodium, these communities consist of Nardus stricta, Luzula campestris, Dianthus deltoides, Galium verum, Potentilla rigoana, Cruciata laevipes and Digitalis ferruginea. The chorological diagram (Table 1) shows a roughly equal percentages of Boreal, Orophytes S.-European and Eurasiatic species. Structurally there is here -- compared to the other communities identified -- an evident increase of rosulate Hemycryptophyte probably due to the presence of both rich soils and a fair quantity of light at ground level (Table 1).

[FIGURA 6 OMITIR]

Nardo-Brachypodietum soils belong to the Inceptisols order, suborder Udepts, great group Dystrudepts, subgroup humic Dystrudepts (calcic brown soils). The soils are about one meter deep; the texture is mainly silty but shows also a significant presence of both coarse sands and clay. Calcium ions have for the most part been removed (Ca++ = 17 meq / 100 g; base saturation= 46%), pH is acid (5,6) and the water content is high (AWC= 184 mm) (Table 2).

Potentillo rigoanae-Brachypodietum genuensis Lucchese, Persia & Pignatti 1995 (Table 7).

Located on medium-steep slopes, this kind of Brachypodium genuense communities are relatively open. Apart from Brachypodium genuense, they consists of Helictotrichon praetutianum, Bunium bulbocastanum, Potentilla rigoana, Armeria canescens and Achillea tenorii (this latter being almost exclusively in these communities). In chorological terms there is the prevalence of the Endemic chorotype, both in the normal spectrum and in the cover one. Orophytes S.-European and Eurasiatic components are nonetheless quite high. Structurally, there is a significant presence of both Chamaephytes and Therophytes, but the Hemycryptophytes are still prevailing (Table 1). The first three releves of Table 7 (Rel. 39, 41, 43) were collected on slopes of moderate slant and include still some species which testimony an intermediate character between the acidophilous (Nardo strictae-Brachypodietum genuensis) and the neutral-subacidophilous (Potentillo rigoanae-Brachypodietum genuensis). The last releve (Rel. 44, Tab. 7) marks the shift towards a micro-chemaephitic vegetation with dominance of Helianthemum oleandicum subsp. incanum typical of humps and convex slopes.

Potentillo rigoanae-Brachypodietum genuensis soils are to be included in theMollisols order, suborder Udolls, great group Hapludolls, subgroup entic Hapludolls (brown rendzina). The profile is relatively deep (55 cm) and the clay content is low. Calcium ions are high (Ca++ = 38 meq / 100 g; base saturation= 64%), resulting in a subacid reaction (pH=6,7). Water content is high (AWC= 163 mm) (Table 2).

SOIL-VEGETATION RELATIONSHIP

The soils investigated show some characters which testify the earlier occurrence of a woodland vegetation. in fact, the decay of the micro-thermic beechwoods and of the secondary dwarf-shrublands began about 8000 years ago, as shown by some coal layers found in the deposits of this zone (Giraudi, 1999). These soils originate from calcareous materials, either in situ or organized in morainal, fluvioglacial or layer drift deposits, which in the late glacial period and the early Holocene mixed with pyroclastic materials --related to <<Tufo giallo napoletano>>-- and aeolian deposits (loess) (Frezzotti & Giraudi, 1989, 1990). Mineralogical analysis of the deposits found that quartz prevails among the minerals in aeolian deposits and k-feldspar, glass, plagioclases, pyroxenes and amphiboles predominate in deposits of volcanic origin (Frezzotti & Giraudi, 1989). This results in a moderate shift toward acidity in the pH values of these soils. The present survey, which was restricted to secondary acidophilous grasslands, pointed out the soils belong to two orders, Mollisols and inceptisols, which usually are related to woodland potential vegetation types (the first on slopes and the second on flat areas) of the pedological-evolutionary series on limestone (Sburlino & al., 1999). The soils surveyed here are characterized by a Frigid thermotype, which in the adjacent Gran Sasso mountains is found between 1580 and 1750 m (Calandra, 1999) and a Udic moisture regime.

[FIGURA 7 OMITIR]

Acidophilous communities of Poo violaceae-Nardetum strictae, Potentillo rigoanae-Festucetum paniculatae and Nardo strictae-Brachypodietum genuensis were all found on Inceptisols. Because Poo-Nardetum occupies the most stable areas (level ground and depressions), its edaphic condition is the most evolved (brown acidic soil and brown calcic soil). Potentillo-Festucetum and Nardo-Brachypodietum are found only on brown calcic soil.

A moderate, subacidic soil comparable to a brunified rendzina is found for Potentillo-Brachypodietm, and it marks the transition towards the basic-neutrophilous communities of Koelerio splendentis-Brometum erecti (Biondi & al., 1992).

Among edaphic parameters, those which follow most closely the distribution of the various communities identified are pH, the ratio between acid (H+) and basic (Ca, Mg, K, Na) cations, available water content (A. W. C.) and granulometric values.

The table of pH (Fig. 4) shows a decrease in acidity when passing from Poo-Nardetum to PotentilloFestucetum and then to Nardo-Brachypodietum, and a clear distinction between these three and Potentillo-Brachypodietum. The same kind of distinction can be observed in the ratio H+/basic cations (Fig. 5) where the values for Nardus communities are the highest, as expected, while Potentillo-Festucetum and Nardo-Brachypodietum are placed slightly below the 50% line and Potentillo-Brachypodietum shows a dominance of basic cations. Granulometric analysis (Fig. 6) points out an increase in the percentage of coarse sands when passing from Nardus to Festuca paniculata and then to Brachypodium communities. The clay content is higher for those communities with an acidophilous character (Nardus and Festuca paniculata), and shows a clear decrease in Potentillo-Brachypodietum. Available water content of the soils (Fig. 7) marks above all a distinction between the communities of Nardus and Brachypodium.

SINDYNAMICAL FEATURES

A syndynamical link between Potentillo-Festucetum, Potentillo-Brachypodietum and Poo-Nardetum can be poorly hypothesized because of the highly competitive behaviour of Festuca paniculata, Nardus stricta and Brachypodium genuense in their respective optimal environments. However, the abundance of Brachypodium genuense in some releves which have been included in the variant with Armeria of Potentillo-Festucetum could suggest a more or less recent stage of colonization of F. paniculata that could have replaced a pre-existent Brachypodietum due to a landuse change (e.g. the mowing interruption followed by a progressively decreasing livestock pressure). Even if this hypothesis should be confirmed, the dynamical passage Potentillo-Brachypodietuml Potentillo-Festucetum would be limited to the south-facing slopes being Festuca paniculata stands almost completely missing in the north-facing ones. A more or less similar process could be considered valid as regards the possible colonization of flatland by Festuca paniculata (Potentillo-Festucetum variant with Euphorbia gasparrini), which would happen mainly at the expense of Nardo-Brachypodietum.

in general, all the grassland communities identified have to be included in the beech woodlands climatophilous belt. In this case the potential vegetation type is Cardamino kitaibelii-Fagetum. On the mountain sides, gradual deforestation resulted in the eluviation of parts of the area and favoured the growth of more or less dry grassland communities such as Koelerio-Brometum (on steep slopes) or PotentilloBrachypodietum (on less steep slopes). On the flatland and in the depressions it is likely that the heavy grazing progressively led to the passage from limited-acidity Brachypodium communities to NardoBrachypodietum, and from Cynosurion rich mesophilous grasslands to Poo violaceae-Nardetum (in both cases through the gradual felting and acidification of the soil). The recent wide diffusion of Festuca paniculata is probably ascribable to the decrease of the livestock pressure during the last century, which resulted in an increase in the nitrifying power due to the reduced compression of soil surface (Quantin & Nentien, 1940; Gerola & Gerola, 1956-57).

The syndynamical progressive evolution towards the woody communities appears to be very slow, and in fact specimens of Juniperus communis subsp. nana, Amelanchier ovalis, Cotoneaster integerrimus, Ribes uva-crispa, Sorbus aria, Rosa canina, Rubus idaeus and Sorbus aucuparia were found only sporadically in the grassland communities. Among these species only Juniperus communis subsp. nana appears to be able to penetrate the Brachypodium and Festucetum communities on the slopes (Potentillo rigoanae-Festucetum paniculatae var. with Armeria canescens) and develop into downright thickets in form of the association Helianthemo-Juniperetum nanae (Blasi, 1989). On the contrary no shrubs were found in Festuca paniculata or Nardus stricta communities developed on flatlands and in the slope depressions. in fact also Juniperus nana would therefore appear to be unable to successfully colonize these more acidic grasslands (in Blasi & al., 1990 Helianthemo grandiflori-Juniperetum alpinae was found to be developed on soils with pH=5,5-6,5). On the other hand, Fagus individuals seems unable to take root directly on these grasslands, probably due to the thick layer of dead leaves and roots measuring up to 10-15 cm. At present, therefore, both Poo-Nardetum and Potentillo-Festucetum (especially the variant with Euphorbia gasparrini) appear dynamically stable. it is likely, however, that the occurrence of a certain degree of extensive grazing in this area could play an important role in keeping the dynamical evolution blocked. in fact, the similar Nardus and Festuca paniculata communities found on the neighbouring Laga Mountains and on Mount Terminillo (Pedrotti, 1982; Gigli & al., 1991; Abbate & al., 1994) exhibit clear seral relationship with the subalpine Vaccinium myrtillus dwarf-shrublands, while the Luzulo sieberi-Festucetum paniculatae of southern italy, is successfully colonized by Sorbus aucuparia stands.

SYNTAXONOMICAL DISCUSSION

Due to the dominance of Nardus stricta and Bellardiochloa variegata, all Nardus communities surveyed in this study can be included in Poo violaceae-Nardetum strictae which was described in Pedrotti (1981) for Laga Mountains. The presence of several ingressive species of Festuco-Brometea justifies its inclusion in the subassociation festucetosum circummediterraneae (Biondi & al., 1999), which substitutes the typicum aspect on calcareous substrates. Releve 34 on Table 4 exhibits the dominance of Agrostis capillaris and Nardus stricta and a limited presence of Bellardiochloa variegata. This aspect is to be considered just a transitory phase which is due to a early stage of the soil evolution (morainal soil), therefore it has not been included in the association Agrostio tenuis-Nardetum strictae (Gigli & al., 1991).

Festuca paniculata communities are to be included in Potentillo-Festucetum paniculatae. Bonin (1978) proposed the name Potentillo-Festucetum spadiceae for the Festuca paniculata communities of the upper montane and subalpine belt of Mount Terminillo, extending the presumed range of this association to most of the Central Apennines. Still on Mount Terminillo, Gigli & al. (1991) doubt the possibility of Festuca paniculata communities could be included in Potentillo-Festucetum, because the ecological amplitude of such a syntaxon would in their opinion be too wide to be restricted to the association rank only. In a paper dated 1981 but effectively published only in 1983, Pedrotti gives a description of Brachypodio-Festucetum spadiceae on the Laga Mountains relying on a single releve with a floristic list of only ten species. In 1982 though the same author had published a phytosociological table consisting of 4 releves and referred to Brachypodio-Festucetum Pedrotti 1981, with an average of 35 species per releve. Even though growing on substrata of different nature (marly calcareous for Potentillo-Festucetum and flysch arenaceous pelitic for Brachypodio-Festucetum), the differences in floristic composition between the two communities do not appear to be such as to require a separation at association level (Tab. 3). Leaching and acidification phenomena affecting high mountain soils, even on limestones (especially where calcareous skeleton is lacking), might be responsible of a certain convergence in the edaphic anc consequently floristic and coenological traits of these two areas. It is not by accident that Potentillo-Festucetum on Mount Terminillo and Brachypodio-Festucetum on the Laga Montains have both dynamical contacts with the subalpine Vaccinium myrtillus heathlands.

Concerning nomenclatural issues, the association Potentillo-Festucetum spadiceae Bonin 1978 is validly published (Art. 1). According to Gigli & al. (1991), however, it is likely that the taxonomical attribution of some diagnostic species recorded in the original phytosociological table (Bonin, 1978) is to be considered as wrong. In fact, on the basis of further field observations and according to recent Floras and checklists (Anzalone, 1996; Tondi & Plini, 1995; Conti, 1998) the records of Potentilla aurea and Potentilla tabernaemontani should be reported to Potentilla rigoana and those of Brachypodium pinnatum to Brachypodium genuense. Furthermore, the principle of nomenclatural priority requires that the binomial Festuca spadicea be substituted by Festuca paniculata (the wrong identification of the same species occurred also in the original table of Brachypodio-Festucetum proposed by Pedrotti). The names of both associations, modified in accordance with ICPN (Art. 43), are therefore Potentillo rigoanae-Festucetum paniculatae Bonin 1978 corr. Di Pietro,De Santis & Fortini 2005 and Brachypodio genuensis-Festucetum paniculatae Pedrotti 1981, corr. Di Pietro,De Santis & Fortini 2005. On the basis of the floristic and coenological similarities mentioned above, however, is our opinion that these two associations (Potentillo-Festucetum and Brachypodio-Festucetum) behave as syntaxonomical synonyms, and, as a consequence, Potentillo rigoanae-Festucetum paniculatae would therefore obtain nomenclatural priority (Art. 22). Since the original paper in which was published lacks the nomenclatural type, it is necessary to provide a lectotype which is choosen hoc loco. (lectotypus of Potentillo-Festucetum: rel. 861 table 9 in Bonin, 1978).

The releves of Brachypodio-Festucetum on Laga Mountains, though referable to Potentillo-Festucetum, identify a new subassociation with the name of Potentillo rigoanae-Festucetum paniculatae hypericetosum richerii (Holotype: Ril. 1, Tab 4, Pedrotti, 1982) which is characteristic of sandy-pelitic substrates with high levels of acidity and water retention. The differential species of this subassociation are Hypericum richeri, Trifolium thalii, Pedicularis verticillata and Pedicularis tuberosa (1).

Concerning higher syntaxonomical levels, Bonin (1978) placed Potentillo-Festucetum in RanunculoNardion an alliance having a prevailing central and southern Apennine distribution (Bonin, 1972). Pedrotti (1982), on the other hand, highlighted a certain similarity between Brachypodio-Festucetum and Potentillo-Festucetum, but made no mention of the higher syntaxonomical level.

In the present paper we agree with the inclusion of Potentillo-Festucetum paniculatae to the alliance Ranunculo-Nardion. In fact Potentillo-Festucetum shows definite floristic peculiarities, due to the presence of endemic and amphiadriatic species such as Achillea tenorii, Euphorbia gasparrini subsp. samnitica, Erodium alpinum, Potentilla rigoana, Brachypodium genuense, Ajuga tenorei, Viola eugeniae subsp. eugeniae, Helictotrichon praetutianum, Campanula micrantha, Senecio scopolii, Silene roemeri, Ranunculus sartorianus.... which confirm the floristic and coenological autonomy of the Apennine biogeographical area. At the rank of order and class we agree with a preliminary inclusion in Nardetalia and Nardetea, at least for the time being, because of the lack even at European level of an organic classification of mountainous acidophilous grasslands (compare Oberdorfer, 1978; Molina Abril, 1993; De Foucault, 1993; Mucina, 1993, 1997; Theurillat & al., 1995; Poldini & Oriolo, 1997).

Brachypodium genuense stands are referred to: Potentillo rigoanae-Brachypodietum and Brachypodio-Nardetum strictae two associations whose traits for the Central Apennines have already been defined. Potentillo rigoanae-Brachypodietum genuensis, whose type-releve (Rel. 10, Tab. 2, Lucchese,Persia & Pignatti, 1995) was collected precisely in the Valle di Chiarano (which is included in our study area), is typical of the medium-steep limestone slopes of the montane bioclimatic belt. This association was previously identified as Anthoxantho odoratiBrachypodietum genuensis brometosum (Lucchese, 1987) whereas the subassociation <<nardetosum>>was referred to more mesophilous and acidic environments. Brachypodio-Nardetum was described in the same geographical area (Pignatti, 1997) and it is typical of flattish areas with acidic soil formerly covered by beech woods. In our opinion, the subassociation Anthoxantho odorati-Brachypodietum genuensis nardetosum (Lucchese, 1987) is entirely to be ascribed to Brachypodio-Nardetum strictae. Nevertheless the shift between Potentillo rigoanaeBrachypodietum and Brachypodio-Nardetum is gradual, giving rise to a pattern of coenological types whose position is intermediate between the standard ones (Releves 41, 39 and 43 of Table 7 show all the characteristic species of Potentillo rigoanae-Brachypodietum, together with many species of Nardetea strictae). According to Gehu & Rivas-Martinez (1981), these releves should be theoretically considered as a Nardus strictae variant of Potentillo rigoanae-Brachypodietum genuensis (confirming the proposal of Blasi & al., 1998 for Simbruini mountains).

A reference to Anthoxantho-Brachypodietum (2) as a new syntaxon, has recently been proposed for a grassland type occurring on the simbruini Mountains, in Central Apennines (Attorre & Bruno, 2003). This reference, however, has been avoided in the present paper since this association does not appear to have a real and authonomous coenological space outside Potentillo-Brachypodietum and Brachypodio-Nardetum.

In nomenclatural terms the association Brachypodio-Nardetum Pignatti 1977 has never been typified. The lectotypification is consequently made in this paper (lectotype: releve 33, table 57 in Pignatti, 1977). The name itself of the association needs to be modified. We propose to the ICPN Nomenclature Commission that the name Brachypodio-Nardetum Pignatti 1977 be changed into Nardo strictaeBrachypodietum genuensis Pignatti 1977, corr. Di Pietro,De Santis & Fortini 2005. This because the releves of the original table of Brachypodio-Nardetum show Nardus stricta as always subordinate to Brachypodium genuense (which was wrongly recorded as B. pinnatum). since the three releves which in the present paper are included to Nardo strictaeBrachypodietum genuensis were performed in the nearby the <<locus classicus>> of this association, they have therefore been listed here together with those published in Pignatti, 1977 (Rel. 1 Table 52, Pignatti, 1977, was left out because relative to a different kind of vegetation) in the attempt to produce a more reliable synoptic table for this association (Table 6).

As for the higher rank syntaxa, PotentilloBrachypodietum and Nardo-Brachypodietum show different references. In fact Potentillo rigoanaeBrachypodietum belongs to class Festuco-Brometea, order Brometalia erecti, alliance Phleo-Bromion. Within this alliance, Potentillo-Brachypodietum refers to suballiance Brachypodenion genuensis, which includes all those grassland types developed within the upper montane belt, On the contrary, Nardo-Brachypodietum belongs to class Nardetea strictae, order Nardetalia strictae, alliance Ranunculo-Nardion. The choice of including in different classes grassland types sharing the same dominant species and adjoining each other spatially should not come as a surprise, being a consequence of the considerable ecological amplitude of Brachypodium genuense which is able to form communities also in Thlaspietea rotundifolii (Feoli & Feoli-Chiapella, 1983) and Elyno-Seslerietea (Di Pietro & al., 2004).

SYNTAXONOMICAL SCHEME

NARDETEA STRICTAE Oberd. 1949

Nardetalia strictae Oberd. 1949 em. Preising 1949

Ranunculo pollinensis-Nardion strictae Bonin 1972

Potentillo rigoanae-Festucetum paniculatae Bonin 1978 corr. Di Pietro, De Santis & Fortini hoc loco (Lectotypus hoc loco design. rel. 861, Table 9, in Bonin, 1978).

[= Brachypodio genuensis-Festucetum paniculatae Pedrotti 1983 corr. Di Pietro, De Santis & Fortini hoc loco: synt. synon.]

Potentillo rigoanae-Festucetum paniculatae typicum . Potentillo rigoanae-Festucetum paniculatae hypericetosum richeri Di Pietro, De Santis & Fortini subass. nov. (holotypus hoc loco design. rel. 1, Table 4, in Pedrotti, 1982).

Nardo strictae-Brachypodietum genuensis Pignatti 1977, corr. Di Pietro, De Santis & Fortini hoc loco, nom. inver. prop. hoc loco

(Lectotypus hoc loco design. rel. 33, Table 57, in Pignatti, 1977).

[= Nardo-Brachypodietum Pignatti 1977: Basion.; = Anthoxantho odorati-Brachypodietum genuensis nardetosum Lucchese, Persia & Pignatti 1995: nom. inval. art. 5;]

Poo violaceae-Nardetum strictae Pedrotti 1983 Poo violaceae-Nardetum strictae festucetosum circummediterraneae Biondi, Ballelli, Allegrezza, Taffetani, Frattaroli, Guitian, Zuccarello 1999

FESTUCO-BROMETEA Br.-Bl. et Tx. 1943 ex Klika et Hadac 1944

Brometalia erecti Br.-Bl. 1936 Phleo ambigui-Bromion erecti Biondi et Blasi ex Biondi, Ballelli, Allegrezza, Zuccarello 1995 Brachypodenion genuensis Biondi, Ballelli, Allegrezza, Zuccarello 1995

Potentillo rigoanae-Brachypodietum genuensis Lucchese, Persia, Pignatti 1995 [= Anthoxantho odorati-Brachypodietum genuensis brometosum erecti Lucchese, Persia & Pignatti 1995: nom. inval. art. 5; Anthoxantho odorati-Brachypodietum genuensis Lucchese, Persia & Pignatti ex Attorre & Bruno 2003: synt. syn.]

APPENDIX 1: COMPLETE LIST OF THE SINTAXA QUOTED IN THE TEXT

Agrostio tenuis-Nardetum strictae Gigli, Abbate, Blasi & Di Marzio 1991; Anthoxantho odorati-Brachypodietum genuensis brometosum Lucchese 1987; Anthoxantho odorati-Brachypodietum genuensis nardetosum Lucchese 1987; Anthoxantho- Brachypodietum Attorre & Bruno 2003; Brachypodenion genuensis Biondi, Ballelli, Allegrezza & Zuccarello 1995; Brachypodio-Festucetum spadiceae Pedrotti 1983; Brachypodio-Nardetum strictae Pignatti 1977; Brometalia erecti Br.-Bl. 1936; Cardamino kitaibelii-Fagetum Ubaldi & al. ex Ubaldi 1995; Cynosurion Tuxen 1947; Elyno-Seslerietea Br.-Bl. 1948; Festuco-Brometea Br.-Bl. & Tuxen ex Br.-Bl. 1949; Helianthemo grandiflori-Juniperetum alpinae Blasi, Gigli, Abbate & Stanisci 1989; Koelerio splendentis--Brometum erecti Biondi, Allegrezza, Ballelli, Calandra, Crescente, Frattaroli, Gratani, Rossi & Taffetani 1992; Luzulo sieberi-Festucetum paniculatae Corbetta, Ubaldi & Puppi 1984, corr. in Biondi, Ballelli, Allegrezza & Zuccarello 1995; Nardetalia Oberd. 1949 em. Preising 1949; Nardetea Oberd. 1949; Nardo strictae-Brachypodietum genuensis Pignatti 1977 corr. in Di Pietro, De Santis, Fortini & Blasi hoc loco; Phleo ambigui-Bromion erecti Biondi & Blasi ex Biondi, Ballelli Allegrezza et Zuccarello 1995; Poo violaceae- Nardetum strictae festucetosum circummediterraneae Biondi, Ballelli, Allegrezza, Taffetani, Frattaroli, Guitian & Zuccarello 1999; Poo violaceae-Nardetum strictae Pedrotti 1983; Potentillo rigoanae--Brachypodietum genuensis Lucchese, Persia & Pignatti 1995; Potentillo rigoanae-Festucetum paniculatae Bonin 1978 corr. In Di Pietro, De Santis, Fortini & Blasi hoc loco; Potentillo-Festucetum hypericetosum richerii Di Pietro, De Santis, Fortini & Blasi subass. nov.; Potentillo-Festucetum subass. <<typicum>> Bonin 1978; Ranunculo-Nardion Bonin 1972; Thlaspietea rotundifolii Br.-Bl. 1948.

Recibido 7 Marzo 2005

Aceptado 15 Julio 2005

REFERENCES

Abbate, G., Di Marzio, P. & Gigli, M.P. --1994-- Dynamics between Nardus stricta L. grasslands and Vaccinium myrtillus L. communities in the Monti Reatini (central italy) -- Fitosociologia 26: 93-98.

Anzalone, B. --1996-- Prodromo della flora romana. (Elenco preliminare delle piante vascolari spontanee del Lazio). Aggiornamento. -- Ann. Bot. (Roma) 54: 7-47.

Attorre, F. & Bruno, F. --2003-- Processi di riforestazione naturale della faggeta nella fascia altitudinale inferiore del versante laziale del Massiccio dei Monti Simbruini (Italia centrale) -- Fitosociologia 40 (1): 55-71.

Barbero M. --1970-- A propos des Hetraies des Alpes maritimes et ligures--Ann. Fac. Sci. Marseille, 44, 43-78.

Barbero, M. & Bonin, G. --1980-- La vegetation de l'Appennin septentrional. Essai d'interpretation synthetique -- Ecologia Mediterranea, 5: 275-313.

Bazzichelli, G. & Furnari, F. --1961-- Cenni comparativi sulla vegetazione di altitudine al Gran Sasso d'Italia e a Forca Resuni nel Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo -- Nuovo Giorn. Bot. It. n. s. 68 (3-4): 372-375. Firenze.

Bazzichelli, G. & Furnari, F. --1970-- Ricerche sulla flora e sulla vegetazione di altitudine nel Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo.--Pubbl. 1st. Bot. Univ. Catania. II.

Berberis, G., Paola, G. & Peccenini Gardini, S. --1987-- Note illustrative della carta della vegetazione dell'alta Valle Arroscia (Alpi Liguri, Liguria occidentale) -- Suppl. Atti 1st. Bot. Lab. Crittog. Univ. Pavia, serie 7, vol. 6.

Biondi, E. & Blasi, C. --1982-- Crepido lacerae-Phleion ambigui nouvelle alliance pour les paturages arides a Bromus erectus de l'Apennin calcaire central et meridional -- Doc. Phytosoc. 7: 435-442.

Biondi, E., Allegrezza, M., Ballelli, S., Calandra, R., Crescente, M.F., Frattaroli, A.R., Gratani, L., Rossi, A., Taffetani, F. -- 1992-- indagini per una cartografia fitoecologica dell'altipiano di Campo Imperatore (Gran Sasso d'Italia) -- Boll. A.I.C. 86: pp. 85-98.

Biondi, E., Ballelli, S., Allegrezza, M. & Zuccarello, V. -- 1995-- La vegetazione dell'ordine Brometalia erecti Br.-Bl. 1936 nell'Appennino (Italia) -- Fitosociologia 30: 3-45.

Biondi, E., Ballelli, S., Allegrezza, M., Taffetani, F., Frattaroli, A.R., Guitian J., Zuccarello V. --1999--. La vegetazione di Campo Imperatore (Gran Sasso d'Italia) -- Braun-Blanquetia, 16.

Blasi, C., Gigli, M.P., Abbate, G. & Stanisci, A. --1989-- Le cenosi a Juniperus nana Willd. nel Lazio (Appennino Centrale) -- Ann.Bot. (Roma) 47, Studi sul territorio, suppl. 6: 135-148.

Blasi, C., Gigli, M.P., Stanisci, A. --1990-- I cespuglietti altomontani del gruppo del M. Velino (italia Centrale) -- Ann. Bot. (Roma) 48, Studi sul territorio, suppl. 7: 243-262.

Blasi, C., Stanisci, A., Abbate, G. & Gigli, M.P. --1990-- Syntaxonomy and chorology of the Vaccinum myrtillus communities in the Monti Reatini (Central Italy) -- Giorn. Bot. Ital. 124: 259-279.

Blasi, C.--1994-- Fitoclimatologia del Lazio -- Ed. Regione Lazio. Dip. di Biol. Vegetale Universita <<La Sapienza>> Roma.

Blasi, C., Capotorti, G. & Fortini, P. --1998-- On the vegetation series in the northern sector of the Simbruini Mountains (Central Apennines) -- Fitosociologia 35: 85-102.

Bonin, G. --1972-- Premiere contribution a l'etude des pelouses mesophiles et des groupements hygrophiles du Monte Pollino (Calabre) -- Phyton 14: 271-280.

Bonin, G.--1978-- Contribution a la connaissance de la vegetation des montagnes de l' Apennin centro-meridional -- These, Marseille, 318pp.

Braun-Blanquet, J. --1928-- Ptlanzensoziologie -- Springer Verlag Vienna.

Braun-Blanquet, J. --1972-- L'alliance du Festucion spadiceae des Alpes sud-occidentales -- Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 119 (9): 591-602.

Brullo, S., Scelsi, F. & Spampinato, G. --2001-- La vegetazione dell'Aspromonte. Studio fitosociologico -- Laruffa Editore.

Bruno, F. & Bazzichelli, G. --1966-- Note illustrative alla Carta della vegetazione del Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo -- Ann. Bot. (Roma) 28 (3): 740-778.

Bruno, F., Funari, F. & coll. --1966-- Excursion de la Societe Internationale de Phytosociologie dans les Abruzzes (Apennins Centraux ) -- Not. Fitosoc. 3: 1-50.

Calandra, R. --1999-- i suoli di Campo imperatore (Gran Sasso d'italia) -- Braun-Blanquetia 16: 21-33.

Colacicchi, R. --1964-- La facies di transizione della Marsica Nord-orientale. I -- Serie della Serra Sparvera e della Rocca di Chiarano-Geol. Rom., vol. 3, pp. 93-124.

Colacicchi, R. --1967-- Geologia della Marsica orientale -- Geol. Rom. 4: 189-316.

Conti, F. --1998-- Flora d'Abruzzo: elenco sistematico delle piante vascolari presenti in Abruzzo -- Ente autonomo parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo.

Corbetta, F., Ubaldi, D. & Puppi, G. --1984-- Tipologia fitosociologica delle praterie altomontane del Monte Volturino e del Monte della Madonna di Viggiano (Appennino lucano) -- Biogeogr. 10: 207-236.

Damiani, A.V. & Pannuzi, L. --1991-- La glaciazione pleistocenica nell'appennino laziale-abruzzese. Nota VI: i ghiacciai del gruppo del M. Greco e considerazioni di tettonica recente -- Boll. Serv. Geol. d'It. 110: 111-158.

De Focault --1993-- Essai synsystematique sur les pelouses seches acidophiles (Nardetea strictae, Caricetea curvalae) -- Coll. Phytosoc. 22: 431-455.

Di Pietro, R., Proietti, S., Fortini, P. & Blasi, C. --2004-- La vegetazione dei ghiaioni del settore sud -- orientale del Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo -- Fitosociologia 41 (2).

Feoli, E. & Feoli Chiapella, L. --1983-- Prodromo della vegetazione dei brecciai appenninici -- C.N.R. Aq/5/40 collana del programma finalizzato alla <<Promozione e Qualita ambientale>>: 3-99. udine.

Fiori, A. --1923-29-- Nuova Flora Analitica d'Italia 1-2-Edagricole, Firenze.

Frezzotti, M. & Giraudi, C. --1989-- Evoluzione geologica tardo-pleistocenica ed olocenica del piano di Aremogma (Roccaraso-Abruzzo): implicazioni climatiche e tettoniche -- Mem. Soc. Geol. It. 42: 5-19, 5 ff.

Frezzotti, M. & Giraudi, C. --1990-- Sedimenti eolici tardopleistocenici ed olocenici nell'Appennino Centrale -- Mem. Soc. Geol. it. 45: 883-886.

Frezzotti, M. & Giraudi, C. --1990-- Late Glacial and Holocene aeolian deposits and features near Roccaraso (Abruzzoitaly) -- Quaternary international, 5, 89-95.

Gerola, F.M. & Gerla, D.V. --1956-57-- Ricerche sui pascoli delle Alpi centro-orientali -- Memorie del museo di storia naturale della Venezia Tridentina, 11.

Gehu, J.-M. & Rivas-Martinez, S. --1981-- Notions fondamentales de phytosociologie -- In: Dierschke H. (Ed.). Syntaxonomie. Ber. int. Symp., Rinteln (1980): 5-33. Cramer, Vaduz.

Giacomini, V. & Gentile, S. --1961-- observations synthetiques sur la vegetation anthropogene montagnarde de la Calabre (italie meridionale) -- Bericht uber das internationale Symposium in Stolzenau Weser.

Gigli, M.P., Abbate, G., Blasi, C., Di Marzio, P. --1991-- Le praterie a Nardus stricta L. dei Monti Reatini (Lazio, Italia centrale) -- Ann. Bot. (Roma), 49, suppl. 8: 201-212.

Giraudi, C. --1998-- Alcuni dati per l'inquadramento cronologico delle fasi glaciali tardo -- pleistoceniche dei Monti Greco e Serra Chiarano (Abruzzo-Italia Centrale) -- II Qua ternario 11 (1): 115-120.

Giraudi, C. --1999-- incendi di eta pleistocenica superiore e olocenica sulle montagne dell'Appennino Centrale -- II Quaternario 12 (2): 257-260.

Hartl, V.H. --1983-- Einige ostalpine Vorkommen des Goldschwingelrasens (Hypochoeris uniflora-Festucetum paniculatae Hartl 1983) -- Carinthia II 93: 43-54.

Lacoste, A.--1975-- La vegetation de l'etage subalpin du bassin superieur de la Tinee (Alpes-Maritimes) -- Phytocoenolo gia 3 (2-3):123-346.

Lasen, C. --1995-- Note sintassonomiche e corologiche sui prati aridi del Massiccio del Grappa -- Fitosociologia 30: 181-199.

Lucchese, F. --1987-- Biosistematica ed Ecologia dei gruppi Brachypodium pinnatum s.l. e Brachypodium rupestre s.l. in Italia -- Tesi di dottorato 1986-87, Roma.

Lucchese, F. --1987-- Ruolo di alcune specie del genere Brachypodium nelle associazioni prative e forestali -- Not. Fitosoc. 23: 173-188.

Lucchese, F., Persia, G. & Pignatti, S. --1995-- I prati a Bromus erectus Hudson dell'Appennino Laziale -- Fitosociologia 30: 145-180.

Maarel, E. van der --1979-- Trasformation of cover -- abundance value and its effects on community similarity -- Vegetatio 39: 97-144.

Meusel, H., Jager, E. & Weinert, E. --1965-- Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropaischen Flora -- Jena.

Molina Abril, J.A. --1993-- Resumen sintaxonomico de las comunidades vegetales de Francia y Espana hasta el rango de alianza-Coll. Phytosoc. 22: 56-110.

Mondino, GP. --1965-- La vegetazione della Valle Grana (Alpi Cozie) -- Allionia 11, pp. 183-260.

M.R.A.A.F., Osservatorio Nazionale Pedologico e per la qualita del suolo --1994-- Metodi ufficiali di analisi chimica del suolo -- Ministero delle risorse agricole, alimentari e fores tali. Roma.

Mucina, L. --1993-- Nomenklatorische und syntaxonomische Definitionen, Konzepte und Methoden -- In Mucina, L., Grabherr, G. & Ellmauer, T. (Eds.). Die Pflanzengesellschafren osterreichs, 1, Anthropogene Vegetation: 19-28. G. Fischer, Jena.

Mucina, L. --1997-- Conspectus of classes of european vegetation -- Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 32: 117-172.

Oberdorfer, E. --1978-- Suddeutsche Pflanzengesellschaften-Teil II -- Gudtav Fischer Verlag, Jena-Suttgart-New York.

Pedrotti, F. --1981-- Sulla vegetazione dei monti della Laga (italia centrale) -- Giorn. Bot. ital. 115: 354.

Pedrotti, F. --1982-- La vegetation des monts de La Laga-Guide-Itineraire -- Excursion Internationale de Phytosociologie en Italie central (2-11 juillet 1982): 365-371, Camerino.

Petriccione, B. --1985-- Una nuva stazione di Leontopodium nivale (Ten.) Huet sull'Appennino centrale -- Ann. Bot. (Roma) suppl. 3: 151-156.

Pignatti, S. --1977-- Carta della montagna -- Ministero dell'-Agricoltura e delle Foreste.

Pignatti, S. --1982-- Flora d'Italia -- Ed. Edagricole, Bologna.

Pirone, G. & Tammaro, F. --1995-- La vegetazione del bacino del Lago di Campotosto (Abruzzo) -- Giorn. Bot. ital. 129(2): 276.

Pirone, G. --1997-- Il paesaggio vegetale di Rivisondoli aspetti della flora e della vegetazione -- Azienda autonoma di soggiorno e turismo Rivisondoli (AQ.) pp. 1-100.

Podani, J. --2001-- Sin-tax 2000 computer programs for data analysis in ecology and systematics -- Scientia Publisching, Budapest.

Poldini, L. & Oriolo, G. --1997-- La vegetazione dei pascoli a Nardus Stricta e delle praterie subalpine acidofile in Friuli (NE-Italia) -- Fitosociologia 34:127-158.

Quantin, A. & Nentien, G. --1940-- Les associations vegetales de l'etage alpin des Alpes de l'oisans -- Bull. Soc. Bot. France 87: 27-45.

Rossi, G. --1994-- Carta della vegetazione del Monte Prado (Parco Regionale dell'alto Appennino Reggiano, Regione Emilia-Romagna) -- Note illustrative. Atti 1st. Bot. e Lab. Critt. Univ. Pavia, s. 7, 10 (1991): 3-24.

Salter, P.J. & Williams, J.B. --1967-- The influence of texture on moisture characteristics of soil. V ) Relationship between particle size composition and moisture contents at upper and lower limits of avaible water -- J. Soil Sci. 20: 126-131. oxford.

Sanesi, G. --1977-- Guida alla descrizione del suolo -- Prog. Fin. <<Conservazione del suolo>> C.N.R., Pubbl. no 11, Firenze 157 pp.

Sburlino, G., Buffa, G. & Ghirelli, L. --1996-- L'analisi corologica nell'interpretazione sintassonomica: l'esempio delle praterie a Festuca paniculata (L.) Sch.et Th. -- Giorn. Bot. Ital. 130 (11): 236-247.

Sburlino, G., Bini, C., Buffa, G., Zuccarello, V., Gamper, u., Ghirelli, L. & Bracco, F. --1999-- Le praterie ed i suoli della Vallefredda (Falcade - Belluno, NE - Italia) -- Fitosociologia 36 (1): 23-60.

Soil Survey Staff, U.S.D.A. --1993-- Soil Survey Manual-H. N. 18 -- Washington.

Soil Survey Staff, U.S.D.A. --1998-- Keys to Soil Taxonomy -- Eighth edition.

Theurillat, J.P., Aeschimann, D., Kupfer, P. & Spichiger, R. -- 1995-- The higher vegetation units of the Alps -- Coll. Phytosoc. 23: 189-239.

Tomaselli, M., Del Prete, C. & Manzini, M.L. --1996-- Parco Regionale dell'alto Appennino Modenese, l'ambiente vegetale-Regione Emilia -- Romagna, Bologna.

Tomaselli, M., Rossi, G., Manzini, M.L. & Del Prete, C. -- 1997-- Carta della vegetazione del Parco Regionale del Corno alle Scale-Regione Emilia -- Romagna, Bologna.

Tomaselli, M. & Gualmini, M. --1999-- indicizzazione del valore naturalistico dei pascoli di altitudine nel Parco Regionale dell'alto Appennino Modenese (italia settentrionale) -- Arch. Geobot. Vol. 5 (1-2) pp.: 135-144.

Tondi, G. & Plini, P. --1995-- Prodromo della flora dei Monti della Laga (Appennino centrale - versante laziale) -- ACLI ANNI VARDI, Roma.

Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A. --196480-- Flora Europaea 1-5 -- Cambridge Univ. Press.

Ubaldi, D. --1995-- Tipificazione di syntaxa forestali appenninici e siciliani-Studi sul territorio -- Ann. Bot. (Roma), 51 (i parte): 113-126.

Weber, H.E., Moravec, J. & Theurillat, J.P. --2000-- International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature, 3rd ed. -- J. Veg. Sci. 11: 739-768.

Romeo Di Pietro (*), Alessandro De Santis (*) & Paola Fortini (**)

(**) Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale. Universita <<La Sapienza>>. P.le Aldo Moro 5. I-00185, Roma, Italy.

(*) Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie per l'Ambiente ed il Territorio. Universita del Molise. Viale Mazzini 8. I- 08170 Isernia. italy.

(1) The decision not to use for the name of this subassociation the releve in Pedrotti (1981) already mentioned for the association Brachypodio-Festucetum is due to the fact that this releve is clearly not representative of the floristic and ecological traits of this community, since the floristic list of species appears excessively limited (about 1/3 of the actual species) in comparison with releves published by other authors (compare Pedrotti, 1982) or those in the present paper, and referred to the same association.

(2) The association Anthoxantho-Brachypodietum Lucchese ex Attorre & Bruno 2003 shows in our opinion some incongruities in the original diagnosis. While the name AnthoxanthoBrachypodietum Lucchese 1987 is invalid according to Art. 1of ICPN (Weber & al., 2000) and has been invalidly used again by Lucchese & al. 1995, it is not clear whether the new diagnosis made in Attorre & Bruno (2003) is to be referred to subassociation brometosum erecti or to subassociation nardetosum strictae. Because of the absence of Nardus stricta in the releves of Anthoxantho-Brachypodietum by Attorre & Bruno, and due to the presence of Bromus erectus we tend to consider this diagnosis as closer to subassociation brometosum erecti, which is precisely the one used by Lucchese & al. (1995) for valid description of Potentillo rigoanae-Brachypodietum. But what really fits almost perfectly with the diagnosis of Potentillo rigoanae-Brachypodietum by Lucchese & al. 1995 is the original phytosociological table of Anthoxantho-Brachypodietum found in ATTORRE & BRUNO (2003), and especially its releve-type (Rel. 4, Tab. 4 on page 64). In fact both table and typre-releve describe a mesophilous mountain grassland dominated by Brachypodium genuense and characterized by a relevant presence of ingressive species from Phleo-Bromion erecti. Moreover, the original table of Anthoxantho-Brachypodietum sensu ATTORRE & BRUNO 2003 contains almost all those species which where considered as characteristic of Potentillo-Brachypodietum in Lucchese & al. (1995). The choice of using two different syntaxa at the rank of association for describing grassland communities which are rather similar would therefore appear whether tenable nor justified.
Table 1.--Chorotypes and life forms spectra calculated from
simple presence, frequency and cover values of the species
in the phytosociological tables.

                                         Potentillo-
                      Poo-Nardetum        Festucetum

Chorotypes                       Presence %

Amphiadriatic              0,7                3,9
Subatlantic                0,7                1,2
Boreal                    27,3               18,3
Central-Europ.             0,7                3,7
Endemic                   12,2               14,6
Eurasiatic                13,7               16,7
Euri-Medit.                3,6                4,2
Europ-Caucas.              5,8                6,3
Medit.-Mont.               7,9                8,4
SE-Europ. oroph.          21,6               16,9
SE-European                5,8                5,4
Subcosmop.                   0                0,5

Life forms                       Presence %

Chamaephytes               1,4                  4
Geophytes                  1,4                2,6
H bienn                    0,7                0,9
H caesp.                  43,2               34,7
H rep.                     0,7                0,2
H ros.                     7,9               11,5
H scap.                   43,2               44,3
Phanerophytes                0                0,2
Therophytes                1,4                1,7

                         Nardo-          Potentillo-
                     Brachypodietum     Brachypodietum

Chorotypes                       Presence %

Amphiadriatic              5,1                4,3
Subatlantic                4,1                3,6
Boreal                    18,6                8,6
Central-Europ.             2,1                6,1
Endemic                   11,3               16,8
Eurasiatic                19,6               13,2
Euri-Medit.                5,1               10,7
Europ-Caucas.              5,1                7,9
Medit.-Mont.               8,2                7,9
SE-Europ. oroph.          15,5               15,4
SE-European                5,2                3,6
Subcosmop.                   0                2,1

Life forms                       Presence %

Chamaephytes                 1                8,2
Geophytes                  4,1                  5
H bienn                    2,1                0,4
H caesp.                    32               30,7
H rep.                       0                  0
H ros.                    15,5               13,2
H scap.                   43,3               38,9
Phanerophytes                0                  0
Therophytes                2,1                3,6

                                         Potentillo-
                      Poo-Nardetum        Festucetum

Chorotypes                       Frequency %

Amphiadriatic              2,1                2,7
Subatlantic                2,1                2,7
Boreal                    20,8               15,5
Central-Europ.             2,1                3,6
Endemic                   12,5               13,6
Eurasiatic                 8,3               13,6
Euri-Medit.                6,2                4,5
Europ-Caucas.              6,2                6,4
Medit.-Mont.              10,4                9,1
SE-Europ. oroph.          22,9               16,4
SE-European                6,2                 10
Subcosmop.                   0                1,8

Life forms                       Frequency %

Chamaephytes               4,2                8,2
Geophytes                  4,2                5,5
H bienn                    2,1                0,9
H caesp.                  29,2                 20
H rep.                     2,1                0,9
H ros.                    12,5               14,5
H scap.                   43,7               46,4
Phanerophytes                0                0,9
Therophytes                2,1                2,7

                         Nardo-          Potentillo-
                     Brachypodietum     Brachypodietum

Chorotypes                       Frequency %

Amphiadriatic              3,8                4,5
Subatlantic                3,8                2,2
Boreal                    17,3               10,1
Central-Europ.             1,9                3,4
Endemic                    9,6               13,5
Eurasiatic                15,4               14,6
Euri-Medit.                5,8                6,7
Europ-Caucas.              3,8                6,7
Medit.-Mont.              11,5               11,2
SE-Europ. oroph.          19,2                18
SE-European                7,6                6,7
Subcosmop.                   0                2,2

Life forms                       Frequency %

Chamaephytes               1,9               11,2
Geophytes                  3,8                5,6
H bienn                    1,9                1,1
H caesp.                  28,8               24,7
H rep.                       0                  0
H ros.                    17,3               10,1
H scap.                   44,2               41,6
Phanerophytes                0                  0
Therophytes                1,9                5,6

                                         Potentillo-
                      Poo-Nardetum        Festucetum

Chorotypes                        Cover %

Amphiadriatic              0,3                0,6
Subatlantic                0,1                0,1
Boreal                    50,4                6,4
Central-Europ.             0,1                2,4
Endemic                    6,4               13,7
Eurasiatic                 3,4                5,7
Euri-Medit.                0,5                0,8
Europ-Caucas.              0,7                1,2
Medit.-Mont.               0,7               64,1
SE-Europ. oroph.          35,5                3,7
SE-European                1,9                1,1
Subcosmop.                   0                0,1

Life forms                        Cover %

Chamaephytes               0,1                  5
Geophytes                  0,1                0,4
H bienn                    0,1                0,1
H caesp.                  84,7               75,9
H rep.                     0,3                  0
H ros.                     1,2                1,7
H scap.                   13,4               15,9
Phanerophytes                0                0,1
Therophytes                0,1                0,9

                         Nardo-          Potentillo-
                     Brachypodietum     Brachypodietum

Chorotypes                        Cover %

Amphiadriatic              1,4                0,8
Subatlantic                0,6                1,4
Boreal                    11,7                3,1
Central-Europ.             0,3                2,4
Endemic                   60,2               59,2
Eurasiatic                11,9                8,7
Euri-Medit.                1,4                6,9
Europ-Caucas.              2,6                7,6
Medit.-Mont.               1,8                2,7
SE-Europ. oroph.             6                5,9
SE-European                  2                0,7
Subcosmop.                   0                0,6

Life forms                        Cover %

Chamaephytes               0,1                7,2
Geophytes                  0,6                2,2
H bienn                    0,9                0,1
H caesp.                  77,5               70,9
H rep.                       0                  0
H ros.                     3,5                4,9
H scap.                     17               14,1
Phanerophytes                0                  0
Therophytes                0,3                0,6

Table 2.--Soil features spectrum of the grassland community types
identified.

                                      cm      hor.      pH     CaCO3

profile 1
Poo--Nardetum                         25       A       5,2       0
(Dystrudept humic;acid                35       B1      5,4       0
                                      70       B2      5,5       0
                                      50       B3      5,7       0

profile 2
Poo--Nardetum                         30       A       5,4       0
(Dystrudept humic;calcic              30       B1      6,1       0
brown soil)                           25       B2      7,1       0

profile 3
Potentillo--Festucetum                20       A1      5,3       0
Euphorbia samnitica variant           40       B1      5,8       0
(humic Dystrudept ;calcic             15       B2       6        0
brown soil)

profile 4
Potentillo--Festucetum                25       A       5,6       0
Armeria canescens variant             35       B1      5,6       0
(humic Dystrudept;calcic              20       B2      5,6       0
brown soil)                           20      B/C      5,6       0

profile 5
Potentillo--Festucetum                15       A       5,6       0
Satureja vulgaris variant             30       B1      5,7       0
(humic Dystrudept;calcic              20       B2      5,8       0
brown soil)

profile 6
Nardo--Brachypodietum                 20       A       5,6       0
(humic Dystrudept;calcic              30       B1      5,7       0
brown soil)                           30       B2      5,9       0

profile 7
Potentillo--Brachypodietum            30       A1      6,7       0
(entic Hapludoll; brown rendzina)     25       A2       7        0

                                     org.     org.
                                    mat. %    C %      N %      C/N

profile 1
Poo--Nardetum                         13      7,6      1,7      10,8
(Dystrudept humic;acid               6,9       4       0,4      9,4
                                     7,4      4,3      0,5      5,6
                                     3,8      2,2      0,3      8,5

profile 2
Poo--Nardetum                        11,3     6,5      0,8      8,5
(Dystrudept humic;calcic             6,3      3,7      0,6      6,6
brown soil)                          6,2      3,6      0,4      8,6

profile 3
Potentillo--Festucetum                12       7       0,8      9,2
Euphorbia samnitica variant          7,8      4,5      0,5      9,2
(humic Dystrudept ;calcic            7,8      4,5      0,5      9,2
brown soil)

profile 4
Potentillo--Festucetum               14,4     8,38     0,7      12,7
Armeria canescens variant            11,4     6,6      0,5      12,1
(humic Dystrudept;calcic             10,8     6,3      0,5      11,8
brown soil)                          4,2      2,46     0,2      11,2

profile 5
Potentillo--Festucetum               11,7     6,8      0,6      10,9
Satureja vulgaris variant             6       3,5      0,4      9,1
(humic Dystrudept;calcic             1,8       1       0,2      5,8
brown soil)

profile 6
Nardo--Brachypodietum                 8       4,6      0,4      10,2
(humic Dystrudept;calcic             2,9      1,7      0,3      5,9
brown soil)                           2       1,1      0,2      6,3

profile 7
Potentillo--Brachypodietum           10,9     6,3      0,8       8
(entic Hapludoll; brown rendzina)    8,8      5,1      0,6      8,3

                                      P      Exch.
                                    avail.    Ac.

                                    p.p.m.    meq/
                                     of P    100g.

profile 1
Poo--Nardetum                         50      36,8
(Dystrudept humic;acid               42,6     33,4
                                      26      34,5
                                      11      31,2

profile 2
Poo--Nardetum                        10,6     36,6
(Dystrudept humic;calcic             14,8     25,8
brown soil)                          17,8     16,5

profile 3
Potentillo--Festucetum               14,8     36,3
Euphorbia samnitica variant           7       30,6
(humic Dystrudept ;calcic             10      29,3
brown soil)

profile 4
Potentillo--Festucetum               5,2       31
Armeria canescens variant             2        32
(humic Dystrudept;calcic             5,2       35
brown soil)                           10      20,9

profile 5
Potentillo--Festucetum               18,2     26,3
Satureja vulgaris variant            3,4      27,6
(humic Dystrudept;calcic              5       19,7
brown soil)

profile 6
Nardo--Brachypodietum                25,2     23,1
(humic Dystrudept;calcic             24,2     20,8
brown soil)                           17      16,7

profile 7
Potentillo--Brachypodietum           8,8      21,8
(entic Hapludoll; brown rendzina)    3,2       20

                                         Exch. Cations meq/100g

                                      Ca       Mg       K        Na

profile 1
Poo--Nardetum                        10,4     1,6      0,5      0,1
(Dystrudept humic;acid                6       0,9      0,3      0,1
                                     6,5      1,2      0,2      0,1
                                     4,6      0,7      0,2      0,1

profile 2
Poo--Nardetum                        10,8     1,4      0,3      0,2
(Dystrudept humic;calcic             23,2      1       0,2      0,1
brown soil)                          45,5     2,3      0,2      0,2

profile 3
Potentillo--Festucetum               14,3     1,7      0,5      0,2
Euphorbia samnitica variant          15,5      1       0,2      0,2
(humic Dystrudept ;calcic            17,9     0,9      0,2      0,4
brown soil)

profile 4
Potentillo--Festucetum                21      3,8      0,4      0,2
Armeria canescens variant            17,8     2,4      0,2      0,1
(humic Dystrudept;calcic             17,1     2,3      0,2      0,2
brown soil)                          27,5     1,7      0,3      0,2

profile 5
Potentillo--Festucetum               17,8     2,6      0,9      0,1
Satureja vulgaris variant            8,6      1,3      0,3      0,1
(humic Dystrudept;calcic             9,2      1,7      0,1      0,1
brown soil)

profile 6
Nardo--Brachypodietum                16,9     2,3      0,3      0,2
(humic Dystrudept;calcic              16      2,3      0,1      0,1
brown soil)                          15,9     1,8      0,2      0,1

profile 7
Potentillo--Brachypodietum           37,9     1,84     0,3      0,2
(entic Hapludoll; brown rendzina)    43,4     2,3      0,1      0,2

                                              Base
                                    C.E.C.   satur%

                                     Meq/
                                    100g.

profile 1
Poo--Nardetum                        49,5     25,5
(Dystrudept humic;acid               40,7     17,9
                                      42      18,3
                                     36,8     15,3

profile 2
Poo--Nardetum                        49,3     25,7
(Dystrudept humic;calcic             50,3     48,6
brown soil)                          64,7     74,4

profile 3
Potentillo--Festucetum               53,1     31,6
Euphorbia samnitica variant          47,5     35,6
(humic Dystrudept ;calcic            48,7     39,9
brown soil)

profile 4
Potentillo--Festucetum               56,4      45
Armeria canescens variant            52,5     39,1
(humic Dystrudept;calcic             55,1      36
brown soil)                          50,7     58,7

profile 5
Potentillo--Festucetum               47,7      45
Satureja vulgaris variant            37,9     27,2
(humic Dystrudept;calcic             30,9     36,1
brown soil)

profile 6
Nardo--Brachypodietum                42,8     46,2
(humic Dystrudept;calcic             39,3     47,2
brown soil)                          34,7     51,9

profile 7
Potentillo--Brachypodietum           62,1     64,8
(entic Hapludoll; brown rendzina)     66      69,7

                                            Texture

                                             Sand%

                                    coarse    med.     fine

profile 1
Poo--Nardetum                         5       2,8      4,5
(Dystrudept humic;acid               6,2      2,9      5,5
                                     5,9      2,5      5,7
                                     14,2     6,6      6,9

profile 2
Poo--Nardetum                        2,2      0,8      1,7
(Dystrudept humic;calcic             1,7      0,9      2,1
brown soil)                          0,7      0,7      1,9

profile 3
Potentillo--Festucetum               1,8       1       1,6
Euphorbia samnitica variant          2,7      1,3      2,3
(humic Dystrudept ;calcic             5       2,3      3,5
brown soil)

profile 4
Potentillo--Festucetum               8,7      3,3      4,7
Armeria canescens variant            7,7      3,2       5
(humic Dystrudept;calcic             7,1      2,8      5,8
brown soil)                          13,3     4,1      5,1

profile 5
Potentillo--Festucetum               5,1      2,7      4,4
Satureja vulgaris variant            4,7      2,1      5,2
(humic Dystrudept;calcic             5,5      3,1      5,2
brown soil)

profile 6
Nardo--Brachypodietum                5,8      3,9      6,7
(humic Dystrudept;calcic             9,1      6,4      7,5
brown soil)                          7,4      4,8      7,1

profile 7
Potentillo--Brachypodietum            8        3       4,3
(entic Hapludoll; brown rendzina)     8       3,1      4,2

                                        Texture       A.W.C.

                                    Sit %    Clay %     mm

profile 1
Poo--Nardetum                        55,5     32,2
(Dystrudept humic;acid               61,8     23,6
                                     61,7     24,6
                                     56,4      16      470

profile 2
Poo--Nardetum                        66,1     29,3
(Dystrudept humic;calcic             67,5     27,7
brown soil)                          64,8      32      240

profile 3
Potentillo--Festucetum               61,5     34,1
Euphorbia samnitica variant          69,8     23,9
(humic Dystrudept ;calcic             61      28,2     216
brown soil)

profile 4
Potentillo--Festucetum               48,1     35,1
Armeria canescens variant             57       27
(humic Dystrudept;calcic             62,1     22,2
brown soil)                          37,5      40      280

profile 5
Potentillo--Festucetum               56,1     31,7
Satureja vulgaris variant             71       17
(humic Dystrudept;calcic             62,2      24      170
brown soil)

profile 6
Nardo--Brachypodietum                 51      32,6
(humic Dystrudept;calcic              59       18
brown soil)                          51,6      29      184

profile 7
Potentillo--Brachypodietum           73,5     11,2
(entic Hapludoll; brown rendzina)    67,1     17,5     163

                                           Colour

profile 1
Poo--Nardetum                       7,5 YR 4/4 brown
(Dystrudept humic;acid              7,5 YR 4/4 brown
                                    7,5 YR 4/3 brown
                                    10 YR 6/4 d. y.orang.

profile 2
Poo--Nardetum                       7,5 YR 4/4 brown
(Dystrudept humic;calcic            7,5 YR 4/4 brown
brown soil)                         7,5 YR 4/3 brown

profile 3
Potentillo--Festucetum              7,5 YR 4/4 brown
Euphorbia samnitica variant         7,5 YR 4/4 brown
(humic Dystrudept ;calcic           7,5 YR 4/3 brown
brown soil)

profile 4
Potentillo--Festucetum              7,5 YR 4/3 brown
Armeria canescens variant           7,5 YR 4/3 brown
(humic Dystrudept;calcic            7,5 YR 3/3 darkbrown
brown soil)                         7,5 YR 4/2 grayish b.

profile 5
Potentillo--Festucetum              7,5 YR 4/4 brown
Satureja vulgaris variant           7,5 YR 4/4 brown
(humic Dystrudept;calcic            7,5 YR 4/4 brown
brown soil)

profile 6
Nardo--Brachypodietum               7,5 YR 4/4 brown
(humic Dystrudept;calcic            7,5 YR 4/4 brown
brown soil)                         7,5 YR 4/4 brown

profile 7
Potentillo--Brachypodietum          7,5 YR 3/4 darkbrown
(entic Hapludoll; brown rendzina)   7,5 YR 3/3 darkbrown

Table 3
Synoptic table of all the Festuca paniculata communities described
for the central Apennines.

                                                               M.
                                             M. Greco      Terminillo

Altitude (range)                            1600-1850      1600-2000
Order N.                                        1              2

Characteristics:

Festuca paniculata                              V              IV
Trifolium pratense subsp. semipurpureum        III             IV
Bellardiochloa variegata                       III             I
Festuca rubra subsp. commutata                  V              IV
Hieracium pilosella (s.l.)                     III             II
Luzula multiflora                               I              IV
Nardus stricta                                  V              II
Plantago atrata subsp. fuscescens               I              II
Ranunculus sartorianus                          II             IV
Viola eugeniae subsp. eugeniae                  I              IV
Dianthus deltoides                              IV             II
Gentiana lutea                                  I              IV
Rumex nebroides                                 I              IV
Potentilla rigoana                              V              V
Botrychium lunaria                              I             ...
Vaccinium myrtillus                            ...             II
Luzula italica                                 ...             II
Agrostis capillaris                            III            ...
Luzula campestris                              III            ...
Rumex acetosella                                I             ...
Taraxacum apenninum                             I             ...
Veronica orsiniana                              I              II
Phleum alpinum subsp. rhaeticum                ...             I
Pedicularis tuberosa                           ...            ...
Trifolium thalii                               ...            ...
Coeloglossum viride                            ...            ...
Ajuga tenorei                                   II            ...
Hypericum richeri                              ...            ...

Transgressive species from
Molino-Arrhenatheretea:

Lotus corniculatus                              IV             IV
Anthoxanthum odoratum                           II             V
Trifolium repens                                I             III
Achillea setacea                                IV             II
Galium verum                                    V              II
Cruciata laevipes                               II            III
Poa pratensis                                   I              I
Briza media                                     I             ...
Rumex acetosa                                   IV            ...
Bellis perennis                                ...             II
Plantago lanceolata                            ...            III

Transgressive species from
Festuco-Brometea:

Cerastium arvense                               IV             IV
Asperula cynanchica                             II             II
Carlina acaulis subsp. caulescens               II            ...
Euphrasia stricta                               I             ...
Thymus longicaulis                              I             ...
Trifolium montanum subsp. rupestre              I             ...
Carex caryophyllea                             ...             I
Bromus erectus                                  I              I
Campanula glomerata                             I              II
Dianthus sylvestris (s.l.)                      I              I
Festuca circummediterranea                     III            III
Knautia purpurea                                I              IV
Teucrium chamaedrys                             I              I
Thymus praecox subsp. polytrichus               I              II
Trifolium ochroleucon                           I              II
Carex macrolepis                                I             ...
Helianthemum nummularium (s.l.)                 I             ...
Leontodon hispidus                              I             ...
Narcissus poeticus                              I             ...
Achillea tenorii                                II            ...

Transgressive species from
Elyno-Seslerietea:

Polygala alpestris                              I              IV
Cynoglossum magellense                          I              I
Satureja alpina                                 I              I
Helictotrichon praetutianum                     II             I
Phyteuma orbiculare                             I             ...
Armeria canescens                               II            ...
Biscutella laevigata                            I             ...
Senecio scopolii                               III             II
Carduus carlinifolius                           II            ...
Galium anisophyllon                             II            ...
Silene roemeri subsp. staminea                  I             ...
Potentilla crantzii                            ...             I
Pulsatilla alpina                              ...             I
Gentiana verna                                 ...             II
Hieracium lactucella                           ...             I
Myosotis alpestris                             ...             II
Minuartia verna                                ...            ...
Leucanthemum heterophyllum                     ...            ...
Pedicularis verticillata                       ...            ...
Carex kitaibeliana                             ...            ...

other species:

Brachypodium genuense                           V              I
Poa alpina                                      I              IV
Campanula scheuchzeri                           II             I
Cruciata laevipes                               II            III
Campanula micrantha                             I              I
Silene multicaulis                              I             ...
Persicaria bistorta                            ...             II
Ajuga reptans                                  ...             II
Verbascum longifolium                          III            ...
Asphodelus macrocarpus                         ...             IV
Cruciata glabra                                ...            ...
Crocus vernus                                  ...            ...

                                             Reatini          Laga
                                            mountains      mountains

Altitude (range)                            1850-1950      2000-2250
Order N.                                        3              4

Characteristics:

Festuca paniculata                              V              V
Trifolium pratense subsp. semipurpureum         IV             II
Bellardiochloa variegata                        IV             IV
Festuca rubra subsp. commutata                  V              IV
Hieracium pilosella (s.l.)                      I             III
Luzula multiflora                               II             IV
Nardus stricta                                  V              V
Plantago atrata subsp. fuscescens               IV             I
Ranunculus sartorianus                          IV            III
Viola eugeniae subsp. eugeniae                  IV             IV
Dianthus deltoides                             III            ...
Gentiana lutea                                  V             ...
Rumex nebroides                                 II            ...
Potentilla rigoana                             ...             V
Botrychium lunaria                              I              II
Vaccinium myrtillus                             IV             IV
Luzula italica                                  II             II
Agrostis capillaris                             II            ...
Luzula campestris                              III            ...
Rumex acetosella                                II            ...
Taraxacum apenninum                             I             ...
Veronica orsiniana                             ...            ...
Phleum alpinum subsp. rhaeticum                 II            ...
Pedicularis tuberosa                            I              V
Trifolium thalii                                I             III
Coeloglossum viride                             II            III
Ajuga tenorei                                  ...            ...
Hypericum richeri                              ...             V

Transgressive species from
Molino-Arrhenatheretea:

Lotus corniculatus                              IV             V
Anthoxanthum odoratum                           V              V
Trifolium repens                                I             ...
Achillea setacea                               ...            ...
Galium verum                                   ...            ...
Cruciata laevipes                              ...            ...
Poa pratensis                                  ...            ...
Briza media                                    ...            III
Rumex acetosa                                  ...             II
Bellis perennis                                ...             II
Plantago lanceolata                            ...            ...

Transgressive species from
Festuco-Brometea:

Cerastium arvense                               V              V
Asperula cynanchica                             I             ...
Carlina acaulis subsp. caulescens               II             V
Euphrasia stricta                               IV             II
Thymus longicaulis                              I              V
Trifolium montanum subsp. rupestre              II             II
Carex caryophyllea                              I             III
Bromus erectus                                 ...            ...
Campanula glomerata                            ...            ...
Dianthus sylvestris (s.l.)                     ...            ...
Festuca circummediterranea                     ...            ...
Knautia purpurea                               ...            ...
Teucrium chamaedrys                            ...            ...
Thymus praecox subsp. polytrichus              ...            ...
Trifolium ochroleucon                          ...            ...
Carex macrolepis                                I             ...
Helianthemum nummularium (s.l.)                 I             ...
Leontodon hispidus                             ...             II
Narcissus poeticus                             ...             I
Achillea tenorii                               ...            ...

Transgressive species from
Elyno-Seslerietea:

Polygala alpestris                              IV             I
Cynoglossum magellense                          I             ...
Satureja alpina                                ...             I
Helictotrichon praetutianum                    ...             I
Phyteuma orbiculare                             V              V
Armeria canescens                               I              I
Biscutella laevigata                            I              I
Senecio scopolii                               ...            ...
Carduus carlinifolius                           II            ...
Galium anisophyllon                            ...             V
Silene roemeri subsp. staminea                 ...             I
Potentilla crantzii                             I             ...
Pulsatilla alpina                               I             ...
Gentiana verna                                 ...            III
Hieracium lactucella                           ...             I
Myosotis alpestris                             ...            III
Minuartia verna                                 I              I
Leucanthemum heterophyllum                      V             ...
Pedicularis verticillata                       ...            III
Carex kitaibeliana                             ...            III

other species:

Brachypodium genuense                           V              V
Poa alpina                                      I              V
Campanula scheuchzeri                           V             III
Cruciata laevipes                              ...            ...
Campanula micrantha                            ...            ...
Silene multicaulis                              I             ...
Persicaria bistorta                            III            ...
Ajuga reptans                                  ...            III
Verbascum longifolium                          ...            ...
Asphodelus macrocarpus                         ...            ...
Cruciata glabra                                 IV            ...
Crocus vernus                                  ...            III

Table 4
Poo violaceae-Nardetum strictae festucetosum
circummediterraneae Biondi & al. 1999
(Ranunculo pollinensis-Nardion strictae, Nardetalia
strictae, Nardetea strictae)

Altitude (dm a.s.l.).    165   181   164   160   163   166   162
Cover (%)                 90    90    100   100   100   80    90
Area ([m.sup.2])          20    10    80    40    40     5    20
Releve N.                  1     2     3     4     5     6     7

Characteristics:

Nardus stricta             3     4     3     3     3     3     3
Bellardiochloa
  variegata                3     3     4     3     4     3     +
Agrostis capillaris        +     1     +     1     +     +     3
Luzula campestris          +     .     .     +     .     .     +
festucetosum
  circummediterraneae:
Galium verum               1     .     1     1     1     1     +
Festuca rubra commutata    1     .     2     2     2     .     1
Hieracium
  pilosella (s.l.)         +     .     .     +     .     +     1
Festuca
  circummediterranea       .     .     +     +     .     .     1
Achillea collina           +     .     .     .     .     .     .
Carlina acaulis
  subsp. caulescens        .     .     +     .     .     .     .
Thymus longicaulis         .     .     .     .     .     .     +

All. & upper units:
Dianthus deltoides         +     1     +     1     +     +     1
Potentilla rigoana         1           2     1     1     1     2
Festuca paniculata         .     +     +     .     +
Ranunculus oreophilus      .     .     +     +     +
Festuca rubra subsp.
  microphylla              .     .     +     .     .     +     .
Erodium alpinum            .     .     +     .     .     +     .
Ajuga tenores              .     .     .     .     .     +     1
Taraxacum apenninum        .     .     .     +     .     .     .
Phleum alpinum
  subsp. rhaeticum         .     .     .     .     +     .     .
Rumex nebroides            .     .     .     .     .     +     .
Ranunculus sartorianus     .     .     .     .     .     .     1

transgressive species
  from Molino-
  Arrhenatheretea:         .     .     .     .     .     .     .
Rumex acetosa              +     +     +     +     1     .     .
Achillea setacea           .     .     1     1     1     1     1
Trifolium
  pratense subsp.
  semipurpureum            .     .     +     1     +     +     +
Anthoxanthum odoratum      +     +     +     .     .     .     .

other species:
Brachypodium genuense      +     +     +     +     .     .     +
Cerastium arvense
  subsp. suffruticosum     .     +     .     +     +     +     +
Verbascum longifolium      +     .     +     +     +     .     .
Koeleria lobata            +     .     .     +     .     +     +
Cruciata laevipes          +     .     .     +     1     .     .
Digitalis ferruginea       .     .     .     1     +     .     1
Stachys heraclea           .     +     +     .     .     .     .
Armeria canescens          .     .     +     .     .     .     +
Campanula scheuchzeri      .     .     .     +     +     .     .
Poa alpina                 .     .     .     +     .     1     .
Satureja vulgaris          .     .     .     .     1     .     +

Other species: Stachys cretica subsp. salviifolia + in 1;
Veronica serpyllifolia 1 in 2; Cirsium tenoreanum, Bunium
bulbocasta- num, Rumex sanguineus and Potentilla detommasii
+ in 3; Allium cirrhosum +, Veronica chamaedrys 1 in 4;
Satureja alpina + in 5; Geum molle + in 6; Asperula
cynanchica + in 7.

Localities: 1: Valle di Chiarano, 20/06/2001; 2: Serra Santa
Maria, 11/07/2001; 3-6: Posta Chiarano, 01-03/07/2001; 7:
Valle di Chiarano: il Casone, 06/07/2001.

Table 5
Potentillo rigoanae-Festucetum paniculatae Bonin 1978
(Ranunculo pollinensis-Nardion strictae, Nardetalia
strictae, Nardetea strictae)

Altitude (dm. a.s.l.)            162   158   160   169   167   162
Aspect                             S     S     E     S     N     E
Slope                             15    15    25     5     5     5
Cover (%)                         80    80    90    90    90    90
Area ([m.sub.2])                  30    10    20    30    30    15
Releve N. Charachteristics:        1     2     3     4     5     6

Festuca paniculata subsp.
  paticulata                       4     3     4     5     4     5
Potentilla rigoana                 2     1     1     2     1     1
Brachypodium genuense              1     1     1     1     .     +
Senecio scopolii                   .     .     .     +     .     .
typicum (subass. nova)             .     .     .     .     .     .
Galium verum                       2     +     +     1     +     1
Dianthus deltoides                 1     +     +     +     .     .
Achillea setacea                   .     +     .     +     1     .
Festuca circummediterranea         .     .     .     +     +     .
Gentiana lutea                     +     .     .     .     .     .

Satureja vulgaris variant:
Satureja vulgaris                  +     1     +     +     +     +
Digitalis ferruginea               1     1     1     1     +     +
Cruciata laevipes                  1     +     +     .     +     .

Euphorbia gasparrini subsp.
samnitica variant:
Euphorbia gasparrini
  subsp. samnitica                 .     .     .     .     .     .
Erodium alpinum                    .     .     .     .     .     .

Armeria canescens variant:         .     .     .     .     .     .
Armeria canescens                  .     .     .     .     .     .
Asperula cynanchica                .     .     .     .     .     .
Galium anisophyllon                .     .     .     .     .     +
Silene roemeri subsp. staminea     .     .     .     .     .     .
Genista sagittalis                 .     .     .     .     .     .

All. Characteristics:
Ranunculus sartorianus             +     .     .     .     +     .
Ajuga tenorei                      .     .     .     .     .     +
Viola eugeniae                     .     .     .     .     .     .
Plantago atrata
  subsp. fuscescens                .     .     .     .     +     .
Rumex nebroides                    .     .     .     .     +     .
Taraxacum apenninum                .     .     .     .     .     .

Ord. & Class characteristics:
Festuca rubra subsp. commutata     +     +     +     .     +     +
Nardus stricta                     +     +     1     .     +     +
Luzula campestris                  1     .     +     +     +     .
Agrostis capillaris                .     .     .     .     .     .
Trifolium pratense
  subsp. semipurpueum              .     .     +     .     +     .

Hieracium pilosella (s.l.)         .     +     +     .     .     .
Bellardiochloa variegata           .     .     .     .     .     .
Luzula multiflora                  .     .     .     .     .     .
Botrychium lunaria                 .     .     .     .     .     .
Alchemilla flabellata              .     .     .     .     +     .
Veronica officinalis               .     .     .     .     .     .
Alchemilla colorata                .     .     .     .     .     .
Gnaphalium sylvaticum              .     .     .     .     .     .
transgressive species from         .     .     .     .     .     .
Molino-Arrhenatheretea:            .     .     .     .     .     .
Lotus corniculatus                 2     1     +     1     +     .
Rumex acetosa                      +     1     .     +     2     .
Anthoxanthum odoratum              .     .     .     .     .     .
Festuca rubra                      .     .     .     .     .     .
Geum molle                         .     .     .     .     .     .

trasnsgressive species from
Festuco-Brometea:

Cerastium arvense
  subsp. suffruticosum             2     1     +     .     1     .

Hippocrepis comosa                 +     .     .     +     .     .
Carlina acaulis subsp.
  caulescens                       +     .     .     +     .     .
Koeleria lobata                    .     .     .     +     +     .
Campanula rapunculus               .     .     .     .     +     .
Achillea tenorii                   .     .     .     .     .     .
Leontodon cichoraceus              +     .     .     +     +     .
Narcissus poeticus                 .     .     .     .     .     .
Knautia purpurea                   .     .     .     .     .     .
Trifolium ochroleucon              .     .     .     +     .     .
Helianthemum nummularium           .     .     .     .     .     .
Thymus longicaulis                 .     .     .     .     .     .
Eryngium amethystinum              .     .     .     +     .     .
Campanula glomerata                .     .     .     .     .     .
Silene otites                      .     .     .     .     .     .
Euphrasia stricta                  .     .     .     .     .     .
Bupleurum falcatum subsp.
  cernuum                          .     .     .     .     .     .
Bromus erectus                     .     .     .     .     .     .
Trifolium montanum subsp.          .     .     .     .     .     .
  rupestre                         .     .     .     .     .     .
Plantago argentea                  .     .     .     .     .     .
Companions:                        .     .     .     .     .     .
Verbascum longifolium              +     +     +     +     +     .
Campanula scheuchzeri              .     .     .     .     .     .
Carduus carlinifolius              .     .     .     .     .     .
Helictotrichon praetutianum        .     .     .     .     +     .
Bunium bulbocastanum               .     .     .     .     .     .
Myosotis arvensis                  +     .     +     .     +     .
Orchis mascula                     +     .     +     .     .     .
Cynoglossum magellense             .     .     .     .     .     .
Stachys heraclea                   .     .     .     .     .     +
Campanula micrantha                .     .     .     .     .     .
Poa alpina                         .     .     .     .     .     .
Biscutella laevigata               .     .     .     .     .     .
Stachys tymphae                    .     .     .     .     .     .
Silene multicaulis                 .     .     .     .     .     .
Polygala alpestris                 .     .     .     .     .     .
Arabis sagittata                   .     .     .     .     .     .

Altitude (dm. a.s.l.)             170   164   168   165   168   169
Aspect                             N    --     S     N    --     S
Slope                             30    --     5     5    --     5
Cover (%)                         100   90    80    90    95    95
Area ([m.sub.2])                  30    50    60    60    60    50
Releve N. Charachteristics:        7     8     9    10    11    12

Festuca paniculata subsp.
  paticulata                       4     4     4     4     5     4
Potentilla rigoana                 2     1     +     1     .     +
Brachypodium genuense              2     +     +     .     +     .
Senecio scopolii                   +     .     .     .     +     1
typicum (subass. nova)             .     .     .     .     .     .
Galium verum                       +     +     1     +     1     +
Dianthus deltoides                 .     +     +     +     +     +
Achillea setacea                   .     +     +     +     .     +
Festuca circummediterranea         1     .     +     .     1     1
Gentiana lutea                     .     .     .     +     .     .

Satureja vulgaris variant:
Satureja vulgaris                  1     .     .     .     .     +
Digitalis ferruginea               1     .     .     .     .     .
Cruciata laevipes                  +     .     .     .     .     +

Euphorbia gasparrini subsp.
samnitica variant:
Euphorbia gasparrini
  subsp. samnitica                 .     1     2     2     2     2
Erodium alpinum                    .     .     .     +     +     2

Armeria canescens variant:         .     .     .     .     .     .
Armeria canescens                  +     .     .     .     .     .
Asperula cynanchica                .     .     .     .     .     .
Galium anisophyllon                .     +     .     .     .     .
Silene roemeri subsp. staminea     .     .     .     .     .     .
Genista sagittalis                 .     .     .     .     .     .

All. Characteristics:
Ranunculus sartorianus             .     .     +     +     .     .
Ajuga tenorei                      .     +     +     +     .     .
Viola eugeniae                     +     .     .     .     .     .
Plantago atrata
  subsp. fuscescens                .     .     .     .     .     .
Rumex nebroides                    .     .     .     .     .     .
Taraxacum apenninum                .     .     .     .     .     .

Ord. & Class characteristics:
Festuca rubra subsp. commutata     1     +     +     1     +     1
Nardus stricta                     1     +     +     1     1     1
Luzula campestris                  +     +     .     +     .     .
Agrostis capillaris                1     +     .     +     .     1
Trifolium pratense
  subsp. semipurpueum              +     +     +     +     .     +

Hieracium pilosella (s.l.)         +     +     +     +     .     +
Bellardiochloa variegata           .     +     +     +     +     1
Luzula multiflora                  .     .     +     .     .     .
Botrychium lunaria                 .     .     .     .     .     .
Alchemilla flabellata              .     .     .     .     .     .
Veronica officinalis               .     .     .     .     .     .
Alchemilla colorata                .     .     .     .     .     .
Gnaphalium sylvaticum              .     .     .     .     .     .
transgressive species from         .     .     .     .     .     .
Molino-Arrhenatheretea:            .     .     .     .     .     .
Lotus corniculatus                 2     +     +     .     .     +
Rumex acetosa                      +     1     +     +     +     +
Anthoxanthum odoratum              +     .     .     .     .     .
Festuca rubra                      .     .     .     .     .     .
Geum molle                         .     .     .     .     .     .

trasnsgressive species from
Festuco-Brometea:

Cerastium arvense
  subsp. suffruticosum             .     +     +     +     .     +

Hippocrepis comosa                 1     .     .     .     .     .
Carlina acaulis subsp.
  caulescens                       .     +     .     .     .     +
Koeleria lobata                    .     +     +     .     .     +
Campanula rapunculus               +     .     .     .     .     .
Achillea tenorii                   .     .     .     .     .     .
Leontodon cichoraceus              .     .     .     .     .     .
Narcissus poeticus                 .     .     .     .     .     .
Knautia purpurea                   .     .     .     .     .     .
Trifolium ochroleucon              .     .     .     .     .     .
Helianthemum nummularium           1     .     .     .     .     .
Thymus longicaulis                 .     .     .     .     .     .
Eryngium amethystinum              +     .     .     .     .     .
Campanula glomerata                .     .     .     .     .     .
Silene otites                      .     .     .     .     .     .
Euphrasia stricta                  .     .     .     .     .     .
Bupleurum falcatum subsp.
  cernuum                          +     .     .     .     .     .
Bromus erectus                     .     +     .     .     .     .
Trifolium montanum subsp.          .     .     .     .     .     .
  rupestre                         .     .     .     .     .     .
Plantago argentea                  .     .     .     .     .     .
Companions:                        .     .     .     .     .     .
Verbascum longifolium              1     +     .     +     +     +
Campanula scheuchzeri              .     .     .     .     .     .
Carduus carlinifolius              1     .     .     .     .     .
Helictotrichon praetutianum        .     .     .     .     .     .
Bunium bulbocastanum               +     .     .     .     .     +
Myosotis arvensis                  +     .     .     .     .     .
Orchis mascula                     +     .     .     .     .     .
Cynoglossum magellense             .     .     .     .     .     .
Stachys heraclea                   .     +     .     .     .     .
Campanula micrantha                +     .     .     .     .     .
Poa alpina                         .     +     .     .     .     .
Biscutella laevigata               .     .     .     .     .     .
Stachys tymphae                    .     .     .     .     .     .
Silene multicaulis                 .     .     .     +     .     .
Polygala alpestris                 .     +     .     .     .     .
Arabis sagittata                   .     .     .     .     .     .

Altitude (dm. a.s.l.)             168   176   178   180   172   185
Aspect                            --     E     E     S     S     E
Slope                             --    10    10     5    15     5
Cover (%)                         100   95    90    90    100   90
Area ([m.sub.2])                  50    99    60    60    99    50
Releve N. Charachteristics:       13    14    15    16    17    18

Festuca paniculata subsp.
  paticulata                       5     4     4     5     4     4
Potentilla rigoana                 .     +     1     +     1     1
Brachypodium genuense              +     2     3     1     2     2
Senecio scopolii                   .     +     +     .     +     1
typicum (subass. nova)             .     .     .     .     .     .
Galium verum                       +     1     1     1     1     1
Dianthus deltoides                 +     +     1     +     +     .
Achillea setacea                   .     +     1     1     .     +
Festuca circummediterranea         .     .     1     +     +     .
Gentiana lutea                     .     .     +     .     .     .

Satureja vulgaris variant:
Satureja vulgaris                  .     .     .     .     .     .
Digitalis ferruginea               .     .     .     .     .     .
Cruciata laevipes                  .     .     .     .     .     .

Euphorbia gasparrini subsp.
samnitica variant:
Euphorbia gasparrini
  subsp. samnitica                 +     .     .     .     .     .
Erodium alpinum                    .     .     .     .     .     .

Armeria canescens variant:         .     .     .     .     .     .
Armeria canescens                  .     +     1     +     +     +
Asperula cynanchica                .     .     +     +     .     +
Galium anisophyllon                .     +     +     .     .     .
Silene roemeri subsp. staminea     .     .     +     +     .     .
Genista sagittalis                 .     .     .     .     2     2

All. Characteristics:
Ranunculus sartorianus             .     .     .     .     .     .
Ajuga tenorei                      .     +     .     +     .     .
Viola eugeniae                     .     .     .     .     .     .
Plantago atrata
  subsp. fuscescens                .     +     +     .     .     .
Rumex nebroides                    .     .     .     .     .     .
Taraxacum apenninum                .     .     .     .     .     .

Ord. & Class characteristics:
Festuca rubra subsp. commutata     1     1     1     1     1     1
Nardus stricta                     1     .     1     1     1     +
Luzula campestris                  .     +     +     +     .     +
Agrostis capillaris                .     +     1     +     +     +
Trifolium pratense
  subsp. semipurpueum              .     +     .     .     .     .

Hieracium pilosella (s.l.)         .     +     +     1     .     .
Bellardiochloa variegata           .     .     +     .     .     +
Luzula multiflora                  .     .     .     .     +     .
Botrychium lunaria                 .     .     .     .     .     .
Alchemilla flabellata              .     .     .     .     .     .
Veronica officinalis               .     +     .     .     .     .
Alchemilla colorata                .     .     .     .     .     .
Gnaphalium sylvaticum              .     .     .     .     .     .
transgressive species from         .     .     .     .     .     .
Molino-Arrhenatheretea:            .     .     .     .     .     .
Lotus corniculatus                 .     1     1     +     +     +
Rumex acetosa                      +     1     1     +     .     +
Anthoxanthum odoratum              .     +     +     .     .     +
Festuca rubra                      1     .     .     .     .     .
Geum molle                         .     .     .     .     .     .

trasnsgressive species from
Festuco-Brometea:

Cerastium arvense
  subsp. suffruticosum             .     +     +     +     +     +

Hippocrepis comosa                 .     +     1     .     .     +
Carlina acaulis subsp.
  caulescens                       .     .     +     .     .     +
Koeleria lobata                    .     .     .     +     .     .
Campanula rapunculus               .     .     .     .     +     .
Achillea tenorii                   .     .     +     1     .     .
Leontodon cichoraceus              .     .     .     .     .     .
Narcissus poeticus                 .     .     .     +     +     +
Knautia purpurea                   .     .     .     .     +     +
Trifolium ochroleucon              .     .     .     .     .     .
Helianthemum nummularium           .     .     .     .     .     1
Thymus longicaulis                 .     .     .     +     .     .
Eryngium amethystinum              .     .     .     .     .     .
Campanula glomerata                .     .     .     .     .     +
Silene otites                      .     +     .     .     +     .
Euphrasia stricta                  .     .     .     +     .     .
Bupleurum falcatum subsp.
  cernuum                          .     .     .     .     .     .
Bromus erectus                     .     .     .     .     .     .
Trifolium montanum subsp.          .     .     .     .     .     .
  rupestre                         .     .     .     .     .     +
Plantago argentea                  .     .     .     .     .     .
Companions:                        .     .     .     .     .     .
Verbascum longifolium              .           +     +     +     .
Campanula scheuchzeri              .     +     +     +     +     +
Carduus carlinifolius              .     +     1     .     .     .
Helictotrichon praetutianum        .     +     +     .     .     +
Bunium bulbocastanum               .     +     .     .     +     +
Myosotis arvensis                  .     .     .     .     .     .
Orchis mascula                     .     .     .     .     .     .
Cynoglossum magellense             .     +     +     +     .     .
Stachys heraclea                   .     .     .     .     .     +
Campanula micrantha                .     +     .     .     +     .
Poa alpina                         .     .     .     +     .     .
Biscutella laevigata               .     .     .     .     .     .
Stachys tymphae                    .     .     +     .     .     .
Silene multicaulis                 .     1           .     .     .
Polygala alpestris                 .     .     .     .     .     .
Arabis sagittata                   .     .     .     .     .     +

Altitude (dm. a.s.l.)             175   172   184   173   186   171
Aspect                             S     N     W     S     N    --
Slope                             10    15    10    10    10    --
Cover (%)                         95    100   80    95    90    100
Area ([m.sub.2])                  60    80    70    40    30    60
Releve N. Charachteristics:       19    20    21    22    23    24

Festuca paniculata subsp.
  paticulata                       4     3     3     4     4     5
Potentilla rigoana                 +     +     1     2     +     1
Brachypodium genuense              2     2     1     1     1     +
Senecio scopolii                   .     1     +     .     .     +
typicum (subass. nova)             .     .     .     .     .     .
Galium verum                       1     1     1     1     .     1
Dianthus deltoides                 +     +     +     .     .     +
Achillea setacea                   +     +     +     .     .     +
Festuca circummediterranea         +     .     .     1     .     .
Gentiana lutea                     .     .     .     .     .     .

Satureja vulgaris variant:
Satureja vulgaris                  .     .     .     .     .     .
Digitalis ferruginea               .     .     .     .     .     +
Cruciata laevipes                  .     .     .     .     .     +

Euphorbia gasparrini subsp.
samnitica variant:
Euphorbia gasparrini
  subsp. samnitica                 .     .     .     .     .     .
Erodium alpinum                    .     .     .     .     .     .

Armeria canescens variant:         .     .     .     .     .     .
Armeria canescens                  +     +     +     +     .     .
Asperula cynanchica                +     +     +     +     .     .
Galium anisophyllon                .     1     +     .     +     .
Silene roemeri subsp. staminea     +     .     +     +     .     .
Genista sagittalis                 2     .     .     .     1     .

All. Characteristics:
Ranunculus sartorianus             .     +     +     +     .     .
Ajuga tenorei                      .     .     .     .     .     +
Viola eugeniae                     .     .     +     +     .     +
Plantago atrata
  subsp. fuscescens                .     .     .     .     .     .
Rumex nebroides                    .     .     .     .     .     1
Taraxacum apenninum                +     .     .     .     .     .

Ord. & Class characteristics:
Festuca rubra subsp. commutata     +     1     1     1     .     1
Nardus stricta                     +     +     +     1     .     1
Luzula campestris                  +     +     +     +     .     +
Agrostis capillaris                1     +     .     .     .     +
Trifolium pratense
  subsp. semipurpueum              +     +     +     .     .     +

Hieracium pilosella (s.l.)         +     .     .     1     .     +
Bellardiochloa variegata           .     .     .     .     .     +
Luzula multiflora                  .     .     .     .     .     .
Botrychium lunaria                 .     1     +     .     .     .
Alchemilla flabellata              .     .     .     .     .     .
Veronica officinalis               .     .     .     .     .     .
Alchemilla colorata                .     .     +     .     .     .
Gnaphalium sylvaticum              .     .     .     .     .     .
transgressive species from         .     .     .     .     .     .
Molino-Arrhenatheretea:            .     .     .     .     .     .
Lotus corniculatus                 1     1     1     +     +     .
Rumex acetosa                      .     +     1     .     .     .
Anthoxanthum odoratum              .     +     .     .     .     +
Festuca rubra                      .     .     .     .     .     .
Geum molle                         .     .     .     .     +     +

trasnsgressive species from
Festuco-Brometea:

Cerastium arvense
  subsp. suffruticosum             +     +     +     1     +     +

Hippocrepis comosa                 .     +     +     +     +     .
Carlina acaulis subsp.
  caulescens                       .     .     .     +     +     .
Koeleria lobata                    +     .     .     +     .     .
Campanula rapunculus               +     +     +     .     .     .
Achillea tenorii                   .     .     .     1     .     +
Leontodon cichoraceus              +     .     .     .     +     .
Narcissus poeticus                 .     .     +     .     .     .
Knautia purpurea                   +     +     .     2     .     .
Trifolium ochroleucon              +     +     .     +     .     .
Helianthemum nummularium           .     1     .     +     .     .
Thymus longicaulis                 +     .     +     +     .     .
Eryngium amethystinum              .     .     .     +     .     .
Campanula glomerata                .     1     +     .     .     .
Silene otites                      .     .     .     .     .     .
Euphrasia stricta                  +     .     .     .     .     .
Bupleurum falcatum subsp.
  cernuum                          .     +     .     .     .     .
Bromus erectus                     .     +     .     .     .     .
Trifolium montanum subsp.          .     .     .     .     .     .
  rupestre                         .     .     +     .     .     .
Plantago argentea                  .     +     +     .     .     .
Companions:                        .     .     .     .     .     .
Verbascum longifolium              .     .     .     .     +     .
Campanula scheuchzeri              .     +     +     .     .     +
Carduus carlinifolius              .     +     .     +     +     .
Helictotrichon praetutianum        .     +     .     +     .     .
Bunium bulbocastanum               .     .     .     +     .     .
Myosotis arvensis                  .     .     .     .     .     +
Orchis mascula                     .     .     .     .     .     .
Cynoglossum magellense             .     .     .     .     .     .
Stachys heraclea                   .     .     .     .     .     .
Campanula micrantha                .     .     .     .     .     .
Poa alpina                         .     .     .     +     .     .
Biscutella laevigata               .     +     +     .     +     .
Stachys tymphae                    .     .     .     .     .     +
Silene multicaulis                 .     .     .     .     .     .
Polygala alpestris                 .     .     +     .     .     .
Arabis sagittata                   .     .     .     1     .     .

Altitude (dm. a.s.l.)            181   175   172
Aspect                            --    --    --
Slope                             --    --    --
Cover (%)                         95    100   100
Area ([m.sub.2])                  20    40    40
Releve N. Charachteristics:       25    26    27

Festuca paniculata subsp.
  paticulata                       5     4     5
Potentilla rigoana                 .     +     +
Brachypodium genuense              +     1     1
Senecio scopolii                   .     +     +
typicum (subass. nova)             .     .     .
Galium verum                       1     1     +
Dianthus deltoides                 +     +     +
Achillea setacea                   +     +     +
Festuca circummediterranea         .     .     .
Gentiana lutea                     .     .     .

Satureja vulgaris variant:
Satureja vulgaris                  .     .     .
Digitalis ferruginea               .     .     .
Cruciata laevipes                  .     .     +

Euphorbia gasparrini subsp.
samnitica variant:
Euphorbia gasparrini
  subsp. samnitica                 .     .     .
Erodium alpinum                    .     1     .

Armeria canescens variant:         .     .     .
Armeria canescens                  .     .     .
Asperula cynanchica                .     .     .
Galium anisophyllon                .     .     +
Silene roemeri subsp. staminea     .     .     .
Genista sagittalis                 .     .     .

All. Characteristics:
Ranunculus sartorianus             +     .     .
Ajuga tenorei                      .     .     .
Viola eugeniae                     .     .     .
Plantago atrata
  subsp. fuscescens                .     .     .
Rumex nebroides                    .     .     .
Taraxacum apenninum                .     .     .

Ord. & Class characteristics:
Festuca rubra subsp. commutata     1     1     1
Nardus stricta                     2     +     1
Luzula campestris                  .     .     .
Agrostis capillaris                .     1     1
Trifolium pratense
  subsp. semipurpueum              .     .     .

Hieracium pilosella (s.l.)         .     .     .
Bellardiochloa variegata           +     .     +
Luzula multiflora                  .     .     .
Botrychium lunaria                 .     .     .
Alchemilla flabellata              .     .     .
Veronica officinalis               .     .     .
Alchemilla colorata                .     .     .
Gnaphalium sylvaticum              +     .     .
transgressive species from         .     .     .
Molino-Arrhenatheretea:            .     .     .
Lotus corniculatus                 .     1     1
Rumex acetosa                      1     +     1
Anthoxanthum odoratum              +     .     +
Festuca rubra                      .     .     +
Geum molle                         .     .     .

trasnsgressive species from
Festuco-Brometea:

Cerastium arvense
  subsp. suffruticosum             .     +     +

Hippocrepis comosa                 .     .     .
Carlina acaulis subsp.
  caulescens                       .     .     +
Koeleria lobata                    .     .     .
Campanula rapunculus               .     .     .
Achillea tenorii                   .     .     .
Leontodon cichoraceus              .     .     .
Narcissus poeticus                 .     .     .
Knautia purpurea                   .     .     .
Trifolium ochroleucon              .     .     .
Helianthemum nummularium           .     .     .
Thymus longicaulis                 .     .     .
Eryngium amethystinum              .     .     .
Campanula glomerata                .     .     .
Silene otites                      .     .     .
Euphrasia stricta                  .     .     .
Bupleurum falcatum subsp.
  cernuum                          .     .     .
Bromus erectus                     .     .     .
Trifolium montanum subsp.          .     .     .
  rupestre                         .     .     .
Plantago argentea                  .     .     .
Companions:                        .     .     .
Verbascum longifolium              +     +     .
Campanula scheuchzeri              .     .     .
Carduus carlinifolius              .     +     +
Helictotrichon praetutianum        .     .     .
Bunium bulbocastanum               .     .     .
Myosotis arvensis                  .     .     .
Orchis mascula                     .     .     .
Cynoglossum magellense             .     .     .
Stachys heraclea                   .     .     .
Campanula micrantha                .     .     .
Poa alpina                         .     .     .
Biscutella laevigata               .     .     .
Stachys tymphae                    .     .     1
Silene multicaulis                 .     .     .
Polygala alpestris                 .     .     .
Arabis sagittata                   .     .     .

Other species: Briza media + in 23 and 24; Phyteuma orbiculare + in 24
and 25; Veronica chamaedrys + in 1; Silene dioica + in 4; Satureja
alpina +, Achillea collina 1 in 7; Polygala major + in 9; Cerastium
arvense + in 11; Senecio integrifolius (s.l.) + in 12; Rumex
acetosella +, Festuca alfrediana 1 in 18; Veronica orsiniana + in 19;
Viola reichenbachiana + in 20; Galium lucidum and Allium cirrhosum +
in 22; Dianthus carthusianorum (s.l.), Campanula foliosa and
Leucanthemum ceratophylloides subsp. tenuifolium +, Ranunculus
polyanthemos subsp. polyanthemoides 1 in 24; Juniperus communis subsp.
nana, Saxifraga granulata, Pimpinella tragium, Dianthus sylvestris
(s.l.) and Helianthemum oelandicum subsp. incanum +, Phleum ambiguum 1
in 26; Leon- todon hispidus +, Linum austriacum subsp. tommasinii 1 in
27.

Localities: 1, 3, 5: Posta Chiarano, 7-9-11/06/2001; 4, 7, 26: Serra
Sparvera, 02/07/2001; 6: Valle di Chiarano, 20-2/06/2001; 8-13: Valle
di Chiarano, 19-04/06-07/2001; 14, 20, 27: Valle Chiarano: Il Feudo,
10-12/07/2001; ril. 15: Serra Santa Maria, 11/07/2001; 16, 17, 24, 25:
Bocche Chiarano, 08/07/2001; 18, 19, 22: Serra Santa Maria,
10-11/07/2001; 21, 23: Serra del Feudo, 07/07/2001.

Table 6
Nardo strictae-Brachypodietum genuensis Pignatti 77 corr.
Di Pietro, De Santis & Fortini hoc loco

(Ranunculo pollinensis-Nardion strictae, Nardetalia
strictae, Nardetea strictae)

Altitude dm a.s.l.                  157   170   169
Aspect                               SE    NE     S
Slope ([degrees])                     5     7     5
Cover (%)                            80    100   90
Area ([m.sub.2])                     30    70    50
Releve N.                             1     2     3

Characteristics:
Brachypodium genuense                 3     5     4
Digitalis ferruginea                  1     1     1
Agrostis capillaris                   +     1     +
Plantago atrata subsp. fuscescens     +
Silene roemeri subsp. staminea        +     +     +

All. Charcteristics:
Potentilla rigoana                    +     1     1
Ranunculus sartorianus                1     +     +
Ranunculus oreophilus                             +
Taraxacum apenninum                               +

Ord. & Class characteristics:
Nardus stricta                        1     1     1
Luzula campestris                     +     +     +
Rumex nebroides                                   +
Hieracium pilosella (s.l.)            +     +
Dianthus deltoides                    +     +     +
Festuca rubra subsp. commutata        +     2
Bellardiochloa variegata                          +
Festuca paniculata                                +

transgressive species from
Molino-Arrhenatheretea:

Lotus corniculatus                    +     1     1
Achillea setacea                      1     +
Galium verum                          1     1     1
Anthoxanthum odoratum                       +
Trifolium pratense subsp.
  semipurpureum                       +     +     1
Dactylis glomerata                          +     2
Rumex acetosa                         +     1

transgressive species
  from Festuco-Brometea:
Carlina acaulis subsp. caulescens     +           +
Cerastium arvense
  subsp. suffruticosum                1     +
Festuca circummediterranea            +           1
Trifolium ochroleucon                       +     +
Leontodon cichoraceus                 1           +
Koeleria lobata                       +     +

other species:
Verbascum longifolium                       +     1
Cruciata laevipes                     +     +     +
Armeria canescens                           +     1
Bunium bulbocastanum                  +     +     +
Satureja vulgaris                     +     +     +
Helictotrichon praetutianum           +     +     +
Poa alpina                            +
Campanula scheuchzeri                       +
Myosotis arvensis                           +     +
Campanula micrantha                   +           1

Other species: Geum molle, Ranunculus millefoliatus and Thlaspi
caerulescens subsp. brachypetalum + in 1; Veronica chamaedrys,
Arabis collina, Saxifraga granulata, Thymus longicaulis, Trifolium
montanum subsp. rupestre, Geum urbanum and Stachys heraclea +,
Achillea collina 1 in 2; Leontodon crispus subsp. asper + in 3.

Localities: 1, 2: Posta Chiarano 11/06/2001, 03/07/2001; 3: Serra
Sparvera 02/07/2001.

Table 7
Potentillo rigoanae-Brachypodietum
genuensis Lucchese, Persia & Pignatti 1995
(Phleo ambigui-Bromion erecti, Brometalia
erecti, Festuco-Brometea)

Altitude dm a.s.l.                   175   165   178   162   172
Aspect                                 W     N    NE    NE     E
Slope ([degrees])                      5    10    10     5    15
Cover (%)                             90    90    90    90    80
Area ([m.sup.2])                      30    60    40    30    40
Releve N.                              1     2     3     4     5

Characteristics:

Brachypodium genuense                  4     4     3     4     4
Potentilla rigoana                     +     +     +     1     +
Armeria canescens                      +     +     +     +     1
Achillea tenorii                       1     1     1     +     +
Verbascum longifolium                  .     +     .     .     .
Trifolium montanum
  subsp. rupestre                      .     .     .     .     +

Nardus stricta variant:
Nardus stricta                         +     +     1     .     .
Bellardiochloa variegata               +     +     +     .     +
Dianthus deltoides                     +     +     +     .     .
Festuca paniculata                     +     .     +     .     .

All. characteristics:
Galium lucidum                         +     1     +     .     1
Festuca circummediterranea             1     .     1     +     2
Koeleria lobata                        1     .     .     +     1
Arabis collina                         +     .     .     +     +
Phleum ambiguum                        .     .     .     .     +
Astragalus sempervirens
  subsp. gussonei                      .     .     .     .     .
Pimpinella tragium                     .     .     .     .     .
Leontodon cichoraceus                  .     .     .     .     +

Ord and class characteristics:
Thymus longicaulis                     +     +     +     +     +
Asperula cynanchica                    1     +     +     +     1
Cerastium arvense
  subsp. suffruticosum                 +     +     +     +     +
Hippocrepis comosa                     +     .     +     +     +
Carlina acaulis subsp. caulescens      +     1     1     +     +
Bromus erectus                         .     +     2     .     +
Medicago lupulina                      .     +     +     .     +
Dianthus sylvestris (s.l.)             .     .     +     .     1
Helianthemum nummularium               .     .     1     +     .
Bupleurum falcatum subsp. cernuum      .     +     .     .     .
Festuca laevigata                      .     .     +     .     .
Arenaria serpyllifolia                 .     .     .     .     +
Asperula aristata subsp. scabra        .     .     .     .     .
Anthyllis vulneraria
  subsp. polyphylla                    .     .     .     .     .
Cerastium arvense                      .     .     .     .     .
Linum catharticum (s.l.)               .     .     .     .     .
Seseli montanum                        .     .     .     .     +
Campanula rapunculus                   .     .     +     .     .
Satureja alpina                        .     .     +     .     .
Satureja vulgaris                      .     +     .     .     .

transgressive species from
Molino-Arrhenatheretea:

Lotus corniculatus                     1     +     1     1     1
Trifolium pratense
  subsp. semipurpureum                 +     +     +     1     1
Galium verum                           1     .     +     1     +
Achillea setacea                       .     .     +     +     +
Anthoxanthum odoratum                  +     +     +     .     .
Geum molle                             +     .     .     +     .
Dactylorhiza sambucina                 .     .     .     +     .

transgressive species
from Nardetea:

Luzula campestris                      +     +     +     +     +
Hieracium pilosella (s.l.)             1     +     +     1     .
Plantago atrata
  subsp. fuscescens                    +     1     +     +     1
Ranunculus sartorianus                 +     +     +     +     +
Rumex acetosella                       +     1     +     .     +
Agrostis capillaris                    +     .     .     +     +
Festuca rubra subsp. commutata         .     1     .     1     1
Festuca rubra subsp. microphylla       +     .     .     .     .

other species:
Bunium bulbocastanum                   +     +     +     +     1
Helictotrichon praetutianum            1     1     2     +     1
Silene roemeri subsp. staminea         +     +     +     +     +
Poa alpina                             .     .     +     +     +
Silene multicaulis                     .     +     .     +     .
Arabis hirsuta                         .     .     1     .     .
Sedum acre                             .     .     .     .     .
Leucanthemum ceratophylloides          .     .     .     +     .
  subsp. tenuifolium
Polygala alpestris                     .     +     .     .     +
Campanula scheuchzeri                  .     +     .     +     .
Carduus carlinifolius                  +     .     +     .     .

Altitude dm a.s.l.                   164   173
Aspect                                NE     E
Slope ([degrees])                     15    15
Cover (%)                             80    70
Area ([m.sup.2])                      40    30
Releve N.                              6     7

Characteristics:

Brachypodium genuense                  3     3
Potentilla rigoana                     +     +
Armeria canescens                      1     +
Achillea tenorii                       1     +
Verbascum longifolium                  .     +
Trifolium montanum
  subsp. rupestre                      .     .

Nardus stricta variant:
Nardus stricta                         .     .
Bellardiochloa variegata               .     .
Dianthus deltoides                     .     .
Festuca paniculata                     .     .

All. characteristics:
Galium lucidum                         +     1
Festuca circummediterranea             +     1
Koeleria lobata                        +     +
Arabis collina                         .     .
Phleum ambiguum                        .     +
Astragalus sempervirens
  subsp. gussonei                      .     +
Pimpinella tragium                     +     .
Leontodon cichoraceus                  .     .

Ord and class characteristics:
Thymus longicaulis                     +     +
Asperula cynanchica                    1     .
Cerastium arvense
  subsp. suffruticosum                 .     1
Hippocrepis comosa                     +     +
Carlina acaulis subsp. caulescens      1     .
Bromus erectus                         +     +
Medicago lupulina                      .     +
Dianthus sylvestris (s.l.)             +     +
Helianthemum nummularium               1     .
Bupleurum falcatum subsp. cernuum      +     .
Festuca laevigata                      .     1
Arenaria serpyllifolia                 .     +
Asperula aristata subsp. scabra        .     1
Anthyllis vulneraria
  subsp. polyphylla                    +     .
Cerastium arvense                      +     .
Linum catharticum (s.l.)               +     .
Seseli montanum                        .     .
Campanula rapunculus                   .     .
Satureja alpina                        .     .
Satureja vulgaris                      .     .

transgressive species from
Molino-Arrhenatheretea:

Lotus corniculatus                     1     +
Trifolium pratense
  subsp. semipurpureum                 +     .
Galium verum                           .     .
Achillea setacea                       .     .
Anthoxanthum odoratum                  .     .
Geum molle                             .     .
Dactylorhiza sambucina                 .     .

transgressive species
from Nardetea:

Luzula campestris                      +     .
Hieracium pilosella (s.l.)             1     +
Plantago atrata
  subsp. fuscescens                    .     .
Ranunculus sartorianus                 .     .
Rumex acetosella                       .     .
Agrostis capillaris                    .     .
Festuca rubra subsp. commutata         .     .
Festuca rubra subsp. microphylla       +     .

other species:
Bunium bulbocastanum                   1     1
Helictotrichon praetutianum            +     +
Silene roemeri subsp. staminea         .     .
Poa alpina                             1     .
Silene multicaulis                     .     +
Arabis hirsuta                         +     +
Sedum acre                             +     +
Leucanthemum ceratophylloides          +     .
  subsp. tenuifolium
Polygala alpestris                     .     .
Campanula scheuchzeri                  .     .
Carduus carlinifolius                  .     .

Other species: Cynoglossum magellense + in 1; Arabis sagittata and
Campanula glomerata + in 2; Myosotis arvensis, Silene vulgaris,
Campanula micrantha and Stachys tymphae + in 3; Rumex acetosa and
Ajuga tenorei + in 4; Globularia meridionalis and Trifolium
ochroleucon + in 5; Thlaspi praecox subsp. polytrichus and Sedum
rupestre + in 6; Erophila verna, Poa bulbosa, Erysimum majellense and
Allium cirrhosum +, Heliantemum incanum 1 in 7.

Localities: 1: Valle Chiarano: Il Feudo, 12/07/2001; 2, 6: Bocche
Chiarano, 01-04/07/2001; 3: Serra Santa Maria, 10/07/2001; 4: Valle
Chiarano: Il Casone, 06/07/2001; 5, 7: Valle Chiarano, 9-10/07/2001.
COPYRIGHT 2005 Universidad Complutense de Madrid
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2005 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Di Pietro, Romeo; De Santis, Alessandro; Fortini, Paola
Publication:Lazaroa
Date:Jan 1, 2005
Words:12679
Previous Article:Mapa de las series de vegetacion de la Isla de Ponza (Italia Central).
Next Article:Nuevos datos sobre algunos xenofitos interesantes en Espana.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters