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Estudio fitosociologico de los principales tipos de comunidades vegetales de los pisos bioclimaticos alpino y subalpino de los Montes Sibillini (Apeninos Centrales, Italia).

A phytosociological survey of the main plant community types of alpine and sub-alpine belt in the Sibillini Mountains (Central Apennines, Italy)

INTRODUCTION

The Sibillini Mountains are located in the central Apennines, between the Marche and Umbria regions (Figure 1). This area is characterized by great geomorphological heterogeneity, with a correspondingly high biological richness: the flora is one of the richest in the central Apennines and the vegetation is diversified into many plant communities.

The first studies on the high-altitude vegetation of the central Apennines date from towards the middle of the last century (Ludi, 1943; Montelucci, 1952-1953) and comprise a large number of surveys on the Gran Sasso massif (Furrer &Furnari, 1960; Giacomini & Furnari, 1961; Furnari, 1961; Bruno & Furnari, 1966; Bonin & Vedrenne, 1979). Later, other parts of the central Apennines, including the Sibillini (Furnari, 1970), were investigated (Barbero & Bonin, 1969; Bazzichelli & Furnari, 1970; Furnari, 1970; Migliaccio, 1970; Feoli Chiapella & Feoli, 1977; Avena & Blasi, 1980; Pedrotti, 1981, 1982 a).

In recent years the vegetation surveys on the central Apennines have intensified with several scientific works regarding, particularly Gran Sasso (Biondi & al., 1988, 1992, 1995b, 1999a, b, 2000; Tammaro, 1995) , Velino (Petriccione, 1994 a; Pirone & al., 1999), Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park (Petriccione, 1986; Conti & Manzi, 1992; Conti, 1995; Di Pietro & al., 2004, 2005) and with specific investigations on the high-altitude vegetation of the central Apennines (Pignatti, 1994; Blasi & al., 2003, 2005). Several scientific papers have been published on the Sibillini Mountains, (Biondi & Ballelli, 1982; Pedrotti, 1982b, c; Marchesoni, 2005; etc.), but there has still been no comprehensive work on high-altitude vegetation. Thus the objective of this paper is to present the results of a study on the vegetation types of the alpine and subalpine belts of the Sibillini Mountains. The vegetation of grasslands and pastures, screes, talus slopes and rock faces at high altitudes was investigated.

STUDY AREA

The Sibillini massif is located in the central Apennines and forms a chain 40 km long, running NNWSSE (Figure 1). it lies within the Sibillini Mountains National Park, which covers an area of about 70,000 ha. Several peaks exceed 2000 m. The highest peak, M. Vettore, reaches 2476 m.

The geological substrate consists of carbonaceous rocks (limestones and marls; Mesozoic-lower Tertiary). At the highest altitudes there is a predominance of lime-stones. Glacial morphologies, such as glacial cirques and moraines originating during the Quaternary glaciations are frequent. The most important is the Valle del Lago glacial cirque, located on the northern slope of M. Vettore and at the foot of which lies the Lago di Pilato glacial lake (Giovagnotti, 1976).

Regarding the bioclimate, the entire central Apennines belongs to the Temperate Region (Blasi, 1994; Biondi & Baldoni, 1995; Rivas-Martinez, 1995, 1996). The Sibillini Mountains also fall within the temperate macrobioclimate, with a high oceanic component (Biondi & Baldoni, 1995). The authors have found the following bioclimatic belts: colline, montane, subalpine and alpine.

The study area falls within the subalpine and alpine belts, in an altitudinal range from about 1850 m to the top (2476 m), covering an area of about 8000 ha. The altitude of the Sibillini mountains is limited compared to the highest Apennine massif (Gran Sasso and Majella). We can assume that the boundary between the alpine and the subalpine belts runs at 2300-2400 m, and this means that the alpine bioclimatic belt is limited only to the highest peaks in this massif.

Soils of subalpine and alpine belts are acid brown soils (typic and lithic Hapludolls or typic Haplumbrept) or brown rendzinas (lithic Rendolls). At a lower altitude, in the montane belt, we can find subacid brown soils (typic and dystric Eutrochrepts) and calcareous brown soils (typic and dystric Xerochrepts) partly decarbonated. on steep slopes, the pedogenetic process remains incomplete and lithosoils (lithic Xerorthents) are formed.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The fieldwork was carried out during the summers of 1998 and 1999. During this period, 108 releves were made using the phytosociological method of the Zurich-Montpellier school (Braun-Blanquet, 1964).

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For the identification of the collected specimens we have referred to Pignatti (1982), Fiori (1924) and Tutin & al. (1964-1980). Plant nomenclature follows Conti & al. (2005).

For each phytosociological table the specific life forms and chorotypes were considered. For life forms, reference was made to Pignatti (1982). For chorotypes, reference was also made to Pignatti (1982), and for the Apennine endemic component solely to Conti (1998). The frequencies of life forms and chorotypes were thus calculated for each phytosociological table.

A matrix of 63 releves was selected for 132 species of grassland and high-altitude pasture vegetation, and the cover-abundance values were transformed according to Van Der Maaler (1979). By applying the Syntax 2000 package (Podani, 2001) the matrix was subjected to multivariate analysis (chord distance and average correlation) for the hierarchical clustering of the releves. A PCA with superimposed partition was performed for the ordination.

RESULTS

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

The multivariate analysis of the grassland releves (Tables 1-8), shows two main clusters (Figure 2). Cluster A includes acidophilous and sub-acidophilous grasslands, while cluster B comprises basophilous pastures and dry grasslands on pioneer soils. Cluster A is subdivided into two sub-clusters: a1, including FestucoBrometea grasslands dominated by Brachypodium genuense (and referred to Brachypodietum genuensis); and a2, including the Nardetea strictae acidophilous grasslands. Sub-cluster a2 is divided into a2.1 (thick and acidophilous grasslands growing on deep or relatively deep soils, dominated by Trifolium thalii or by Nardus stricta and referred respectively to Taraxaco-Trifolietum thalii and to Luzulo-Nardetum); and a2.2 (acidophilous grasslands growing on thin soils, dominated by Plantago atrata and Ranunculus pollinensis and referred to Ranunculo-Plantaginetum and sub-acidophilous grasslands with Sesleria juncifolia subsp. juncifolia, dominated by Juncus trifidus subsp. monanthos and classified as subass. juncetosum monanthi of Seslerietum apenninae). Cluster B comprises three subclusters including communities of Seslerion apenninae: b1 includes three releves of grasslands with Dryas octopetala (two of them, with high cover values of Dryas, have been phytosociologically classified as SeslerioDryadetum octopetalae); b2 is characterized by xerophilous and basophilous Sesleria juncifolia grasslands (Seslerietum apenninae and Leontopodio-Seslerietum juncifoliae releves fall in this sub cluster); and b3 includes dwarf cushion communities with Silene acaulis (Saxifrago-Silenetum cenisiae).

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The PCA analysis (superimposed partition along three axes) shows 8 groups. The distribution of the clusters along axis 1 (Figure 3) appears to follow a soil gradient, from left to right, from basophilous to acidophilous vegetation types: two main groups of clusters are clearly separated: the Seslerion communities on the left and the Nardion communities on the right. The PCA indicates a general overlapping of the Seslerion communities, except for the juncetosum monanthi subass. of Seslerietum apenninae which splits quite clearly. Along axis 2 the clean separation of Brachipodium genuense communities is probably due to the dominance of species of the Festuco-Brometea class, so we can assume a xero-thermal gradient along the axis. The distribution along the third axis (Figure 4) does not seem to reveal any particularly defined correlation.

VEGETATION

Xerophilous and basophilous perennial grasslands of alpine and subalpine belts

Xerophilous and basophilous perennial grasslands of alpine and subalpine belts belong to the Eurosiberian class Elyno myosuroidis-Seslerietea coeruleae, to the Seslerietalia tenuifoliae order (Balkans and Apennines) and to the Seslerion apenninae alliance (alpine, subalpine and, sometimes, montane belts of the Apennines). The two suballiances Leontopodio nivalis-Elynenion myosuroidis (alpine belt) are present in the study area, including the associations Leontopodio nivalis-Seslerietum juncifoliae with the new subassociation caricetosum kitaibelianae and Saxifrago speciosae-Silenetum cenisiae, and Seslerenion apenninae (subalpine belt), including the two associations Seslerio apenninae-Dryadetum octopetalae and Seslerietum apenninae.

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Leontopodio nivalis-Seslerietum juncifoliae Blasi, Di Pietro & Pelino 2005 (Table 1, rel. 1-4) caricetosum kitaibelianae subass. nova hoc loco (Table 1, rels. 2-4, holotypus hoc loco rel. 2)

The xerophytic summit grasslands are characterized by a group of characteristic species of Leontopodio nivalis-Elynenion myosuroidis, such as Silene acaulis, Minuartia verna subsp. verna, Potentilla cranztii subsp. crantzii, Leontopodium nivale, Oxytropis campestris subsp. campestris, Sedum atratum subsp. atratum, Helianthemum oelandicum ssp.alpestre (Table 1). The physiognomy is given by Carex kitaibeliana and Sesleria juncifolia subsp. juncifolia. This vegetation grows along crests of the summit areas, in an altitudinal range between approximately 2380 m to the top. It covers surfaces characterized by soils with a high debris component and large outcropping rocks, exposed to cold winds blowing mainly from the northeast. Cover values are on average between 40% and 70%, exposure and slope are also variable. These plant communities show ecological and floristic relations with Leontopodio nivalis-Seslerietum juncifoliae, an association described for the alpine belt of the Majella massif and typically located on crests and ridges at high altitudes (Blasi & al., 2005). In Table 1, only rel. 1 (Mt. Vettore, near the top) can be attributed to the typical form of the association, and in the PCA analysis it splits separately from the other releves of Sesleria juncifolia communities (Figure 3). Releves 2-4, made at lower altitudes around the top of Vettore (Table 19), show a general poorness of characteristic species and low cover values of Sesleria juncifolia subsp. juncifolia. Carex kitaibeliana, with high cover values, characterizes the physiognomy of these grasslands. This vegetation is here characterized as a new subassociation, caricetosum kitaibelianae subass. nova (Table 1, rels. 24, holotypus rel. 2). Leontopodio nivalis-Seslerietum juncifoliae caricetosum kitaibelianae has ecological relations with Caricetum kitaibelianae-rupestris Biondi, Allegrezza, Ballelli & Taffetani 2000 (Biondi & al., 2000), occurring on the summit areas of Corno Grande (Gran Sasso, Central Apennines).

Saxifrago speciosae-Silenetum cenisiae Petriccione 1993 (Table 2, rel. 1-4)

Dwarf-cushion vegetation characterized by Silene acaulis subsp. cenisia, covering only scattered and often limited areas is found on rendzina soils with abundant outcropping rocks in the higher parts of the massif. It is located on ridges at altitudinal ranges varying from 2300 m to the top, and forming a mosaic with the grasslands of Leontopodio nivalis-Seslerietum apenninae caricetosum kitaibelianae. This vegetation can be referred to Saxifrago speciosae-Silenetum cenisiae, an association described for the Velino massif and present in the alpine belt of the main massifs of the central Apennines (Petriccione, 1993; Petriccione & Persia, 1995). Characteristic species of the association, shown in Table 2, are: Silene acaulis subsp. cenisia, Saxifraga oppositifolia subsp. speciosa, Potentilla cranztii subsp. crantzii, Ranunculus brevifolius. This vegetation is the typical "alpine tundra" of the alpine belt: it grows on primitive soils rich in debris and coarse clast deriving from the fragmentation in situ of the underlying rock, and has very low cover values (25-30%). Saxifrago speciosae-Silenetum cenisiae shows strong ecological similarities with Galio magellensis-Silenetum acaulis Blasi, Di Pietro, Fortini et Catonica 2003, described for the alpine belt of Gran Sasso and Majella. The two associations can be considered as a territorial vicariant. Seslerio apenninae-Dryadetum octopetalae Biondi, Ballelli, Allegrezza, Taffetani, Frattaroli, Guitian & Zuccarello 1999 (Table 3, rels. 1-2)

The communities dominated by Dryas octopetala occur exclusively on the steep and stony slopes of the Lago di Pilato valley (Table 19), on soils rich in calcareous debris and exposed to heavy north winds, at altitudes between 1850 and 1900 m a.s.l. This vegetation has been described for the central Apennines (Gran Sasso) as a discontinuous and xerophytic carpet on stabilized debris (Furrer & Furnari, 1960), and was subsequently characterised as Seslerio apenninae-Dryadetum octopetalae (Biondi & al., 1999a). Characteristic and differential species recognized by the authors of the association are: Dryas octopetala, Sesleria juncifolia, Carex mucronata, Ranunculus thora and Leontopodium nivale. The characteristic species found in the communities observed in the Lago di Pilato valley are Dryas octopetala and Leontopodium nivale (Table 3). PCA analysis segregates a group of three releves of plant communities with Dryas octopetala (Figure 3, rels. 30-32), but only rel. 30 and 31 have here been referred to the Seslerio-Dryadetum sensu Biondi & al 1999 (Table 3, rels. 1-2). Releve 32, made at higher altitudes and in different ecological conditions shows low cover value of Dryas, and has been referred to Leontopodio nivalis-Seslerietum juncifoliae caricetosum kitaibelianae (Table 1, rel. 4)

Seslerio apenninae-Dryadetum octopetalae is in contact, near the summit areas, with Leontopodio nivalis-Seslerietum juncifoliae caricetum kitaibelianae grasslands.

Seslerietum apenninae Furnari in Bruno & Furnari 1966 (Table 4, rel. 1-24) subass. juncetosum monanthi Biondi & al. 1999 (Table 4, rel. 20-24)

Seslerietum apenninae grows near regular slopes with variable inclination values varying from 0 to 45 (Table 4), on undeveloped soils rich in calcareous debris, in windy stands characterized by high evapo-transpiration (Furrer & Furnari, 1960; Furnari, 1961; Migliaccio, 1970; Petriccione, 1994b). With their typical steppe morphology and their large extension, these grasslands characterize the landscape of the sub-alpine belt.

Seslerietum apenninae is found in the central and southern calcareous Apennines, from the Sibillini to Pollino (Biondi & al., 1988; Petriccione & Persia, 1995). Characteristic species are Pedicularis elegans, Helianthemum oelandicum subsp. alpestre and Androsace villosa. Silene cattariniana Ferrarini et Cecchi (= Silene graminea Vis.; Ferrarini & Cecchi, 2001), endemic and rare species of the central Apennines (Table 4, rels. 10-12) occurring on the Vettoretto mountain.

Releves 13-18 were made along ridges of the summit areas of the massif, on soils with a high debris component and outcropping rocks. in these environmental conditions Sesleria juncifolia cover values appear lower compared to the typical form of the association and, in this case, the physiognomy is characterized by Carex kitaibeliana.

Biondi & al. (1999a) described, for the Gran Sasso massif, the juncetosum monanthi subassociation, characterized by Juncus trifidus subsp. monanthos and Bistorta vivipara and occurring close to the grasslands of the Leontopodio nivalis-Elynetum myosuroidis FeoliChiapella & Feoli 1977. in our opinion this subassociation, growing on deep soils and with the presence of a significant number of species of Nardetea strictae (Table 4, rels. 20-24), characterizes the Sesleria juncifolia communities that come into contact with the mesophilous grasslands of the Nardetea strictae class. This group of five releves, on the basis of PCA analysis, split clearly from the group of Sesleria juncifolia grasslands (Figures 3 and 4).

Mesophilous and acidophilous perennial grasslands of alpine and subalpine belts

Mesophilous and acidophilous perennial grasslands growing on deep, leached, acid or sub-acid soils of alpine and subalpine belts belong to the Nardetea strictae class, the Nardetalia strictae order and to the Ranunculo pollinensis-Nardion strictae alliance, endemic to the southern-central Apennines.

Three associations were found in the study area: Ranunculo pollinensis-Plantaginetum atratae, Luzulo italicae-Nardetum strictae, Taraxaco apennini-Trifolietum thalii.

Ranunculo pollinensis-Plantaginetum atratae Biondi, Ballelli, Allegrezza & Taffetani 2000 (Table 5, rels. 1-4)

The plant communities dominated by Plantago atrata subsp. atrata grow in slight hollows or in the bottom of dolinas, sited on the highest part of the massif, where snow remains for most of the year, on decarbonated and not very developed soils. This vegetation forms dense carpets covering small and scattered surfaces, often in contact with Leontopodio nivalis-Seslerietum juncifoliae caricetosum kitaibelianae grasslands. The physiognomy of this vegetation is given by Plantago atrata and by a contingent of acidophilous small hemicryptophytes characteristic of Ranunculo-Nardion and Nardetea strictae. Biondi & al. (2000) have distinguished this association from the others of Ranunculo-Nardion due to the presence of Ranunculus pollinensis, Viola eugeniae subsp. eugeniae, Rumex nebroides and Crepis aurea subsp. glabrescens, reported in Table 5 as differential species.

Floristic, ecological and structural features allow this vegetation to be framed within Ranunculo pollinensisPlantaginetum atratae, described for the alpine belt of the Gran Sasso massif. Biondi & al. (2000) recognize this association as a geo-vicariant of Gnaphalio magellensis-Plantaginetum atratae Feoli-Chiapella & Feoli 1977, described for the Majella massif.

Luzulo italicae-Nardetum strictae Biondi, Ballelli, Allegrezza, Frattaroli & Taffetani 1992 (Table 6, rels. 1-8)

Nardus stricta vegetation forms dense grasslands on flattish (or slightly sloping) areas and on leached soils. Festuca microphylla, Plantago atrata, Luzula spicata subsp. italica and Poa alpina subsp. alpina also have high cover values and are physiognomic species of these acidophilous pastures. This vegetation is referred to the Luzulo italicae-Nardetum strictae, association described for the Gran Sasso massif and characterised by Luzula spicata subsp. italica, Potentilla cranztii subsp. crantzii, Viola eugeniae subsp. eugeniae, Euphrasia salisburgensis (Biondi & al., 1999a). Those authors described the subass. caricetosum kitaibelianae as a xerophilous variant, often in contact with Seslerietum apenninae grasslands and characterized by the presence of a group of characteristic species of the Elyno-Seslerietea class. This subassociation was not found in the study area. Luzulo italicae-Nardetum strictae is distributed in the subalpine belt of the calcareous central Apennines, and it is often in contact with Taraxaco apennini-Trifolietum thalii (Biondi & al., 1992, 1999a; Blasi& al., 2005).

Taraxaco apennini-Trifolietum thalii Biondi, Ballelli, Allegrezza, Frattaroli & Taffetani 1992. (Table 7, rels. 1-10)

Taraxaco apennini-Trifolietum thalii includes acidophilous, mesophilous and thick grasslands, where physiognomy is given by the dominance of Trifolium thalii, Festuca microphylla and Plantago atrata with the presence of a large group of acidophilous species of Nardetea strictae and Ranunculo-Nardion. This vegetation grows in large dolinas or wide hollows on deep, wet and acid soils where the snow remains for a considerable time (Furrer & Furnari, 1960; Giacomini & Furnari, 1961; Bazzichelli & Furnari, 1970; Petriccione & Persia, 1995; Biondi & al., 1999a). Cover values are very high, comprising between 90 and 100%. Slope inclination values are low and the flattish morphologies of the sites certainly favour the development of deep soils. Characteristic species are Trifolium thalii, Taraxacum apenninum and Bellis perennis. This vegetation is distributed on the calcareous massifs of the central-southern Apennines, from the Sibillini to Pollino, mainly in the subalpine belt. It is a primary pasture of high environmental value. At present, due to the high grazing load, particularly during the summer, the distribution area of these grasslands is reduced and fragmented.

Mesophilous and neutrophilous perennial grasslands of subalpine and montane belts

The neutrophilous, mesophilous or slightly xerophilous perennial grasslands of subalpine and montane belts belong to the Festuco-Brometea class, the Brometalia-erecti order, the Phleo ambigui-Bromion erecti alliance (endemic to the calcareous Apennines) and the Brachypodenion genuensis suballiance (subalpine and montane belts of the central-northern Apennines). The only association recognized in the Sibillini mountains is the Potentillo rigoanae-Brachypodietum genuensis.

Potentillo rigoanae-Brachypodietum genuensis Lucchese, Persia & Pignatti 1995. (Table 8, rels. 1-8)

Brachypodium genuense grasslands found in the subalpine belt of the Sibillini mountains (Table 8) grow on calcareous slopes with moderate gradient, in fairly xeric stands, often with a southern exposure, and cover an altitudinal range between 1800 and 2100 m Brachypodium genuense shows high cover values, giving these grasslands a smooth and dense appearance. Biondi & al. (2002) described Brachypodium genuense grasslands for the subalpine belt of Gran Sasso such as Stacydo alopecuroidis-Brachypodietum genuensis Biondi & al. 2002, belonging to Brachypodenion genuensis suballiance and characterized by Stachys alopecuros subsp. divulsa, Galium corrudifolium, Centaurea ambigua subsp. nigra, Cyanus triumfetti and Erysimum majellense). The releves made in the subalpine belt of the Sibillini appear to have ecological similarities with this association, but due to the absence of the characteristic species (except for the presence of Stachys alopecuros subsp. divulsa in releves 7 and 8 and of Centaurea ambigua subsp. nigra in releve 6), it was considered advisable to frame this vegetation into Potentillo rigoanae-Brachypodietum genuensis. Potentillo rigoanae-Brachypodietum genuensis includes the Brachypodium genuense grasslands of the central-southern calcareous Apennines, from the Sibillini to southern Calabria, occurring in the montane and sub-alpine belts. Characteristic species are Potentilla rigoana, Trifolium montanum subsp. rupestre and Verbascum longifolium (Lucchese & al., 1995). This vegetation grows on relatively deep and subacid soils (Furrer & Furnari, 1960; Lucchese & al., 1995; Lucchese, 1987; Di Pietro & al., 2005). It forms pastures growing on stable screes or slopes with calcareous outcrops, conforming a typical mosaic with other plant communities such as Seslerietum apenninae, in the sub-alpine belt.

Nitrophilous vegetation

The nitrophilous vegetation occurring in the subalpine belt is often correlated with overgrazing. The communities found in the study area belong to the Artemisietea vulgaris class and to the Artemisietalia vulgaris order (perennial nitrophilous herbaceous vegetation growing on deep and well-nitrified soils). Arction lappae is the only alliance present in the study area. This vegetation is related to the pastoral activities largely practised within the subalpine belt. it occurs especially in folds, or close to watering sources, or in other places where livestock remain for considerable periods of time.

Carduetum chrysacanthi Pedrotti 1981 (Table 9, rels. 1-3)

Carduetum chrysacanthi, described for the subalpine belt of the Laga massif (central Apennines, Pedrotti, 1981, 1982a) and found also in Campo imperatore (Gran Sasso, Biondi & al., 1999a), grows especially in places with a high density of livestock and, therefore with accumulated organic remains. Characteristic of the association is Carduus chrysacanthus. other nitrophilous species are Urtica dioica, Scrophularia scopolii, Rumex nebroides, Achillea millefolium. The association's area of distribution includes the montane and subalpine belt of the southern-central Apennines (Biondi & al., 1999a), generally over 2000 m.

Chenopodio boni-henrici-Carduetum affinis Biondi, Ballelli, Allegrezza, Taffetani, Frattaroli, Guitian & Zuccarello 1999 (Table 9, rels. 4-5)

This association develops on wet and deep soils, in places where livestock remains for considerable periods of time, such as in folds. The flattish morphology of these stands favours the accumulation of organic substances in the soil. Described by Biondi & al. (1999a) for the subalpine belt of Gran Sasso, it is characterized by Carduus affinis and Chenopodium bonus-henricus. Chenopodio boni-henrici-Carduetum affinis occurs in the subalpine belt, below 2000 m, at lower altitudes than Carduetum chrysacanthi.

Cliff vegetation

Cliff vegetation is ascribed to the Asplenietea trichomanis holoarctic class, to the Potentilletalia caulescentis order (communities on carbonaceous rocks in the Eurosiberian and Mediterranean areas), and to the two following alliances: Saxifragion australis (endemic to the central-southern Apennines), with the two associations Potentilletum apenninae and Saxifrago australisTrisetetum bertolonii; Cystopteridion fragilis (Eurosiberian alliance distributed, in italy, in the Alps and central-northern Apennines, in shaded niches on north-facing rock walls), with the association Asplenio-Cystopteridetum fragilis.

There are many endemic elements present in these habitats: Saxifraga callosa subsp. callosa (= Saxifraga lingulata Bellardi subsp. australis (Moric.) Pign.), Potentilla apennina, Trisetaria villosa (= Trisetum bertolonii Jonsell), Achillea barrelieri subsp. barellieri, Festuca alfrediana, Saxifraga paniculata, etc.

Saxifrago australis-Trisetetum bertolonii Biondi & Ballelli 1982 (Table 10, rels. 1-3)

Association widely spread on calcareous rocks of the central Apennines (Biondi & Ballelli, 1982; Biondi & al., 1990, 1992, 1997, 1999a, 2000; Tammaro, 1995; Giancola & Stanisci, 2006), with a very wide altitudinal range, from about 300 m to 2000 m. Characteristic species are Saxifraga callosa subsp. callosa and Trisetaria villosa. other chasmophilous species of Potentilletalia, frequently occurring in these chasmophilous communities, are Potentilla apennina, Saxifraga paniculata subsp. stabiana and Festuca alfrediana (Table 10)

Potentilletum apenninae Feoli et Feoli Chiapella 1976 (Table 10, rels. 4-10)

Potentilletum apenninae is largely spread throughout the calcareous central Apennines (Feoli & Feoli Chiapella, 1976; Avena & Blasi, 1980; Petriccione, 1994a; Tammaro, 1995; Biondi & al, 1997; Giancola & Stanisci, 2006), but with a narrower and higher altitudinal range than the previous association. in the Sibillini massif it occurs from 1900 to 2200 m. and is widely distributed on cliffs and rock faces. Characteristic species are Potentilla apennina and Saxifraga paniculata subsp. stabiana.

Asplenio-Cystopteridetum fragilis Oberd. (1936) 1945. (Table 10, rels. 11-12)

Asplenio-Cystopteridetum fragilis occurs on shaded and north-exposed rock walls, characterized by a cold and moist microclimate. Characteristic of the association is Cystopteris fragilis. This chasmophytic sciophilous vegetation has been reported by Tomaselli (1994) for the northern Apennines. It also occurs in central Italy in Molise (Giancola & Stanisci, 2006), and is here reported also for the Sibillini massif.

Scree vegetation

The scree vegetation is ascribed to the Thlaspietea rotundifolii holoarctic class, to the Thlaspietalia rotundifolii order (high-altitude vegetation on base-rich screes in Eurosiberian and Mediterranean areas) and to the Linario-Festucion dimorphae alliance (scree vegetation of the central and southern calcareous Apennines). The following associations have been found in the study area: Isatido allionii-Thlaspietum stylosi, Isatido-Heracleetum orsinii, Galio magellensis-Festucetum dimorphae, Drypido-Festucetum dimorphae.

Isatido allionii-Thlaspietum stylosi Migliaccio 1970 corr. Feoli Chiapella 1983. (Table 11, rels. 1-2)

Pioneer vegetation on steep and unstable slopes with high granulometry and mobility, occurring in the alpine and subalpine belts. Isatido allionii-Thlaspietum stylosi grows in conditions of greater slope and altitude compared to the other associations in the alliance, from which it differs due to the absence of large size species such as Festuca dimorpha or Heracleum sphondilium subsp. orsini (Blasi & al., 2003). Characteristic species of the association are Isatis apennina (= Isatis allionii Ball.), Thlaspi stylosum and Crepis pygmaea. A large group of Linario-Festucion dimorphae diagnostic species, such as Papaver alpinum subsp. hernesti-majeri, Ranunculus brevifolius, Arenaria bertolonii, Robertia taraxacoides, etc., characterize these communities (Table 11). The cover values are generally very low.

Described by Migliaccio for the Majella massif (corr. by Feoli-Chiapella (1983) in Isatido allionii-Thlaspietum stylosi), it has been reported for other sites in the Abruzzo region (Terminillo and velino massifs, Bonin, 1978; Campo Imperatore, Biondi & al., 1999a; Corno Grande, Biondi & al., 2000). In the study area it has been found only in the Lago di Pilato valley.

Isatido-Heracleetum orsinii Feoli-Chiapella 1983 (Table 11, rels. 3-5)

Isatido-Heracleetum orsinii occurs in the subalpine belt of the central calcareous Apennines, on steep slopes with an inclination often exceeding 45[degrees], clast size between 5 and 10 cm and high mobility. Characteristic species are Heracleum sphondilium subsp. orsini and Isatis apennina.

The authors described several subassociations and variants. The subass. festucetosum dimorphae was found in the study area, considered by the authors as the typical form of the association. in the Sibillini mountains it occurs in an altitudinal range between about 1850 m and 2200 m. on the north-facing slopes of the Lago di Pilato valley, Isatido-Heracleetum orsinii is replaced by Isatido-Thlaspietum stylosi. Isatido-Heracleetum orsinii, as well as in the study area, is present in Gran Sasso and Majella (Feoli-Chiapella, 1983) and on M. Marsicano in the Abruzzo National Park (Petriccione, 1986). Recently, Di Pietro & al. (2004), investigating the scree vegetation of the Abruzzo National Park, described a Heracleum sphondium subsp. orsini ecological variant of Galio-Festucetum dimorphae, similar to the Isatido-Heracleetum orsinii association, for ecological and floristic features, but distinguished due to the absence of Isatis apennina.

Galio magellensis-Festucetum dimorphae FeoliChiapella 1983 subass. ranunculetosum brevifolii Feoli-Chiapella 1983 (Table 12, rels. 1-5) subas. armerietosum Feoli-Chiapella 1983 (Table 12, rels. 6-7)

Galio magellensis-Festucetum dimorphae is distributed in the montane and subalpine belts of the central Apennines and occurs on talus slopes with an average inclination of around 30[degrees], moderate mobility and medium clast size. The physiognomy is given by Festuca dimorpha, which forms a discontinuous carpet on the scree surface. The characteristic species is Galium magellense. Feoli-Chiapella (1983) characterized some subassociations, closely linked to the degree of stabilization of the substrate. The study area contained: Ranunculetosum brevifolii (Table 12, rels. 15), considered by the author as the typical aspect of the association, growing on slopes with an average inclination of 25[degrees]-30[degrees], moderate mobility and clast size exceeding 10 cm; armerietosum (Table 12, rels. 6-7), growing on more stable substrates, often in contact with the communities of Elyno-Seslerietea. Galio magellensis-Festucetum dimorphae is the most widely distributed scree vegetation in the study area, in an altitudinal range between 1800 and 2350 m. It can be considered the most widespread and frequent screevegetation type in the central Apennines. it is also, together with the subass. armerietosum, the vegetation of stable screes.

Drypido-Festucetum dimorphae Bonin 1978 em. Feoli-Chiapella 1983 (Table 13, rels. 1-15)

Drypido-Festucetum dimorphae occupies unstable screes characterized by low granulometry, (clast size lower than 4 cm), high mobility and an inclination of over 40[degrees]. It has a wide altitudinal range, from about 650 to 2000 m (Feoli-Chiapella, 1983), although it spreads mainly throughout the montane belt. Physiognomic species are Drypis spinosa, Festuca dimorpha and Cerastium tomentosum. Drypis spinosa is the characteristic of the association. On the basis of the floristic composition Drypido-Festucetum dimorphae, it shows some ecological variants (Feoli-Chiapella, 1983). The typical form is present in the study area, characterized by the higher cover values of Drypis spinosa (Table 13, rels. 1-5), and the Brachypodium genuense variant (Table 13, rels. 6-15). This latter is considered the most stable stadium on relatively consolidated slopes, often in contact with the communities of Potentillo rigoanae-Brachypodietum genuensis (FeoliChiapella, 1983).

The list of plant communities found in the study area is given in the syntaxonomical scheme (Table 14). Place and date of releves and the list of sporadic species are given in Table 19 and Table 20 respectively.

Chorological and life-form analyses

The chorological analysis shows that the dominant elements in almost all the associations are the orophilous-southern European (with high frequencies, varying from 22% to 51%) and endemic (including the three groups of the Apennines, central Apennines and central-southern Apennines). The Euro-Asiatic and the northern (including circumboreal and Arctic-Alpine) elements also have considerable values (Table 14). The northern, the endemic and the orophilous-southern European elements typically characterize the high altitude environments (Blasi & al., 2003, 2005). The substantial presence of the Euro-Asiatic element is marked in grasslands and pastures (Table 2-8). The amphi-Adriatic element is well represented in all the vegetation types. in a recent work comparing the high-mountain flora in the central Apennines (Lucchese & De Simone, 2000), the authors assume a central core of the geographic and floristic district in the central Apennines formed by Gran Sasso, Majella and velino, linked towards the north with the Sibillini and Laga. The Sibillini mountains show a high frequency of endemic, orophilous and amphi-Adriatic elements similar to Gran Sasso, Majella and velino. Nevertheless, the Sibillini has a lower floristic richness compared to the other main massifs in the central Apennines.

On the basis of the life-form analysis, hemicryptophytes (H) are dominant in all the associations reported in this work (from 50% to 85%). Chamaephytes (Ch) are also well represented and have their highest values in the chasmophilous vegetation of Saxifragion australis alliance and their lowest values in the thick grasslands of the Nardetea class (Table 15). Other life-forms are very scarce or completely absent, except for geophytes (G), which have a significant role in some types of scree vegetation.

DISCUSSION

The studies carried out on the high-altitude vegetation of the Sibillini served to highlight the great richness of environments, habitats and micro-habitats, the corresponding vegetation types as well as the strong relationships with other calcareous massifs in the central Apennines. Numerous similarities can be observed with the high-altitude (alpine belt) environments of the Majella massif: the presence of the Leontopodio nivalis-Seslerietum juncifoliae association, including the Sesleria juncifolia grasslands of the alpine belt characterized by a high presence of Leontopodium nivale, is a characteristic of these two massifs. The abundance of Leontopodium nivale in Sesleria juncifolia grasslands is a peculiarity that the Sibillini shares with Majella. Saxifrago-Silenetum cenisiae appears to be shared by the Sibillini and velino. This alpine tundra association is replaced, in Gran Sasso, Majella and Laga, by Galio magellensis-Silenetum acaulis (Blasi & al. 2003). There are also strong similarities with the high altitude vegetation of the Gran Sasso massif, shown by the large number of vegetation types shared exclusively by these two massifs. in particular, the associations Seslerio-Dryadetum octopetalae, Ranunculo pollinensis-Plantaginetum atratae and Chenopodio bonihenrici-Carduetum affinis have so far been found only in these two areas. Nevertheless, the lower altitude of the Sibillini, compared to Majella and Gran Sasso, the high level of anthropic disturbance (especially grazing) and the fragmentation of plant communities probably does not permit the complete expression of the alpine belt and of several corresponding plant communities (Biondi & al., 2000; Blasi & al., 2003; Blasi & al., 2005).

Some further syntaxonomical and geobotanical considerations should be provided. With regard to alpine vegetation, Blasi & al. (2005), following the scheme of Oriolo (2001), have reconsidered the alpine grasslands of Apennines (before inclusion in the Carici rupestris-Kobresietea bellardii ohba 1974 class) and have returned them to the Elyno-Seslerietea class, in the Seslerion apenninae order, characterizing two suballiances: Seslerenion apenninae, including primary and secondary grasslands of the subalpine and montane belts, and Leontopodio nivalis-Elynenion myosuroidis, including only the primary grasslands of the alpine belt. They demonstrated the existence and autonomy of an Apennine alpine bioclimatic belt, well expressed in the three study areas, the Gran Sasso, Majella and Laga mountains (central Apennines, Abruzzo region). With regard to the Sibillini mountains, the phytosociological research presented in this paper indicates the presence of an alpine belt and the corresponding primary plant community types, such as the Leontopodio nivalis-Seslerietum juncifoliae (in its typical form and with the subass. caricetosum kitaibelianae) and the Saxifrago speciosae-Silenetum cenisiae, included in the Leontopodio nivalis-Elynenion myosuroidis. The two associations Seslerietum apenninae and Seslerio apenninae-Dryadetum octopetalae have been referred to the Seslerenion apenninae suballiance. The synoptic table (Table 16) compares some Sesleria juncifolia associations described for the central Apennines, including the Sibillini. The table shows a general likeness between the Sesleria juncifolia vegetation of the Sibillini, Gran Sasso and Majella and, in particular, the close similarity between columns 2-5 (Seslerietum apenninae of Gran Sasso, Seslerietum apenninae of the Sibillini, Leontopodio nivalis-Seslerietum juncifoliae of Majella and Leontopodio nivalis-Seslerietum juncifoliae caricetosum of the Sibillini). The synoptic table shows a high floristic similarity between the columns (particularly the characteristic species of Seslerietum apenninae are largely shared).

With regards to acidophilous grasslands, LuzuloNardetum and Taraxaco-Trifolietum have a wide distribution area in the calcareous central Apennines, while Ranunculo-Plantaginetum, reported only for the Gran Sasso and Sibillini, is a geographical vicariant of Gnaphalio magellensis-Plantaginetum atratae Feoli Chiapella & Feoli 1977 of the Majella massif. A synoptic table of these three associations is provided in Table 17.

Scree vegetation, on the basis of physical parameters such as granulometry and inclination (Avena & Bruno, 1975; Avena & Blasi, 1980), covers different microgeo-morphological ambits. in the study area, four sections have been identified (according to the scheme of Di Pietro & al. 2004) and their corresponding vegetation types: 1) area of high mobility of clasts or core of the scree. in the central Apennines this ambit is characterized by Cymabalarietum pallidae Bazzichelli & Furnari 1979 (Bazzichelli & Furnari, 1970; FeoliChiapella, 1983) while in the study area Isatido-Heracleetum orsini festucetosum dimorphae and Isatido-Thlaspietum stylosi have their optimum. 2) Middle area, corresponding to the lower and wider part of the scree, were Galio-Festucetum dimorphae ranunculetosum brevifolii is found. 3) Edge or wing of the talus slope, on relatively consolidated slopes, where the occurring association is Galio-Festucetum dimorphae armerietosum. 4) in the part of the talus slope characterized by low granulometry and high mobility, there is an occurrence of Drypido-Festucetum dimorphae.

The results of the analysis of chorological types (Table 14) confirm the close relationships of the floristic component characterizing the high-altitude vegetation of the Sibillini with the corresponding vegetation of the other main massifs of the central Apennines.

The northern, the endemic and the orophilous-southern European elements are dominant and typically characterize these high-altitude environments. (Lucchese & De Simone, 2000; Blasi & al., 2003, 2005). The large presence of the Euro-Asiatic element is due to the lower altitude of the Sibillini massif (compared to the other main massifs of the central Apennines), which means: a lower development of the alpine belt, a stronger influence of human activities, especially grazing, and a marked presence of the floristic elements of the lower bioclimatic belts. Some considerations can be made concerning the endemic element. The central-southern Apennine and the central Apennine elements are dominant, and this reflects the biogeographical autonomy of the central Apennines with regard to the entire Apennine system, and its importance as a centre of diffferentiation and conservation of both endemic taxa and arctic-alpine relics (Blasi & al., 2003). The high presence of the amphi-Adriatic element, similar to the main massifs of the central Apennines (Lucchese & De Simone, 2000) testifies to the close relationships between the Apennine and Balkan floristic districts.

As regards the disturbance factors linked to human activities that affect these habitats, grazing is certainly the most important. At the same time, this is also an ecological factor that influences many vegetation types and their ecological equilibrium and, certainly contributes to determining the wide diversity of grassland and pasture plant communities. Both the control and the maintenance of grazing are therefore equally important for the preservation of these habitats. Another risk factor is tourist activity, such as mountaineering, hiking and plant collecting (e.g. collecting Leontopodium nivale, or other rare and threatened alpine belt species, is still a common habit among some visitors during the summer). Fortunately, the National Park Management Plan has recently provided guidelines for the management of this natural heritage, including the regulation of tourist activities and the maintenance of some traditional human activities such as grazing or mowing, with their coordination and rational management, in an attempt to preserve particular or threatened habitats and species.
SYNTAXONOMICAL SCHEME

ELYNO-SESLERIETEA Br.-Bl. 1948
   Seslerietalia tenuifoliae Horvat. 1930
      Seslerion apenninae Furnari in Bruno and Furnari 1966
         Leontopodio nivalis-Elynenion myosuroidis Blasi, Di Pietro,
           Fortini andCatonica 2003
         Leontopodio nivalis-Seslerietum juncifoliae Blasi, Di Pietro
           and Pelino 2005 caricetosum kitaibelianae subass. nova hoc
           loco
         Saxifrago speciosae-Silenetum cenisiae Petriccione 1993
      Seslerenion apenninae Blasi, Di Pietro, Fortini and Catonica 2003
    Seslerio apenninae-Dryadetum octopetalae Biondi, Ballelli,
      Allegrezza, Taffetani, Frattaroli, Guitian and zuccarello 1999
      Seslerietum apenninae Furnari in Bruno and Furnari 1966
        juncetosum monanthi Biondi, Ballelli, Allegrezza, Taffetani,
         Frattaroli, Guitian and zuccarello 1999

NARDETEA STRICTAE Rivas Goday in Rivas Goday and Rivas Martinez 1963
  Nardetalia strictae Oberdorfer ex Preising 1949
     Ranunculo pollinensis-Nardion strictae Bonin 1972
        Ranunculo pollinensis-Plantaginetum atratae Biondi, Ballelli,
        Allegrezza and Taffetani 2000
        Luzulo italicae-Nardetum strictae Biondi, Ballelli, Allegrezza,
          Frattaroli and Taffetani 1992
        Taraxaco apennini-Trifolietum thalii Biondi, Ballelli,
          Allegrezza, Frattaroli and Taffetani 1992

FESTUCO-BROMETEA Br.-Bl. and Tuxen ex Br.-Bl. 1949
  Brometalia erecti Br.-Bl. 1936
    Artemisio albae-Bromenalia erecti Biondi, Ballelli, Allegrezza
      and zuccarello 1995
      Phleo ambigui-Bromion erecti Biondi et Blasi ex Biondi,
        Ballelli, Allegrezza and zuccarello 1995
          Brachypodenion genuensis Biondi, Ballelli, Allegrezza and
            zuccarello 1995
            Potentillo rigoanae-Brachypodietum genuensis Lucchese,
             Persia and Pignatti 1995

ARTEMISIETEA VULGARIS Lohmeyer, Preising and Tuxen ex von Rochow 1951
   Artemisietalia vulgaris Lohmeyer in Tuxen 1947
     Arction lappae Tuxen 1937
     Carduetum chrysacanthi Pedrotti 1981
     Chenopodio boni-henrici-Carduetum affinis Biondi, Ballelli,
       Allegrezza, Taffetani, Frattaroli, Guitian and Zuccarello
       1999

ASPLENIETEA TRICHOMANIS (Br.-Bl. in Meier and Br.-Bl. 1934)
  Oberdorfer 1977
    Potentilletalia caulescentis Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. and Jenny 1926
      Saxifragion australis Biondi and Ballelli ex Brullo 1983
        Saxifrago australis-Trisetetum bertolonii Biondi and Ballelli
        1982
          Potentilletum apenninae Feoli and Feoli Chiapella 1976
      Cystopteridion fragilis J. C. Richard 1972
          Asplenio-Cystopteridetum fragilis oberd (1936) 1945

THLASPIETEA ROTUNDIFOLII Br.-Bl. 1948
    Thlaspietalia rotundifolii Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. and Jenny 1926
      Linario-Festucion dimorphae Avena and Bruno 1975
        Isatido-Thlaspietum stylosi Migliaccio 1970 corr. Feoli
          Chiapella 1983
        Isatido-Heracleetum orsinii Feoli Chiapella 1983
          festucetosum dimorphae Feoli Chiapella 1983
        Galio magellensis-Festucetum dimorphae Feoli Chiapella 1983
          ranunculetosum brevifolii Feoli Chiapella 1983
          armerietosum Feoli Chiapella 1983
        Drypido-Festucetum dimorphae Bonin 1978 em. Feoli-Chiapella
          1983 var. Brachypodium genuense


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to thank Dr. Alessandro Rossetti, Dr. Paolo Tescarollo and Dr. Andrea Palmeri for the collaboration during the period of exploration and data collection in the Sibillini National Park and also the two anonymous reviewers.

Recibido: 17 junio 2008 Aceptado: 12 febrero 2009

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Emanuele Costanzo (*), Francesco Furnari (*) & Valeria Tomaselli (**)

* Dipartment Department of Botany. University of Catania. via A. Longo 19. I-. 95125 Catania. Italyia.

** C.N.R., Institute of Plant Genetics. via G.Amendola 165/A. 70126 Bari. Italyia.
Table 1

Leontopodio nivalis-Seslerietum juncifoliae Blasi, Di Pietro et Pelino
2005 subass. caricetosum kitaibelianae subass. nova hoc loco
(Leontopodio-Elynenion, Seslerion apenninae, Seslerietalia tenuifoliae,
Elyno myosuroidis-Seslerietea caeruleae)

Altitude (m)                              2470   2420   2422   2375
Slope ([grados])                           -      -      -      20
Aspect                                     -      -      -      W
Area ([m.sup.2])                          100    100    100    100
Cover (%)                                  40     75     70     40
N.                                         1      2      3      4

Characteristics of association
Leontopodium nivale                        1      1      +      1
Aster alpinus subsp. alpinus               1      .      .      .
Diff. Subass. caricetosum kitaibelianae
Carex kitaibeliana subsp. kitaibeliana     .      3      3      2
Characteristics of Elynenion
Potentilla cranztii subsp. crantzii        +      1      1      +
Minuartia verna subsp. verna               1      +      .      1
Helianthemum oelandicum subsp.alpestre     +      .      .      +
Silene acaulis subsp. cenisia              1      .      .      .
Sedum atratum subsp. atratum               +      .      .      .
Dryas octopetala                           .      .      .      1
Characteristics of Seslerion               .      .      .      .
Pedicularis elegans                        1      1      1      +
Trinia dalechampii                         +      .      .      .
Carum flexuosum                            .      .      .      +
Characteristics of Seslerietalia
Sesleria juncifolia subsp. juncifolia      2      1      +      2
Armeria canescens                          +      1      +      .
Gentiana dinarica                          1      +      .      .
Edraianthus graminifolius subsp.           .      1      +      .
  graminifolius
Globularia meridionalis                    .      .      +      .
Acinos alpinus subsp. alpinus              .      +      .      .
Characteristics of Seslerietea
Thymus praecox subsp. polytrichus          +      +      1      .
Androsace villosa subsp. villosa           +      1      1      .
Draba aizoides subsp. aizoides             +      +      +      .
Gentiana verna subsp. verna                1      .      .      +
Anthyllis vulneraria subsp.                .      +      .      +
  vulnerarioides
Sempervivum arachnoideum                   .      +      1      .
Pulsatilla alpina subsp. millefoliata      .      +      .      .
Ranunculus breyninus                       +      .      .      .
Pedicularis tuberosa                       .      .      .      +
Coronilla vaginalis                        .      .      .      +
Other species
Saxifraga paniculata                       +      +      +      .
Plantago atrata subsp. atrata              .      2      2      +
Senecio doronicum                          .      +      1      +
Cerastium arvense subsp. suffruticosum     .      1      +      .
Hieracium pilosella                        .      1      +      .
Alyssum montanum subsp. montanum           .      1      1      .
Asperula cynanchica                        .      +      +      .

Other species: Poa alpina subsp. alpina 2, Erigeron epiroticus 1,
Senecio squalidus + in 1; Saxifraga oppositifolia subsp. speciosa,
Sedum acre, Hieracium lactucella ssp lactucella and Ranunculus
brevifolius + in 2; Saxifraga exarata subsp. ampullacea + in 3;
Adonis distorta, Campanula glomerata, Hieracium villosum, Valeriana
montana subsp. montana, Juniperus communis var. saxatilis, Salix
retusa, Galium lucidum and Trifolium pratense subsp. Semipurpureum
+ and Biscutella laevigata 1 in 4.

Localities: 1: Vettore, Furnari 1970; 2-3: 27/7/99 Cima del Lago;
4: Vettore, Furnari 1970.

Table 2

Saxifrago speciosae-Silenetum cenisiae Petriccione 1993
(Leontopodio-Elynenion, Seslerion apenninae, Seslerietalia
tenuifoliae, Elyno myosuroidis-Seslerietea caeruleae)

Altitude (m)                               2300   2350   2350   2400
Slope ([grados])                            40     45     50     50
Aspect                                     E-SE    SE     NE     NE
Area ([m.sup.2])                            10     5      10     30
Cover (%)                                   30     30     25     20
N.                                          1      2      3      4

Association differentials
Silene acaulis subsp. cenisia               2      1      1      .
Saxifraga oppositifolia subsp. speciosa     +      1      +      .
Potentilla cranztii subsp. crantzii         .      +      .      .
Ranunculus brevifolius                      .      .      .      +
Characteristic of Elynenion
Leontopodium nivale                         1      1      +      +
Minuartia verna subsp. verna                .      +      +      +
Helianthemum oelandicum subsp. alpestre     1      .      .      .
Sedum atratum subsp. atratum                +      .      .      .
Characteristic of Seslerion                 .      .      .      .
Artemisia umbelliformis subsp. eriantha     +      +      1      1
Phyteuma orbiculare                         +      .      +      .
Characteristic of Seslerietalia
Carex kitaibeliana subsp. kitaibeliana      1      +      1      +
Edraianthus graminifolius subsp.            1      +      +      1
  graminifolius
Globularia meridionalis                     +      +      +      1
Sesleria juncifolia subsp. juncifolia       +      .      .      +
Characteristic of Seslerietea
Sempervivum arachnoideum                    +      +      +      1
Thymus praecox subsp. polytrichus           +      +      .      +
Gentiana verna subsp. verna                 +      +      +      .
Anthyllis montana subsp. atropurpurea       1      1      +      .
Draba aizoides subsp. aizoides              .      +      .      +
Aster alpinus subsp. alpinus                .      +      .      .
Other species
Saxifraga paniculata subsp. stabiana        +      +      1      1
Saxifraga exarata subsp. ampullacea         +      .      1      1
Dianthus sylvestris subsp. sylvestris       .      1      .      +
Hieracium pilosella                         .      +      .      +

Other species: Valeriana saliunca 1 in 3;Asperula cynanchica + in 4.

Localities: 1: ridge below Cima del Lago, 27/7/99; 2-4: ridge below
Cima del Lago, 27/7/99.

Table 3

Seslerio apenninae-Dryadetum octopetalae
Biondi & al. 1999
(Seslerenion apenninae, Seslerion apenninae, Seslerietalia
tenuifoliae, Elyno myosuroidis-Seslerietea caeruleae)

Altitude (m)                                     1850   1900
Slope ([grados])                                  35     15
Aspect                                            N      E
Area ([m.sup.2])                                  50     50
Cover (%)                                        100     80
Char. Ass.
N.                                                1      2

Association characteristics
Dryas octopetala                                  5      3
Leontopodium nivale                               .      1
Characteristic of Seslerenion and Seslerion
Anthyllis montana subsp. atropurpurea             +      +
Linum capitatum subsp. serrulatum                 +      1
Pedicularis elegans                               +      .
Festuca violacea subsp. italica                   +      .
Characteristic of Seslerietalia
Carex kitaibeliana subsp. kitaibeliana            2      3
Sesleria juncifolia subsp. juncifolia             1      +
Edraianthus graminifolius subsp. graminifolius    +      +
Gentiana dinarica                                 +      .
Characteristic of Seslerietea
Gentiana verna subsp. verna                       +      +
Juncus trifidus subsp. monanthos                  +      +
Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. vulnerarioides        .      +
Campanula scheuthzerii                            +      .
Pulsatilla alpina subsp. millefoliata             1      .
Other species
Ranunculus apenninus                              +      1
Euphrasia salisburgensis                          +      +
Salix retusa                                      +      .
Trifolium pratense subsp. pratense                +      .
Galium lucidum                                    +      .
Gentiana lutea subsp. lutea                       +      .
Minuartia verna subsp. verna                      +      .
Helianthemum oelandicum subsp. alpestre           .      1
Plantago atrata subsp. atrata                     .      1

Other species: Asperula cynanchica, Trifolium thalii, Alchemilla
alpina, Arenaria bertolonii, Bistorta vivipara and Rhamnnus pumila
+ in 1; Arenaria grandiflora subsp. grandiflora and Potentilla
apennina subsp. apennina 1, Saxifraga paniculata and Silene acaulis
+ in 2.

Localities: 1: Valle del Lago, 6/8/99; 2: Lago di Pilato, 6/8/99.

Table 4

Seslerietum apenninae Furnari in Bruno et Furnari 1966
(Seslerenion apenninae, Seslerion apenninae, Seslerietalia tenuifoliae,
Elyno myosuroidis-Seslerietea caeruleae)

Altitude (m)                              2100   2130   2260   2260
Slope ([grados])                           45     10     35     40
Aspect                                     NO     S      O      NO
Area ([m.sup.2])                          100     50     30     30
Cover (%)                                  80     50     60     60
N.                                         1      2      3      4

Association Characteristics
Helianthemum oelandicum subsp.alpestre     2      1      1      +
Pedicularis elegans                        1      1      +      +
Androsace villosa subsp. villosa           1      1      +      1
Differential of juncetosum monanthi
Juncus trifidus subsp. monanthos           .      .      .      .
Bistorta vivipara                          .      .      .      .
Characteristics suballiance.
Anthyllis montana subsp. atropurpurea      .      +      +      1
Helianthemum nummularium subsp.            .      +      1      2
  grandiflorum
Paronychia kapela subsp. kapela            .      +      .      .
Coronilla vaginalis                        .      .      .      .
Linum alpinum                              .      .      .      .
Characteristics of Seslerion
Leontopodium nivale                        +      2      .      .
Festuca violacea subsp. italica            .      +      .      .
Trinia dalechampii                         .      .      .      .
Silene cattariniana                        .      .      .      .
Achillea barellieri subsp. barellieri      .      .      .      .
Avenula praetutiana                        .      .      .      .
Carum flexuosum                            .      .      .      .
Characteristics of Seslerietalia
Carex kitaibeliana subsp. kitaibeliana     3      3      1      1
Sesleria juncifolia subsp. juncifolia      2      3      3      4
Edraianthus graminifolius subsp.           1      1      1      2
  graminifolius
Armeria canescens                          +      .      .      .
Gentiana dinarica                          .      2      .      .
Globularia meridionalis                    .      .      .      .
Characteristics of Seslerietea
Thymus praecox subsp. polytrichus          1      1      .      .
Silene acaulis                             1      +      .      .
Pulsatilla alpina subsp. millefoliata      +      .      .      .
Anthyllis vulneraria subsp.                .      .      2      3
  vulnerarioides
Gentiana verna subsp. verna                .      .      1      1
Ranunculus breyninus                       1      .      .      .
Aster alpinus subsp. alpinus               1      +      +      1
Phyteuma orbiculare                        .      .      +      +
Campanula scheuthzerii                     .      .      .      .
Sempervivum arachnoideum                   .      +      +      .
Draba aizoides subsp. aizoides             .      +      .      .
Leontodon montanus subsp. breviscapus      .      .      .      .
Pedicularis tuberosa                       .      .      .      .
Characteristics Nardetea strictae
Plantago atrata subsp. atrata              .      .      .      .
Viola eugeniae subsp. eugeniae             .      .      .      .
Botrychium lunaria                         .      .      .      .
Ranunculus apenninus                       .      .      .      .
Coeloglossum viride                        .      .      .      .
Hieracium pilosella                        .      .      .      .
Luzula spicata subsp. italica              .      .      .      .
Other species
Minuartia verna subsp. verna               1      .      +      .
Dianthus sylvestris subsp. sylvestris      +      +      +      1
Poa alpina subsp. alpina                   .      +      +      .
Asperula cynanchica                        .      +      .      .
Saxifraga paniculata                       1      1      .      .
Trifolium pratense subsp.                  .      +      .      .
  semipurpureum
Euphrasia salisburgensis                   .      +      .      .
Cerastium arvense subsp. suffruticosum     .      .      .      .
Potentilla apennina subsp. apennina        1      .      .      .
Galium lucidum                             .      .      .      .
Biscutella laevigata subsp. laevigata      .      .      .      .
Alyssum montanum subsp. montanum           .      .      .      .
Saxifraga oppositifolia subsp.             2      .      .      .
  speciosa
Oxytropis campestris subsp. campestris     1      .      .      .
Alchemilla nitida                          .      .      .      .
Hieracium lactucella ssp lactucella        .      .      .      .
Cyanus triumfettii                         .      .      .      .
Erigeron epiroticus                        .      .      .      .
Achillea millefolium subsp.                .      .      1      2
  millefolium
Allium sphaerocephalon subsp.              .      .      .      .
  sphaerocephalon
Arenaria grandiflora subsp.                .      1      .      .
  grandiflora
Brachypodium genuenese                     .      .      .      .
Doronicum columnae                         .      .      .      .
Festuca circummediterranea                 .      .      +      +
Galium magellense                          .      .      .      .
Potentilla cranztii subsp. crantzii        .      +      .      .
Potentilla tabernaemontani                 .      .      +      .
Rhamnus pumilus                            .      .      .      .
Sedum magellense subsp. magellense         .      .      2      +
Sedum acre                                 .      .      .      .

Altitude (m)                              1930   2238   2092   2130
Slope ([grados])                           -      10     25     45
Aspect                                     -      S      E     SSE
Area ([m.sup.2])                           50     16     16     30
Cover (%)                                  50     35     40     60
N.                                         5      6      7      8

Association Characteristics
Helianthemum oelandicum subsp.alpestre     1      2      2      1
Pedicularis elegans                        +      +      +      1
Androsace villosa subsp. villosa           1      1      +      +
Differential of juncetosum monanthi
Juncus trifidus subsp. monanthos           .      .      .      .
Bistorta vivipara                          .      .      .      .
Characteristics suballiance.
Anthyllis montana subsp. atropurpurea      +      +      1      +
Helianthemum nummularium subsp.            .      .      .      2
  grandiflorum
Paronychia kapela subsp. kapela            +      .      .      .
Coronilla vaginalis                        .      .      +      .
Linum alpinum                              .      .      .      .
Characteristics of Seslerion
Leontopodium nivale                        .      1      .      .
Festuca violacea subsp. italica            1      1      1      .
Trinia dalechampii                         +      .      .      .
Silene cattariniana                        .      .      .      .
Achillea barellieri subsp. barellieri      .      .      .      .
Avenula praetutiana                        .      .      +      .
Carum flexuosum                            .      .      .      .
Characteristics of Seslerietalia
Carex kitaibeliana subsp. kitaibeliana     2      2      2      3
Sesleria juncifolia subsp. juncifolia      3      2      2      2
Edraianthus graminifolius subsp.           +      1      1      1
  graminifolius
Armeria canescens                          .      .      .      +
Gentiana dinarica                          .      .      .      .
Globularia meridionalis                    .      .      .      .
Characteristics of Seslerietea
Thymus praecox subsp. polytrichus          1      2      +      +
Silene acaulis                             .      +      .      +
Pulsatilla alpina subsp. millefoliata      +      .      .      +
Anthyllis vulneraria subsp.                +      1      +      .
  vulnerarioides
Gentiana verna subsp. verna                1      .      .      .
Ranunculus breyninus                       .      +      +      +
Aster alpinus subsp. alpinus               .      .      +      .
Phyteuma orbiculare                        +      .      +      .
Campanula scheuthzerii                     .      .      .      .
Sempervivum arachnoideum                   .      .      .      .
Draba aizoides subsp. aizoides             .      +      .      .
Leontodon montanus subsp. breviscapus      .      .      .      .
Pedicularis tuberosa                       .      .      .      .
Characteristics Nardetea strictae
Plantago atrata subsp. atrata              .      .      .      .
Viola eugeniae subsp. eugeniae             .      .      .      .
Botrychium lunaria                         .      .      .      .
Ranunculus apenninus                       .      .      .      .
Coeloglossum viride                        .      .      .      .
Hieracium pilosella                        .      .      .      .
Luzula spicata subsp. italica              .      .      .      .
Other species
Minuartia verna subsp. verna               +      1      +      .
Dianthus sylvestris subsp. sylvestris      .      .      2      +
Poa alpina subsp. alpina                   1      2      1      1
Asperula cynanchica                        1      +      +      .
Saxifraga paniculata                       .      .      +      1
Trifolium pratense subsp.                  .      .      .      .
  semipurpureum
Euphrasia salisburgensis                   .      .      .      .
Cerastium arvense subsp. suffruticosum     1      .      +      .
Potentilla apennina subsp. apennina        .      .      .      .
Galium lucidum                             +      .      +      .
Biscutella laevigata subsp. laevigata      .      .      .      +
Alyssum montanum subsp. montanum           .      .      .      .
Saxifraga oppositifolia subsp.             .      .      .      +
  speciosa
Oxytropis campestris subsp. campestris     .      .      .      .
Alchemilla nitida                          .      .      .      .
Hieracium lactucella ssp lactucella        .      .      .      .
Cyanus triumfettii                         1      .      .      .
Erigeron epiroticus                        +      .      .      .
Achillea millefolium subsp.                .      .      .      .
  millefolium
Allium sphaerocephalon subsp.              .      .      .      .
  sphaerocephalon
Arenaria grandiflora subsp.                .      .      .      1
  grandiflora
Brachypodium genuenese                     .      .      .      .
Doronicum columnae                         .      .      +      .
Festuca circummediterranea                 .      .      .      .
Galium magellense                          .      .      .      .
Potentilla cranztii subsp. crantzii        .      .      .      .
Potentilla tabernaemontani                 .      .      .      .
Rhamnus pumilus                            1      .      .      .
Sedum magellense subsp. magellense         .      .      .      .
Sedum acre                                 .      .      .      .

Altitude (m)                              2100   2022   2050   2040
Slope ([grados])                           20     25     -      -
Aspect                                     S      NO     -      -
Area ([m.sup.2])                           16    100     80    100
Cover (%)                                  20     50     50     60
N.                                         9      10     11     12

Association Characteristics
Helianthemum oelandicum subsp.alpestre     2      1      +      1
Pedicularis elegans                        1      +      +      1
Androsace villosa subsp. villosa           1      +      1      1
Differential of juncetosum monanthi
Juncus trifidus subsp. monanthos           .      .      .      .
Bistorta vivipara                          .      .      .      .
Characteristics suballiance.
Anthyllis montana subsp. atropurpurea      +      .      1      .
Helianthemum nummularium subsp.            .      .      .      .
  grandiflorum
Paronychia kapela subsp. kapela            .      +      .      .
Coronilla vaginalis                        .      .      .      .
Linum alpinum                              .      .      .      .
Characteristics of Seslerion
Leontopodium nivale                        .      .      +      +
Festuca violacea subsp. italica            +      .      .      .
Trinia dalechampii                         .      .      .      .
Silene cattariniana                        .      1      1      1
Achillea barellieri subsp. barellieri      .      .      .      .
Avenula praetutiana                        .      .      .      .
Carum flexuosum                            .      .      .      .
Characteristics of Seslerietalia
Carex kitaibeliana subsp. kitaibeliana     2      1      2      1
Sesleria juncifolia subsp. juncifolia      3      3      2      3
Edraianthus graminifolius subsp.           +      +      1      1
  graminifolius
Armeria canescens                          +      .      .      .
Gentiana dinarica                          1      .      .      .
Globularia meridionalis                    .      .      1      1
Characteristics of Seslerietea
Thymus praecox subsp. polytrichus          1      1      +      1
Silene acaulis                             +      .      +      +
Pulsatilla alpina subsp. millefoliata      +      +      .      .
Anthyllis vulneraria subsp.                +      .      .      .
  vulnerarioides
Gentiana verna subsp. verna                .      .      +      +
Ranunculus breyninus                       .      .      .      .
Aster alpinus subsp. alpinus               .      .      .      .
Phyteuma orbiculare                        .      .      .      .
Campanula scheuthzerii                     .      .      .      .
Sempervivum arachnoideum                   .      .      +      .
Draba aizoides subsp. aizoides             .      .      .      .
Leontodon montanus subsp. breviscapus      .      .      .      .
Pedicularis tuberosa                       .      .      .      .
Characteristics Nardetea strictae
Plantago atrata subsp. atrata              .      .      .      .
Viola eugeniae subsp. eugeniae             .      .      .      .
Botrychium lunaria                         .      .      .      .
Ranunculus apenninus                       .      .      .      .
Coeloglossum viride                        .      .      .      .
Hieracium pilosella                        +      .      .      .
Luzula spicata subsp. italica              .      .      .      .
Other species
Minuartia verna subsp. verna               +      1      +      1
Dianthus sylvestris subsp. sylvestris      1      +      +      +
Poa alpina subsp. alpina                   .      +      +      +
Asperula cynanchica                        .      1      .      1
Saxifraga paniculata                       +      +      .      .
Trifolium pratense subsp.                  +      +      .      .
  semipurpureum
Euphrasia salisburgensis                   .      +      +      .
Cerastium arvense subsp. suffruticosum     +      .      .      .
Potentilla apennina subsp. apennina        .      .      .      .
Galium lucidum                             .      .      .      .
Biscutella laevigata subsp. laevigata      .      .      .      .
Alyssum montanum subsp. montanum           .      +      .      +
Saxifraga oppositifolia subsp.             .      .      .      .
  speciosa
Oxytropis campestris subsp. campestris     .      .      .      .
Alchemilla nitida                          +      .      .      .
Hieracium lactucella ssp lactucella        +      .      .      .
Cyanus triumfettii                         .      1      1      .
Erigeron epiroticus                        .      .      .      .
Achillea millefolium subsp.                .      .      .      .
  millefolium
Allium sphaerocephalon subsp.              .      .      +      +
  sphaerocephalon
Arenaria grandiflora subsp.                .      .      .      .
  grandiflora
Brachypodium genuenese                     +      .      .      .
Doronicum columnae                         .      .      .      .
Festuca circummediterranea                 .      .      .      .
Galium magellense                          .      .      .      .
Potentilla cranztii subsp. crantzii        +      .      .      .
Potentilla tabernaemontani                 .      .      .      .
Rhamnus pumilus                            .      +      .      .
Sedum magellense subsp. magellense         .      .      .      .
Sedum acre                                 .      .      .      .

Altitude (m)                              2130   2150   2200   2200
Slope ([grados])                           40     45     50     50
Aspect                                     SO     SO     O      O
Area ([m.sup.2])                          100     80     50     30
Cover (%)                                  60     50     40     40
N.                                         13     14     15     16

Association Characteristics
Helianthemum oelandicum subsp.alpestre     1      1      2      2
Pedicularis elegans                        +      +      +      +
Androsace villosa subsp. villosa           +      1      +      +
Differential of juncetosum monanthi
Juncus trifidus subsp. monanthos           .      .      .      .
Bistorta vivipara                          .      .      .      .
Characteristics suballiance.
Anthyllis montana subsp. atropurpurea      .      .      .      .
Helianthemum nummularium subsp.            +      .      .      .
  grandiflorum
Paronychia kapela subsp. kapela            .      .      .      .
Coronilla vaginalis                        .      .      .      .
Linum alpinum                              .      .      .      .
Characteristics of Seslerion
Leontopodium nivale                        +      1      .      .
Festuca violacea subsp. italica            +      +      .      .
Trinia dalechampii                         .      .      .      .
Silene cattariniana                        .      .      .      .
Achillea barellieri subsp. barellieri      .      .      .      .
Avenula praetutiana                        .      .      .      .
Carum flexuosum                            .      .      .      .
Characteristics of Seslerietalia
Carex kitaibeliana subsp. kitaibeliana     3      3      2      1
Sesleria juncifolia subsp. juncifolia      .      +      +      +
Edraianthus graminifolius subsp.           +      1      +      1
  graminifolius
Armeria canescens                          1      +      +      1
Gentiana dinarica                          .      1      +      1
Globularia meridionalis                    .      .      +      1
Characteristics of Seslerietea
Thymus praecox subsp. polytrichus          1      1      +      +
Silene acaulis                             .      +      1      1
Pulsatilla alpina subsp. millefoliata      .      +      +      +
Anthyllis vulneraria subsp.                .      .      .      .
  vulnerarioides
Gentiana verna subsp. verna                .      .      .      .
Ranunculus breyninus                       +      1      +      +
Aster alpinus subsp. alpinus               .      +      +      +
Phyteuma orbiculare                        .      .      .      .
Campanula scheuthzerii                     +      1      +      .
Sempervivum arachnoideum                   +      +      +      .
Draba aizoides subsp. aizoides             .      .      .      .
Leontodon montanus subsp. breviscapus      .      .      .      .
Pedicularis tuberosa                       .      .      .      .
Characteristics Nardetea strictae
Plantago atrata subsp. atrata              1      2      .      .
Viola eugeniae subsp. eugeniae             .      .      .      .
Botrychium lunaria                         .      .      .      .
Ranunculus apenninus                       .      .      .      .
Coeloglossum viride                        .      .      .      .
Hieracium pilosella                        .      .      .      .
Luzula spicata subsp. italica              .      .      .      .
Other species
Minuartia verna subsp. verna               1      1      +      +
Dianthus sylvestris subsp. sylvestris      +      1      .      +
Poa alpina subsp. alpina                   1      1      +      .
Asperula cynanchica                        .      .      +      1
Saxifraga paniculata                       .      1      1      1
Trifolium pratense subsp.                  1      +      .      .
  semipurpureum
Euphrasia salisburgensis                   .      .      .      .
Cerastium arvense subsp. suffruticosum     +      .      .      .
Potentilla apennina subsp. apennina        +      +      .      .
Galium lucidum                             .      .      .      .
Biscutella laevigata subsp. laevigata      .      .      .      .
Alyssum montanum subsp. montanum           .      .      .      .
Saxifraga oppositifolia subsp.             .      +      .      .
  speciosa
Oxytropis campestris subsp. campestris     .      +      .      .
Alchemilla nitida                          .      .      .      .
Hieracium lactucella ssp lactucella        .      .      .      .
Cyanus triumfettii                         .      .      .      .
Erigeron epiroticus                        .      .      .      .
Achillea millefolium subsp.                .      .      .      .
  millefolium
Allium sphaerocephalon subsp.              .      .      .      .
  sphaerocephalon
Arenaria grandiflora subsp.                .      .      .      .
  grandiflora
Brachypodium genuenese                     .      .      .      .
Doronicum columnae                         .      .      .      .
Festuca circummediterranea                 .      .      .      .
Galium magellense                          .      .      .      .
Potentilla cranztii subsp. crantzii        .      .      .      .
Potentilla tabernaemontani                 .      .      .      .
Rhamnus pumilus                            .      .      .      .
Sedum magellense subsp. magellense         .      .      .      .
Sedum acre                                 +      .      .      .

Altitude (m)                              2230   2100   2150   2160
Slope ([grados])                           -      -      45     35
Aspect                                     -      -      NO     SO
Area ([m.sup.2])                           80     50    100     50
Cover (%)                                  50     70     90    100
N.                                         17     18     19     20

Association Characteristics
Helianthemum oelandicum subsp.alpestre     .      +      1      +
Pedicularis elegans                        +      +      1      +
Androsace villosa subsp. villosa           1      1      +      +
Differential of juncetosum monanthi
Juncus trifidus subsp. monanthos           .      .      +      1
Bistorta vivipara                          .      .      1      2
Characteristics suballiance.
Anthyllis montana subsp. atropurpurea      .      .      .      .
Helianthemum nummularium subsp.            2      .      .      +
  grandiflorum
Paronychia kapela subsp. kapela            .      .      .      .
Coronilla vaginalis                        .      .      .      .
Linum alpinum                              .      .      .      .
Characteristics of Seslerion
Leontopodium nivale                        +      2      1      +
Festuca violacea subsp. italica            .      .      .      3
Trinia dalechampii                         .      .      .      +
Silene cattariniana                        .      .      .      .
Achillea barellieri subsp. barellieri      .      .      .      .
Avenula praetutiana                        .      .      .      .
Carum flexuosum                            .      .      .      .
Characteristics of Seslerietalia
Carex kitaibeliana subsp. kitaibeliana     2      3      2      2
Sesleria juncifolia subsp. juncifolia      1      .      3      2
Edraianthus graminifolius subsp.           .      1      1      .
  graminifolius
Armeria canescens                          +      .      +      +
Gentiana dinarica                          .      1      .      .
Globularia meridionalis                    +      1      .      .
Characteristics of Seslerietea
Thymus praecox subsp. polytrichus          +      +      1      +
Silene acaulis                             .      +      .      .
Pulsatilla alpina subsp. millefoliata      .      +      .      +
Anthyllis vulneraria subsp.                .      +      +      1
  vulnerarioides
Gentiana verna subsp. verna                .      .      .      1
Ranunculus breyninus                       .      .      +      1
Aster alpinus subsp. alpinus               .      .      .      1
Phyteuma orbiculare                        .      .      .      .
Campanula scheuthzerii                     .      .      .      .
Sempervivum arachnoideum                   1      +      .      .
Draba aizoides subsp. aizoides             .      .      .      .
Leontodon montanus subsp. breviscapus      .      .      .      1
Pedicularis tuberosa                       .      .      .      .
Characteristics Nardetea strictae
Plantago atrata subsp. atrata              1      +      .      2
Viola eugeniae subsp. eugeniae             .      .      .      +
Botrychium lunaria                         .      .      .      1
Ranunculus apenninus                       .      .      .      .
Coeloglossum viride                        .      .      .      .
Hieracium pilosella                        .      .      .      .
Luzula spicata subsp. italica              .      .      .      .
Other species
Minuartia verna subsp. verna               +      +      +      +
Dianthus sylvestris subsp. sylvestris      1      .      1      1
Poa alpina subsp. alpina                   1      +      .      1
Asperula cynanchica                        .      +      +      +
Saxifraga paniculata                       1      +      +      .
Trifolium pratense subsp.                  .      .      .      1
  semipurpureum
Euphrasia salisburgensis                   .      .      +      +
Cerastium arvense subsp. suffruticosum     .      .      .      .
Potentilla apennina subsp. apennina        .      +      1      +
Galium lucidum                             .      .      .      1
Biscutella laevigata subsp. laevigata      .      .      .      1
Alyssum montanum subsp. montanum           +      .      +      .
Saxifraga oppositifolia subsp.             .      .      +      .
  speciosa
Oxytropis campestris subsp. campestris     2      +      2      .
Alchemilla nitida                          .      .      1      .
Hieracium lactucella ssp lactucella        .      .      .      1
Cyanus triumfettii                         .      .      .      .
Erigeron epiroticus                        .      .      .      .
Achillea millefolium subsp.                .      .      .      .
  millefolium
Allium sphaerocephalon subsp.              .      .      .      .
  sphaerocephalon
Arenaria grandiflora subsp.                .      .      .      .
  grandiflora
Brachypodium genuenese                     .      .      .      .
Doronicum columnae                         .      .      .      +
Festuca circummediterranea                 .      .      .      .
Galium magellense                          .      .      .      +
Potentilla cranztii subsp. crantzii        .      .      .      .
Potentilla tabernaemontani                 .      .      .      .
Rhamnus pumilus                            .      .      .      .
Sedum magellense subsp. magellense         .      .      .      .
Sedum acre                                 .      +      .      .

Altitude (m)                              2160   2097   2270   1900
Slope ([grados])                           40     40     25     40
Aspect                                     O      N      NO    O-NO
Area ([m.sup.2])                           50     50    100     50
Cover (%)                                 100    100    100    100
N.                                         21     22     23     24

Association Characteristics
Helianthemum oelandicum subsp.alpestre     .      1      +      1
Pedicularis elegans                        1      .      +      .
Androsace villosa subsp. villosa           .      .      .      .
Differential of juncetosum monanthi
Juncus trifidus subsp. monanthos           3      4      4      4
Bistorta vivipara                          4      3      3      .
Characteristics suballiance.
Anthyllis montana subsp. atropurpurea      .      .      .      .
Helianthemum nummularium subsp.            .      +      +      1
  grandiflorum
Paronychia kapela subsp. kapela            .      .      .      .
Coronilla vaginalis                        .      .      .      .
Linum alpinum                              .      1      .      .
Characteristics of Seslerion
Leontopodium nivale                        +      +      +      +
Festuca violacea subsp. italica            2      +      2      2
Trinia dalechampii                         +      .      .      .
Silene cattariniana                        .      .      .      .
Achillea barellieri subsp. barellieri      .      .      +      .
Avenula praetutiana                        .      .      .      .
Carum flexuosum                            .      +      .      .
Characteristics of Seslerietalia
Carex kitaibeliana subsp. kitaibeliana     1      1      3      2
Sesleria juncifolia subsp. juncifolia      2      2      2      2
Edraianthus graminifolius subsp.           .      +      +      1
  graminifolius
Armeria canescens                          +      2      +      +
Gentiana dinarica                          .      .      .      .
Globularia meridionalis                    .      .      .      .
Characteristics of Seslerietea
Thymus praecox subsp. polytrichus          .      +      .      1
Silene acaulis                             .      +      1      .
Pulsatilla alpina subsp. millefoliata      .      +      +      +
Anthyllis vulneraria subsp.                1      .      2      2
  vulnerarioides
Gentiana verna subsp. verna                1      +      +      .
Ranunculus breyninus                       +      .      .      .
Aster alpinus subsp. alpinus               .      .      .      .
Phyteuma orbiculare                        .      +      1      .
Campanula scheuthzerii                     .      1      1      1
Sempervivum arachnoideum                   .      .      .      .
Draba aizoides subsp. aizoides             .      .      .      .
Leontodon montanus subsp. breviscapus      2      .      .      .
Pedicularis tuberosa                       .      +      .      +
Characteristics Nardetea strictae
Plantago atrata subsp. atrata              2      .      +      1
Viola eugeniae subsp. eugeniae             1      +      1      .
Botrychium lunaria                         1      .      +      .
Ranunculus apenninus                       .      2      2      3
Coeloglossum viride                        .      1      +      .
Hieracium pilosella                        .      .      +      .
Luzula spicata subsp. italica              .      3      .      .
Other species
Minuartia verna subsp. verna               +      +      +      +
Dianthus sylvestris subsp. sylvestris      2      .      .      +
Poa alpina subsp. alpina                   +      .      +      +
Asperula cynanchica                        .      +      .      +
Saxifraga paniculata                       .      +      .      .
Trifolium pratense subsp.                  .      1      +      2
  semipurpureum
Euphrasia salisburgensis                   .      +      1      1
Cerastium arvense subsp. suffruticosum     .      +      1      +
Potentilla apennina subsp. apennina        .      .      .      .
Galium lucidum                             1      1      .      .
Biscutella laevigata subsp. laevigata      1      +      .      +
Alyssum montanum subsp. montanum           .      +      .      .
Saxifraga oppositifolia subsp.             .      .      .      .
  speciosa
Oxytropis campestris subsp. campestris     .      .      .      .
Alchemilla nitida                          .      +      .      .
Hieracium lactucella ssp lactucella        1      .      .      .
Cyanus triumfettii                         .      .      .      .
Erigeron epiroticus                        .      .      +      .
Achillea millefolium subsp.                .      .      .      .
  millefolium
Allium sphaerocephalon subsp.              .      .      .      .
  sphaerocephalon
Arenaria grandiflora subsp.                .      .      .      .
  grandiflora
Brachypodium genuenese                     .      .      .      +
Doronicum columnae                         .      .      .      .
Festuca circummediterranea                 .      .      .      .
Galium magellense                          +      .      .      .
Potentilla cranztii subsp. crantzii        .      .      .      .
Potentilla tabernaemontani                 .      .      1      .
Rhamnus pumilus                            .      .      .      .
Sedum magellense subsp. magellense         .      .      .      .
Sedum acre                                 .      .      .      .

Other species: Globularia meridionalis + in 2; Adonis distorta and
Valeriana saliunca + in 3; Sedum acre + in 4; Astragalus sempervirens
+ in 5; Trifolium montanum subsp. rupestre and Senecio squalidus +,
Koeleria lobata 1 in 6; Ranunculus brevifolius + in 7; Bromus erectus
and Leontodon crispus subsp. crispus + in 8; Linum capitatum subsp.
serrulatum + in 9; Leucanthemum heterophyllum, Astragalus vesicarius
subsp. vesicarius, Cynoglossum magellense, Hippocrepis comosa and
Astragalus depressus subsp. depressus + in 12; Acinos alpinus subsp.
alpinus + in 13; Sedum atratum subsp. atratum + in 17; Senecio
doronicum + in 18 and 20; Asplenium viridae, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi,
Nigritella widderi, Pedicularis comosa subsp. comosa, Hieracium
villosum, Crepis aurea subsp. glabrescens, Luzula campestris and
Festuca dimorpha +, Galium lucidum and Scabiosa columbaria subsp.
columbaria 1 in 22; Ranunculus pollinensis 1, Gnaphalium hoppeanum
subsp. magellense + in 23; Euphrasia salisburgensis + in 24.

Localities: 1: M. Porche, 30/07/99; 2: M. Argentella, summit plateau
with outcropping rocks, 2/8/99; 3-4: Pizzo Berro, 25/7/98; 5: Forca
Viola, ridge, 10/7/98; 6: Rifugio Zillioli, M. Vettore, 3/7/98; 7:
Pizzo Tre Vescovi, 6/7/98; 8: M. Bove Sud, 6/7/99; 9: M. Sibilla,
31/7/99; 10-12: M. Vettoretto, 27/7/99; 13-18: M. Porche, summit
plateau with outcropping rocks, 30/7/99; 19: saddle between Palazzo
Borghese and Sasso di Palazzo Borghese, 28/7/99; 20-21: M. Argentella,
2/8/99; 22: M. Sibilla, 31/07/99; 23: M. Vettore, 04/08/99; 24: Valle
del Lago, 6/8/99.

Table 5

Ranunculo pollinensis-Plantaginetum atratae Biondi et al. 2000
(Nardion strictae, Nardetalia strictae, Nardetea strictae)

Altitude (m)                                 2100   1930   1980   2200
Slope ([degrees])                             25     5      15     20
Aspect                                        S      SO     O      SE
Area ([m.sup.2])                              20    100     50     50
Cover (%)                                     95     95     90     90
N.                                            1      2      3      4

Association and Nardion differential
Ranunculus pollinensis                        2      1      +      1
Viola eugeniae subsp. eugeniae                +      +      1      +
Rumex nebroides                               1      +      .      .
Crepis aurea subsp. glabrescens               .      .      1      1
Characteristics of Nardetalia and Nardetea
Plantago atrata subsp. atrata                 3      4      3      2
Ranunculus apenninus                          1      2      2      1
Poa alpina subsp. alpina                      1      1      .      2
Hieracium pilosella                           1      .      2      1
Luzula campestris                             .      1      1      1
Alchemilla colorata                           +      +      .      .
Botrychium lunaria                            .      1      +      .
Other species
Trifolium pratense subsp. semipurpureum       2      2      1      2
Asperula cynanchica subsp. cynanchica         +      1      +      +
Edraianthus graminifolius subsp.              +      +      1      +
  graminifolius
Armeria canescens                             +      +      1      1
Cerastium arvense subsp. suffruticosum        +      +      +      +
Potentilla cranztii subsp. crantzii           2      +      1      1
Thymus praecox subsp. polytrichus             1      2      1      +
Carex kitaibeliana                            1      2      2      1
Phyteuma orbiculare                           1      1      +      .
Festuca violacea subsp. italica               2      3      .      2
Centaurea cana                                +      .      1      +
Helianthemum nummularium subsp.               1      .      1      .
  grandiflorum
Helianthemum oelandicum subsp.alpestre        +      .      1      .
Avenula praetutiana                           .      +      +      .
Trinia dalechampii                            .      +      .      +

Other species: Anthemis cretica subsp. columnae, Pedicularis
elegans, Dianthus sylvestris subsp. sylvestris, Galium lucidum,
Brachypodium genuenese and Cynoglossum magellense +, Carlina
acaulis subsp. caulescens 2 in 1; Carduus chrysacanthus subsp.
chrysacanthus, Polygala alpestris, Pulsatilla alpina subsp.
millefoliata, Campanula scheuthzerii and Erigeron epiroticus +,
Gentiana verna subsp. verna 1 in 2; Koeleria lobata and Trifolium
montanum subsp. rupestre +, Lotus corniculatus subsp. corniculatus
and Ranunculus brevifolius 1 in 3; Dianthus monspessulanus and
Robertia taraxacoides + in 4. Localities: 1: M. Sibilla, 31/7/99;
2-3: Pizzo Tre Vescovi, 10/7/98; 4: M. Porche, 30/07/99.

Table 6

Luzulo italicae-Nardetum strictae Biondi, Ballelli, Allegrezza,
Frattaroli et Taffetani 1992 (Ranunculo pollinensis-Nardion
strictae, Nardetalia strictae, Nardetea strictae)

Altitude (m)                          2070   2125   2110   2040
Slope ([degrees])                      10     30     20     30
Aspect                                E-SE    NO     NO     S
Area ([m.sup.2])                      100     50     50    100
Cover (%)                             100    100    100    100
N.                                     1      2      3      4

Association differentials
Luzula spicata subsp. italica          2      1      1      2
Potentilla cranztii subsp. crantzii    .      .      .      1
Euphrasia salisburgensis               +      .      .      +
Viola eugeniae subsp. eugeniae         +      .      .      .
Characteristics of Nardion
Ranunculus apenninus                   .      1      1      2
Rumex nebroides                        +      .      .      .
Characteristics of Nardetalia
Festuca microphylla                    2      2      1      2
Agrostis capillaris subsp.             .      +      .      2
  capillaris
Hieracium lactucella ssp lactucella    .      .      .      .
Botrychium lunaria                     .      +      .      .
Characteristics of Nardetea
Nardus stricta                         3      2      3      3
Trifolium thalii                       1      +      1      +
Plantago atrata subsp. atrata          .      3      2      2
Hieracium pilosella                    .      .      .      1
Gentiana lutea subsp. lutea            1      1      +      .
Crepis aurea subsp. glabrescens        .      .      .      2
Rumex acetosa subsp. acetosa           .      .      .      +
Phleum rhaeticum                       2      +      .      .
Festuca rubra subsp. commutata         .      .      .      1
Anthoxanthum odoratum subsp.           .      .      .      +
  odoratum
Bellis perennis                        .      .      .      .
Other species
Phyteuma orbiculare                    +      +      +      1
Armeria canescens                      +      2      1      +
Avenula praetutiana                    2      2      1      +
Poa alpina subsp. alpina               1      2      2      1
Carex kitaibeliana                     .      1      1      +
Gentiana verna subsp. verna            .      +      +      +
Trifolium pratense subsp.              1      3      2      1
  semipurpureum
Anthyllis vulneraria subsp.            1      1      1      .
  vulnerarioides
Cerastium arvense subsp.               +      .      .      .
  suffruticosum
Thymus praecox subsp. polytrichus      .      .      .      2
Campanula scheuthzerii                 .      .      .      +
Achillea millefolium subsp.            +      1      1      .
  millefolium
Galium magellense                      +      +      +      .
Brachypodium genuenese                 +      .      .      1
Bromus erectus                         2      .      .      +
Alchemilla alpina                      +      2      1      .
Minuartia verna subsp. verna           .      +      1      .
Erigeron epiroticus                    .      .      .      .
Pedicularis comosa subsp. comosa       +      +      .      .
Sesleria juncifolia subsp.             +      .      .      .
  juncifolia
Leontodon crispus subsp. crispus       .      1      .      .
Arabis collina subsp. collina          .      1      +      .
Acinos alpinus subsp. alpinus          .      1      +      .
Asperula cynanchica                    .      +      +      .
Helianthemum nummularium subsp.        .      1      +      .
  grandiflorum
Rhinanthus minor                       .      +      +      .
Crocus vernus subsp. vernus            .      .      .      1
Lotus corniculatus subsp.              .      .      .      +
  corniculatus
Polygala alpestris                     .      .      .      +
Juncus trifidus subsp. monanthos       .      .      .      .

Altitude (m)                          2030   2100   2300   2200
Slope ([degrees])                      20     20     20     35
Aspect                                 SE     SE     NE    N-NW
Area ([m.sup.2])                      100    100    100     50
Cover (%)                             100    100     60    100
N.                                     5      6      7      8

Association differentials
Luzula spicata subsp. italica          +      1      2      2
Potentilla cranztii subsp. crantzii    +      +      1      +
Euphrasia salisburgensis               +
Viola eugeniae subsp. eugeniae         .      1      1      .
Characteristics of Nardion
Ranunculus apenninus                   1      2      1      +
Rumex nebroides                        .      .      .      .
Characteristics of Nardetalia
Festuca microphylla                    2      2      2      2
Agrostis capillaris subsp.             3      1      .      .
  capillaris
Hieracium lactucella ssp lactucella    +      .      1      .
Botrychium lunaria                     .      .      .      .
Characteristics of Nardetea
Nardus stricta                         2      4      2      3
Trifolium thalii                       1      1             1
Plantago atrata subsp. atrata          4      4      2      .
Hieracium pilosella                    2      1      .      .
Gentiana lutea subsp. lutea            .      .      .      .
Crepis aurea subsp. glabrescens        1      +      .      .
Rumex acetosa subsp. acetosa           1      +      .      .
Phleum rhaeticum                       .      .      .      .
Festuca rubra subsp. commutata         +      .      .      .
Anthoxanthum odoratum subsp.           .      +      .      .
  odoratum
Bellis perennis                        .      +      .      .
Other species
Phyteuma orbiculare                    +      +      +      1
Armeria canescens                      1      +      +      .
Avenula praetutiana                    +      +      .      1
Poa alpina subsp. alpina               1      .      3      2
Carex kitaibeliana                     .      1      1      1
Gentiana verna subsp. verna            .      +      +      +
Trifolium pratense subsp.              +      .      .      2
  semipurpureum
Anthyllis vulneraria subsp.            .      .      +      +
  vulnerarioides
Cerastium arvense subsp.               +      1      1      .
  suffruticosum
Thymus praecox subsp. polytrichus      1      1      1      .
Campanula scheuthzerii                 +      +      1      .
Achillea millefolium subsp.            .      .      .      .
  millefolium
Galium magellense                      .      .      .      .
Brachypodium genuenese                 +      .      .      .
Bromus erectus                         +      .      .      .
Alchemilla alpina                      .      .      .      .
Minuartia verna subsp. verna           .      .      +      .
Erigeron epiroticus                    .      .      1      .
Pedicularis comosa subsp. comosa       .      .      .      .
Sesleria juncifolia subsp.             .      .      .      .
  juncifolia
Leontodon crispus subsp. crispus       .      .      .      .
Arabis collina subsp. collina          .      .      .      .
Acinos alpinus subsp. alpinus          .      .      .      .
Asperula cynanchica                    .      .      .      .
Helianthemum nummularium subsp.        .      .      .      .
  grandiflorum
Rhinanthus minor                       .      .      .      .
Crocus vernus subsp. vernus            .      .      .      .
Lotus corniculatus subsp.              .      .      .      .
  corniculatus
Polygala alpestris                     .      .      .      .
Juncus trifidus subsp. monanthos       .      .      .      2

Other species: Campanula foliosa, Centaurea ambigua subsp. nigra,
Dianthus monspessulanus and Trifolium montanum subsp. rupestre + in
1; Carlina acaulis subsp. caulescens + in 4; Trinia dalechampii,
Gentiana nivalis, Pedicularis elegans, Thesium parnassi and Draba
aizoides subsp. aizoides +, Silene acaulis and Gnaphalium hoppeanum
subsp. magellense 1 in 7; Campanula glomerata and Potentilla
tabernaemontani 1 in 8. Localities: 1: M. Sibilla, 27/07/98; 2-3:
M. Petrara, 25/7/98; 4-6: M. Argentella, 2/8/99; 7: Vettore,
Furnari 1970; 8: M. Priora, near the top, 25/7/98.

Table 7

Taraxaco apennini-Trifolietum thalii Biondi, Ballelli, Allegrezza,
Frattaroli & Taffetani 1992 (Ranunculo pollinensis-Nardion
strictae, Nardetalia strictae, Nardetea strictae)

Altitude (m)                     2100   1940   2150   2150   2257
Slope ([degrees])                 25     .      .      15     5
Aspect                            W      .      .      NW     N
Area ([m.sup.2])                  50     4     100    100     6
Cover (%)                        100     95    100    100     95
N.                                1      2      3      4      5

Association characteristics
Trifolium thalii                  4      5      3      4      2
Taraxacum apenninum               +      +      .      .      1
Bellis perennis                   .      .      .      .      .
Festuca rubra subsp. Commutata    .      1      .      .      .
Characteristic of Nardion
Ranunculus apenninus              .      .      2      1      +
Luzula spicata subsp. italica     +      1      1      +      +
Viola eugeniae subsp. eugeniae    .      .      +      .      .
Rumex nebroides                   .      .      .      .      .
Characteristic of Nardetalia
Festuca microphylla               4      1      4      4      1
Crepis aurea subsp.               3      .      .      .      +
  Glabrescens
Agrostis capillaris subsp.        .      .      .      +      .
  capillaris
Botrychium lunaria                .      .      1      2      .
Sagina glabra                     +      .      +      .      .
Hieracium lactucella ssp                 .      .      1      .
  lactucella
Characteristic of Nardetea
Plantago atrata subsp. atrata     2      .      3      3      2
Phleum rhaeticum                  +      .      .      .      2
Nardus stricta                    .      .      +      +      +
Rumex acetosa subsp. acetosa      +      .      .      .      .
Gentiana lutea subsp. lutea       .      .      .      .      1
Hieracium pilosella               .      .      1      .      .
Other species
Trifolium pratense subsp.         1      +      3      3      3
  semipurpureum
Poa alpina subsp. alpina          +      2      1      1      3
Cerastium arvense subsp.          +      +      1      1      .
  suffruticosum
Carex kitaibeliana                .      +      +      1      1
Armeria canescens                 +      .      +      .      .
Phyteuma orbiculare               +      .      2      1      1
Gentiana verna subsp. verna       +      .      1      1      +
Potentilla cranztii subsp.        +      +      1      .      1
  crantzii
Thymus praecox subsp.             +      .      2      1      .
  polytrichus
Campanula scheuthzerii            +      .      +      1
Anthyllis vulneraria subsp.       .      .      .      .      +
  vulnerarioides
Ranunculus breyninus              2      .      .      .      1
Hippocrepis comosa                +      .      .      .      .
Euphrasia salisburgensis          +      .      1      .      .
Androsace villosa subsp.          .      .      +      +      .
  villosa
Leontodon hispidus subsp.
  hispidus
Helianthemum oelandicum subsp.    .      .      .      .      .
  alpestre
Erigeron uniflorus                .      .      .      .      .
Carduus chrysacanthus subsp.      .      .      .      .      .
  chrysacanthus
Achillaea millefolium subsp.      .      .      .      .      .
  millefolium
Cynoglossum magellense            .      .      .      .      .
Minuartia verna subsp. verna      .      .      .      .      .
Brachypodium genuenese            .      .      .      .      .

Altitude (m)                     1950   2030   2050   1900   2040
Slope ([degrees])                 10     5      25     35     30
Aspect                            NW    W-SW    SW    N-NE    W
Area ([m.sup.2])                  16    100    100     50     50
Cover (%)                        100     90    100    100     90
N.                                6      7      8      9      10

Association characteristics
Trifolium thalii                  1      3      4      2      2
Taraxacum apenninum               2      +      +      2      +
Bellis perennis                   .      1      +      1      +
Festuca rubra subsp. Commutata    .      .      1      .      .
Characteristic of Nardion
Ranunculus apenninus              2      +      2      3      +
Luzula spicata subsp. italica     +      .      .      .      .
Viola eugeniae subsp. eugeniae    1      +      .      .      .
Rumex nebroides                   .      .      2      .      .
Characteristic of Nardetalia
Festuca microphylla               3      +      4      3      2
Crepis aurea subsp.               3      2      +      2      .
  Glabrescens
Agrostis capillaris subsp.        .      .      .      .      .
  capillaris
Botrychium lunaria                .      .      .      .      .
Sagina glabra                     .      .      .      .      .
Hieracium lactucella ssp          2      .      .      .      .
  lactucella
Characteristic of Nardetea
Plantago atrata subsp. atrata     .      +      3      4      3
Phleum rhaeticum                  +      1      +      .      .
Nardus stricta                    .      +      .      +      .
Rumex acetosa subsp. acetosa      1      .      +      .      .
Gentiana lutea subsp. lutea       +      .      .      .      .
Hieracium pilosella               .      .      .      .      .
Other species
Trifolium pratense subsp.         2      +      1      3      +
  semipurpureum
Poa alpina subsp. alpina          1      +      3      1      2
Cerastium arvense subsp.          +      +      1      1      +
  suffruticosum
Carex kitaibeliana                1      .      +      1      2
Armeria canescens                 +      +      +      +      .
Phyteuma orbiculare               2      .      +      .
Gentiana verna subsp. verna       1      .      .      .      1
Potentilla cranztii subsp.        .      .      .      .
  crantzii
Thymus praecox subsp.             +      .      .      .      2
  polytrichus
Campanula scheuthzerii
Anthyllis vulneraria subsp.       +      .      .      .      2
  vulnerarioides
Ranunculus breyninus              .      .      .      .      .
Hippocrepis comosa                .      .      .      .      +
Euphrasia salisburgensis          .      .      .      .      .
Androsace villosa subsp.          .      .      .      .      .
  villosa
Leontodon hispidus subsp.
  hispidus
Helianthemum oelandicum subsp.    +      .      .      .      2
  alpestre
Erigeron uniflorus                +      .      .      .      +
Carduus chrysacanthus subsp.      1      .      .      .      +
  chrysacanthus
Achillaea millefolium subsp.      +      .      .      .      +
  millefolium
Cynoglossum magellense            .      +      .      .      +
Minuartia verna subsp. verna      .      +      .      +      .
Brachypodium genuenese            .      .      +      +      .

Other species: Robertia taraxacoides, Lamium garganicum subsp.
garganicum, Arabis collina subsp. collina, Gymnadenia conopsea
subsp. conopsea and Achillea barellieri +, Rhamnus alpina subsp.
alpina 1 in 2; Trinia dalechampii and Gnaphalium hoppeanum subsp.
magellense + in 3; Arenaria grandiflora subsp. grandiflora and
Dianthus cartusianorum +, Galium magellense and Pedicularis comosa
subsp. comosa 1 in 4; Coeloglossum viridae, Galium lucidum and
Linum alpinum 1 in 6; Carlina acaulis subsp. caulescens, Rumex
scutatus subsp. scutatus, Sesleria juncifolia subsp. juncifolia and
Anthoxanthum odoratum subsp. odoratum + in 7; Carduus defloratus
subsp. carlinifolius + in 8; Festuca dimorpha and Astragalus
sempervirens + in 9; Doronicum columnae, Myosotis alpestris subsp.
alpestris, Potentilla apennina subsp. apennina and Pulsatilla
alpina subsp. millefoliata +; Acinos alpinus subsp. alpinus 1 in
10.

Localities: 1: M. Sibilla, 31/7/99; 2: Lago Pilato, 1/7/98; 3-4: M.
Argentella, ridge, 2/8/99; 5: Pizzo Berro, 25/7/98; 6: saddle
between M. Acuto e Pizzo Tre Vescovi, 6/7/98; 7: M. Rotondo,
31/7/98; 8: M. Vettore, 4/8/99; 9: Fabrica Viola, 6/8/99; 10: Pizzo
Tre Vescovi near the top, 6/7/98.

Table 8

Potentillo rigoanae-Brachypodietum genuensis Lucchese, Persia &
Pignatti 1995 (Brachipodenion genuensis, Phleo ambigui-Bromion
erecti, Artemisio albae-Bromenalia erecti, Brometalia erecti,
Festuco-Brometea)

Altitude (m)                     1980   2000   2030   2100
Slope ([degrees])                 45     45     40     25
Aspect                            SO     S     SSO     S
Area ([m.sup.2])                 100    100    100    100
Cover (%)                         90     80     90    100
N.                                1      2      3      4

Association and Brachypodenion
  Characteristics
Brachypodium genuense             4      3      4      5
Armeria canescens                 1      +      +      .
Potentilla rigoana                .      .      .      1
Achillea tenorii                  .      .      .      .
Trifolium montanum subsp.         .      .      .      +
  rupestre
Verbascum longifolium             .      .      .      .
Characteristics of Bromion
Silene otites subsp. otites       +      1      .      .
Carex macrolepis                  .      .      .      .
Centaurea ambigua subsp. Nigra    .      .      .      .
Characteristic of Bromenalia
Dianthus sylvestris subsp.        .      1      1      .
  sylvestris
Alyssum montanum subsp.           .      .      .      .
  montanum
Characteristic of Brometalia
  and Brometea
Trifolium pratense subsp.         1      1      1      1
  semipurpureum
Bromus erectus                    +      1      1      +
Galium lucidum                    1      +      +      1
Achillea millefolium subsp.       +      .      .      +
  millefolium
Lotus corniculatus subsp.         .      .      .      +
  corniculatus
Asperula cynanchica               .      .      .      .
Carlina acaulis subsp.            .      .      .      +
  caulescens
Dianthus monspessulanus           .      .      .      .
Festuca circummediterranea        .      .      .      .
Carex caryophyllea                .      .      .      .
Rhinantus wettstenii              .      .      .      .
Dianthus carthusianorum           .      .      .      .
Campanula glomerata               .      .      .      .
Trasgressives of Nardetea
Plantago atrata subsp. atrata     1      1      1      .
Hieracium pilosella               2      1      3      1
Gentiana lutea subsp. lutea       .      .      .      +
Rumex acetosa subsp. acetosa      .      .      .      +
Viola eugeniae subsp. Eugeniae    .      .      .      .
Luzula spicata subsp. italica     .      .      .      +
Ranunculus apenninus              .      .      .      .
Trasgr. Elyno-Seslerietea
Thymus praecox subsp.             1      1      1      .
  Polytrichus
Carex kitaibeliana subsp.         +      +      +      .
  kitaibeliana
Avenula praetutiana               +      1      .      +
Acinos alpinus subsp. Alpinus     +      1      .      +
Campanula scheuthzerii            +      .      +      +
Anthyllis vulneraria subsp.       .      .      .      .
  Vulnerarioides
Festuca violacea subsp.           .      .      .      1
  italica
Phyteuma orbiculare               .      .      .      1
Other species
Poa alpina subsp. alpina          1      +      1      .
Cerastium arvense subsp.          1      1      1      +
  suffruticosum
Senecio doronicum                 +      1      1      +
Carduus chrysacanthus subsp.      +      +      +      .
  chrysacanthus
Cynoglossum magellense            +      .      .      .
Festuca dimorpha                  +      1      +      2
Potentilla apennina subsp.        +      +      1      .
  apennina
Ranunculus breyninus              1      .      +      +
Rumex scutatus subsp. Scutatus    +      +      +      .
Helianthemum nummularium          1      1      .      .
  subsp. grandiflorum
Anthemis cretica subsp.           .      +      +      .
  columnae
Luzula multiflora subsp.          .      .      .      1
  multiflora
Doronicum columnae                .      .      .      .
Erigeron epiroticus               .      .      .      .
Trifolium noricum subsp.          .      .      .      .
  praetutianum
Stachys alopecuros subsp.         .      .      .      .
  divulsa
Arabis collina subsp. collina     .      .      .      +
Pedicularis comosa subsp.         .      .      .      .
  Comosa
Festuca laevigata                 .      .      .      .

Altitude (m)                     1900   2050   1950   2040
Slope ([degrees])                 25     10     30     30
Aspect                            SE     SE     N      SO
Area ([m.sup.2])                  50    100     50     50
Cover (%)                        100    100    100    100
N.                                5      6      7      8

Association and Brachypodenion
  Characteristics
Brachypodium genuense             5      3      5      4
Armeria canescens                 +      2      .      .
Potentilla rigoana                +      +      .      +
Achillea tenorii                  .      1      .      .
Trifolium montanum subsp.         .      .      .      .
  rupestre
Verbascum longifolium             +      .      .      .
Characteristics of Bromion
Silene otites subsp. otites       +      .      .      .
Carex macrolepis                  1      .      .      .
Centaurea ambigua subsp. Nigra    .      +      .      .
Characteristic of Bromenalia
Dianthus sylvestris subsp.        .      .      .      .
  sylvestris
Alyssum montanum subsp.           .      +      .      .
  montanum
Characteristic of Brometalia
  and Brometea
Trifolium pratense subsp.         +      3      1      1
  semipurpureum
Bromus erectus                    .      +      +      1
Galium lucidum                    +      .      +
Achillea millefolium subsp.       +      .      .      +
  millefolium
Lotus corniculatus subsp.         +      .      1
  corniculatus
Asperula cynanchica               .      +      .      +
Carlina acaulis subsp.            .      .      .      1
  caulescens
Dianthus monspessulanus           1      1      .
Festuca circummediterranea        .      1      .      1
Carex caryophyllea                .      +      .      .
Rhinantus wettstenii              .      .      +      .
Dianthus carthusianorum           .      .             +
Campanula glomerata               +      .      .      .
Trasgressives of Nardetea
Plantago atrata subsp. atrata     .      1      .      1
Hieracium pilosella               +      .      .
Gentiana lutea subsp. lutea       .      +      +      3
Rumex acetosa subsp. acetosa      1      .      +      .
Viola eugeniae subsp. Eugeniae    .      +      +      +
Luzula spicata subsp. italica     .      +      .      .
Ranunculus apenninus              .      +      +      .
Trasgr. Elyno-Seslerietea
Thymus praecox subsp.             +      2      +      .
  Polytrichus
Carex kitaibeliana subsp.         .      1      .      +
  kitaibeliana
Avenula praetutiana               .      2      1      .
Acinos alpinus subsp. Alpinus     .      .      1      .
Campanula scheuthzerii            +      .      .      .
Anthyllis vulneraria subsp.       .      +      +      +
  Vulnerarioides
Festuca violacea subsp.           .      1      +      .
  italica
Phyteuma orbiculare               .      .      1      .
Other species
Poa alpina subsp. alpina          +      1      .      .
Cerastium arvense subsp.          .      +      .      .
  suffruticosum
Senecio doronicum                 .      .      +      .
Carduus chrysacanthus subsp.      .      .      +      .
  chrysacanthus
Cynoglossum magellense            .      +      +      2
Festuca dimorpha                  .      .      .      .
Potentilla apennina subsp.        .      .      .      .
  apennina
Ranunculus breyninus              .      .      .      .
Rumex scutatus subsp. Scutatus    .      .      .      .
Helianthemum nummularium          .      .      .      .
  subsp. grandiflorum
Anthemis cretica subsp.           .      .      .      .
  columnae
Luzula multiflora subsp.          2      .      .      .
  multiflora
Doronicum columnae                .      .      +      1
Erigeron epiroticus               .      +      +
Trifolium noricum subsp.          +      1      .      .
  praetutianum
Stachys alopecuros subsp.         .      .      1      2
  divulsa
Arabis collina subsp. collina     .      .      .      .
Pedicularis comosa subsp.         +      .      .      .
  Comosa
Festuca laevigata                 +      .      .      .

Other species: Melilotus albus + in 1; Myosotis alpestris subsp.
alpestris and Coronilla vaginalis + in 3; Agrostis stolonifera
subsp. stolonifera 2; Botrichium lunaria, Carduus defloratus subsp.
carlinifolius, Phleum rhaeticum and Gnaphalium hoppeanum subsp.
magellense + in 4; Crocus vernus subsp. vernus, Dianthus deltoides
subsp. deltoides and Dianthus deltoides subsp. deltoides + in 5;
Minuartia verna subsp. Verna, Cirsium acaule subsp. acaule and
Sesleria juncifolia subsp. juncifolia + Achillea tenorii 1,
Potentilla tabernaemontani 2 in 6; Galium magellense, Leucanthemum
heterophyllum and Linum alpinum +; Linum capitatum subsp.
serrulatum 1; Luzula sylvatica subsp. sylvatica 1; Rhinantus
wettstenii + in 7; Cerastium tomentosum 1, Dianthus carthusianorum
+ in 8.

Localities: 1-3: M. Porche, 30/7/99; 4: M. Argentella, 2/8/99; 5:
M. Vettore, 4/8/99; 6: M. Rotondo, 31/7/98; 7: saddle between M.
Acuto e Pizzo Tre Vescovi, 6/7/98; 8: M. Rotondo, 31/7/98.

Table 9

Carduetum chrysacanthi Pedrotti 1981 (rel. 1-3)
Chenopodio boni-henrici-Carduetum affinis Biondi & al. 1999 (rel. 4-5)
(Arction lappae, Artemisietalia vulgaris, Artemisietea vulgaris)

Altitude (m)                     2080   2100   2050   1980   1950
Slope ([degrees])                 -      10     5      -      15
Aspect                            -      SO    ESE     NO    ONO
Area ([m.sup.2])                  10     20     20     50     50
Cover (%)                         90     90    100     90     95
N.                                1      2      3      4      5

Association characteristics
Carduus chrysacanthus subsp.      2      2      1      .      .
  chrysacanthus
Carduus affinis subsp. affinis    .      .      .      2      4
Chenopodium bonus-henricus        .      .      .      1      1
Characteristics of higher
  units
Urtica dioica subsp. dioica       +      3      4      1      2
Rumex nebroides                   2      1      +      2      1
Rumex alpestris                   .      .      .      3      1
Other species
Poa alpina subsp. alpina          1      1      1      +      1
Scrophularia scopolii             2      +      1      3
Achillea millefolium subsp.       2      1      1      .      1
  millefolium
Cerastium arvense subsp.          +      1      +      .      .
  suffruticosum
Trifolium pratense subsp.         +      1      2      .      .
  Semipurpureum
Cynoglossum magellense            +      1      .      .      +
Barbarea bracteosa                +      .      .      +      +
Crepis aurea subsp.                      1      .      +      1
  glabrescens
Doronicum columnae                2      +      .      .      .
Phleum rhaeticum                  +      .      +      .      .
Myosotis alpestris                +      .      .      +      .
Festuca circummediterranea        .      1      +      .      .
Taraxacum apenninum               .      1      .      +      .
Ranunculus apenninus              .      .             1      +

Other species: Acinos alpinus subsp. alpinus and Erysimum
pseudorhaeticum +, Verbascum longifolium 1 in 1; Dactylis glomerata
1 in 3. Localities: 1-2: 06/07/98 Pizzo Tre Vescovi; 3: 03/07/98
Monte Vettore; 4: 6/8/99 Lago di Pilato; 5: 03/07/98 Monte Vettore.

Table 10

Saxifrago australis-Trisetetum bertolonii Biondi et Ballelli 1982
(rel. 1-3) Potentilletum apenninae Feoli et Feoli Chiapella 1976
(rel. 4-10) Asplenio-Cystopteridetum fragilis Oberd. (1936) 1945
(rel. 11-12) (Potentilletalia caulescentis, Asplenietea
trichomanis)

Altitude (m)                     1950   1900   2000   1900
Slope ([degrees])                 90            90     90
Aspect                            E             NE    NNO
Area ([m.sup.2])                  6      4      10     9
Cover (%)                         20     5      20     30
Relev. Nr.                        1      2      3      4

Association characteristics
Trisetaria villosa                +      +      +      .
Saxifraga callosa subsp.          +      1
  callosa
Potentilla apennina subsp.        .      +      +      1
  apennina
Saxifraga paniculata subsp.       +      +      +      1
  stabiana
Cystopteris fragilis
Characteristics of
  Cystopteridion
Asplenium viride                  .      .      .      .
Characteristics of Saxifragion
  australis and
  Potentilletalia
Dryopteris villarii subsp.        .      .      .      +
  villarii
Potentilla caulescens subsp.      .      .      1      .
  caulescens
Festuca alfrediana                .      .      +      .
Valeriana saliunca                .      .      .      .
Saxifraga exarata subsp.          .      .      .      .
  ampullacea
Characteristics of Asplenietea
  trichomanis
Rhamnus pumila                    1      .      .      +
Sedum dasyphyllum subsp.
  dasyphyllum
Asplenium ruta-muraria subsp.     .      .      .      .
  ruta-muraria
Other species
Helianthemum oelandicum subsp.    +      .      +      +
alpestre
Campanula scheuthzerii            .      +      +      +
Poa alpina subsp. alpina          .      +      +      .
Edraianthus graminifolius         +      .      +      1
  subsp. graminifolius
Robertia taraxacoides             .      +      +      .
Sempervivum arachnoideum          +      +      .      .
Alchemilla alpina                 .      .      .      .
Draba aizoides subsp. aizoides    .      .      .      .
Trifolium thalii                  .      .      .      .
Saxifraga oppositifolia subsp.    .      .      .      .
  speciosa
Pulsatilla alpina subsp.          .      .      .      .
  millefoliata
Silene acaulis                    .      .      .      .
Anthemis cretica subsp.           .      .      .      .
  columnae
Carum flexuosum                   1      .      .      +
Alchemilla flabellata             1      .      .      2
Anthyllis montana subsp.          +      .      .      +
  atropurpurea
Teucrium montanum                 +      .      .      +
Arenaria grandiflora subsp.       .      1      .      .
  grandiflora
Thymus praecox subsp.             .      +      .      .
  polytrichus
Asperula cynanchica               .      +      .      .
Adenostyles glabra subsp.         .      +      .      .
  glabra
Galium lucidum                    .      +      .      .
Paronychia kapela subsp.          .      .      .      .
  kapela
Globularia meridionalis           .      .      .      .
Carex kitaibeliana                .      .      .      .
Gentiana dinarica                 .      .      .      .
Minuartia verna subsp. verna      .      .      .      .

Altitude (m)                     1980   2050   2160   2150
Slope ([degrees])                 90     80     80     80
Aspect                            O      SO     NO     NO
Area ([m.sup.2])                  10     10     5      10
Cover (%)                         10     30     5      15
Relev. Nr.                        5      6      7      8

Association characteristics
Trisetaria villosa                .      .      .      .
Saxifraga callosa subsp.          +      1      1      +
  callosa
Potentilla apennina subsp.        +      +      +      +
  apennina
Saxifraga paniculata subsp.       1      2      +      1
  stabiana
Cystopteris fragilis
Characteristics of
  Cystopteridion
Asplenium viride                  .      .      .      .
Characteristics of Saxifragion
  australis and
  Potentilletalia
Dryopteris villarii subsp.        .      .      .      +
  villarii
Potentilla caulescens subsp.      .      +      .      .
  caulescens
Festuca alfrediana                .      .      +      .
Valeriana saliunca                .      .      1      .
Saxifraga exarata subsp.          .      .      .      +
  ampullacea
Characteristics of Asplenietea
  trichomanis
Rhamnus pumila                    +      .      .      .
Sedum dasyphyllum subsp.                        +
  dasyphyllum
Asplenium ruta-muraria subsp.     .      .      .      .
  ruta-muraria
Other species
Helianthemum oelandicum subsp.    +      1      +      +
alpestre
Campanula scheuthzerii            +      .      .      .
Poa alpina subsp. alpina          +      .      .      .
Edraianthus graminifolius         1      .      +      +
  subsp. graminifolius
Robertia taraxacoides             .      .      .      .
Sempervivum arachnoideum          1      .      .      .
Alchemilla alpina                 +      1      .      +
Draba aizoides subsp. aizoides    +      +      .      +
Trifolium thalii                  .      .      1      1
Saxifraga oppositifolia subsp.    .      .      1      1
  speciosa
Pulsatilla alpina subsp.          .      .      +      +
  millefoliata
Silene acaulis                    .      .      .      1
Anthemis cretica subsp.           .      .      +      +
  columnae
Carum flexuosum                   .      .      .      .
Alchemilla flabellata             .      .      .      .
Anthyllis montana subsp.          .      .      .      .
  atropurpurea
Teucrium montanum                 .      .      .      .
Arenaria grandiflora subsp.       .      .      .      .
  grandiflora
Thymus praecox subsp.             +      .      .      .
  polytrichus
Asperula cynanchica               .      .      .      .
Adenostyles glabra subsp.         +      .      .      .
  glabra
Galium lucidum                    +      .      .      .
Paronychia kapela subsp.          +      .      .      .
  kapela
Globularia meridionalis           +      +      .      .
Carex kitaibeliana                .      1      .      .
Gentiana dinarica                 .      +      .      .
Minuartia verna subsp. verna      +      .      .      .

Altitude (m)                     2145   2140   1900   1900
Slope ([degrees])                 80     85     90     90
Aspect                           SSE     N      NE     NO
Area ([m.sup.2])                  5      5      8      8
Cover (%)                         20     30     5      50
Relev. Nr.                        9      10     11     12

Association characteristics
Trisetaria villosa                .      .      .      .
Saxifraga callosa subsp.                 +      2
  callosa
Potentilla apennina subsp.        1      +      1      +
  apennina
Saxifraga paniculata subsp.       2      +      2      +
  stabiana
Cystopteris fragilis                            +      2
Characteristics of
  Cystopteridion
Asplenium viride                  .      .      .      +
Characteristics of Saxifragion
  australis and
  Potentilletalia
Dryopteris villarii subsp.        +      +      .      1
  villarii
Potentilla caulescens subsp.      .      .      .      .
  caulescens
Festuca alfrediana                +      .      .      .
Valeriana saliunca                .      +      .      .
Saxifraga exarata subsp.          .      .      .      .
  ampullacea
Characteristics of Asplenietea
  trichomanis
Rhamnus pumila                    .      .      .      .
Sedum dasyphyllum subsp.
  dasyphyllum
Asplenium ruta-muraria subsp.     .      +      .      .
  ruta-muraria
Other species
Helianthemum oelandicum subsp.    1      +      +      .
alpestre
Campanula scheuthzerii            .      .      1      +
Poa alpina subsp. alpina          .      .      +      +
Edraianthus graminifolius         .      +      .      .
  subsp. graminifolius
Robertia taraxacoides             .      .      .      .
Sempervivum arachnoideum          .      .      .      .
Alchemilla alpina                 .      .      .      .
Draba aizoides subsp. aizoides    .      1      .      .
Trifolium thalii                  .      2      .      .
Saxifraga oppositifolia subsp.    .      1      .      .
  speciosa
Pulsatilla alpina subsp.          .      .      .      .
  millefoliata
Silene acaulis                    .      +      .      .
Anthemis cretica subsp.           .      1      .      .
  columnae
Carum flexuosum                   .      .      .      .
Alchemilla flabellata             .      .      .      .
Anthyllis montana subsp.          .      .      .      .
  atropurpurea
Teucrium montanum                 .      .      .      .
Arenaria grandiflora subsp.       .      .      .      .
  grandiflora
Thymus praecox subsp.             .      .      .      .
  polytrichus
Asperula cynanchica               .      .      .      .
Adenostyles glabra subsp.         .      .      .      .
  glabra
Galium lucidum                    .      .      .      .
Paronychia kapela subsp.          .      .      .      .
  kapela
Globularia meridionalis           .      .      .      .
Carex kitaibeliana                .      .      .      .
Gentiana dinarica                 .      +      .      .
Minuartia verna subsp. verna      .      +      .      .

Other species: Globularia meridionalis, Paronychia kapela subsp.
kapela, Alyssum montanum subsp. montanum, Aster alpinus subsp.
alpinus and Silene otites subsp. otites, Acinos alpinus subsp.
alpinus and Erysimum pseudorhaeticum +, Verbascum longifolium 1 in
1; Trifolium thalii + in 2; Alchemilla alpina, Phyteuma orbiculare,
Dryas octopetala, Heracleum sphondylium subsp. orsini, Juncus
trifidus subsp. monanthos and Juniperus communis var. saxatilis +,
Dactylis glomerata 1in 3; Cerastium tomentosum +; Crepis aurea
subsp. glabrescens 1 in 4; Androsace villosa subsp. villosa + in 5;
Ranunculus apenninus + in 10; Biscutella laevigata 1, Dianthus
sylvestris subsp. sylvestris, Myosotis alpestris subsp. alpestris
and Sedum atratum subsp. atratum + in 11; Arabis alpina subsp.
caucasica, Cerastium arvense subsp. suffruticosum and Senecio
doronicum + in 12.

Localities: 1: M. Bove Nord, 6/7/99; 2: F.ca Viola, 6/8/99; 3: Lago
di Pilato, 6/8/99; 4: M. Bove Nord, 6/7/99; 5-6: Palazzo Borghese,
28/7/99; 7- 10: M. Sibilla, rocky ridge, 31/7/99; 11: F.ca Viola,
6/8/99; 12: Valle del Lago, 6/8/99.

Table 11

Isatido-Thlaspietum stylosi Migliaccio 1970 corr. Feoli Chiapella
1983 (rels. 1-2) Isatido-Heracleetum orsinii Feoli Chiapella 1983
subass. Festucetosum dimorphae Feoli Chiapella 1983 (rels. 3-5)
(Linario-Festucion dimorphae, Thlaspietalia rotundifolii,
Thlaspietea rotundifolii)

Altitude (m)                     1975   2050   1870   2150   2100
Slope ([degrees])                 45     40     35     50     45
Aspect                            NE    NNE     N      E      E
Area ([m.sup.2])                 100    100     50     30     30
Cover (%)                         30     20     25     15     10
N.                                1      2      3      4      5

Association characteristics
Thlaspi stylosum                  +      1      .      .      .
Crepis pygmaea subsp. pygmaea     1      2      2      1
Isatis apennina                   1      +      1      1      +
Heracleum sphondylium subsp.      .      .      +      +      .
  orsini
Differential of festucetosum
  dimorphae
Festuca dimorpha                  .      .      2      1      +
Characteristics of Festucion
Robertia taraxacoides             +      +      +      .      .
Papaver alpinum subsp.            2      1      .      .      .
  hernesti-majeri
Ranunculus brevifolius            +      1      .      .      .
Arenaria bertolonii               1      +      .      .      .
Galium magellense                 +      +      .      .      .
Festuca dimorpha                  +      .      .      .      .
Characteristics of
  Thlaspietalia and
  Thlaspietea
Senecio squalidus                 .      1      1      1      1
Scrophularia hoppii               +      1      .      +      .
Linaria alpina                    1      +      .      .      .
Sedum magellense subsp.           .      .      +      .      +
  magellense
Valeriana montana                 .      .      +      .      .
Rumex scutatus subsp. scutatus    .      .      1      .      .
Other species
Rumex acetosa subsp. acetosa      .      .      +      1      1
Alchemilla alpina                 +      1      .      .      .
Anthemis cretica subsp.           +      +      .      .      .
  columnae
Crepis aurea subsp.               +      1      .      .      .
  glabrescens
Campanula scheuthzerii            .      .      .      +      +

Other species: Silene vulgaris 3, Edraianthus graminifolius subsp.
graminifolius and Euphrasia salisburgensis + in 1; Poa alpina + in
2; Gentiana lutea subsp. lutea, Leonthodon crispus subsp. crispus
and Senecio doronicum + in 4; Cerastium arvense subsp.
suffruticosum + in 5. Localities:1-2: Lago di Pilato, 6/8/99; 3:
Forca Viola, 10/7/98; 4-5: M. Vettore, 27/7/99.

Table 12

Galio magellensis-Festucetum dimorphae Feoli Chiapella 1983
(Linario-Festucion dimorphae, Thlaspietalia rotundifolii, Thlaspietea
rotundifolii)

Altitude (m)                          2050   1800   1860   1900
Slope ([degrees])                     30     35     30     25
Aspect                                SE     SO     NE     N
Area (m2)                             100    100    100    100
Cover (%)                             60     30     30     40
N.                                    1      2      3      4

Association characteristics
Galium magellense                     1      +      +      1
Differential of ranunculetosum
  brevifolii
Ranunculus brevifolius                1      1      1      1
Thlaspi stylosum                      .      .      .      1
Differential of armerietosum
Acinos alpinus subsp. alpinus         .      +      .      .
Armeria canescens                     .      .      +      .
Characteristics of Festucion
Festuca dimorpha                      4      2      2      3
Carduus chrysacanthus subsp.          +      +      +      +
  chrysacanthus
Cerastium tomentosum                  +      1             +
Carum flexuosum                       .      1      1      1
Robertia taraxacoides                 .      1      1      .
Scrophularia hoppii                   .      +      .      1
Isatis apennina                       +      .      .      .
Achillea barellieri subsp.            .      .      .      .
  barellieri
Characteristics of Thaspietalia and
  Thlaspietea
Leontodon montanus subsp.             1      .      .      +
  breviscapum
Valeriana saliunca                    +      1      +
Anthemis cretica subsp. columnae      +      .      .      1
Arabis alpina subsp. caucasica        .      +      .      .
Senecio squalidus subsp. squalidus    +      .      .      .
Linaria alpina                        .      .      .      .
Other species
Campanula scheuthzerii                1      +      1      +
Helianthemum oelandicum subsp.        +      +      .      +
  alpestre
Brachypodium genuense                 +      1      .      .
Euphorbia cyparissias                 1      +      .      +
Senecio doronicum                     .      +      .      .
Dianthus sylvestris subsp.            .      +      .      .
  sylvestris
Alyssum montanum subsp. montanum      +      +      .      .
Pulsatilla alpina subsp.              +      .      .
  millefoliata
Stachys recta subsp. recta            .      +      .      .
Hieracium cymosum                     .      +      .      .
Carlina acaulis subsp. caulescens     .      +      .      .
Astragalus sempervirens               .      .      .      .
Biscutella laevigata                  .      .      .      .
Trifolium pratense subsp.             .      .      .      .
  semipurpureum
Phyteuma orbiculare                   .      .      .      .

Altitude (m)                          2350   1800   1850
Slope ([degrees])                     20     35     35
Aspect                                NE     NO     N
Area (m2)                             100    100    100
Cover (%)                             40     40     30
N.                                    5      6      7

Association characteristics
Galium magellense                     1      +      +
Differential of ranunculetosum        1
  brevifolii
Ranunculus brevifolius                .      .      .
Thlaspi stylosum                      +      .      .
Differential of armerietosum
Acinos alpinus subsp. alpinus         .      1      +
Armeria canescens                     .      +      +
Characteristics of Festucion
Festuca dimorpha                      3      3      2
Carduus chrysacanthus subsp.          .      1
  chrysacanthus
Cerastium tomentosum                  .      1      1
Carum flexuosum                       1      .      1
Robertia taraxacoides                 .      .      .
Scrophularia hoppii                   .      .      .
Isatis apennina                       .      .      .
Achillea barellieri subsp.            2      .      .
  barellieri
Characteristics of Thaspietalia and
  Thlaspietea
Leontodon montanus subsp.             .      +      .
  breviscapum
Valeriana saliunca
Anthemis cretica subsp. columnae      .      .      +
Arabis alpina subsp. caucasica        .      +      .
Senecio squalidus subsp. squalidus    +      .      .
Linaria alpina                        +      .      .
Other species
Campanula scheuthzerii                .      +      .
Helianthemum oelandicum subsp.        .      +      .
  alpestre
Brachypodium genuense                 .      .      +
Euphorbia cyparissias                 .      .      .
Senecio doronicum                     .      +      1
Dianthus sylvestris subsp.            .      +      +
  sylvestris
Alyssum montanum subsp. montanum      .      .      .
Pulsatilla alpina subsp.
  millefoliata
Stachys recta subsp. recta            .      .      .
Hieracium cymosum                     .      +
Carlina acaulis subsp. caulescens     .      .      +
Astragalus sempervirens               .      1      +
Biscutella laevigata                  .      +      +
Trifolium pratense subsp.             +             1
  semipurpureum
Phyteuma orbiculare                   +      +      .

Other species: Hieracium pilosella 1; Ranunculus breyninus, Rumex
nebroides, Dianthus monspessulanus, Melilotus albus and Silene
multicaulis subsp. multicaulis + in 1; Dryas octopetala 2 in 3;
Carduus chrysacanthus subsp. chrysacanthus +; Anemone apennina 1 in
5; Phleum rhaeticum and Alchemilla alpina + in 6.

Localities: 1: M. Vettore, 27/7/99; 2: M. Argentella, 2/8/99; 3-4:
Forca Viola, 10/7/98; 5: Vettore, Furnari 1970; 6: M. Bove Sud,
6/7/99; 7: Forca Viola, 10/7/98.

Table 13

Drypido-Festucetum dimorphae Bonin 1978 em. Feoli Chiapella 1983
(Linario-Festucion dimorphae, Thlaspietalia rotundifolii,
Thlaspietea rotundifolii)

Altitude (m)                     2075   1860   1950   1900   1685
Slope ([degree])                 25     30     40     45     35
Aspect                           O      N      N      NE     S
Area (m2)                        50     16     50     50     100
Cover (%)                        60     30     20     30     40

Releve Number                    1      2      3      4      5

Association characteristics
Drypis spinosa subsp. spinosa    1      2      1      2      1
Diff. var. Brachypodium
  genuense
Brachypodium genuense            .      .      .      .      .
Characteristics of Festucion
Festuca dimorpha                 4      1      1      1      3
Cerastium tomentosum             .      +      1      1      1
Carduus chrysacanthus subsp.     .      .      .      .      .
  chrysacanthus
Ranunculus brevifolius           .      .      .      .      .
Robertia taraxacoides            .      1      1      2      1
Carum flexuosum                                              1
Doronicum columnae               1      .      .      .      .
Arenaria bertolonii              .      .      .      .      .
Characteristics of
  Thlaspietalia and
  Thlaspietea
Rumex scutatus subsp. scutatus   1      1      1      +      1
Senecio squalidus subsp.         .      .      .      .      1
  squalidus
Arenaria grandiflora subsp.      .      .      .      .      .
  grandiflora
Acinos alpinus subsp. alpinus    1      .      .      .      .
Linaria purpurea                 1      .      .      .      .
Anthemis cretica subsp.          .      .      .      .      .
  columnae
Valeriana montana                .      2      .      .      .
Leucanthemum heterophyllum       .      .      .      .      .
Other species
Thymus praecox subsp.            1      .      .      .      1
  polytrichus
Galium lucidum                   1      .      .      .      .
Campanula scheuthzerii           .      .      .      .      .
Hieracium pilosella              .      .      .      .      .
Cerastium arvense subsp.         +      .      .      .      .
  suffruticosum
Poa alpina subsp. alpina         +      .      .      .      .
Euphorbia cyparissias            .      .      .      .      .
Bromus erectus                   .      .      .      .      .
Hieracium cymosum                .      .      .      .      .
Sesleria juncifolia subsp.       .      .      +      .      .
  juncifolia
Campanula glomerata              .      .      +      .      .
Senecio doronicum                1      .      .      .      .
Ranunculus apenninus             +      .      .      .      .
Biscutella laevigata             .      .      .      .      .
Gentiana lutea subsp. lutea      .      .      .      .      .
Silene otites subsp. otites      .      .      .      .      .
Trinia dalechampii               .      .      .      .      .
Carex kitaibeliana               .      .      .      .      .
Carlina acaulis subsp.           .      .      .      .      .
  caulescens
Trifolium pratense subsp.        .      .      .      .      .
  semipurpureum
Paronychia kapela subsp.         .      .      +      +      .
  kapela
Armeria canescens                +      .      .      .      .
Leontodon hispidus subsp.        +      .      .      .      .
  hispidus
Stachys recta                    .      .      .      .      .
Sesleria nitida                  .      .      .      .      .
Asperula cynanchica              .      .      .      .      .
Astragalus sempervirens          .      .      .      .      .
Carex macrolepis                 .      .      .      .      .
Gentiana dinarica                .      .      .      .      .
Linum alpinum                    .      .      .      .      .
Lotus corniculatus subsp.        .      .      .      .      .
  corniculatus
Minuartia verna subsp. verna     .      .      .      .      .
Phyteuma orbiculare              .      .      .      .      .
Cyanus triumfettii               .      .      .      .      .

Altitude (m)                     2120   2100   2100   2100   1890
Slope ([degree])                 35     30     30     30     40
Aspect                           SE     SE     SE     S      NO
Area (m2)                        80     100    100    100    100
Cover (%)                        60     60     70     60     50

Releve Number                    6      7      8      9      10

Association characteristics
Drypis spinosa subsp. spinosa    1      1      +      +      1
Diff. var. Brachypodium
  genuense
Brachypodium genuense            1      2      +      1      1
Characteristics of Festucion
Festuca dimorpha                 3      2      4      3      3
Cerastium tomentosum                           2      1      1
Carduus chrysacanthus subsp.     1      1      1      +      1
  chrysacanthus
Ranunculus brevifolius           .      .      .      .      1
Robertia taraxacoides            .      .      .      .      .
Carum flexuosum                  .      .      .      .      .
Doronicum columnae               .      .      .      .      +
Arenaria bertolonii              .      .      .      .      .
Characteristics of
  Thlaspietalia and
  Thlaspietea
Rumex scutatus subsp. scutatus   .             +      +      .
Senecio squalidus subsp.         1      .      .      .      +
  squalidus
Arenaria grandiflora subsp.      .      .      .      .      +

  grandiflora
Acinos alpinus subsp. alpinus    .      .      1      .      .
Linaria purpurea                 .      .      .      .      .
Anthemis cretica subsp.          .      .      .      .      .
  columnae
Valeriana montana                .      .      .      .      .
Leucanthemum heterophyllum       .      +      .      .      .
Other species
Thymus praecox subsp.            +      +      1      1      1
  polytrichus
Galium lucidum                   +      1      1      +      +
Campanula scheuthzerii           2      1      2      1      1
Hieracium pilosella              1      1      1      +      .
Cerastium arvense subsp.         +      +      +      +      .
  suffruticosum
Poa alpina subsp. alpina         +      +      1      1      .
Euphorbia cyparissias            .      .      .      +      .
Bromus erectus                   +      +      +      +      .
Hieracium cymosum                +      1      +      1      .
Sesleria juncifolia subsp.       +      1      +      .      .
  juncifolia
Campanula glomerata              1      1      1      1      .
Senecio doronicum                +      +      .      +      .
Ranunculus apenninus             .      .      +      +      .
Biscutella laevigata             .      .      1      +      .
Gentiana lutea subsp. lutea      +      .      +      .      .
Silene otites subsp. otites      .      +      +      .      1
Trinia dalechampii               .      .      .      .      +
Carex kitaibeliana               .      .      .      .      +
Carlina acaulis subsp.           .      .      .      .      .
  caulescens
Trifolium pratense subsp.        .      .      .      .      +
  semipurpureum
Paronychia kapela subsp.         .      .      .      .      .
  kapela
Armeria canescens                .      .      .      .      .
Leontodon hispidus subsp.        .      .      .      .      .
  hispidus
Stachys recta                    .      .      .      .      .
Sesleria nitida                  .      .      .      .      .
Asperula cynanchica              .      .      .      .      +
Astragalus sempervirens          .      .      .      .      .
Carex macrolepis                 +      1      .      .      .
Gentiana dinarica                .      .      .      .      +
Linum alpinum                    .      .      .      .      +
Lotus corniculatus subsp.        .      .      .      1      .
  corniculatus
Minuartia verna subsp. verna     .      .      .      .      +
Phyteuma orbiculare              +      .      .      +      .
Cyanus triumfettii               .      .      .      .      +

Altitude (m)                     1890   2000   2050   1930   1960
Slope ([degree])                 45     35     40     25     30
Aspect                           NO     S-SO   NO     S      SE
Area (m2)                        100    60     100    50     50
Cover (%)                        70     75     50     30     30

Releve Number                    11     12     13     14     15

Association characteristics
Drypis spinosa subsp. spinosa    1      +      +      1      1
Diff. var. Brachypodium
  genuense
Brachypodium genuense            1      +      +      1      1
Characteristics of Festucion
Festuca dimorpha                 4      3      3      2      2
Cerastium tomentosum             1      .             1      1
Carduus chrysacanthus subsp.     +      .      1      +      1
  chrysacanthus
Ranunculus brevifolius           1      .      1      1      1
Robertia taraxacoides            .      .
Carum flexuosum                  .      .      1      +      +
Doronicum columnae               .      .      1      .      .
Arenaria bertolonii              1      .      .      .      .
Characteristics of
  Thlaspietalia and
  Thlaspietea
Rumex scutatus subsp. scutatus   .      +      .      .      .
Senecio squalidus subsp.         .      .      +      .      .
  squalidus
Arenaria grandiflora subsp.      .      +      .      .      +
  grandiflora
Acinos alpinus subsp. alpinus    .      .      .      .      .
Linaria purpurea                 .      1      .      .      .
Anthemis cretica subsp.          .      +      +      .      .
  columnae
Valeriana montana                .      .      .      .      .
Leucanthemum heterophyllum       .      .      .      .      .
Other species
Thymus praecox subsp.            1      .      .      1      +
  polytrichus
Galium lucidum                   1      +      .      .      +
Campanula scheuthzerii           +      .      .      +      1
Hieracium pilosella              +      1      .      .      +
Cerastium arvense subsp.         .      +      .      .      .
  suffruticosum
Poa alpina subsp. alpina         .      .      +      .      .
Euphorbia cyparissias            +      .      .      +      1
Bromus erectus                   .      .      .      +      +
Hieracium cymosum                +      2      .      .      .
Sesleria juncifolia subsp.       .      .      +      .      .
  juncifolia
Campanula glomerata              .      .      .      .      .
Senecio doronicum                +      .      .      .      .
Ranunculus apenninus             .      1      .      .      .
Biscutella laevigata             +      .      .      +      .
Gentiana lutea subsp. lutea      +      +      .      .      .
Silene otites subsp. otites      +      .      .      .      .
Trinia dalechampii               +      .      .      .      .
Carex kitaibeliana               +      .      +      .      .
Carlina acaulis subsp.           .      +      .      .      .
  caulescens
Trifolium pratense subsp.        +      .      .      .      .
  semipurpureum
Paronychia kapela subsp.         .      .      .      .      .
  kapela
Armeria canescens                .      +      .      .      .
Leontodon hispidus subsp.        .      .      +      .      .
  hispidus
Stachys recta                    .      .      .      .      +
Sesleria nitida                  .      .      .      .      1
Asperula cynanchica              +      .      .      .      .
Astragalus sempervirens          .      .      .      1      +
Carex macrolepis                 .      .      .      .      .
Gentiana dinarica                2      .      .      .      .
Linum alpinum                    +      .      .      .      .
Lotus corniculatus subsp.        .      1      .      .      .
  corniculatus
Minuartia verna subsp. verna     +      .      .      .      .
Phyteuma orbiculare              .      .      .      .      .
Cyanus triumfettii               .      .      .      .      .

Other species: Alyssum montanum subsp. montanum and Dianthus
monspessulanus + in 6; Hieracium lactucella ssp lactucella 1,
Trifolium montanum subsp. rupestre + in 8 ; Aster alpinus subsp.
alpinus and Coronilla vaginalis + in 9; rel. 12: Linum capitatum
subsp. serrulatum, Medicago lupulina, Polygala alpestris, Verbascum
longifolium and Dianthus sylvestris subsp. sylvestris +, Festuca
circummediterranea and Globularia meridionalis 1 in 12; Pulsatilla
alpina subsp. millefoliata + and Ranunculus breyninus 1 in 13;
Bupleurum baldense + in 14; Koeleria lobata + in 15. Localities: 1:
Pizzo Tre Vescovi, 6/7/98; 2: Forca Viola, 10/7/98; 3-4: Fonte
Jumenta M. Bove, 3/7/99; 5: M. Sibilla, 31/7/99; 6-9: M. Vettore,
27/7/99; 10-11: M. Argentella, 28/7/99; 12: M. Bove Nord, 6/7/99;
13: M. Porche, 30/7/99; rel. 14-15: M. Argentella, 2/8/99.

Table 14

Chorotypes of the associations reported in the tables 1-13
(calculated from frequency and expressed in percent, %)

                  leontopodio-   saxifrago-   seslerio-   seslerietum
                  seslerietum    silenetum    dryadetum   apenninae

Endemic           2              2            2           1
Appenine

Endemic Centre    6              7            4           7
Appenine

Endemic           8              12           13          13
Centre-South
Appenine

Endemic Italy     .              .            .           .

Subendemic        .              1            .           2

Anphiadriatic     4              2            2           2

Mediterranean-    2              4            4           8
Montane

Orophyte          44             40           41          30
S-European

Euro-             3              3            4           3
Mediterranean

Euro-Asiatic      17             15           11          20

Arctic Alpine     11             10           17          8

Circumboreal      3              2            .           4

Subcosmopolitan   .              2            2           2

Cosmopolitan      .              .            .           .

                                                           potentillo-
                  ranunculo-      luzulo-    taraxaco-     brachy-
                  plantaginetum   nardetum   trifolietum   podietum

Endemic           2               2          1             1
Appenine

Endemic Centre    2               3          .             3
Appenine

Endemic           21              9          13            17
Centre-South
Appenine

Endemic Italy     .               .          1             .

Subendemic        .               .          1             3

Anphiadriatic     .               2          1             3

Mediterranean-    11              5          9             4
Montane

Orophyte          28              29         35            32
S-European

Euro-             5               5          1             5
Mediterranean

Euro-Asiatic      20              20         21            2

Arctic Alpine     2               9          3             1

Circumboreal      2               11         11            4

Subcosmopolitan   5               3          2             4

Cosmopolitan      2               2          1             3

                                 chenopodio-                potenti-
                  carduetum      carduetum     saxifrago-   lletum
                  chrysacanthi   affinis       trisetetum   apenninae

Endemic           .              7             .            3
Appenine

Endemic Centre    .              .             3            5
Appenine

Endemic           15             14            9            10
Centre-South
Appenine

Endemic Italy     .              .             3            .

Subendemic        .              .             3            5

Anphiadriatic     .              .             3            3

Mediterranean-    10             14            14           10
Montane

Orophyte          40             22            30           36
S-European

Euro-             5              .             9            5
Mediterranean

Euro-Asiatic      10             14            9            10

Arctic Alpine     .              .             11           8

Circumboreal      10             22            6            5

Subcosmopolitan   10             7             .            .

Cosmopolitan      .              .             .            .

                  asplenio-         iastido-      isatido-
                  cystopteridetum   thlaspietum   heracleetum

Endemic           .                 .             .
Appenine

Endemic Centre    .                 5             .
Appenine

Endemic           4                 16            11
Centre-South
Appenine

Endemic Italy     4                 5             6

Subendemic        4                 16            17

Anphiadriatic     .                 .             .

Mediterranean-    13                .             .
Montane

Orophyte          51                43            49
S-European

Euro-             8                 .             .
Mediterranean

Euro-Asiatic      .                 .             11

Arctic Alpine     4                 5             .

Circumboreal      8                 5             6

Subcosmopolitan   .                 5             .

Cosmopolitan      4                 .             .

                  galio-       drypido-
                  festucetum   festucetum

Endemic           .            1
Appenine

Endemic Centre    2            .
Appenine

Endemic           14           10
Centre-South
Appenine

Endemic Italy     2            1

Subendemic        8            3

Anphiadriatic     2            4

Mediterranean-    12           10
Montane

Orophyte          35           36
S-European

Euro-             .            6
Mediterranean

Euro-Asiatic      15           24

Arctic Alpine     5            .

Circumboreal      .            3

Subcosmopolitan   5            1

Cosmopolitan      .            1

Table 15

Life form of the associations reported in tables 1-13 (calculated
from frequency and expressed in percent, %; H, hemicryptophyte; Ch,
chamaephyte; G, geophyte; T, terophyte; NP, nanophanerophyte; P,
phanerophyte).

     leontopodio-   saxifrago-   seslerio-   seslerietum
     seslerietum    silenetum    dryadetum   apenninae

H    68             65           65          65

Ch   30             30           23          27

G    2              3            8           4

T    .              2            3           2

NP   .              .            1           2

P    .              .            .           .

     ranunculo-      luzulo-    taraxaco-     potentillo-
     plantaginetum   nardetum   trifolietum   brachypodietum

H    84              82         79            80

Ch   11              8          13            13

G    5               5          6             4

T    .               5          1             3

NP   .               .          .             .

P    .               .          1             .

                    chenopodio-
     carduetum      carduetum     saxifrago-   potentilletum
     chrysacanthi   affinis       trisetetum   apenninae

H    85             93            51           53

Ch   10             7             40           41

G    5              .             3            3

T    .              .             .            .

NP   .              .             6            3

P    .              .             .            .

     asplenio-         iastido-      isatido-      galio-
     cystopteridetum   thlaspietum   heracleetum   festucetum

H    75                63            83            83           7

Ch   17                16            6             6            1

G    4                 16            11            11           3

T    4                 5             .             .            3

NP   .                 .             .             .            .

P    .                 .             .             .            .

Table 16
Synthetic table of Sesleria juncifolia grasslands in Central Apennines

                                                 1     2     3

Association Characteristics

Helianthemum oelandicum subsp.alpestre           V     V     V
Androsace villosa subsp. villosa                 IV    V     V
Pedicularis elegans                              .     IV    V
Leontopodium nivale                              .     II    III
Aster alpinus                                    .     I     II
Ranunculus oreophilus                            .     IV    .
Iberis saxatilis subsp. saxatilis                .     .     .
Dryas octopetala                                 .     .     .
Carex mucronata                                  .     .     .
Ranunculus thora                                 .     I     .
Char. All. Leontopodio-Elynenion
Minuartia verna subsp. verna                     IV    V     V
Silene acaulis                                   I     III   III
Oxytropis campestris subsp. campestris           II    .     II
Potentilla cranztii subsp. crantzii              .     .     I
Sedum atratum subsp. atratum                     .     II    I
Kobresia myosuroides                             .     II    .
Gentiana nivalis                                 .     .     I
Gnaphalium hoppeanum subsp. magellense           .     .     I
Carex rupestris                                  .     .     .
Carex firma                                      .     .     .
Char. All. Seslerion apenninae                         .
Trinia dalechampii                               III   II    I
Carum flexuosum                                  I     II    I
Avenula praetutiana                              .     III   I
Linum capitatum subsp. serrulatum                .     II    I
Festuca violacea subsp. italica                  .     .     III
Androsace vitaliana subsp. praetutiana           III   .     .
Achillea barellieri subsp. barellieri            .     .     I
Myosotis ambigens                                .     .     .
Alyssum diffusum                                 .     .     .
Char. Ord. Seslerietalia tenuifoliae
Sesleria juncifolia subsp. juncifolia            V     V     V
Edraianthus graminifolius subsp. graminifolius   V     IV    V
Gentiana dinarica                                II    IV    I
Carex kitaibeliana                               .     IV    V
Anthyllis montana subsp. atropurpurea            .     III   II
Paronychia kapela subsp. kapela                  II    II    I
Helianthemum nummularium subsp. grandiflorum     III   .     II
Armeria canescens                                .           III
Thesium parnassi                                 .     II    .
Carduus carlinifolius                            II    .     .
Pedicularis comosa subsp. comosa                 .     .     I
Festuca laevigata subsp. crassifolia             .     .     .
Poa molineri                                     .     .     .
Char. Cl. Elyno-Seslerietea
Pulsatilla alpina subsp. millefoliata            III   III   III
Draba aizoides subsp. aizoides                   IV    III   I
Gentiana verna subsp. verna                      I     II    II
Thymus praecox subsp. polytrichus                .     V     IV
Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. vulnerarioides       .     V     III
Campanula scheuthzerii                           .     .     I
Phyteuma orbiculare                              .     III   II
Sempervivum arachnoideum                         .     .     I
Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. pulchella            IV    .     .
Acinos alpinus subsp. alpinus                    II    .     I
Saxifraga caesia                                 .     I     .
Bellidiastrum michelii                           .     III   .
Erigeron epiroticus                              .     .     I
Linum alpinum                                    .     II    I
Pedicularis tuberosa                             .     .     I
Coronilla vaginalis                              .     .     I
Anemone narcissiflora                            .     I     .
Pedicularis verticillata                         .     I     .
Polygala alpestris                               .     .     .
Nardetea strictae                                            .
Juncus trifidus subsp. monanthos                 .     II    II
Plantago atrata subsp. atrata                    .     .     II
Viola eugeniae subsp. eugeniae                   .     III   I
Bistorta vivipara                                .     II    I
Ranunculus apenninus                             .     .     I
Botrychium lunaria                               .     .     I
Hieracium pilosella                              .     .     I
Luzula spicata subsp. italica                    .     .     I
Gentiana lutea subsp. lutea                      .     .     .
Bistorta vivipara                                .     .     .
Thlaspietea rotundifolii
Arenaria grandiflora subsp. grandiflora          .     .     I
Galium magellense                                .     .     I
Valeriana saliunca                               .     .     I
Doronicum columnae                               .     .     I
Carex humilis                                    .     .     .
Lomelosia graminifolia                           .     .     .

                                                 4     5   6     7

Association Characteristics

Helianthemum oelandicum subsp.alpestre           V     2   II    2
Androsace villosa subsp. villosa                 III   2   V
Pedicularis elegans                              V     3   I     2
Leontopodium nivale                              V     3   II    2
Aster alpinus                                    V     1   .     .
Ranunculus oreophilus                            V     .   .     .
Iberis saxatilis subsp. saxatilis                V     .   .     .
Dryas octopetala                                 I     1   V     3
Carex mucronata                                  .     .   IV    .
Ranunculus thora                                 .     .   II    .
Char. All. Leontopodio-Elynenion                           .     .
Minuartia verna subsp. verna                     IV    3   .     2
Silene acaulis                                   IV    1   .     1
Oxytropis campestris subsp. campestris           V     .   .     .
Potentilla cranztii subsp. crantzii              II    3   .     1
Sedum atratum subsp. atratum                     .     1   .     .
Kobresia myosuroides                             I     .   .     .
Gentiana nivalis                                 .     .   .     .
Gnaphalium hoppeanum subsp. magellense           .     .   .     .
Carex rupestris                                  .     .   I     .
Carex firma                                      .     .   I     .
Char. All. Seslerion apenninae
Trinia dalechampii                               V     1   I     .
Carum flexuosum                                  .     1   II    1
Avenula praetutiana                              IV    .   III   .
Linum capitatum subsp. serrulatum                .     .   .     1
Festuca violacea subsp. italica                  IV    .   .     1
Androsace vitaliana subsp. praetutiana           .     .   .     .
Achillea barellieri subsp. barellieri            .     .   .     .
Myosotis ambigens                                II    .   .     .
Alyssum diffusum                                 .     .   .     II
Char. Ord. Seslerietalia tenuifoliae
Sesleria juncifolia subsp. juncifolia            V     3   V     3
Edraianthus graminifolius subsp. graminifolius   V     2   IV    2
Gentiana dinarica                                .     2   IV    1
Carex kitaibeliana                               V     3   V     3
Anthyllis montana subsp. atropurpurea            I     .   IV    2
Paronychia kapela subsp. kapela                  .     .   .     .
Helianthemum nummularium subsp. grandiflorum     I     .   .     .
Armeria canescens                                III   3   .     .
Thesium parnassi                                 .     .   II    .
Carduus carlinifolius                            .     .   .     .
Pedicularis comosa subsp. comosa                 .     .   .     .
Festuca laevigata subsp. crassifolia             I     .   .     .
Poa molineri                                     IV    .   .     .
Char. Cl. Elyno-Seslerietea
Pulsatilla alpina subsp. millefoliata            II    1   I     1
Draba aizoides subsp. aizoides                   V     .   I     .
Gentiana verna subsp. verna                      II    1   .     3
Thymus praecox subsp. polytrichus                III   2   .     .
Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. vulnerarioides       .     2   .     2
Campanula scheuthzerii                           I     .   .     1
Phyteuma orbiculare                              .     .   I     .
Sempervivum arachnoideum                         V     2   .     .
Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. pulchella            V     .   .     .
Acinos alpinus subsp. alpinus                    .     1   .     .
Saxifraga caesia                                 .     .   II    .
Bellidiastrum michelii                           .     .   I     .
Erigeron epiroticus                              III   .   .     .
Linum alpinum                                    .     .   .     .
Pedicularis tuberosa                             .     .   .     1
Coronilla vaginalis                              .     .   .     1
Anemone narcissiflora                            .     .   .     .
Pedicularis verticillata                         .     .   .     .
Polygala alpestris                               I     .   .     .
Nardetea strictae                                .     .   .     .
Juncus trifidus subsp. monanthos                 II    .   II    .
Plantago atrata subsp. atrata                    I     3   .     2
Viola eugeniae subsp. eugeniae                   I     .   .     .
Bistorta vivipara                                .     .   .     .
Ranunculus apenninus                             .     .   .     2
Botrychium lunaria                               .     .   .     .
Hieracium pilosella                              .     2   .     .
Luzula spicata subsp. italica                    .     .   .     .
Gentiana lutea subsp. lutea                      .     .   .     2
Bistorta vivipara                                I     .   .     .
Thlaspietea rotundifolii
Arenaria grandiflora subsp. grandiflora          II    .   .     .
Galium magellense                                II    .   .     .
Valeriana saliunca                               I     .   .     .
Doronicum columnae                               .     .   .     .
Carex humilis                                    .     .   III   .
Lomelosia graminifolia                           .     .   IV    .

Procedente of releves: 1: Seslerietum apenninae Furnari in Bruno &
Furnari 1966 - Gran Sasso; 2: Seslerietum apenninae Biondi et al.
1999 - Gran Sasso; 3: Seslerietum apenninae Tab. 4 - Sibillini; 4:
Leontopodio nivalis-Seslerietum juncifoliae Blasi et al.
2005 -Majella; 5: Leontopodio nivalis-Seslerietum juncifoliae
caricetosum kitaibelianae Tab. 1 - Sibillini; 6:
Seslerio apenninae-Dryadetum
octopetalae Biondi et al. 1999 - Gran Sasso; 7: Seslerio
apenninae-Dryadetum octopetalae Tab. 3 - Sibillini.

Table 17

Synthetic table of acidophilous
grasslands studied                         1   2     3

Differential and Characteristics
of associations

Ranunculus pollinensis                     4   .     .

Rumex nebroides                            2   I     I

Crepis aurea subsp. glabrescens            2   II    III

Luzula spicata subsp. Italica              .   V     III

Potentilla cranztii subsp. crantzii        .   IV    .

Euphrasia salisburgensis                   .   II    I

Viola eugeniae subsp. eugeniae             4   II    II

Trifolium thalii                           .   V     V

Taraxacum apenninum                        .   .     IV

Bellis perennis                            .   I     II

Characteretistics of Ranunculo
pollinensis-Nardion strictae

Plantago atrata subsp. atrata              4   IV    IV

Ranunculus apenninus                       4   V     IV

Agrostis capillaris subsp. capillaris      .   III   I

Alchemilla transiens                       .   II    .

Characteretistics of Nardetalia strictae
and Cl. Nardetea Strictae

Poa alpina subsp. alpina                   3   V     V

Trifolium pratense subsp. semipurpureum    4   IV    V

Hieracium lactucella subsp. lactucella     4   II    I

Hieracium pilosella                        3   II    I

Botrychium lunaria                         2   I     I

Festuca microphylla                        .   V     V

Nardus stricta                             .   V     III

Phleum rhaeticum                           .   II    III

Gentiana lutea subsp. lutea                .   II    I

Rumex acetosa subsp. acetosa               .   II    II

Sagina glabra                              .   .     I

Juncus trifidus subsp. monanthos           .   I     .

Luzula campestris                          3   .     .

Procedente of releves: 1: Ranunculopollinensis-Plantaginetum
atratae Tab. 5; 2: Luzulo italicae-Nardetum strictae Tab. 6; 3:
Taraxaco apennini--Trifolietum thalii Tab. 7.
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Author:Costanzo, Emanuele; Furnari, Francesco; Tomaselli, Valeria
Publication:Lazaroa
Article Type:Report
Date:Jan 1, 2009
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