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Estudio de evaluacion rapida de especies bentonicas exoticas en Sao Sebastiao, Brasil.

Rapid assessment survey for exotic benthic species in the Sao Sebastiao Channel, Brazil

INTRODUCTION

Bioinvasions are biological phenomena with ecological and evolutionary consequences to local biota. The study of biological invasions can be roughly divided into detection, monitoring, and remediation/mitigation, and all of them are better informed by basic (e.g., biogeographically, ecological, ecophysiological constraints) and applied knowledge (e.g., prevention, management, eradication, conservation). Biological invasions are ubiquitous, continental and marine, in all biomes and ecosystems. The introduction of species is the successful establishment of a species in a region where it did not occur before (Elton, 1958). This process can happen naturally by the expanding population of a species, but can also be caused by human activities, that occur more frequently in recent decades (Carlton, 1996).

Becoming invasive, introduced species may compete with native species (including those of commercial or cultural importance) and displace or prevail over native species, change trophic relationships in the food chain, introduce new diseases or toxic substances that affect native organisms and human populations. Thus, biological invasions have obvious negative consequences for biodiversity and public health, cultural and economical issues for the affected regions.

In the marine realm, biological invasion vectors are fundamentally associated with economic activities such as commerce and tourism, both of which are associated with ports. Consequently, records of invasive species in ports around the world are increasing (Carlton, 1989; Ruiz et al, 2000), often seriously endangering natural habitats. Transportation of potential invaders may be by hull fouling and its associated species, or ballast water (Fofonoff et al., 2003). Both have reached alarming proportions as ships become more numerous, faster and larger, thereby requiring more ballast (Cohen & Carlton, 1998). Despite of the impact of marine bioinvasions, the marine realm has historically received less attention compared to terrestrial and freshwater habitats (Carlton, 1989).

In port areas, the availability of hard artificial substrates (such as buoys, ropes, concrete walls, and marinas) provides many opportunities for settlement and metamorphosis for larvae of introduced species (Stachowicz et al., 1999; Tyrrel & Byers, 2007). After recruitment and establishment, a following stage of the invasion process comprises expansion of the geographical distribution of the species or populations. Virtually any marine taxon may include invasive lineages, such as algae (Mathieson et al., 2003) and Chordata (Castilla et al., 2004).

Detecting invasive species depends on monitoring and adequate knowledge of the native fauna, including genetic, taxonomic, biological and ecological data. Invasion and establishment of a species is frequently not recorded and very seldom observed (Carlton, 2009). Ideally, the control of exotic species will be more efficient with early detection, when populations are small and more easily eradicated or controlled (Bax et al., 2001). The lack of previous information about the species makes it difficult to determine its invasive status, in which case the species is of uncertain origin and is classified as cryptogenic (Carlton, 1996).

Strategies for monitoring species in port areas include Rapid Assessment Survey (RAS, see for instance Cohen et al, 2005; Pederson et al, 2005), a procedure with standardized field sampling effort carried out by specialists in taxonomy of target groups, in which the goal is to sample the maximum number of taxa possible in a short time period. The only previous large scale RAS to detect introduced species in Brazil was in Sepetiba Bay, with three ports, as a demonstration study of the Globallast program of the International Maritime Organization--IMO (Clarke et al., 2004). Few other surveys have been carried out and are only available for the port of Paranagua, southern Brazil (Neves et al., 2007), Ilha Grande Bay, southeastern Brazil (Ignacio et al., 2010), and the port of Recife, northeastern Brazil (Amaral et al., 2010; Lira et al., 2010). Nonetheless, the literature on introduced species identified in specific taxonomic groups is growing, such as those for ascidians (Rocha & Kremer, 2005; Rocha et al., 2009; Marins et al., 2010); cnidarians (Calder & Mayal, 1998; Paula & Creed, 2004; Nogueira Jr. & Oliveira, 2006; Bardi & Marques, 2009); crustaceans (Tavares, 2004; Farrapeira, 2010a); mollusks (Domaneschi & Martins, 2002; Souza et al., 2003; Silveira et al., 2006; Breves et al., 2010; Lopez et al., 2010) and bryozoans (Gordon et al., 2006; Farrapeira, 2010b). General overviews were given by Lopes et al. (2009) and Ferreira et al. (2009). Unfortunately, comprehensive surveys in Brazil of the benthos, including those not focusing on bioinvasion, are also rare, even for the better known areas of the country (Migotto & Marques, 2006).

Here we attempt to detect potential bioinvasion of benthic species in the Sao Sebastiao Channel, an important Brazilian port area, using a Rapid Assessment Survey technique.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study area

The Sao Sebastiao Channel (SSC), on the northern coast of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, comprises several areas of preservation, and among the best known biodiversity in the coast of Brazil, due to the many extensive floral and faunal surveys carried out under the auspices of the Center of Marine Biology of the University of Sao Paulo. The SSC also includes the large Port of Sao Sebastiao, in use for more than 50 years, and through which passes a total load of 50 million tons [year.sup.-1]. An important part of the port is the Terminal Maritimo Almirante Barroso (TEBAR-Transpetro/Petrobras), responsible for intense traffic of ships importing and exporting petroleum products both coastal and long-distance (http://www.trans portes. gov.br/-bit/portos/sSebastiao/depoSaoSebastiao. htm).

Rapid Assessment Survey (RAS)

Surveys were carried out in three sites in the vicinity of the port of Sao Sebastiao: a) Ilhabela Yacht Club (IYC, 23[degrees]46'27"S, 45[degrees]21'20"W), a floating marina located on Sao Sebastiao Island, on 11 December 2009; b) Petrobras Pier (PP, 23[degrees]48'07"S, 45[degrees]23'27"W), a concrete structure with large columns on 12 Deocember 2009; and c) Pontal da Cruz Pier (PCP, 23[degrees]46'53"S, 45[degrees]23'48"W), a cement structure, on 12 December 2009. IYC and PCP were examined for two hours by 17 people including specialists in Annelida Polychaeta, Ascidiacea, Bryozoa, Cnidaria, Crustacea Cirripedia, Entoprocta and Mollusca that defined the taxonomical scope of the survey. PP was surveyed to a maximum depth of 8.5 m for an hour by four scuba divers.

Benthic animals were collected by hand on artificial substrates, including floats and pier columns, during low tide at PCP and by snorkeling in shallow waters at IYC and PCP. When necessary, samples were kept separately in individualized jars in the field, and larger samples were packed to be sorted in the laboratory. Material was brought to the laboratory and maintained in vivo to be examined by specialists. Dissecting and compound microscopes were used when necessary. Samples were identified while alive to the lowest taxonomic level possible. Part of the material was anesthetized (using magnesium chloride, menthol or M-aminobenzoate ethyl) and fixed (in formalin at 4% prepared with saltwater or in ethanol 70%-100%) following standard procedures for each taxon. The material sampled was deposited in the scientific collections of the Federal University of Ceara, Federal University of Parana, and University of Sao Paulo.

RESULTS

A total of 142 taxa were identified, twelve of which are new records for the SSC, but may not all be introduced (Table 1). IYC had 89 taxa, PCP had 81 and PP had 70. The taxa comprise Annelida Polychaeta (17), Ascidiacea (24), Bryozoa (36), Cnidaria (27), Crustacea (20), Entoprocta (2) and Mollusca (16). The majority of taxa were classified as either cryptogenic (69), native (53) or introduced (15), and five were not classified because they were not identified at the species level.

Most taxa were found in only one site (50.7%), with 30.3% in two sites and 19.0% in all three sites (Table 2). By taxon status, half of the native and more than half of the cryptogenic species were in only one site, while only 20% of the introduced species were from one site and 40% in two or three sites (Table 3).

The fifteen introduced species are Polychaetes (Branchiomma luctuosum), Ascidiacea (Clavelina oblonga, Distaplia stylifera, Aplidiopsis sp., Ascidia sydneiensis, Styela plicata, Eusynstyela sp.), Cnidaria (Carijoa riisei), Crustacea Cirripedia (Amphibalanus amphitrite, Amphibalanus reticulatus, Megabalanus coccopoma, Balanus trigonus), and Mollusca Bivalvia (Myoforceps aristatus, Isognomon bicolor, Perna perna). Three introduced species are reported here for the first time in Brazilian waters (D. stylifera, Aplidiopsis sp., Eusynstyela sp.).

DISCUSSION

Although the SSC may have the best known marine fauna in Brazil (Migotto & Marques, 2006), at least 14 species found, 9.8% of the total, are new records (four polychaetes, two ascidians, one cnidarian, one bryozoan, one barnacle, two entoprocts and three mollusks). Clearly, more taxonomical studies are necessary even for the "well-known" regions. Of the 15 recognized introductions, only eight were previously listed in Lopes (2009), with the remaining seven either not included in that publication (C. oblonga, C. riisei), considered cryptogenic (A. amphritite, B. trigonus), or are new introductions (D. stylifera, Aplidiopsis sp., Eusystyela sp). All the 10 introductions recorded in Ilha Grande Bay (Ignacio et al., 2010) were also found in SSC, evidence of the established condition of these species in the coast of Brazil. Among them, one bryozoan species reported by Ignacio et al. (2010), Schizoporella errata, is herein identified as Schizoporella pungens. Winston (2005) suggested S. errata to be part of a species complex that includes S. pungens, described from the Caribbean, and Schizoporella isabelleana (D'Orbigny, 1842), described from Rio de Janeiro. The similarity among the species in the complex, the necessity of molecular techniques to confirm the identity of Brazilian specimens (as suggested by Tompsett et al., 2009) and the absence of additional studies on biogeography, led us to give a cryptogenic status for S. pungens. We also found Scrupocelaria aff. diadema but this is another complex of species in need of revision and without knowing which species is actually in Brazil we also prefered to give a cryptogenic status to the complex.

It is important to note that most taxa were found in only one site (Table 2). Of the introduced taxa, most were in two or three sites (80%), and only 20% in one site (Table 3). Thus, distribution patterns of the introduced taxa are quite different than those of the native and cryptogenic taxa, and may indicate that the introduced are already widespread at the SSC, in the process of successful establishment. It is therefore urgent that monitoring in the region (as well as other major ports) be swiftly carried out to better understand whether those species are also successfully colonizing natural habitats and threatening the native species elsewhere. The study in Ilha Grande Bay showed that most introduced species also occurred on natural substrata in that region (Ignacio et al., 2010).

Although the sites were not surveyed with the same effort, the number of species in each site was not very different (IYC = 89, PP = 70, PCP = 81). Subtidal areas are usually richer in species than intertidal, which is the case for IYC and PP, but effort in PP was much less then IYC and PCP. PCP survey was mainly intertidal. The fact the most species were found in only one site shows that sites were complementary in species composition and that the RAS should include different types of habitats to comprehensively survey a region.

In this study, Ascidiacea has the greatest number of introduced species, followed by Cirripedia, and Bivalvia. However, if we base ranking on the proportion of introduced, relative to the total number per taxa, the order changes to Cirripedia, Bivalvia, and Ascidiacea (Table 4). In the SSC, Cirripedia is a critical case in which most taxa are introduced, and all introduced taxa are widespread (three species in three sites, one in two sites). These introduced species have been reported elsewhere along the Brazilian coast (Farrapeira, 2010a) and some are very old introductions (Carlton et al., 2011). The taxon Cirripedia certainly deserves attention, especially because of its difficult taxonomy and the few taxonomists that address biodiversity inventories (which may have caused other introduced species to be overlooked).

The three introduced species of bivalves reported here were also recorded elsewhere in Brazil. Perna perna was probably introduced during intensive ship traffic between Africa and Brazil during the 1800 and 1900s; earlier sambaquis (coastal Indian fossil deposits) do not contain shells of this species (Souza et al., 2003). It is now established throughout the region between Espirito Santo and Santa Catarina and is cultivated for food. Myoforceps aristatus, widely distributed in the Atlantic Ocean, is a borer that lives in hard substrates and shells of other mollusks. It was first recorded in southeastern Brazil in 2006 (Simone & Goncalves, 2006). Isognomon bicolor, from the Caribbean, has been seen on rocky coasts in Brazil since the 1990s and was first recorded in 1989 in Santa Catarina (Domaneschi & Martins, 2002). It is believed that this invasive bivalve was accidentally introduced between 1970 and 1980 by petroleum platforms, boat hulls or by ballast water of ships. Their rapid population growth must have occurred during the 1990s. The species has no commercial value but competes for the same habitat with other commercially valuable species, causing economic losses. In 2002/2003 it has reached very dense populations of more than 800 individuals 100 [cm.sup.-2] (Breves-Ramos et al., 2010) in Rio de Janeiro, causing serious changes to the natural hard bottom benthic community, but suffered great mortality in this region in 2006 (Lopes et al., 2009).

Ascidiacea, with the greatest number of introduced species in our study, includes well-known important and aggressive invasive species (McKindsey et al., 2007). Globally, the distributions of many introduced ascidians are restricted to artificial substrates in ports or marinas (Lambert & Lambert, 2003), but little is known about their impact on natural habitats. The cryptogenic Didemnum perlucidum, Diplosoma listerianum, Styela canopus, Microcosmus exasperatus, Herdmania pallida are members of this group. Styela plicata and Ascidia sydneiensis, are well known introduced species, both invading the bivalve commercial cultures in the state of Santa Catarina (Rocha et al., 2009). Eusynstyela sp. (previously identified as Eusynstyela floridana, Rodrigues et al., 1998) may be a new species that was probably introduced in Brazil during the 1990s. Distaplia stylifera was introduced during the last ten years, while the species previously identified as D. stylifera by Rodrigues et al. (1998) is another new and also introduced species. Clavelina oblonga was classified as cryptogenic, but a recent molecular study suggested that it is introduced (Rocha et al., 2012). The genus Aplidiopsis was not found in Brazil until this RAS. We were unable to identify it to species due to the lack of reproductive structures.

Two species of polychaetes, Branchiomma (B. patriota and B. luctuosum) were previously identified as B. nigromaculatum (Baird, 1865) which was reported in coastal Brazil (Rullier & Amoureux, 1979; Duarte & Nalesso, 1996), including at SSC. Because of this erroneous identification, B. patriota was described only recently by Nogueira et al. (2006). According to these authors, B. luctuosum is an introduced species known in the SSC at least since 2009 (Amaral et al., 2010b), while its type locality is in the Red Sea and it is known to be an invasive species in Italy. The cryptogenic species of Spionidae, Polydora colonia, was first recorded in 2001 at Ilha do Mel, Paranagua Bay, in the state of Parana (Neves, 2006; Neves & Rocha, 2008). Its records in coastal North and Central America raise doubts as to whether it is an introduced species and hence we consider it to be cryptogenic. Many other species of polychaetes were classified as cryptogenic because of lack of knowledge about their life history and dispersal patterns. Eunice rubra has a wide distribution along the Brazilian coast, in addition to Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, what led us to consider the hypothesis that its natural dispersal area is throughout tropical and subtropical Western Atlantic, and thus it was classified as native. The other native species are those reported only to the Brazilian coast: Pseudonereis palpata, Nicolea uspiana and Branchiomma patriota.

The cnidarian Carijoa riisei was considered native to the Caribbean until a recent molecular analysis showed that this species is actually Indo-Pacific in origin and the Atlantic records are therefore introductions (Concepcion et al., 2010). It is now very widespread along the Brazilian coast and can be considered naturalized.

Decapod crustaceans, entoprocts, polychaetes and gastropods all have high proportions of native species (over 70%, see Table 4). Pachigrapsus transver sus was previously known to occur on both sides of the Atlantic and in the eastern Pacific (Manning & Holthuis, 1981; Hendrickx, 1995; Melo, 1996; Poupin et al., 2005). Recently, Schubart et al. (2005), using morphological and genetic differences (16S mt DNA sequences), revalidated the species P. socius Stimpson, 1871 for the eastern Pacific, limiting the occurrence of P. transversus to the Atlantic Ocean. However, we maintained the status of the species as cryptogenic because it has been proposed that the different populations on both sides of Atlantic may be introduced in some areas. If so, to determine which populations are introduced will require further molecular studies. On the other hand, the decapod Pachycheles monilifera, native to Brazil, has been introduced in Ecuador, in the eastern Pacific (Veloso & Melo, 1993).

In this study, Bryozoa has the greatest number of native species (17). Of these species, both Amathia distans and A. brasiliensis were reported as widespread in warm tropical waters, although a recent study suggested a restricted distribution of these taxa in the western Atlantic (Fehlauer-Ale et al., 2011). In addition, the four widespread species in the western Atlantic found in our study (A. distans, A. brasiliensis, Bowerbankia maxima and Biflustra sp.) were also found in pelagic algae and may be dispersed by algal rafting, as reported for other bryozoans (Taylor & Monks, 1997; Vieira et al., 2010).

It is remarkable that while taxa with a longer history of surveys such as Crustacea Decapoda and Mollusca have a very small proportion of cryptogenic species, a large proportion of species of ascidians, bryozoans and cnidarians, are still considered cryptogenic. These taxa are typically found in small colonies that may have been overlooked in previous faunal studies, and they often comprise many species with wide geographic distribution. Thus the uncertainty of their status, also illustrating the need for periodic monitoring of areas sensitive to bioinvasion, comprehensive surveys of natural areas, and molecular studies to understand their geographical distribution. Also, some widespread bryozoans have been reported to be quite variable morphologically in disjoint areas, which suggest that, in species with short-lived larvae, a complex of cryptic species and hidden endemism may be common (Vieira et al., 2010).

With the use of molecular tools, populations of a given species have been shown to be introduced in other areas (e.g., populations of the Atlantic Clavelina lepadiformis introduced in the Mediterranean--Turon et al., 2003) and species previously considered widely distributed have been split in one or more new species with narrower geographical ranges (e.g., Thais haemastoma--Claremont et al., 2011; Pachigrapsus transversus--Schubart et al., 2005; Botryllus schlosseri--Bock et al., 2012). We suggest that this kind of genetic monitoring is also important for the study of marine bioinvasions, and such studies are being conducted by our research group for ascidians, bryozoans, and cnidarians. Previous results from these molecular studies show that some species of these groups, now considered cryptogenic, may be instead introduced species or introduced populations of haplotypes. Therefore, the estimated number of introduced taxa should be thought to be very conservative and with continued study, many more species will be shown to be introduced.

Here we demonstrate that RASs, even for reasonably well-known regions of Brazil, such as the Sao Sebastiao Channel, are useful strategies to monitor and detect introduced species. We recommend that RASs be replicated on a large scale in all ports with moderate to heavy ship traffic.

DOI: 10.3856/vol41-issue2-fulltext-6

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thank the Center of Marine Biology of the University of Sao Paulo for hosting us during the field studies, the administration of the Ilhabela Yacht Club for allowing us to sample in the marina; Marcos Barbeitos and Carlos Rocha for their field help; Vasily Radashevsky for helping with the identification of the Spionidae Polydora colonia; James Roper for the English text review; Maria de Los Angeles Becerril for the Spanish abstract; Julia Beneti for information on Anthozoa. This study was an initiative of and primarily supported by the project CAPES-PROCAD 2007/150 "Benthos in port areas along the Brazilian coast: biodiversity, phylogeography and aspects of bioinvasion by biofouling". ACM, JB, and TPM have support from FAPESP (2004/09961-4; 2006/58226-0; 2010/06927-0), CAPES (Pro-Equipamentos and Prodoc projects) and Boticario Foundation. RMR received a research grant from CNPq; APRR, ASK received a master scholarship from CAPES; LMV received a doctoral scholarship from FAPESP (2008/10619-0); LEAB received a post-doctoral scholarship from PNPD/CAPES and FACEPE (BCT 0039-1.08/10). This contribution has the participation of several scientists of NP-BioMar, USP.

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Received: 16 May 2011; Accepted: 22 October 2012

Antonio C. Marques (1), Aline dos Santos Kloh (2), Alvaro Esteves Migotto (3), Ana C. Cabral (2), Ana P. Ravedutti Rigo (2), Ariane Lima Bettim (2), Emanuel L. Razzolini (2), Helena Matthews Cascon (4), Juliana Bardi (1), Laura Pioli Kremer (2), Leandro Manzoni Vieira (1), Luis E. Arruda Bezerra (5), Maria A. Haddad (2), Ronaldo Ruy de Oliveira Filho (6), Silvia M. Millan Gutierre (7), Thais Pires Miranda (1), Wilson Franklin Jr. (6) & Rosana Moreira da Rocha (2)

(1) Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo R. Matao, Trav. 14, 05508-090, Sao Paulo, Brazil

(2) Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Parana CP 19020, 81531-980, Curitiba, Brazil

(3) Centro de Biologia Marinha, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rodovia Manoel Hypolito do Rego 131,5 km, Cabelo Gordo, 11600-000, Sao Sebastiao, Brazil

(4) Departamento de Biologia, Centro de Ciencias, Universidade Federal do Ceara Campus do Pici, Departamento de Biologia Bloco, 906, Pici, 60455-760, Fortaleza, Brazil

(5) Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. da Arquitetural s/n Cidade Universitaria, 50740-550, Recife, Brazil

(6) Instituto de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade Federal do Ceara Av. Abolicao, 3207, Meireles, 60165-081, Fortaleza, Brazil

(7) Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal do Parana CP 19031, 81531-980, Curitiba, Brazil

Corresponding author: Rosana Moreira da Rocha (rmrocha@ufpr.br)
Table 1. List of species found in Sao Sebastiao Channel (SSC) in
three sites: Ilhabela Yatch Club (IYC), Petrobras Pier (PP) and
Pontal da Cruz Pier (PCP) in December 2009.

Family              Species             IYC   PP   PCP   Status

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Aciculata Eunicida

Dorvilleidae        Dorvillea            X               Cryptogenic
Chamberlin,         sociabilis
1919                (Webster, 1879)

Eunicidae           Eunice rubra         X               Native
Berthold,           Grube, 1856
1827

Oenonidae           Oenone fulgida            X          Cryptogenic
Kinberg,            (Savigny, 1818)
1865

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Aciculata Phyllodocida

Hesionidae          Hesione picta             X          Cryptogenic
Grube, 1850         Muller, 1858

Nereididae          Perinereis                      X    Cryptogenic
Johnston,           anderssoni
1865                Kinberg, 1866

                    Pseudonereis         X          X    Native
                    palpata
                    (Treadwell,
                    1923)

Syllidae            Haplosyllis sp.      X               --
Grabe, 1850

                    Syllis               X               Cryptogenic
                    variegata
                    (Grube, 1860)

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Canalipalpata Sabellida

Sabellidae          Branchiomma          X    X     X    Native
Latreille,          patriota
1825                Nogueira, Silva
                    & Rossi, 2006

                    Branchiomma          X    X     X    Introduced
                    luctuosum
                    (Grabe, 1869)

                    Sabellastarte        X               --
                    sp.

Serpulidae          Hydroides sp.        X               --
Rafinesque,
1815

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Canalipalpata Spionida

Chaetopteridae      Chaetopterus              X          --
Audouin &           sp.
Milne-
Edwards,
1833d

Spionidae           Polydora                  X          Cryptogenic
Grube, 1850         colonia Moore,
                    1907

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Canalipalpata Terebellida

Cirratulidae        Cirriformia          X               Cryptogenic
Cams, 1863          punctata
                    (Grabe, 1859)

Terebellidae        Nicolea uspiana      X          X    Native
Malmgren,           (Nogueira,
1867                2003)

Annelida
Polychaeta
Scolecida

Orbiniidae          Naineris             X               Cryptogenic
Hartman,            laevigata
1942                (Grabe, 1855)

Ascidiacea Aplousobranchia

Clavelinidae        Clavelina            X    X     X    Introduced
Forbes &            oblonga
Hanley, 1848        Savigny, 1816

Polyclinidae        Aplidium             X    X     X    Cryptogenic
Milne               accarense
Edwards,
1842

                    (Millar, 1953)       X          X    Cryptogenic
                    Polyclinum
                    constellatum

                    Savigny, 1816        X               Introduced
                    Aplidiopsis sp.

Holozoidae          Distaplia            X    X     X    Native
Berrill,            bermudensis Van
1950                Name, 1902

                    Distaplia                 X          Introduced
                    stylifera
                    (Kowalewsky,
                    1874)

Didemnidae          Didemnum             X          X    Cryptogenic
Giard, 1872         perlucidum
                    Monniot, 1983

                    Diplosoma                       X    Cryptogenic
                    listerianum
                    (Milne-Edwards,
                    1841)

                    Lissoclinum          X               Cryptogenic
                    fragile (Van
                    Name, 1902)

                    Trididemnum          X    X          Native
                    orbiculatum
                    (Van Name,
                    1902)

Ascidiacea Phlebobranchia

Ascidiidae          Phallusia nigra      X    X          Cryptogenic
Adams, 1858         Savigny, 1816

                    Ascidia cf.          X               Crvptogenic
                    multitentaculata
                    (Hartmeyer,
                    1912)

                    Ascidia                         X    Introduced
                    sydneiensis
                    Stimpson, 1855

Ascidiacea Stolidobranchia

Styelidae           Botrylloides                    X    Cryptogenic
Sluiter,            giganteum
1895                (Peres, 1949)

                    Botrylloides         X          X    Cryptogenic
                    nigrum
                    (Herdman, 1886)

                    Symplegma            X          X    Cryptogenic
                    brakenhielmi         X    X     X    Native
                    (Michaelsen,
                    1904) Symplegma
                    rubra

                    Monniot, 1972
                    Eusynstyela sp.           X     X    Introduced

                    Polyandrocarpa            X          Cryptogenic
                    anguinea
                    (Sluiter, 1898)

                    Polyandrocarpa                  X    Cryptogenic
                    zorritensis
                    (Van Name,
                    1931)

                    Styela canopus       X          X    Cryptogenic
                    (Savigny, 1816)

                    Styela plicata       X          X    Introduced
                    (Lesueur, 1823)

Pyuridae            Herdmania            X    X     X    Cryptogenic
Hartmeyer,          pallida
1908                (Heller, 1878)

                    Microscosmus         X          X    Cryptogenic
                    exasperatus
                    Heller, 1878

Bryozoa Gymnolaemata Cheilostomata

Aeteidae            Aetea anguina             X          Cryptogenic
Smitt, 1868         (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Aetea sp.            X    X          Native

                    Aetea ligulata       X    X          Cryptogenic
                    Busk, 1852

Electridae          Electra tenella                 X    Cryptogenic
Stach, 1937         (Hincks, 1881)

Membraniporidae     Biflustra            X    X     X    Cryptogenic
Busk, 1852          arborescens
                    Canu & Bassler,
                    1928

                    Biflustra                 X          Cryptogenic
                    denticulata
                    (Busk, 1856)

                    Biflustra sp.                   X    Native

Catenicellidae      Catenicella          X    X          Cryptogenic
Busk, 1852          uberrima
                    (Harmer, 1957)

                    Savignyella          X    X     X    Cryptogenic
                    lafontii
                    (Audouin,
                    1826)

Hippopodinidae      Hippopodi na         X               Cryptogenic
Levinsen,           feegeensis
1909                (Busk, 1884)

Microporellidae     Microporella              X          Native
Hincks, 1879        sp.

Schizoporellidae    Schizoporella        X    X     X    Cryptogenic
Jullien,            pungens (Canu &
1883                Bassler, 1928)

                    Schizoporella                   X    Native
                    sp.

Smittinidae         Parasmittina         X    X          Native
Levinsen,           sp.
1909

Watersiporidae      Watersipora          X               Cryptogenic
Vigneaux,           subtorquata
1949                (D'Orbigny,
                    1852)

Antroporidae        Antropora                 X     X    Native
Vigneaux,           leycocypha
1949                (Marcus, 1937)

Bugulidae           Bugula neritina      X    X     X    Cryptogenic
Gray, 1848          (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Bugula               X               Cryptogenic
                    stolonifera
                    Ryland, 1960

Candidae            Scrupocellaria       X          X    Cryptogenic
D'Orbigny,          aff. diade- ma
1851                Busk, 1852

                    Scrupocellaria       X    X     X    Native
                    sp. Synnotum

Epistomiidae        aegyptiacum               X          Cryptogenic
Gregory,            (Audouin, 1826)
1893

Quadricellariidae   Nellia oculata            X          Cryptogenic
Gordon, 1984        Busk, 1852

Bryozoa Gymnolaemata Ctenostomata

Alcyonidiidae       Alcyonidium sp.                 X    Native
Johnston,           Aeverrillia
1838

Aeverriliidae       setigera                  X          Cryptogenic
Jebram, 1973        (Hincks, 1887)

Arachnidiidae       Arachnoidella             X          Native
Hincks, 1880        evelinae
                    (Marcus, 1937)

Vesiculariidae      Amathia              X    X     X    Native
Hincks, 1880        brasiliensis
                    Busk, 1886

                    Amathia distans           X          Native
                    Busk, 1886

                    Amathia sp.               X          -
                    Bowerbankia

                    maxima Winston,           X     X    Native
                    1982

                    Zoobotryon           X    X     X    Cryptogenic
                    verticillatum
                    (Delle Chiaje,
                    1828)

Nolellidae          Anguinella                X          Cryptogenic
Harmer, 1915        palmata van
                    Beneden, 1845

                    Nolella sawayai           X          Native
                    Marcus, 1938

                    Nolella sp.               X     X    Native

Sundanellidae       Sundanella sp.            X          Native
Jebram, 1973

Victorellidae       Victor ella sp.           X          Native
Hincks, 1880

Bryozoa Stenolaemata Cyclostomata

Crisiidae           Crisia               X    X     X    Native
Johnston,           pseudosolena
1838                (Marcus, 1937)

Cnidaria Anthozoa Hexacorallia Actiniaria

Actiniidae          Bunodosoma           X          X    Native
Gosse 1858          caissarum
                    Correa in
                    Belem, 1987

Cnidaria Anthozoa Hexacorallia Scleractinia

Rhizangiidae        Astrangia sp.        X    X          Native
D'Orbigny,
1851

Cnidaria Anthozoa Octocorallia Telestacea

Telestidae          Carijoa riisei       X    X     X    Introduced
Milne-              (Duchas-saing &
Edwards &           Michelotti,
Haime, 1857         1860)

Cnidaria Hydrozoa Anthoathecata

Bougainvilliidae    Bougainvillia        X    X          Cryptogenic
Lutken, 1850        muscus (Allman,
                    1863)

Eudendriidae        Eudendrium           X    X          Native
L. Agassiz,         caraiuru
1862                Marques &
                    Oliveira, 2003

                    Eudendrium                      X    Cryptogenic
                    carneum Clarke,
                    1882

Oceaniidae          Corydendrium              X          Cryptogenic
Eschscholtz,        parasiticum
1829                (Linnaeus,
                    1767)

                    Turritopsis          X    X          Cryptogenic
                    nutricula
                    (McCrady,
                    1859a)

Pennariidae         Pennaria             X    X     X    Cryptogenic
McCrady,            disticha
1859b               Goldfuss. 1820

Tubulariidae        Acharadria           X               Cryptogenic
Fleming,            crocea (L.
1828                Agassiz, 1862)

                    Zyzzyzus             X               Cryptogenic
                    warreni Calder,
                    1888

Cnidaria Hydrozoa Leptothecata

Aglaopheniidae      Aglaophenia                     X    Cryptogenic
Marktanner-         latecarinata
Tumeretscher,       Allman, 1877
1890

                    Macrorhynchia                   X    Cryptogenic
                    philippina
                    Kirchenpauer,
                    1872

Campanulariidae     Clytia gracilis      X    X          Cryptogenic
Johnston,           (M. Sars, 1851)
1836

                    Obelia               X    X     X    Cryptogenic
                    bidentata
                    Clark, 1875

                    Obelia               X    X     X    Cryptogenic
                    dichotoma
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Obelia                    X          Cryptogenic
                    geniculata
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Lafoeina                  X          Cryptogenic
                    amirantensis
                    (Millard &
                    Bouillon, 1973)

Haleciidae          Halecium             X               Cryptogenic
Hincks, 1868        ?tenellum
                    Hincks, 1861

                    Nemalecium           X               Cryptogenic
                    lighti
                    (Hargitt, 1924)

Halopterididae      Halopteris                      X    Cryptogenic
Millard,            diaphana
1962                (Heller, 1868)

Hebellidae          Hebella furax        X               Cryptogenic
Fraser, 1912        Millard, 1957

Plumulariidae       Plumularia           X               Cryptogenic
McCrady,            strictocarpa
1859b               Pictet, 1893

Sertulariidae       Dynamena             X               Cryptogenic
Lamouroux,          disticha (Bose,
1812                1802)

                    Idiellana                 X     X    Cryptogenic
                    pristis
                    (Lamouroux,
                    1816)

                    Sertularia           X    X          Cryptogenic
                    marginata
                    (Kirchenpauer,
                    1864)                X               Cryptogenic
                    Sertularia
                    turbinata
                    (Lamouroux,
                    1816)

Crustacea Cirripedia

Balanidae           Amphibalanus         X          X    Introduced
Leach, 1817         amphitrite
                    (Darwin, 1854)

                    Amphibalanus              X     X    Cryptogenic
                    improvisus
                    (Darwin, 1854)

                    Amphibalanus         X    X     X    Introduced
                    reticulatus
                    (Utinomi, 1967)

                    Balanus              X    X     X    Introduced
                    trigonus
                    Darwin, 1854

                    Megabalanus          X    X     X    Introduced
                    coccopoma
                    (Darwin, 1854)

                    Megabalanus          X    X     X    Cryptogenic
                    tintinnabu-lum
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

Chthamalidae        Chthamalus                      X    Native
Darwin, 1854        proteus Dando &
                    Southward, 1980

Tetraclitidae       Newmanella           X          X    Cryptogenic
Gravel, 1903        radiata
                    (Bruguiere,
                    1789)

                    Tetraclita                      X    Native
                    stalactifera
                    (Lamarck, 1818)

Crustacea Decapoda Pleocyemata Caridea

Palaemonidae        Periclemenes              X     X    Native
Rafinesque,         longicaudatus
1815                (Stimpson,
                    1860)

Hippolytidae        Thor manningi        X    X          Native
Bate, 1888          Chace, 1972

Alpheidae           Synalpheus sp.       X          X    Cryptogenic
Rafinesque,
1815

Crustacea Decapoda Pleocyemata Anomura

Porcellanidae       Pachycheles          X    X     X    Native
Haworth,            monilifer
1825                (Dana, 1852)

                    Pisidia              X          X    Native
                    brasiliensis
                    Haig in
                    Rodrigues da
                    Costa, 1968

Crustacea Decapoda Pleocyemata Brachyura

Inachidae           Stenorhynchus        X          X    Native
MacLeay,            seticornis
1838                (Herbst, 1788)

Majidae             Microphrys                      X    Native
Salmouelle,         bicornutus
1819                (Latreille,
                    1825)

Epialtidae          Epialtus             X          X    Native
MacLeay,            bituberculatus
1838                H.
                    Miline-Edwards,
                    1834

Pilumnidae          Pilumnus quoii       X    X     X    Native
Salmouelle,         H.
1819                Milne-Edwards,
                    1834

                    Pilumnus             X    X     X    Native
                    dasypodus
                    Kingsley, 1879

Grapsidae           Pachygrapsus         X    X     X    Cryptogenic
MacLeay,            transversus
1838                (Gibbes, 1850)

Entoprocta

Barentsidae         Barentsia            X          X    Native
Hincks, 1880        capitata
                    Calvet, 1904

Pedicellinidae      Sangavella                      X    Native
Johnston,           vineta Marcus,
1847                1957

Mollusca Bivalvia Lamellibranchia Pteroida

Mytilidae           Perna perna          X          X    Introduced
Rafinesque,         (Linnaeus,
1815                1758)

                    Brachidontes              X          Native
                    exustus
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Brachidontes                    X    Native
                    solisianus
                    (D'Orbigny,
                    1846)

                    Myoforceps ari       X          X    Introduced
                    status
                    (Dillwyn, 1817)
Isognomonidae       Isognomon            X          X    Introduced
Woodring,           bicolor (C.B.
1925                Adams, 1845)

Pteriidae           Pteria hirundo       X               Native
Gray, 1847          (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Pinctata                        X    Native
                    imbricata
                    Roding, 1798

Mollusca Bivalvia Lamellibranchia Myoida

Myidae              Sphenia                         X    Native
Lamarck,            antillensis
1809                Dali & Simpson,
                    1901

Mollusca Gastropoda Eogastropoda Patellogastropoda

Lottiidae           Collisella           X          X    Native
Gray, 1840          subrugosa
                    (D'Orbigny,
                    1846)

Mollusca Gastropoda Orthogastropoda Vetigastropoda

Fissurellidae       Diodora dysoni       X          X    Native
Fleming,            (Reeve, 1850)
1822

                    Fissurella           X               Native
                    clenchi
                    Farfante, 1943

Mollusca Gastropoda Orthogastropoda Caenogastropoda

Littorinidae        Littorina            X               Native
Gray, 1840          ziczac (Gmelin,
                    1791)

                    Littorina flava      X          X    Native
                    King &
                    Broderip, 1832

Columbellidae       Anachis                         X    Native
Swainson,           sertulariarum
1840                D'Orbigny, 1841

                    Mitrella             X               Native
                    dichroa
                    Sowerby, 1844

Muricidae           Stramonita                      X    Native
Rafinesque,         brasiliensis
1815                Claremont &
                    Reid, 2011

Family              Species             Previous records
                                        for SSC

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Aciculata Eunicida

Dorvilleidae        Dorvillea           Morgado & Amaral
Chamberlin,         sociabilis          (1981a)
1919                (Webster, 1879)

Eunicidae           Eunice rubra        Treadwell (1932);
Berthold,           Grube, 1856         Morgado & Amaral
1827                                    (1981b)

Oenonidae           Oenone fulgida      Treadwell (1932);
Kinberg,            (Savigny, 1818)     Morgado & Amaral
1865                                    (1981a)

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Aciculata Phyllodocida

Hesionidae          Hesione picta       first record
Grube, 1850         Muller, 1858

Nereididae          Perinereis          Amaral et al. (2003);
Johnston,           anderssoni          Omena & Amaral (2003)
1865                Kinberg, 1866

                    Pseudonereis        Amaral et al. (2010b)
                    palpata
                    (Treadwell,
                    1923)

Syllidae            Haplosyllis sp.
Grabe, 1850

                    Syllis              Duarte & Nalesso
                    variegata           (1996)
                    (Grube, 1860)

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Canalipalpata Sabellida

Sabellidae          Branchiomma         Rossi (2008)
Latreille,          patriota
1825                Nogueira, Silva
                    & Rossi, 2006

                    Branchiomma         Amaral et al. (2010b)
                    luctuosum
                    (Grabe, 1869)

                    Sabellastarte
                    sp.

Serpulidae          Hydroides sp.
Rafinesque,
1815

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Canalipalpata Spionida

Chaetopteridae      Chaetopterus
Audouin &           sp.
Milne-
Edwards,
1833d

Spionidae           Polydora            first record
Grube, 1850         colonia Moore,
                    1907

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Canalipalpata Terebellida

Cirratulidae        Cirriformia         first record
Cams, 1863          punctata
                    (Grabe, 1859)

Terebellidae        Nicolea uspiana     Alves (2008)
Malmgren,           (Nogueira,
1867                2003)

Annelida
Polychaeta
Scolecida

Orbiniidae          Naineris            first record
Hartman,            laevigata
1942                (Grabe, 1855)

Ascidiacea Aplousobranchia

Clavelinidae        Clavelina           Rodrigues (1962)
Forbes &            oblonga
Hanley, 1848        Savigny, 1816

Polyclinidae        Aplidium            Rocha & Bonnet (2009)
Milne               accarense
Edwards,
1842

                    (Millar, 1953)      Rodrigues (1962)
                    Polyclinum
                    constellatum

                    Savigny, 1816       first record
                    Aplidiopsis sp.

Holozoidae          Distaplia           Rodrigues & Rocha
Berrill,            bermudensis Van     (1993)
1950                Name, 1902

                    Distaplia           first record
                    stylifera
                    (Kowalewsky,
                    1874)

Didemnidae          Didemnum            Rocha & Monniot
Giard, 1872         perlucidum          (1995)
                    Monniot, 1983

                    Diplosoma           Van Name (1945)
                    listerianum
                    (Milne-Edwards,
                    1841)

                    Lissoclinum         Rodrigues et al.
                    fragile (Van        (1998)
                    Name, 1902)

                    Trididemnum         Rodrigues & Rocha
                    orbiculatum         (1993)
                    (Van Name,
                    1902)

Ascidiacea Phlebobranchia

Ascidiidae          Phallusia nigra     Van Name (1945)
Adams, 1858         Savigny, 1816

                    Ascidia cf.         Bonnet & Rocha (2011)
                    multitentaculata
                    (Hartmeyer,
                    1912)

                    Ascidia             Millar (1958)
                    sydneiensis
                    Stimpson, 1855

Ascidiacea Stolidobranchia

Styelidae           Botrylloides        Rodrigues & Rocha
Sluiter,            giganteum           (1993)
1895                (Peres, 1949)

                    Botrylloides        Rodrigues (1962)
                    nigrum
                    (Herdman, 1886)

                    Symplegma           Rodrigues (1962)
                    brakenhielmi        Rodrigues & Rocha
                    (Michaelsen,
                    1904) Symplegma
                    rubra

                    Monniot, 1972       (1993)
                    Eusynstyela sp.     Rodrigues et al.
                                        (1998)

                    Polyandrocarpa      Van Name (1945)
                    anguinea
                    (Sluiter, 1898)

                    Polyandrocarpa      Rodrigues (1962)
                    zorritensis
                    (Van Name,
                    1931)

                    Styela canopus      Rodrigues et al.
                    (Savigny, 1816)     (1998)

                    Styela plicata      Rodrigues (1962)
                    (Lesueur, 1823)

Pyuridae            Herdmania           Rodrigues (1962)
Hartmeyer,          pallida
1908                (Heller, 1878)

                    Microscosmus        Rodrigues (1962)
                    exasperatus
                    Heller, 1878

Bryozoa Gymnolaemata Cheilostomata

Aeteidae            Aetea anguina       Amaral et al. (2010b)
Smitt, 1868         (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Aetea sp.           Migotto, Vieira &
                                        Winston, unpublished
                                        data

                    Aetea ligulata      Amaral et al. (2010b)
                    Busk, 1852

Electridae          Electra tenella     Amaral et al. (2010b)
Stach, 1937         (Hincks, 1881)

Membraniporidae     Biflustra           Migotto et al. (2011)
Busk, 1852          arborescens
                    Canu & Bassler,
                    1928

                    Biflustra           Amaral et al. (2010b)
                    denticulata
                    (Busk, 1856)

                    Biflustra sp.       Migotto et al. (2011)

Catenicellidae      Catenicella         Amaral et al. (2010b)
Busk, 1852          uberrima
                    (Harmer, 1957)

                    Savignyella         Amaral et al. (2010b)
                    lafontii
                    (Audouin,
                    1826)

Hippopodinidae      Hippopodi na        Migotto et al. (2011)
Levinsen,           feegeensis
1909                (Busk, 1884)

Microporellidae     Microporella        Migotto et al. (2011)
Hincks, 1879        sp.

Schizoporellidae    Schizoporella       Amaral et al. (2010b)
Jullien,            pungens (Canu &
1883                Bassler, 1928)

                    Schizoporella       Migotto et al. (2011)
                    sp.

Smittinidae         Parasmittina        Amaral et al. (2010b)
Levinsen,           sp.
1909

Watersiporidae      Watersipora         Amaral et al. (2010b)
Vigneaux,           subtorquata
1949                (D'Orbigny,
                    1852)

Antroporidae        Antropora           Amaral et al. (2010b)
Vigneaux,           leycocypha
1949                (Marcus, 1937)

Bugulidae           Bugula neritina     Amaral et al. (2010b)
Gray, 1848          (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Bugula              Amaral etal. (2010b)
                    stolonifera
                    Ryland, 1960

Candidae            Scrupocellaria      first record
D'Orbigny,          aff. diade- ma
1851                Busk, 1852

                    Scrupocellaria      Amaral etal. (2010b)
                    sp. Synnotum

Epistomiidae        aegyptiacum         Migotto et al. (2011)
Gregory,            (Audouin, 1826)
1893

Quadricellariidae   Nellia oculata      Amaral etal. (2010b)
Gordon, 1984        Busk, 1852

Bryozoa Gymnolaemata Ctenostomata

Alcyonidiidae       Alcyonidium sp.     Migotto et al. (2011)
Johnston,           Aeverrillia
1838

Aeverriliidae       setigera            Migotto et al. (2011)
Jebram, 1973        (Hincks, 1887)

Arachnidiidae       Arachnoidella       Migotto et al. (2011)
Hincks, 1880        evelinae
                    (Marcus, 1937)

Vesiculariidae      Amathia             Fehlauer-Ale et al.
Hincks, 1880        brasiliensis        (2011)
                    Busk, 1886

                    Amathia distans     Amaral et al. (2010b)
                    Busk, 1886

                    Amathia sp.         Amaral et al. (2010b)
                    Bowerbankia

                    maxima Winston,     Amaral et al. (2010b)
                    1982

                    Zoobotryon          Amaral et al. (2010b)
                    verticillatum
                    (Delle Chiaje,
                    1828)

Nolellidae          Anguinella          Migotto et al. (2011)
Harmer, 1915        palmata van
                    Beneden, 1845

                    Nolella sawayai     Migotto et al. (2011)
                    Marcus, 1938

                    Nolella sp.         Amaral et al. (2010b)

Sundanellidae       Sundanella sp.      Amaral et al. (2010b)
Jebram, 1973

Victorellidae       Victor ella sp.     Migotto et al. (2011)
Hincks, 1880

Bryozoa Stenolaemata Cyclostomata

Crisiidae           Crisia              Amaral et al. (2010b)
Johnston,           pseudosolena
1838                (Marcus, 1937)

Cnidaria Anthozoa Hexacorallia Actiniaria

Actiniidae          Bunodosoma          Oliveira et al. (2004)
Gosse 1858          caissarum
                    Correa in
                    Belem, 1987

Cnidaria Anthozoa Hexacorallia Scleractinia

Rhizangiidae        Astrangia sp.       first record
D'Orbigny,
1851

Cnidaria Anthozoa Octocorallia Telestacea

Telestidae          Carijoa riisei      Silveira (1986)
Milne-              (Duchas-saing &
Edwards &           Michelotti,
Haime, 1857         1860)

Cnidaria Hydrozoa Anthoathecata

Bougainvilliidae    Bougainvillia       Vannucci & Rees
Lutken, 1850        muscus (Allman,     (1961)
                    1863)

Eudendriidae        Eudendrium          Marques & Oliveira
L. Agassiz,         caraiuru            (2003)
1862                Marques &
                    Oliveira, 2003

                    Eudendrium          Marques (2001)
                    carneum Clarke,
                    1882

Oceaniidae          Corydendrium        Migotto (1996)
Eschscholtz,        parasiticum
1829                (Linnaeus,
                    1767)

                    Turritopsis         Migotto (1996)
                    nutricula
                    (McCrady,
                    1859a)

Pennariidae         Pennaria            Migotto (1996)
McCrady,            disticha
1859b               Goldfuss. 1820

Tubulariidae        Acharadria          Migotto (1996)
Fleming,            crocea (L.
1828                Agassiz, 1862)

                    Zyzzyzus            Migotto (1996)
                    warreni Calder,
                    1888

Cnidaria Hydrozoa Leptothecata

Aglaopheniidae      Aglaophenia         Migotto (1996)
Marktanner-         latecarinata
Tumeretscher,       Allman, 1877
1890

                    Macrorhynchia       Migotto (1996)
                    philippina
                    Kirchenpauer,
                    1872

Campanulariidae     Clytia gracilis     Migotto (1996)
Johnston,           (M. Sars, 1851)
1836

                    Obelia              Migotto (1996)
                    bidentata
                    Clark, 1875

                    Obelia              Migotto (1996)
                    dichotoma
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Obelia              Migotto (1996)
                    geniculata
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Lafoeina            Migotto & Cabral
                    amirantensis        (2005)
                    (Millard &
                    Bouillon, 1973)

Haleciidae          Halecium            Migotto (1996)
Hincks, 1868        ?tenellum
                    Hincks, 1861

                    Nemalecium          Migotto (1996)
                    lighti
                    (Hargitt, 1924)

Halopterididae      Halopteris          Migotto, 1996
Millard,            diaphana
1962                (Heller, 1868)

Hebellidae          Hebella furax       Migotto & Andrade
Fraser, 1912        Millard, 1957       (2000)

Plumulariidae       Plumularia          Migotto (1996)
McCrady,            strictocarpa
1859b               Pictet, 1893

Sertulariidae       Dynamena            Migotto (1996)
Lamouroux,          disticha (Bose,
1812                1802)

                    Idiellana           Migotto (1996)
                    pristis
                    (Lamouroux,
                    1816)

                    Sertularia          Migotto (1996)
                    marginata
                    (Kirchenpauer,
                    1864)               Migotto(1996)
                    Sertularia
                    turbinata
                    (Lamouroux,
                    1816)

Crustacea Cirripedia

Balanidae           Amphibalanus        Young (1994)
Leach, 1817         amphitrite
                    (Darwin, 1854)

                    Amphibalanus        ?
                    improvisus
                    (Darwin, 1854)

                    Amphibalanus        first record
                    reticulatus
                    (Utinomi, 1967)

                    Balanus             Young (1994)
                    trigonus
                    Darwin, 1854

                                        for SSC
                    Megabalanus         Young (1994)
                    coccopoma
                    (Darwin, 1854)

                    Megabalanus         Luederwaldt (1929)
                    tintinnabu-lum
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

Chthamalidae        Chthamalus          ?
Darwin, 1854        proteus Dando &
                    Southward, 1980

Tetraclitidae       Newmanella          ?
Gravel, 1903        radiata
                    (Bruguiere,
                    1789)

                    Tetraclita          Luederwaldt (1929)
                    stalactifera
                    (Lamarck, 1818)

Crustacea Decapoda Pleocyemata Caridea

Palaemonidae        Periclemenes        ?
Rafinesque,         longicaudatus
1815                (Stimpson,
                    1860)

Hippolytidae        Thor manningi       Christoffersen (1980)
Bate, 1888          Chace, 1972

Alpheidae           Synalpheus sp.
Rafinesque,
1815

Crustacea Decapoda Pleocyemata Anomura

Porcellanidae       Pachycheles         Melo (1999)
Haworth,            monilifer
1825                (Dana, 1852)

                    Pisidia             Melo (1999)
                    brasiliensis
                    Haig in
                    Rodrigues da
                    Costa, 1968

Crustacea Decapoda Pleocyemata Brachyura

Inachidae           Stenorhynchus       Melo (1996)
MacLeay,            seticornis
1838                (Herbst, 1788)

Majidae             Microphrys          Melo (1996)
Salmouelle,         bicornutus
1819                (Latreille,
                    1825)

Epialtidae          Epialtus            Melo (1996)
MacLeay,            bituberculatus
1838                H.
                    Miline-Edwards,
                    1834

Pilumnidae          Pilumnus quoii      Melo (1996) as
Salmouelle,         H.                  P. quogi
1819                Milne-Edwards,
                    1834

                    Pilumnus            Melo (1996)
                    dasypodus
                    Kingsley, 1879

Grapsidae           Pachygrapsus        Melo (1996)
MacLeay,            transversus
1838                (Gibbes, 1850)

Entoprocta

Barentsidae         Barentsia           first record
Hincks, 1880        capitata
                    Calvet, 1904

Pedicellinidae      Sangavella          first record
Johnston,           vineta Marcus,
1847                1957

Mollusca Bivalvia Lamellibranchia Pteroida

Mytilidae           Perna perna         Migotto et al. (1993)
Rafinesque,         (Linnaeus,
1815                1758)

                    Brachidontes        ?
                    exustus
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Brachidontes        Migotto et al. (1993)
                    solisianus
                    (D'Orbigny,
                    1846)

                    Myoforceps ari      first record
                    status
                    (Dillwyn, 1817)
Isognomonidae       Isognomon           Rios (2009)
Woodring,           bicolor (C.B.
1925                Adams, 1845)

Pteriidae           Pteria hirundo      first record
Gray, 1847          (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Pinctata            Rios (1975)
                    imbricata
                    Roding, 1798

Mollusca Bivalvia Lamellibranchia Myoida

Myidae              Sphenia             Migotto et al. (1993)
Lamarck,            antillensis
1809                Dali & Simpson,
                    1901

Mollusca Gastropoda Eogastropoda Patellogastropoda

Lottiidae           Collisella          Migotto et al. (1993)
Gray, 1840          subrugosa
                    (D'Orbigny,
                    1846)

Mollusca Gastropoda Orthogastropoda Vetigastropoda

Fissurellidae       Diodora dysoni      first record
Fleming,            (Reeve, 1850)
1822

                    Fissurella          Migotto et al. (1993)
                    clenchi
                    Farfante, 1943

Mollusca Gastropoda Orthogastropoda Caenogastropoda

Littorinidae        Littorina           Migotto et al. 1993
Gray, 1840          ziczac (Gmelin,
                    1791)

                    Littorina flava     Rios (1975)
                    King &
                    Broderip, 1832

Columbellidae       Anachis             Rios (1975)
Swainson,           sertulariarum
1840                D'Orbigny, 1841

                    Mitrella            Duarte & Nalesso
                    dichroa             (1996)
                    Sowerby, 1844

Muricidae           Stramonita          Salvador et al. (1998)
Rafinesque,         brasiliensis
1815                Claremont &
                    Reid, 2011

Family              Species                Records for
                                        Brazilian states

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Aciculata Eunicida

Dorvilleidae        Dorvillea                  SP
Chamberlin,         sociabilis
1919                (Webster, 1879)

Eunicidae           Eunice rubra              RN-RS
Berthold,           Grube, 1856
1827

Oenonidae           Oenone fulgida         RN BA RJ SP
Kinberg,            (Savigny, 1818)
1865

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Aciculata Phyllodocida

Hesionidae          Hesione picta           AL SE SP
Grube, 1850         Muller, 1858

Nereididae          Perinereis             PA MA PI CE
Johnston,           anderssoni              RN SP PR
1865                Kinberg, 1866

                    Pseudonereis               SP
                    palpata
                    (Treadwell,
                    1923)

Syllidae            Haplosyllis sp.
Grabe, 1850

                    Syllis                    RN-PR
                    variegata
                    (Grube, 1860)

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Canalipalpata Sabellida

Sabellidae          Branchiomma                SP
Latreille,          patriota
1825                Nogueira, Silva
                    & Rossi, 2006

                    Branchiomma                SP
                    luctuosum
                    (Grabe, 1869)

                    Sabellastarte
                    sp.

Serpulidae          Hydroides sp.
Rafinesque,
1815

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Canalipalpata Spionida

Chaetopteridae      Chaetopterus
Audouin &           sp.
Milne-
Edwards,
1833d

Spionidae           Polydora                  SP PR
Grube, 1850         colonia Moore,
                    1907

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Canalipalpata Terebellida

Cirratulidae        Cirriformia                SP
Cams, 1863          punctata
                    (Grabe, 1859)

Terebellidae        Nicolea uspiana            SP
Malmgren,           (Nogueira,
1867                2003)

Annelida
Polychaeta
Scolecida

Orbiniidae          Naineris                  BA SP
Hartman,            laevigata
1942                (Grabe, 1855)

Ascidiacea Aplousobranchia

Clavelinidae        Clavelina              CE ES RJ SP
Forbes &            oblonga                   PR SC
Hanley, 1848        Savigny, 1816

Polyclinidae        Aplidium                  SP SC
Milne               accarense
Edwards,
1842

                    (Millar, 1953)         CE ES RJ SP
                    Polyclinum
                    constellatum

                    Savigny, 1816              SC
                    Aplidiopsis sp.

Holozoidae          Distaplia              PA CE BA ES
Berrill,            bermudensis Van        RJ SP PR SC
1950                Name, 1902

                    Distaplia                  SP
                    stylifera
                    (Kowalewsky,
                    1874)

Didemnidae          Didemnum               BA RJ SP SC
Giard, 1872         perlucidum
                    Monniot, 1983

                    Diplosoma                 RN-SC
                    listerianum
                    (Milne-Edwards,
                    1841)

                    Lissoclinum            CE PE RJ SP
                    fragile (Van              PR SC
                    Name, 1902)

                    Trididemnum            CE BA RJ SP
                    orbiculatum               PR SC
                    (Van Name,
                    1902)

Ascidiacea Phlebobranchia

Ascidiidae          Phallusia nigra        CE AL BA RJ
Adams, 1858         Savigny, 1816              SP

                    Ascidia cf.            CE BA ES SP
                    multitentaculata
                    (Hartmeyer,
                    1912)

                    Ascidia                CE ES RJ SP
                    sydneiensis
                    Stimpson, 1855            PR SC

Ascidiacea Stolidobranchia

Styelidae           Botrylloides           ES RJ SP SC
Sluiter,            giganteum
1895                (Peres, 1949)

                                        Brazilian states
                    Botrylloides           PB AL BA ES
                    nigrum                 RJ SP PR SC
                    (Herdman, 1886)

                    Symplegma                PA- SC
                    brakenhielmi           ES RJ SP PR
                    (Michaelsen,
                    1904) Symplegma
                    rubra

                    Monniot, 1972              SC
                    Eusynstyela sp.            SP

                    Polyandrocarpa         ES RJ SP PR
                    anguinea                   SC
                    (Sluiter, 1898)

                    Polyandrocarpa         BA ES RJ SP
                    zorritensis                SC
                    (Van Name,
                    1931)

                    Styela canopus         RN PE BA RJ
                    (Savigny, 1816)         SP PR SC

                    Styela plicata         BA RJ SP PR
                    (Lesueur, 1823)            SC

Pyuridae            Herdmania              AL BA RJ SP
Hartmeyer,          pallida
1908                (Heller, 1878)

                    Microscosmus              CE-SC
                    exasperatus
                    Heller, 1878

Bryozoa Gymnolaemata Cheilostomata

Aeteidae            Aetea anguina         PE ES RJ SP
Smitt, 1868         (Linnaeus,          PR Marcus (1937)
                    1758)

                    Aetea sp.                  SP

                    Aetea ligulata             SP
                    Busk, 1852

Electridae          Electra tenella            SP
Stach, 1937         (Hincks, 1881)

Membraniporidae     Biflustra              RJ SP PR SC
Busk, 1852          arborescens
                    Canu & Bassler,
                    1928

                    Biflustra              ES SP PR SC
                    denticulata
                    (Busk, 1856)

                    Biflustra sp.           RJ SP PR

Catenicellidae      Catenicella               AL SP
Busk, 1852          uberrima
                    (Harmer, 1957)

                    Savignyella               AL SP
                    lafontii
                    (Audouin,
                    1826)

Hippopodinidae      Hippopodi na              PE SP
Levinsen,           feegeensis
1909                (Busk, 1884)

Microporellidae     Microporella               SP
Hincks, 1879        sp.

Schizoporellidae    Schizoporella             RJ SP
Jullien,            pungens (Canu &
1883                Bassler, 1928)

                    Schizoporella          PE RJ SP PR
                    sp.

Smittinidae         Parasmittina               SP
Levinsen,           sp.
1909

Watersiporidae      Watersipora             ES RJ SP
Vigneaux,           subtorquata
1949                (D'Orbigny,
                    1852)

Antroporidae        Antropora                 SP PR
Vigneaux,           leycocypha
1949                (Marcus, 1937)

Bugulidae           Bugula neritina         RJ SP PR
Gray, 1848          (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Bugula                    RJ SP
                    stolonifera
                    Ryland, 1960

Candidae            Scrupocellaria             RJ
D'Orbigny,          aff. diade- ma
1851                Busk, 1852

                    Scrupocellaria            RJ SP
                    sp. Synnotum

Epistomiidae        aegyptiacum            PE AL ES SP
Gregory,            (Audouin, 1826)
1893

Quadricellariidae   Nellia oculata            PE BA
Gordon, 1984        Busk, 1852

Bryozoa Gymnolaemata Ctenostomata

Alcyonidiidae       Alcyonidium sp.         ES SP PR
Johnston,           Aeverrillia
1838

Aeverriliidae       setigera                   SP
Jebram, 1973        (Hincks, 1887)

Arachnidiidae       Arachnoidella              SP
Hincks, 1880        evelinae
                    (Marcus, 1937)

Vesiculariidae      Amathia                ES RJ SP PR
Hincks, 1880        brasiliensis
                    Busk, 1886

                    Amathia distans        AL BA ES RJ
                    Busk, 1886                SP PR

                    Amathia sp.               AL SP
                    Bowerbankia

                    maxima Winston,         RJ SP PR
                    1982

                    Zoobotryon                RJ SP
                    verticillatum
                    (Delle Chiaje,
                    1828)

Nolellidae          Anguinella                SP PR
Harmer, 1915        palmata van
                    Beneden, 1845

                    Nolella sawayai            SP
                    Marcus, 1938

                    Nolella sp.            PE AL ES SP

Sundanellidae       Sundanella sp.          RJ SP PR
Jebram, 1973

Victorellidae       Victor ella sp.            RJ
Hincks, 1880

Bryozoa Stenolaemata Cyclostomata

Crisiidae           Crisia                 PE RJ SP PR
Johnston,           pseudosolena
1838                (Marcus, 1937)

Cnidaria Anthozoa Hexacorallia Actiniaria

Actiniidae          Bunodosoma           PE. ES. RJ. SP.
Gosse 1858          caissarum                PR, SC
                    Correa in
                    Belem, 1987

Cnidaria Anthozoa Hexacorallia Scleractinia

Rhizangiidae        Astrangia sp.             PE-SC
D'Orbigny,
1851

Cnidaria Anthozoa Octocorallia Telestacea

Telestidae          Carijoa riisei         PA MA RN PE
Milne-              (Duchas-saing &      BA ES RJ SP SC
Edwards &           Michelotti,
Haime, 1857         1860)

Cnidaria Hydrozoa Anthoathecata

Bougainvilliidae    Bougainvillia           AL PR SC
Lutken, 1850        muscus (Allman,
                    1863)

Eudendriidae        Eudendrium              CE RJ SP
L. Agassiz,         caraiuru
1862                Marques &
                    Oliveira, 2003

                    Eudendrium               CE- SC
                    carneum Clarke,
                    1882

Oceaniidae          Corydendrium              PE RJ
Eschscholtz,        parasiticum
1829                (Linnaeus,
                    1767)

                    Turritopsis               PE-RS
                    nutricula
                    (McCrady,
                    1859a)

Pennariidae         Pennaria                 CE--SC
McCrady,            disticha
1859b               Goldfuss. 1820

Tubulariidae        Acharadria             ES RJ SP PR
Fleming,            crocea (L.                SC RS
1828                Agassiz, 1862)

                    Zyzzyzus               PE AL SP SC
                    warreni Calder,
                    1888

Cnidaria Hydrozoa Leptothecata

Aglaopheniidae      Aglaophenia              MA- SC
Marktanner-         latecarinata
Tumeretscher,       Allman, 1877
1890

                    Macrorhynchia          PE AL BA ES
                    philippina              RJ SP SC
                    Kirchenpauer,
                    1872

Campanulariidae     Clytia gracilis           CE-PR
Johnston,           (M. Sars, 1851)
1836

                    Obelia                 PE SE BA RJ
                    bidentata                 SP SC
                    Clark, 1875

                    Obelia                    CE-RS
                    dichotoma
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Obelia                 AL ES SP PR
                    geniculata                SC RS
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Lafoeina             PE ES RJ SP SC
                    amirantensis
                    (Millard &
                    Bouillon, 1973)

Haleciidae          Halecium                PE SP SC
Hincks, 1868        ?tenellum
                    Hincks, 1861

                    Nemalecium              ES RJ SP
                    lighti
                    (Hargitt, 1924)

Halopterididae      Halopteris             CE AL ES RJ
Millard,            diaphana                   SP
1962                (Heller, 1868)

Hebellidae          Hebella furax             RJ SP
Fraser, 1912        Millard, 1957

Plumulariidae       Plumularia             AL BA ES RJ
McCrady,            strictocarpa               SP
1859b               Pictet, 1893

Sertulariidae       Dynamena               CE PE BA-RS
Lamouroux,          disticha (Bose,
1812                1802)

                    Idiellana               AL BA SP
                    pristis
                    (Lamouroux,
                    1816)

                    Sertularia                CE-SC
                    marginata
                    (Kirchenpauer,
                    1864)
                    Sertularia
                    turbinata
                    (Lamouroux,
                    1816)

Crustacea Cirripedia

Balanidae           Amphibalanus              AP-RS
Leach, 1817         amphitrite
                    (Darwin, 1854)

                    Amphibalanus             MA--RS
                    improvisus
                    (Darwin, 1854)

                    Amphibalanus        MA RN PB PE AL BA
                    reticulatus          RJ PR SC AP-RS
                    (Utinomi, 1967)

                    Balanus
                    trigonus
                    Darwin, 1854

                                        Brazilian states
                    Megabalanus            RN ES RJ SP
                    coccopoma               PR RS SC
                    (Darwin, 1854)

                    Megabalanus               MA-RS
                    tintinnabu-lum
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

Chthamalidae        Chthamalus                MA-RS
Darwin, 1854        proteus Dando &
                    Southward, 1980

Tetraclitidae       Newmanella             PE BA RJ SP
Gravel, 1903        radiata
                    (Bruguiere,
                    1789)

                    Tetraclita                MA-RS
                    stalactifera
                    (Lamarck, 1818)

Crustacea Decapoda Pleocyemata Caridea

Palaemonidae        Periclemenes             AP- SC
Rafinesque,         longicaudatus
1815                (Stimpson,
                    1860)

Hippolytidae        Thor manningi          PB, BA, SP
Bate, 1888          Chace, 1972

Alpheidae           Synalpheus sp.
Rafinesque,
1815

Crustacea Decapoda Pleocyemata Anomura

Porcellanidae       Pachycheles              CE- SC
Haworth,            monilifer
1825                (Dana, 1852)

                    Pisidia                  PA--SP
                    brasiliensis
                    Haig in
                    Rodrigues da
                    Costa, 1968

Crustacea Decapoda Pleocyemata Brachyura

Inachidae           Stenorhynchus             AP-RS
MacLeay,            seticornis
1838                (Herbst, 1788)

Majidae             Microphrys                MA-RS
Salmouelle,         bicornutus
1819                (Latreille,
                    1825)

Epialtidae          Epialtus               CE, PB, PE,
MacLeay,            bituberculatus       BA, ES, RJ, SP
1838                H.
                    Miline-Edwards,
                    1834

Pilumnidae          Pilumnus quoii            AP-SP
Salmouelle,         H.
1819                Milne-Edwards,
                    1834

                    Pilumnus                  CE-SC
                    dasypodus
                    Kingsley, 1879

Grapsidae           Pachygrapsus              MA-RS
MacLeay,            transversus
1838                (Gibbes, 1850)

Entoprocta

Barentsidae         Barentsia                  RJ
Hincks, 1880        capitata
                    Calvet, 1904

Pedicellinidae      Sangavella                 SP
Johnston,           vineta Marcus,
1847                1957

Mollusca Bivalvia Lamellibranchia Pteroida

Mytilidae           Perna perna            ES RJ SP PR
Rafinesque,         (Linnaeus,                SC RS
1815                1758)

                    Brachidontes           CE RN BA RJ
                    exustus                    SP
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Brachidontes              AP-RS
                    solisianus
                    (D'Orbigny,
                    1846)

                    Myoforceps ari            RJ SP
                    status
                    (Dillwyn, 1817)
Isognomonidae       Isognomon              CE RN RJ SP
Woodring,           bicolor (C.B.              SC
1925                Adams, 1845)

Pteriidae           Pteria hirundo            AP-RS
Gray, 1847          (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Pinctata                 PA--SC
                    imbricata
                    Roding, 1798

Mollusca Bivalvia Lamellibranchia Myoida

Myidae              Sphenia                  CE- SC
Lamarck,            antillensis
1809                Dali & Simpson,
                    1901

Mollusca Gastropoda Eogastropoda Patellogastropoda

Lottiidae           Collisella               CE--RS
Gray, 1840          subrugosa
                    (D'Orbigny,
                    1846)

Mollusca Gastropoda Orthogastropoda Vetigastropoda

Fissurellidae       Diodora dysoni            RN-SC
Fleming,            (Reeve, 1850)
1822

                    Fissurella               PA--RS
                    clenchi
                    Farfante, 1943

Mollusca Gastropoda Orthogastropoda Caenogastropoda

Littorinidae        Littorina                 AP-RS
Gray, 1840          ziczac (Gmelin,
                    1791)

                    Littorina flava          MA- RS
                    King &
                    Broderip, 1832

Columbellidae       Anachis                CE AL BA ES
Swainson,           sertulariarum           RJ SP PR
1840                D'Orbigny, 1841

                    Mitrella               AL RJ SP PR
                    dichroa                    SC
                    Sowerby, 1844

Muricidae           Stramonita                AP-RS
Rafinesque,         brasiliensis
1815                Claremont &
                    Reid, 2011

Family              Species             First record
                                        for Brazil

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Aciculata Eunicida

Dorvilleidae        Dorvillea           Amaral (1977)
Chamberlin,         sociabilis
1919                (Webster, 1879)

Eunicidae           Eunice rubra        Treadwell (1932)
Berthold,           Grube, 1856
1827

Oenonidae           Oenone fulgida      Treadwell (1932)
Kinberg,            (Savigny, 1818)
1865

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Aciculata Phyllodocida

Hesionidae          Hesione picta       Nonato & Luna
Grube, 1850         Muller, 1858        (1970)

Nereididae          Perinereis          Nonato (1981)
Johnston,           anderssoni
1865                Kinberg, 1866

                    Pseudonereis        Santos & Steiner;
                    palpata             (2006)
                    (Treadwell,
                    1923)

Syllidae            Haplosyllis sp.
Grabe, 1850

                    Syllis              Nonato & Luna
                    variegata           (1970)
                    (Grube, 1860)

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Canalipalpata Sabellida

Sabellidae          Branchiomma         Nogueira et al.
Latreille,          patriota            (2006)
1825                Nogueira, Silva
                    & Rossi, 2006

                    Branchiomma         Rossi (2008)
                    luctuosum
                    (Grabe, 1869)

                    Sabellastarte
                    sp.

Serpulidae          Hydroides sp.
Rafinesque,
1815

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Canalipalpata Spionida

Chaetopteridae      Chaetopterus
Audouin &           sp.
Milne-
Edwards,
1833d

Spionidae           Polydora            Neves et al. (2007)
Grube, 1850         colonia Moore,
                    1907

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Canalipalpata Terebellida

Cirratulidae        Cirriformia         Souza(1989)
Cams, 1863          punctata
                    (Grabe, 1859)

Terebellidae        Nicolea uspiana     Nogueira (2003)
Malmgren,           (Nogueira,
1867                2003)

Annelida
Polychaeta
Scolecida

Orbiniidae          Naineris            Rullier & Amou-
Hartman,            laevigata           reux (1979)
1942                (Grabe, 1855)

Ascidiacea Aplousobranchia

Clavelinidae        Clavelina           Hartmeyer (1912)
Forbes &            oblonga
Hanley, 1848        Savigny, 1816

Polyclinidae        Aplidium            Rocha et al. (2005)
Milne               accarense
Edwards,
1842

                    (Millar, 1953)      Michaelsen (1923)
                    Polyclinum
                    constellatum

                    Savigny, 1816       First record
                    Aplidiopsis sp.

Holozoidae          Distaplia           Millar (1958)
Berrill,            bermudensis Van
1950                Name, 1902

                    Distaplia           first record
                    stylifera
                    (Kowalewsky,
                    1874)

Didemnidae          Didemnum            Rocha & Monniot
Giard, 1872         perlucidum          (1995)
                    Monniot, 1983

                    Diplosoma           Van Name (1945)
                    listerianum
                    (Milne-Edwards,
                    1841)

                    Lissoclinum         Rodrigues et al.
                    fragile (Van        (1998)
                    Name, 1902)

                    Trididemnum         Rodrigues & Rocha
                    orbiculatum         (1993)
                    (Van Name,
                    1902)

Ascidiacea Phlebobranchia

Ascidiidae          Phallusia nigra     Van Name (1945)
Adams, 1858         Savigny, 1816

                    Ascidia cf.         Millar (1977)
                    multitentaculata
                    (Hartmeyer,
                    1912)

                    Ascidia             Millar (1958)
                    sydneiensis
                    Stimpson, 1855

Ascidiacea Stolidobranchia

Styelidae           Botrylloides        Rodrigues & Rocha
Sluiter,            giganteum           (1993)
1895                (Peres, 1949)

                    Botrylloides        Rodrigues (1962)
                    nigrum
                    (Herdman, 1886)

                    Symplegma           Millar (1958)
                    brakenhielmi        Rodrigues & Rocha
                    (Michaelsen,
                    1904) Symplegma
                    rubra

                    Monniot, 1972       (1993)
                    Eusynstyela sp.     Rodrigues et al. (1998)

                    Polyandrocarpa      Van Name (1945)
                    anguinea
                    (Sluiter, 1898)

                    Polyandrocarpa      Rodrigues (1962)
                    zorritensis
                    (Van Name,
                    1931)

                    Styela canopus      Monniot (1969/70)
                    (Savigny, 1816)

                    Styela plicata      Millar (1958)
                    (Lesueur, 1823)

Pyuridae            Herdmania           Van Name (1945)
Hartmeyer,          pallida
1908                (Heller, 1878)

                    Microscosmus        Van Name (1945)
                    exasperatus
                    Heller, 1878

Bryozoa Gymnolaemata Cheilostomata

Aeteidae            Aetea anguina
Smitt, 1868         (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Aetea sp.           Marcus (1938)

                    Aetea ligulata      Marcus (1937)
                    Busk, 1852

Electridae          Electra tenella     Marcus (1937)
Stach, 1937         (Hincks, 1881)

Membraniporidae     Biflustra           Marcus (1937)
Busk, 1852          arborescens
                    Canu & Bassler,
                    1928

                    Biflustra           Marcus (1937)
                    denticulata
                    (Busk, 1856)

                    Biflustra sp.       Marcus (1937)
                                        as Acanthodesia
                                        savartii

Catenicellidae      Catenicella         Busk (1884)
Busk, 1852          uberrima
                    (Harmer, 1957)

                    Savignyella         Marcus (1937)
                    lafontii
                    (Audouin,
                    1826)

Hippopodinidae      Hippopodi na        Marcus (1937)
Levinsen,           feegeensis
1909                (Busk, 1884)

Microporellidae     Microporella        Marcus (1937) as
Hincks, 1879        sp.                 Microporella ciliata

Schizoporellidae    Schizoporella       D'Orbigny (1842)
Jullien,            pungens (Canu &
1883                Bassler, 1928)

                    Schizoporella       Marcus (1937) as S.
                    sp.                 unicornis

Smittinidae         Parasmittina        Marcus (1937)
Levinsen,           sp.
1909

Watersiporidae      Watersipora         D'Orbigny (1842)
Vigneaux,           subtorquata
1949                (D'Orbigny,
                    1852)

Antroporidae        Antropora           Marcus (1937)
Vigneaux,           leycocypha
1949                (Marcus, 1937)

Bugulidae           Bugula neritina     D'Orbigny (1841)
Gray, 1848          (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Bugula              Marcus (1937)
                    stolonifera
                    Ryland, 1960

Candidae            Scrupocellaria      Ramalho et al.
D'Orbigny,          aff. diade- ma      (2005)
1851                Busk, 1852

                    Scrupocellaria      Marcus (1937)
                    sp. Synnotum        as Scrupocellaria
                                        cornigera

Epistomiidae        aegyptiacum         Kirkpatrick (1888)
Gregory,            (Audouin, 1826)
1893

Quadricellariidae   Nellia oculata      Busk (1884)
Gordon, 1984        Busk, 1852

Bryozoa Gymnolaemata Ctenostomata

Alcyonidiidae       Alcyonidium sp.     Marcus (1937) as A.
Johnston,           Aeverrillia         polyoum
1838

Aeverriliidae       setigera            Marcus (1937)
Jebram, 1973        (Hincks, 1887)

Arachnidiidae       Arachnoidella       Marcus (1937)
Hincks, 1880        evelinae
                    (Marcus, 1937)

Vesiculariidae      Amathia             Marcus (1937)
Hincks, 1880        brasiliensis
                    Busk, 1886

                    Amathia distans     Busk (1886)
                    Busk, 1886

                    Amathia sp.         Rocha (1995) as A.
                    Bowerbankia         vidovici

                    maxima Winston,     Marcus (1937)
                    1982

                    Zoobotryon          Marcus (1955)
                    verticillatum
                    (Delle Chiaje,
                    1828)

Nolellidae          Anguinella          Marcus (1937)
Harmer, 1915        palmata van
                    Beneden, 1845

                    Nolella sawayai     Marcus (1937)
                    Marcus, 1938

                    Nolella sp.         Marcus (1937) as
                                        N. gigantea

Sundanellidae       Sundanella sp.      Marcus (1937) as
Jebram, 1973                            V. sibogae

Victorellidae       Victor ella sp.     Marcus (1955)
Hincks, 1880                            as V. pavida

Bryozoa Stenolaemata Cyclostomata

Crisiidae           Crisia              Marcus (1937)
Johnston,           pseudosolena
1838                (Marcus, 1937)

Cnidaria Anthozoa Hexacorallia Actiniaria

Actiniidae          Bunodosoma          Correal(964)
Gosse 1858          caissarum
                    Correa in
                    Belem, 1987

Cnidaria Anthozoa Hexacorallia Scleractinia

Rhizangiidae        Astrangia sp.       Laborel (1969)
D'Orbigny,
1851

Cnidaria Anthozoa Octocorallia Telestacea

Telestidae          Carijoa riisei      Deichmann (1936)
Milne-              (Duchas-saing &     as Telesto rupicola
Edwards &           Michelotti,
Haime, 1857         1860)

Cnidaria Hydrozoa Anthoathecata

Bougainvilliidae    Bougainvillia       Vannucci & Rees
Lutken, 1850        muscus (Allman,     (1961)
                    1863)

Eudendriidae        Eudendrium          Migotto (1996)
L. Agassiz,         caraiuru
1862                Marques &
                    Oliveira, 2003

                    Eudendrium          Vannucci (1954)
                    carneum Clarke,
                    1882

Oceaniidae          Corydendrium        Migotto (1996)
Eschscholtz,        parasiticum
1829                (Linnaeus,
                    1767)

                    Turritopsis         Migotto (1996)
                    nutricula
                    (McCrady,
                    1859a)

Pennariidae         Pennaria            Vannucci (1950)
McCrady,            disticha
1859b               Goldfuss. 1820

Tubulariidae        Acharadria          Migotto & Silveira
Fleming,            crocea (L.          (1987) as Ectopleu-
1828                Agassiz, 1862)      ra warrani

                    Zyzzyzus            Migotto & Silveira
                    warreni Calder,     (1987)
                    1888

Cnidaria Hydrozoa Leptothecata

Aglaopheniidae      Aglaophenia         Ritchie (1909)
Marktanner-         latecarinata
Tumeretscher,       Allman, 1877
1890

                    Macrorhynchia       Nutting (1900)
                    philippina
                    Kirchenpauer,
                    1872

Campanulariidae     Clytia gracilis     Vannucci & Mendes
Johnston,           (M. Sars, 1851)     (1946)
1836

                    Obelia              Jaderholm (1903)
                    bidentata
                    Clark, 1875

                    Obelia              Stechow (1919)
                    dichotoma
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Obelia              Vannucci & Mendes
                    geniculata          (1946)
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Lafoeina            Nogueira et al.
                    amirantensis        (1997)
                    (Millard &
                    Bouillon, 1973)

Haleciidae          Halecium            Migotto (1996)
Hincks, 1868        ?tenellum
                    Hincks, 1861

                    Nemalecium          Migotto (1996)
                    lighti
                    (Hargitt, 1924)

Halopterididae      Halopteris          Vannucci & Mendes
Millard,            diaphana            (1946)
1962                (Heller, 1868)

Hebellidae          Hebella furax       Migotto & Andrade,
Fraser, 1912        Millard, 1957       2000

Plumulariidae       Plumularia          Vannucci (1949)
McCrady,            strictocarpa
1859b               Pictet, 1893

Sertulariidae       Dynamena            Ritchie (1909)
Lamouroux,          disticha (Bose,
1812                1802)

                    Idiellana           Allman (1888)
                    pristis
                    (Lamouroux,
                    1816)

                    Sertularia          Allman (1888)
                    marginata
                    (Kirchenpauer,
                    1864)               Vannucci & Mendes
                    Sertularia          (1946)
                    turbinata
                    (Lamouroux,
                    1816)

Crustacea Cirripedia

Balanidae           Amphibalanus        Oliveira (1941)
Leach, 1817         amphitrite
                    (Darwin, 1854)

                    Amphibalanus        Darwin (1854)
                    improvisus
                    (Darwin, 1854)

                    Amphibalanus        Young (1989)
                    reticulatus
                    (Utinomi, 1967)

                    Balanus             Darwin (1854)
                    trigonus
                    Darwin, 1854

                                        for Brazil
                    Megabalanus         Lacombe & Montei-
                    coccopoma           ro (1974)
                    (Darwin, 1854)

                    Megabalanus         Linnaeus(1758)
                    tintinnabu-lum
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

Chthamalidae        Chthamalus          Dando & Southward
Darwin, 1854        proteus Dando &     W. Atlantic (1980)
                    Southward, 1980

Tetraclitidae       Newmanella          Lacombe (1977)
Gravel, 1903        radiata
                    (Bruguiere,
                    1789)

                    Tetraclita          Darwin (1854)
                    stalactifera
                    (Lamarck, 1818)

Crustacea Decapoda Pleocyemata Caridea

Palaemonidae        Periclemenes        Rathbun (1900) as
Rafinesque,         longicaudatus       Urocaris longicau-
1815                (Stimpson,
                    1860)

Hippolytidae        Thor manningi       Fausto-Filho (1970)
Bate, 1888          Chace, 1972         as T. floridanus

Alpheidae           Synalpheus sp.
Rafinesque,
1815

Crustacea Decapoda Pleocyemata Anomura

Porcellanidae       Pachycheles         Cano (1889) as
Haworth,            monilifer           Pachycheles monili-ferus
1825                (Dana, 1852)

                    Pisidia             Coelho (1964) as
                    brasiliensis        Megalobrachium poeyi
                    Haig in
                    Rodrigues da
                    Costa, 1968

Crustacea Decapoda Pleocyemata Brachyura

Inachidae           Stenorhynchus       Miers (1886) as
MacLeay,            seticornis          Leptodia sagittaria
1838                (Herbst, 1788)

Majidae             Microphrys          Smith (1869) as
Salmouelle,         bicornutus          Milnia bicornuta
1819                (Latreille,
                    1825)

Epialtidae          Epialtus            Rathbun (1894)
MacLeay,            bituberculatus
1838                H.
                    Miline-Edwards,
                    1834

Pilumnidae          Pilumnus quoii      Milne-Edwards
Salmouelle,         H.                  (1834)
1819                Milne-Edwards,
                    1834

                    Pilumnus            Rathbun (1900)
                    dasypodus
                    Kingsley, 1879

Grapsidae           Pachygrapsus        Rathbun (1898)
MacLeay,            transversus
1838                (Gibbes, 1850)

Entoprocta

Barentsidae         Barentsia           Marcus (1940)
Hincks, 1880        capitata
                    Calvet, 1904

Pedicellinidae      Sangavella          Marcus (1957)
Johnston,           vineta Marcus,
1847                1957

Mollusca Bivalvia Lamellibranchia Pteroida

Mytilidae           Perna perna
Rafinesque,         (Linnaeus,
1815                1758)

                    Brachidontes
                    exustus
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Brachidontes
                    solisianus
                    (D'Orbigny,
                    1846)

                    Myoforceps ari      Simone & Gon9al-
                    status
                    (Dillwyn, 1817)     ves(2006)
Isognomonidae       Isognomon           Domaneschi &
Woodring,           bicolor (C.B.       Martins (2002)
1925                Adams, 1845)

Pteriidae           Pteria hirundo
Gray, 1847          (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Pinctata
                    imbricata
                    Roding, 1798

Mollusca Bivalvia Lamellibranchia Myoida

Myidae              Sphenia
Lamarck,            antillensis
1809                Dali & Simpson,
                    1901

Mollusca Gastropoda Eogastropoda Patellogastropoda

Lottiidae           Collisella
Gray, 1840          subrugosa
                    (D'Orbigny,
                    1846)

Mollusca Gastropoda Orthogastropoda Vetigastropoda

Fissurellidae       Diodora dysoni
Fleming,            (Reeve, 1850)
1822

                    Fissurella
                    clenchi
                    Farfante, 1943

Mollusca Gastropoda Orthogastropoda Caenogastropoda

Littorinidae        Littorina
Gray, 1840          ziczac (Gmelin,
                    1791)

                    Littorina flava
                    King &
                    Broderip, 1832

Columbellidae       Anachis
Swainson,           sertulariarum
1840                D'Orbigny, 1841

                    Mitrella
                    dichroa
                    Sowerby, 1844

Muricidae           Stramonita
Rafinesque,         brasiliensis
1815                Claremont &
                    Reid, 2011

Family              Species             Known
                                        distribution

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Aciculata Eunicida

Dorvilleidae        Dorvillea           Gulf of Mexico,
Chamberlin,         sociabilis          Caribbean Sea
1919                (Webster, 1879)

Eunicidae           Eunice rubra        Gulf of Mexico,
Berthold,           Grube, 1856         Caribbean Sea
1827

Oenonidae           Oenone fulgida      Gulf of Mexico,
Kinberg,            (Savigny, 1818)     Caribbean Sea,
1865                                    Mozambique, Mada-
                                        gasear, Red Sea,
Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Aciculata PhNew Zealand

Hesionidae          Hesione picta       Gulf of Mexico,
Grube, 1850         Muller, 1858        Caribbean Sea

Nereididae          Perinereis          Gulf of Mexico,
Johnston,           anderssoni          Caribbean Sea
1865                Kinberg, 1866

                    Pseudonereis        Brazil
                    palpata
                    (Treadwell,
                    1923)

Syllidae            Haplosyllis sp.
Grabe, 1850

                    Syllis              Caribbean Sea,
                    variegata           United Kingdom
                    (Grube, 1860)

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Canalipalpata Sabellida

Sabellidae          Branchiomma         Brazil
Latreille,          patriota
1825                Nogueira, Silva
                    & Rossi, 2006

                    Branchiomma         Europe,
                    luctuosum           Mediterranean
                    (Grabe, 1869)       Sea

                    Sabellastarte
                    sp.

Serpulidae          Hydroides sp.
Rafinesque,
1815

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Canalipalpata Spionida

Chaetopteridae      Chaetopterus
Audouin &           sp.
Milne-
Edwards,
1833d

Spionidae           Polydora            W Atlantic,
Grube, 1850         colonia Moore,      Mediterranean Sea,
                    1907                South Africa

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Canalipalpata Terebellida

Cirratulidae        Cirriformia         Gulf of Mexico,
Cams, 1863          punctata            Caribbean Sea,
                    (Grabe, 1859)       Mozambique,
                                        South Africa

Terebellidae        Nicolea uspiana     Brazil
Malmgren,           (Nogueira,
1867                2003)

Annelida
Polychaeta
Scolecida

Orbiniidae          Naineris            Cosmopolitan
Hartman,            laevigata
1942                (Grabe, 1855)

Ascidiacea Aplousobranchia

Clavelinidae        Clavelina           Caribbean Sea
Forbes &            oblonga
Hanley, 1848        Savigny, 1816

Polyclinidae        Aplidium            Atlantic
Milne               accarense
Edwards,
1842

                    (Millar, 1953)      Circuntropical
                    Polyclinum
                    constellatum

                    Savigny, 1816       Pacific
                    Aplidiopsis sp.

Holozoidae          Distaplia           W. Atlantic
Berrill,            bermudensis Van
1950                Name, 1902

                    Distaplia           Circuntropical
                    stylifera
                    (Kowalewsky,
                    1874)

Didemnidae          Didemnum            Circuntropical
Giard, 1872         perlucidum
                    Monniot, 1983

                    Diplosoma           Cosmopolitan
                    listerianum
                    (Milne-Edwards,
                    1841)

                    Lissoclinum         Circuntropical
                    fragile (Van
                    Name, 1902)

                    Trididemnum         W Atlantic
                    orbiculatum
                    (Van Name,
                    1902)

Ascidiacea Phlebobranchia

Ascidiidae          Phallusia nigra     Atlantic,
Adams, 1858         Savigny, 1816       Mediterranean,
                                        Red Sea

                    Ascidia cf.         Brazil, South
                    multitentaculata    Africa
                    (Hartmeyer,
                    1912)

                    Ascidia             Cosmopolitan
                    sydneiensis
                    Stimpson, 1855

Ascidiacea Stolidobranchia

Styelidae           Botrylloides        Senegal, South
Sluiter,            giganteum           Africa, Brazil
1895                (Peres, 1949)

                    Botrylloides        Circuntropical
                    nigrum
                    (Herdman, 1886)

                    Symplegma           Circuntropical
                    brakenhielmi        Atlantic
                    (Michaelsen,
                    1904) Symplegma
                    rubra

                    Monniot, 1972
                    Eusynstyela sp.

                    Polyandrocarpa      Circuntropical
                    anguinea
                    (Sluiter, 1898)

                    Polyandrocarpa      Atlantic, Pacific,
                    zorritensis         Mediterranean, Japan
                    (Van Name,
                    1931)

                    Styela canopus      Cosmopolitan
                    (Savigny, 1816)

                    Styela plicata      Cosmopolitan
                    (Lesueur, 1823)

Pyuridae            Herdmania           Cosmopolitan
Hartmeyer,          pallida
1908                (Heller, 1878)

                    Microscosmus
                    exasperatus
                    Heller, 1878

Bryozoa Gymnolaemata Cheilostomata

Aeteidae            Aetea anguina       Circuntropical
Smitt, 1868         (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Aetea sp.           Atlantic

                    Aetea ligulata      Cosmopolitan
                    Busk, 1852

Electridae          Electra tenella     Europe and W.
Stach, 1937         (Hincks, 1881)      Atlantic

Membraniporidae     Biflustra           W. Atlantic (Long
Busk, 1852          arborescens         Island to Brazil,
                    Canu & Bassler,     Caribbean and Gulf
                    1928                of Mexico)

                    Biflustra           W. Atlantic and
                    denticulata         Pacific
                    (Busk, 1856)

                    Biflustra sp.       W. Atlantic

Catenicellidae      Catenicella         Circuntropical
Busk, 1852          uberrima
                    (Harmer, 1957)

                    Savignyella         Circuntropical
                    lafontii
                    (Audouin,
                    1826)

Hippopodinidae      Hippopodi na        Circuntropical
Levinsen,           feegeensis
1909                (Busk, 1884)

Microporellidae     Microporella        Brazil
Hincks, 1879        sp.

Schizoporellidae    Schizoporella       Brazil, widespread
Jullien,            pungens (Canu &     in port areas
1883                Bassler, 1928)

                    Schizoporella       Brazil
                    sp.

Smittinidae         Parasmittina        Brazil
Levinsen,           sp.
1909

Watersiporidae      Watersipora         W. Atlantic mid
Vigneaux,           subtorquata         Australia
1949                (D'Orbigny,
                    1852)

Antroporidae        Antropora           Brazil
Vigneaux,           leycocypha
1949                (Marcus, 1937)

Bugulidae           Bugula neritina     Widespread in port
Gray, 1848          (Linnaeus,          areas
                    1758)

                    Bugula              Widespread in port
                    stolonifera         areas
                    Ryland, 1960

Candidae            Scrupocellaria      Pacific (=S. diadema)
D'Orbigny,          aff. diade- ma
1851                Busk, 1852

                    Scrupocellaria      Brazil
                    sp. Synnotum

Epistomiidae        aegyptiacum         Circuntropical
Gregory,            (Audouin, 1826)
1893

Quadricellariidae   Nellia oculata      Circuntropical
Gordon, 1984        Busk, 1852

Bryozoa Gymnolaemata Ctenostomata

Alcyonidiidae       Alcyonidium sp.     Brazil
Johnston,           Aeverrillia
1838

Aeverriliidae       setigera            W. Atlantic mid
Jebram, 1973        (Hincks, 1887)      Pacific

Arachnidiidae       Arachnoidella       Brazil
Hincks, 1880        evelinae
                    (Marcus, 1937)

Vesiculariidae      Amathia             W. Atlantic
Hincks, 1880        brasiliensis
                    Busk, 1886

                    Amathia distans     W. Atlantic
                    Busk, 1886

                    Amathia sp.         Circuntropical in
                    Bowerbankia         port areas

                    maxima Winston,     W. Atlantic
                    1982

                    Zoobotryon          Widespread in port
                    verticillatum       areas
                    (Delle Chiaje,
                    1828)

Nolellidae          Anguinella          Widespread in port
Harmer, 1915        palmata van         areas
                    Beneden, 1845

                    Nolella sawayai     Brazil
                    Marcus, 1938

                    Nolella sp.         Brazil

Sundanellidae       Sundanella sp.      Brazil
Jebram, 1973

Victorellidae       Victor ella sp.     Brazil
Hincks, 1880

Bryozoa Stenolaemata Cyclostomata

Crisiidae           Crisia              Brazil
Johnston,           pseudosolena
1838                (Marcus, 1937)

Cnidaria Anthozoa Hexacorallia Actiniaria

Actiniidae          Bunodosoma          Brazil
Gosse 1858          caissarum
                    Correa in
                    Belem, 1987

Cnidaria Anthozoa Hexacorallia Scleractinia

Rhizangiidae        Astrangia sp.       Brazil, Uruguay,
D'Orbigny,                              Puerto Rico
1851

Cnidaria Anthozoa Octocorallia Telestacea

Telestidae          Carijoa riisei      Atlantic, Pacific
Milne-              (Duchas-saing &
Edwards &           Michelotti,
Haime, 1857         1860)

Cnidaria Hydrozoa Anthoathecata

Bougainvilliidae    Bougainvillia       Atlantic, Indian,
Lutken, 1850        muscus (Allman,     W. Pacific
                    1863)

Eudendriidae        Eudendrium          Brazil
L. Agassiz,         caraiuru
1862                Marques &
                    Oliveira, 2003

                    Eudendrium          Atlantic, Indian,
                    carneum Clarke,     E. Pacific
                    1882

Oceaniidae          Corydendrium        Atlantic, Indian,
Eschscholtz,        parasiticum         Pacific
1829                (Linnaeus,
                    1767)

                    Turritopsis         Atlantic, Indian,
                    nutricula           Pacific
                    (McCrady,
                    1859a)

Pennariidae         Pennaria            Atlantic, Indian,
McCrady,            disticha            Pacific
1859b               Goldfuss. 1820

Tubulariidae        Acharadria          Atlantic, Indian
Fleming,            crocea (L.
1828                Agassiz, 1862)

                    Zyzzyzus            Atlantic, Indian
                    warreni Calder,
                    1888

Cnidaria Hydrozoa Leptothecata

Aglaopheniidae      Aglaophenia         Atlantic, Indian,
Marktanner-         latecarinata        W. Pacific
Tumeretscher,       Allman, 1877
1890

                    Macrorhynchia       Atlantic, Indian,
                    philippina          Pacific
                    Kirchenpauer,
                    1872

Campanulariidae     Clytia gracilis     Atlantic, Indian,
Johnston,           (M. Sars, 1851)     Pacific
1836

                    Obelia              Atlantic, Indian,
                    bidentata           Pacific
                    Clark, 1875

                    Obelia              Atlantic, Indian,
                    dichotoma           Pacific
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Obelia              Atlantic, Indian,
                    geniculata          Pacific
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Lafoeina            Atlantic, Indian,
                    amirantensis        Pacific, Mediterranean
                    (Millard &
                    Bouillon, 1973)

Haleciidae          Halecium            Atlantic, Indian,
Hincks, 1868        ?tenellum           Pacific
                    Hincks, 1861

                    Nemalecium          Indian, W Pacific
                    lighti
                    (Hargitt, 1924)

Halopterididae      Halopteris          Atlantic, Indian,
Millard,            diaphana            Pacific
1962                (Heller, 1868)

Hebellidae          Hebella furax       Atlantic, Indian
Fraser, 1912        Millard, 1957

Plumulariidae       Plumularia          Atlantic, Indian,
McCrady,            strictocarpa        W. Pacific
1859b               Pictet, 1893

Sertulariidae       Dynamena            Atlantic, Indian,
Lamouroux,          disticha (Bose,     Pacific
1812                1802)

                    Idiellana           Circumtropical
                    pristis
                    (Lamouroux,
                    1816)

                    Sertularia          Atlantic, Indian,
                    marginata
                    (Kirchenpauer,      Pacific
                    1864)               Atlantic, Indian,
                    Sertularia          Pacific
                    turbinata
                    (Lamouroux,
                    1816)

Crustacea Cirripedia

Balanidae           Amphibalanus        Cosmopolitan
Leach, 1817         amphitrite
                    (Darwin, 1854)

                    Amphibalanus        Cosmopolitan
                    improvisus
                    (Darwin, 1854)

                    Amphibalanus        Cosmopolitan
                    reticulatus
                    (Utinomi, 1967)

                    Balanus             Cosmopolitan
                    trigonus
                    Darwin, 1854

                                        distribution
                    Megabalanus         W. Atlantic, Indo-
                    coccopoma           Pacific
                    (Darwin, 1854)

                    Megabalanus         Cosmopolitan
                    tintinnabu-lum
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

Chthamalidae        Chthamalus
Darwin, 1854        proteus Dando &
                    Southward, 1980

Tetraclitidae       Newmanella          Cosmopolitan
Gravel, 1903        radiata
                    (Bruguiere,
                    1789)

                    Tetraclita          W. Atlantic
                    stalactifera
                    (Lamarck, 1818)

Crustacea Decapoda Pleocyemata Caridea

Palaemonidae        Periclemenes        W. Atlantic
Rafinesque,         longicaudatus
1815                (Stimpson,
                    1860)

Hippolytidae        Thor manningi       W. Atlantic, Central
Bate, 1888          Chace, 1972         Atlantic, E. Pacific

Alpheidae           Synalpheus sp.
Rafinesque,
1815

Crustacea Decapoda Pleocyemata Anomura

Porcellanidae       Pachycheles         W. Atlantic, E.
Haworth,            monilifer           Pacific
1825                (Dana, 1852)

                    Pisidia             W. Atlantic (Brazil)
                    brasiliensis
                    Haig in
                    Rodrigues da
                    Costa, 1968

Crustacea Decapoda Pleocyemata Brachyura

Inachidae           Stenorhynchus       W. Atlantic
MacLeay,            seticornis
1838                (Herbst, 1788)

Majidae             Microphrys          W. Atlantic
Salmouelle,         bicornutus
1819                (Latreille,
                    1825)

Epialtidae          Epialtus            W. Atlantic
MacLeay,            bituberculatus
1838                H.
                    Miline-Edwards,
                    1834

Pilumnidae          Pilumnus quoii      W. Atlantic
Salmouelle,         H.
1819                Milne-Edwards,
                    1834

                    Pilumnus            W. Atlantic
                    dasypodus
                    Kingsley, 1879

Grapsidae           Pachygrapsus        W, E. Atlantic,
MacLeay,            transversus         Mediterranean, E.
1838                (Gibbes, 1850)      Pacific

Entoprocta

Barentsidae         Barentsia           SW. Atlantic
Hincks, 1880        capitata
                    Calvet, 1904

Pedicellinidae      Sangavella          Brazil
Johnston,           vineta Marcus,
1847                1957

Mollusca Bivalvia Lamellibranchia Pteroida

Mytilidae           Perna perna         Atlantic
Rafinesque,         (Linnaeus,
1815                1758)

                    Brachidontes        Atlantic
                    exustus
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Brachidontes        Atlantic
                    solisianus
                    (D'Orbigny,
                    1846)

                    Myoforceps ari      Atlantic, Pacific
                    status
                    (Dillwyn, 1817)
Isognomonidae       Isognomon           Atlantic
Woodring,           bicolor (C.B.
1925                Adams, 1845)

Pteriidae           Pteria hirundo      Atlantic
Gray, 1847          (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Pinctata            Atlantic
                    imbricata
                    Roding, 1798

Mollusca Bivalvia Lamellibranchia Myoida

Myidae              Sphenia             Atlantic
Lamarck,            antillensis
1809                Dali & Simpson,
                    1901

Mollusca Gastropoda Eogastropoda Patellogastropoda

Lottiidae           Collisella          Atlantic
Gray, 1840          subrugosa
                    (D'Orbigny,
                    1846)

Mollusca Gastropoda Orthogastropoda Vetigastropoda

Fissurellidae       Diodora dysoni      Atlantic
Fleming,            (Reeve, 1850)
1822

                    Fissurella          Atlantic
                    clenchi
                    Farfante, 1943

Mollusca Gastropoda Orthogastropoda Caenogastropoda

Littorinidae        Littorina           Atlantic
Gray, 1840          ziczac (Gmelin,
                    1791)

                    Littorina flava     Atlantic
                    King &
                    Broderip, 1832

Columbellidae       Anachis             Atlantic
Swainson,           sertulariarum
1840                D'Orbigny, 1841

                    Mitrella            Atlantic
                    dichroa
                    Sowerby, 1844

Muricidae           Stramonita          Atlantic
Rafinesque,         brasiliensis
1815                Claremont &
                    Reid, 2011

Family              Species             Observation

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Aciculata Eunicida

Dorvilleidae        Dorvillea
Chamberlin,         sociabilis
1919                (Webster, 1879)

Eunicidae           Eunice rubra
Berthold,           Grube, 1856
1827

Oenonidae           Oenone fulgida      Reported to S.
Kinberg,            (Savigny, 1818)     Sebastiao as Oenone
1865                                    diphyllidia Schmar-
                                        da, 1861
Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Aciculata Phyllodocida

Hesionidae          Hesione picta
Grube, 1850         Muller, 1858

Nereididae          Perinereis
Johnston,           anderssoni
1865                Kinberg, 1866

                    Pseudonereis
                    palpata
                    (Treadwell,
                    1923)

Syllidae            Haplosyllis sp.
Grabe, 1850

                    Syllis
                    variegata
                    (Grube, 1860)

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Canalipalpata Sabellida

Sabellidae          Branchiomma         Previously
Latreille,          patriota            reported to Brazil
1825                Nogueira, Silva     as B.
                    & Rossi, 2006       nigromaculatum
                                        (Baird, 1865)

                    Branchiomma         Previously
                    luctuosum           reported to Brazil
                    (Grabe, 1869)       as B
                                        nigromaculatum
                                        (Baird, 1865)

                    Sabellastarte
                    sp.

Serpulidae          Hydroides sp.
Rafinesque,
1815

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Canalipalpata Spionida

Chaetopteridae      Chaetopterus
Audouin &           sp.
Milne-
Edwards,
1833d

Spionidae           Polydora
Grube, 1850         colonia Moore,
                    1907

Annelida Polychaeta Palpata Canalipalpata Terebellida

Cirratulidae        Cirriformia
Cams, 1863          punctata
                    (Grabe, 1859)

Terebellidae        Nicolea uspiana
Malmgren,           (Nogueira,
1867                2003)

Annelida
Polychaeta
Scolecida

Orbiniidae          Naineris
Hartman,            laevigata
1942                (Grabe, 1855)

Ascidiacea Aplousobranchia

Clavelinidae        Clavelina
Forbes &            oblonga
Hanley, 1848        Savigny, 1816

Polyclinidae        Aplidium
Milne               accarense
Edwards,
1842

                    (Millar, 1953)
                    Polyclinum
                    constellatum

                    Savigny, 1816
                    Aplidiopsis sp.

Holozoidae          Distaplia
Berrill,            bermudensis Van
1950                Name, 1902

                    Distaplia           D. stylifera
                    stylifera           previously
                    (Kowalewsky,        reported
                    1874)               (Rodrigues et al.
                                        1998) is a new
                                        species

Didemnidae          Didemnum
Giard, 1872         perlucidum
                    Monniot, 1983

                    Diplosoma
                    listerianum
                    (Milne-Edwards,
                    1841)

                    Lissoclinum
                    fragile (Van
                    Name, 1902)

                    Trididemnum
                    orbiculatum
                    (Van Name,
                    1902)

Ascidiacea Phlebobranchia

Ascidiidae          Phallusia nigra
Adams, 1858         Savigny, 1816

                    Ascidia cf.
                    multitentaculata
                    (Hartmeyer,
                    1912)

                    Ascidia
                    sydneiensis
                    Stimpson, 1855

Ascidiacea Stolidobranchia

Styelidae           Botrylloides
Sluiter,            giganteum
1895                (Peres, 1949)

                    Botrylloides
                    nigrum
                    (Herdman, 1886)

                    Symplegma
                    brakenhielmi
                    (Michaelsen,
                    1904) Symplegma
                    rubra

                    Monniot, 1972
                    Eusynstyela sp.

                    Polyandrocarpa
                    anguinea
                    (Sluiter, 1898)

                    Polyandrocarpa
                    zorritensis
                    (Van Name,
                    1931)

                    Styela canopus
                    (Savigny, 1816)

                    Styela plicata
                    (Lesueur, 1823)

Pyuridae            Herdmania
Hartmeyer,          pallida
1908                (Heller, 1878)

                    Microscosmus
                    exasperatus
                    Heller, 1878

Bryozoa Gymnolaemata Cheilostomata

Aeteidae            Aetea anguina       Aetea anguina is a
Smitt, 1868         (Linnaeus,          complex of species
                    1758)               (SP specimens are
                                        A. australis
                                        Jullien from
                                        Patagonia, but not
                                        from Australia)

                    Aetea sp.           Not Aetea truncata
                                        Marcus 1938 or
                                        Aetea curta 7/
                                        astings 1943

                    Aetea ligulata
                    Busk, 1852

Electridae          Electra tenella
Stach, 1937         (Hincks, 1881)

Membraniporidae     Biflustra
Busk, 1852          arborescens
                    Canu & Bassler,
                    1928

                    Biflustra
                    denticulata
                    (Busk, 1856)

                    Biflustra sp.

Catenicellidae      Catenicella
Busk, 1852          uberrima
                    (Harmer, 1957)

                    Savignyella
                    lafontii
                    (Audouin,
                    1826)

Hippopodinidae      Hippopodi na
Levinsen,           feegeensis
1909                (Busk, 1884)

Microporellidae     Microporella        not Pallas (1766)
Hincks, 1879        sp.

Schizoporellidae    Schizoporella       errata-
Jullien,            pungens (Canu &     pungensi-
1883                Bassler, 1928)      sabelleana complex
                                        (isabelleana
                                        described from Rio
                                        de Janeiro)

                    Schizoporella
                    sp.

Smittinidae         Parasmittina
Levinsen,           sp.
1909

Watersiporidae      Watersipora
Vigneaux,           subtorquata
1949                (D'Orbigny,
                    1852)

Antroporidae        Antropora
Vigneaux,           leycocypha
1949                (Marcus, 1937)

Bugulidae           Bugula neritina
Gray, 1848          (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Bugula
                    stolonifera
                    Ryland, 1960

Candidae            Scrupocellaria      diadema is a wide-
D'Orbigny,          aff. diade- ma      spread complex
1851                Busk, 1852          species. The
                                        Brazilian
                                        specimens require
                                        investigation.

                    Scrupocellaria
                    sp. Synnotum

Epistomiidae        aegyptiacum
Gregory,            (Audouin, 1826)
1893

Quadricellariidae   Nellia oculata
Gordon, 1984        Busk, 1852

Bryozoa Gymnolaemata Ctenostomata

Alcyonidiidae       Alcyonidium sp.
Johnston,           Aeverrillia
1838

Aeverriliidae       setigera
Jebram, 1973        (Hincks, 1887)

Arachnidiidae       Arachnoidella
Hincks, 1880        evelinae
                    (Marcus, 1937)

Vesiculariidae      Amathia
Hincks, 1880        brasiliensis
                    Busk, 1886

                    Amathia distans     Some records of
                    Busk, 1886          this species in
                                        port areas
                                        represent distinct
                                        species

                    Amathia sp.
                    Bowerbankia

                    maxima Winston,
                    1982

                    Zoobotryon
                    verticillatum
                    (Delle Chiaje,
                    1828)

Nolellidae          Anguinella
Harmer, 1915        palmata van
                    Beneden, 1845

                    Nolella sawayai
                    Marcus, 1938

                    Nolella sp.

Sundanellidae       Sundanella sp.
Jebram, 1973

Victorellidae       Victor ella sp.
Hincks, 1880

Bryozoa Stenolaemata Cyclostomata

Crisiidae           Crisia
Johnston,           pseudosolena
1838                (Marcus, 1937)

Cnidaria Anthozoa Hexacorallia Actiniaria

Actiniidae          Bunodosoma
Gosse 1858          caissarum
                    Correa in
                    Belem, 1987

Cnidaria Anthozoa Hexacorallia Scleractinia

Rhizangiidae        Astrangia sp.
D'Orbigny,
1851

Cnidaria Anthozoa Octocorallia Telestacea

Telestidae          Carijoa riisei
Milne-              (Duchas-saing &
Edwards &           Michelotti,
Haime, 1857         1860)

Cnidaria Hydrozoa Anthoathecata

Bougainvilliidae    Bougainvillia
Lutken, 1850        muscus (Allman,
                    1863)

Eudendriidae        Eudendrium
L. Agassiz,         caraiuru
1862                Marques &
                    Oliveira, 2003

                    Eudendrium
                    carneum Clarke,
                    1882

Oceaniidae          Corydendrium
Eschscholtz,        parasiticum
1829                (Linnaeus,
                    1767)

                    Turritopsis
                    nutricula
                    (McCrady,
                    1859a)

Pennariidae         Pennaria
McCrady,            disticha
1859b               Goldfuss. 1820

Tubulariidae        Acharadria
Fleming,            crocea (L.
1828                Agassiz, 1862)

                    Zyzzyzus
                    warreni Calder,
                    1888

Cnidaria Hydrozoa Leptothecata

Aglaopheniidae      Aglaophenia
Marktanner-         latecarinata
Tumeretscher,       Allman, 1877
1890

                    Macrorhynchia
                    philippina
                    Kirchenpauer,
                    1872

Campanulariidae     Clytia gracilis
Johnston,           (M. Sars, 1851)
1836

                    Obelia
                    bidentata
                    Clark, 1875

                    Obelia
                    dichotoma
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Obelia
                    geniculata
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Lafoeina
                    amirantensis
                    (Millard &
                    Bouillon, 1973)

Haleciidae          Halecium
Hincks, 1868        ?tenellum
                    Hincks, 1861

                    Nemalecium
                    lighti
                    (Hargitt, 1924)

Halopterididae      Halopteris
Millard,            diaphana
1962                (Heller, 1868)

Hebellidae          Hebella furax
Fraser, 1912        Millard, 1957

Plumulariidae       Plumularia
McCrady,            strictocarpa
1859b               Pictet, 1893

Sertulariidae       Dynamena
Lamouroux,          disticha (Bose,
1812                1802)

                    Idiellana
                    pristis
                    (Lamouroux,
                    1816)

                    Sertularia
                    marginata
                    (Kirchenpauer,
                    1864)
                    Sertularia
                    turbinata
                    (Lamouroux,
                    1816)

Crustacea Cirripedia

Balanidae           Amphibalanus
Leach, 1817         amphitrite
                    (Darwin, 1854)

                    Amphibalanus
                    improvisus
                    (Darwin, 1854)

                    Amphibalanus
                    reticulatus
                    (Utinomi, 1967)

                    Balanus
                    trigonus
                    Darwin, 1854

                    Megabalanus
                    coccopoma
                    (Darwin, 1854)

                    Megabalanus
                    tintinnabu-lum
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

Chthamalidae        Chthamalus
Darwin, 1854        proteus Dando &
                    Southward, 1980

Tetraclitidae       Newmanella
Gravel, 1903        radiata
                    (Bruguiere,
                    1789)

                    Tetraclita
                    stalactifera
                    (Lamarck, 1818)

Crustacea Decapoda Pleocyemata Caridea

Palaemonidae        Periclemenes
Rafinesque,         longicaudatus
1815                (Stimpson,
                    1860)

Hippolytidae        Thor manningi       Commonly found on
Bate, 1888          Chace, 1972         grass flats from
                                        the tide line to a
                                        depth of at least
                                        11 m

Alpheidae           Synalpheus sp.
Rafinesque,
1815

Crustacea Decapoda Pleocyemata Anomura

Porcellanidae       Pachycheles         From shallow
Haworth,            monilifer           waters to 40 m
1825                (Dana, 1852)

                    Pisidia             Intertidal
                    brasiliensis
                    Haig in
                    Rodrigues da
                    Costa, 1968

Crustacea Decapoda Pleocyemata Brachyura

Inachidae           Stenorhynchus       From shallow
MacLeay,            seticornis          waters to great
1838                (Herbst, 1788)      depths

Majidae             Microphrys          From shallow
Salmouelle,         bicornutus          waters to 70 m
1819                (Latreille,
                    1825)

Epialtidae          Epialtus            Shallow water
MacLeay,            bituberculatus      species living on
1838                H.                  algae and seagrass
                    Miline-Edwards,     meadows, on hard
                    1834                bottoms, and tidal
                                        pools

Pilumnidae          Pilumnus quoii      From shallow waters
Salmouelle,         H.                  to 100 m
1819                Milne-Edwards,
                    1834

                    Pilumnus            From shallow waters
                    dasypodus           to 30 m
                    Kingsley, 1879

Grapsidae           Pachygrapsus        Shallow waters
MacLeay,            transversus
1838                (Gibbes, 1850)

Entoprocta

Barentsidae         Barentsia
Hincks, 1880        capitata
                    Calvet, 1904

Pedicellinidae      Sangavella
Johnston,           vineta Marcus,
1847                1957

Mollusca Bivalvia Lamellibranchia Pteroida

Mytilidae           Perna perna         From intertidal to
Rafinesque,         (Linnaeus,          10 m depth
1815                1758)

                    Brachidontes        Shallow waters
                    exustus
                    (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Brachidontes        Shallow waters
                    solisianus
                    (D'Orbigny,
                    1846)

                    Myoforceps ari      From intertidal to
                    status              5 m depth
                    (Dillwyn, 1817)
Isognomonidae       Isognomon           From intertidal to
Woodring,           bicolor (C.B.       7 m depth
1925                Adams, 1845)

Pteriidae           Pteria hirundo      Shallow waters
Gray, 1847          (Linnaeus,
                    1758)

                    Pinctata            Shallow waters
                    imbricata
                    Roding, 1798

Mollusca Bivalvia Lamellibranchia Myoida

Myidae              Sphenia             Shallow waters
Lamarck,            antillensis
1809                Dali & Simpson,
                    1901

Mollusca Gastropoda Eogastropoda Patellogastropoda

Lottiidae           Collisella          Shallow waters
Gray, 1840          subrugosa
                    (D'Orbigny,
                    1846)

Mollusca Gastropoda Orthogastropoda Vetigastropoda

Fissurellidae       Diodora dysoni      Shallow waters
Fleming,            (Reeve, 1850)
1822

                    Fissurella          Shallow waters
                    clenchi
                    Farfante, 1943

Mollusca Gastropoda Orthogastropoda Caenogastropoda

Littorinidae        Littorina           From intertidal to
Gray, 1840          ziczac (Gmelin,     5 m
                    1791)

                    Littorina flava     From intertidal to
                    King &              6 m
                    Broderip, 1832

Columbellidae       Anachis             Shallow waters
Swainson,           sertulariarum
1840                D'Orbigny, 1841

                    Mitrella            Shallow waters
                    dichroa
                    Sowerby, 1844

Muricidae           Stramonita          Shallow waters
Rafinesque,         brasiliensis
1815                Claremont &
                    Reid, 2011

Table 2. Number of species (percentage) present in one, two or
three sites in the Sao Sebastiao Channel.

                            1           2           3       Sum

Annelida--Polychaeta    13 (76.5)   2 (11.8)    2 (11.8)    17
Ascidiacea              10 (41.7)   9 (39.1)    5 (21.7)    24
Bryozoa                 20 (55.6)   8 (22.2)    8 (22.2)    36
Cnidaria                15 (55.6)   8 (30.8)    4 (15.4)    27
Crustacea--Cirripedia   2 (22.2)    3 (33.3)    4 (44.4)     9
Crustacea--Decapoda      1 (9.1)    6 (54.5)    4 (36.4)    11
Entoprocta               1 (50)      1 (50)       0 (0)      2
Mollusca--Bivalvia      5 (62.5)    3 (37.5)      0 (0)      8
Mollusca--Gastropoda    5 (62.5)    3 (37.5)      0 (0)      8
Total                   72 (50.7)   44 (30.3)   26 (19.0)   142

Table 3. Number of species (percentage) by status present in one,
two or three sites in the Sao Sebastiao Channel.

                     1           2           3       Sum

Native           24 (45.3)   20 (37.8)   9 (17.0)    53
Cryptogenic      40 (58.0)   18 (26.1)   11 (15.9)   69
Introduced       3 (20.0)    6 (40.0)    6 (40.0)    15
Not classified    5 (100)      0 (0)       0 (0)      5
Total            72 (50.7)   44 (30.3)   26 (19.0)   142

Table 4. Number of species (percentage) by status in the Sao
Sebastiao Channel. N: native, I: Introduced, C: Cryptogenic.

                            N           I           C

Annelida--Polychaeta    4 (23.5)     1 (5.9)    8 (47.1)
Ascidiacea              3 (12.5)    6 (25.0)    15 (62.5)
Bryozoa                 17 (47.2)     0 (0)      18 (50)
Cnidaria                3 (11.0)     1 (3.7)    23 (85.2)
Crustacea--Cirripedia   2 (22.2)    4 (44.4)    3 (33.3)
Crustacea--Decapoda     9 (81.8)      0 (0)     2 (18.2)
Entoprocta               2 (100)      0 (0)       0 (0)
Mollusca--Bivalvia      5 (62.5)    3 (37.5)      0 (0)
Mollusca--Gastropoda     8 (100)      0 (0)       0 (0)
Total                   53 (37.3)   15 (10.6)   69 (48.6)

                        Not classified

Annelida--Polychaeta       4 (23.5)
Ascidiacea                  0 (0)
Bryozoa                    1 (2.8)
Cnidaria                    0 (0)
Crustacea--Cirripedia       0 (0)
Crustacea--Decapoda         0 (0)
Entoprocta                  0 (0)
Mollusca--Bivalvia          0 (0)
Mollusca--Gastropoda        0 (0)
Total                      5 (3.5)
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Title Annotation:articulo en ingles
Author:Marques, Antonio C.; dos Santos Kloh, Aline; Esteves Migotto, Alvaro; Cabral, Ana C.; Ravedutti Rigo
Publication:Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research
Date:Apr 1, 2013
Words:15821
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