Essential oil composition of Senecio graciliflorus DC: comparative analysis of different parts and evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities.
The essential oil of different parts of Senecio graciliflorus DC was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS for the first time. A total of 17, 20,19 and 17 constituents were identified comprising 99.90, 95.50, 98.93 and 95.96% of the essential oil of flower, leaf, stem and root parts of Senecio graciliflorus respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated in the essential oil with 85.28% in flower, 57.53% in leaf, 67.74% in stem and 64.98% in root oil. [alpha]-pinene, cis-ocimene, 1,2,3- trimethylcyclohexane and [beta]-pinene were the major constituents of the essential oil. The flower essential oil exhibited a strong antioxidant potential displaying [IC.sub.50] values of 21.6[+ or -]0.6 and 26.0[+ or -] 1.0 [micro]g/ml in DPPH and hydroxyl radical assays respectively. On the other hand the essential oil of flower and root displayed highest cytotoxicity against lung (A-549) cancer cell lines ([IC.sub.50] = 19.1 [+ or -]0.9 and 21.3 [+ or -] 1.1 [micro]g/ml respectively. This study which represents the first report of the essential oil composition and bioevaluation of Senecio graciliflorus, can serve as a new source of cytotoxic and antioxidant activity.
Senecio graciliflorus DC
It is a well established fact that some reactive oxygen species which include singlet oxygen ([sub.1][O.sup.2]), superoxide ion ([O.sub.2.sup.-]), hydroxyl ion (OH[degrees]) and hydrogen peroxide ([H.sub.2][O.sub.2]) are highly reactive and toxic constituents generated in cells under normal conditions. The process gains speed due to external factors like smoke, ionising radiations, pesticides, solvents and pollutants (Halliwell and Gutteridge, 1989). The uncontrolled production of such reactive species are involved in the onset of diseases like cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, cirrhosis and arteriosclerosis as well as degenerative diseases that lead to accelerated ageing caused as a result of damage to enzymes, proteins, lipids and DNA. (Halliwell 1997; Halliwell and Gutteridge, 2006). Body's defence system while combating these problems becomes inefficient either because of stress or due to old age. As a result need for dietary intake of synthetically available antioxidants like BHT, BTA etc. arises but the use of such substances is restricted because of toxicological concerns related to them, hence paving way for more safer natural products as food preservatives as well as antioxidants (Peschel et al., 2006). Some natural products (essential oils) have been recognised by FDA as GRAS-Generally Regarded As Safe (Leong and Shui, 2002). So far so many plants have been studied for their antioxidant potential but scientific information particularly on some plants that are scarcely used in medicine is still a secret. Hence it is very useful to continue the search for new natural antioxidants (Miliauskas et al., 2004).
Cancer which is the leading cause of death in world deserves special attention. Standard chemotherapy is compromised by the development of drug resistance and unwanted, partly life-threatening side effects thus necessitating the need for novel treatment options with improved features. Various natural products including paclitaxel, vinblastine and vincristine as well as the semisynthetic derivatives like etoposide and teneposide are used as anticancer drugs. Plants are thus considered as potential sources for anticancer screening (Efferth et al., 2007; Buttner et al., 1996). Plant volatiles, i.e., essential oils and their constituents have been found to exert both in vitro and in vivo anti-tumour activity against various cancer cell lines, some of which have advanced to clinical phase 1 trials in the past (Crowell 1999).
The genus Senecio (Family Asteraceae; Tribe Senecioneae) is one of the richest in species among the angiosperms with more than 1500 species of aromatic herbs and shrubby plants native to southern Europe, but now spread all over the world (Nordenstam, 1977). It is an important genus because of many botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties. The senecio plants are diverse in their utility ranging from their ornamental value up to their use in traditional medicine for the treatment of cough, asthma, bronchitis, eczema and wound-healing (Joffe, 2001 ; El-Shazly et al., 2002; Hammond et al., 1998; Uzun et al., 2004). Eremophilanes (Zdero et al., 1989), sesquiterpenoids (Bohlmann and Ziesche, 1981), diterpenoids (Cheng et al., 1993), triterpenoids (Ruicker et al., 1999), pyrrolizidines (Bohlmann et al., 1986) and shikimic acid derivatives (Barrero et al., 1988) have been characterised from these plants exhibiting a range of bioactivities including antimicrobial (Perez et al., 1999), cytotoxic (Loizzo et al., 2007), molluscidal (Grace and Khattab, 1998) and antibacterial (El-Shazly et al., 2002). Pyrrolizidines may also be of great importance as a cause of human disease, as a known outbreak would indicate (Pieters et al., 1989).Senecio graciliflorus DC (Fig. 1) is a poisonous plant that grows in the alpine forests and meadows of Kashmir valley. It is locally known as "Bhagghu". The water extract of the leaves is a reputed folk medicine for treating skin rashes and eruptions (Koul, 1997). Till date there is no phytochemical report except for some biochemical tests showing the presence of various classes of compounds in Senecio graciliflorus (Joshi et al., 2013). As part of our research program with regard to chemoprofiling of medicinal plants from high altitude areas of Kashmir Himalayas (Lone et al., 2013; Shakeel-U-Rehman et al., 2013; Sofi et al., 2014), Senecio graciliflorus was studied for volatile composition and evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic potential for the first time.
Materials and methods
Senecio graciliflorus DC (Fig. 1) was collected from the high altitude Gulmarg region of Kashmir valley in the month of September 2012. The plant was authenticated by Prof. A. R. Naqshi, Ex. Professor Department of Botany, University of Kashmir. Voucher specimen bearing no. IIIMH-SP-1001 was deposited in the herbarium of the institute, IIIM Srinagar.
Extraction of essential oil
The fresh plant material of Senecio gradliflorus DC was separated in to flowers, leaves, stems and roots and the separated parts were subjected to hydrodistillation in a cleavenger type apparatus to obtain the oils in 0.08%, 0.07%, 0.04% and 0.04% respectively. The essential oils obtained were extracted with HPLC grade hexane (1.0 ml), dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and stored at 4-6[degrees]C in a sealed air tight vial.
GC-FID and GC-MS analysis
GC/FID was carried out on Perkin Elmer auto system XL Gas Chromatograph 8500 series with flame ionisation detector (FID) and head space analyser using a fused silica capillary RTX-5 column (30 m x 0.32 mm, film thickness 0.25 [micro]m) coated with dimethyl polysiloxane. Oven temperature was programmed from 60 to 280[degrees]C at 3[degrees]C/min, with injector temperature 230[degrees]C and detector temperature 250[degrees]C. Injection volume 1 [micro]l, nitrogen was used as a carrier gas (1.0 ml/min).
GC-MS analysis was carried on a Varian Gas Chromatograph series 3800 fitted with a VF-5 ms fused silica capillary column (60 m x 0.25 mm, film thickness 0.25 [micro]m) coupled with a 4000 series mass detector under the following conditions: injection volume 0.5 [micro]l with split ratio 1:60, helium as carrier gas at 1.0 ml/min constant flow mode, injector temperature 230[degrees]C at 3[degrees]C, oven temperature was programmed from 60 to 280[degrees]C at 3[degrees]C/min. Mass spectra: electron impact (EI+) mode, 70 eV and ion source temperature 250[degrees]C. Mass spectra were recorded over 50-500 amu range.
Identification of components
Identification of the individual components was done on the basis of Retention index (RI) determined by Kovats method using n-alkane series ([C.sub.5]-[C.sub.28]) as standards. Identification of individual components was done by comparison of their RI values with those of standards and by MS library search (NIST 05 and Wiley) along with the MS literature data (Jennings and Shibamoto, 1980; Adams, 2009).
The essential oil of all the parts of Senecio graciliflorus DC was subjected to screening for the possible antioxidant activity by two known complementary methods namely DPPH free radical and hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenging assays.
DPPH free radical-scavenging activity
DPPH free radical scavenging activity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oil of all parts of Senecio gradliflorus DC on stable 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH) (Bozin et al., 2006). A 0.5 mM solution of DPPH in methanol was prepared. A stock solution of sample (1.0 mg/ml) in methanol was prepared. Different concentrations (10-100 [micro]g/ml) were added to 1.0 ml (0.5 mM DPPH) and final volume was made to 3.0 ml with methanol. The mixture was shaken vigorously and kept standing at room temperature for 10 min. Then the absorbance of the mixture was measured at 517 nm on UV-spectrophotometer. The decrease in the absorbance indicates an increase in DPPH-radical scavenging activity. The percentage inhibition was calculated by the following equation.
DPPH radical scavenging(%) = (1 - [[A.sub.S]/[A.sub.C]]) x 100
where [A.sub.C] is the absorbance of control and As is absorbance of sample. Vitamin C served as positive control. The experiment was done in triplicate and mean values were calculated. Standard deviation for the triplicate analysis was also calculated. [IC.sub.50] value was calculated as the concentration of sample required to scavenge 50% of DPPH free radicals.
Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity
Hydroxyl radical scavenging was carried out by measuring the competition between deoxyribose and the essential oil of different parts of Senecio graciliflorus DC for hydroxyl radicals generated in Fenton reaction. Hydroxyl radicals degrade deoxyribose leading to the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) that could be measured spectrophotometrically at 532 nm (Bozin et al., 2006). The reaction mixture containing 25 mM deoxyribose, 10 mM ferric chloride, 100 mM ascorbic acid, 2.8 mM [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] in 10 mM K[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4] (pH 7.4) and various concentrations of essential oil of the different parts of Senecio graciliflorus DC was incubated at 37[degrees]C for 1.0 h. Then 1.0 ml of 1.6% thiobarbituric acid and 1.0 ml of 3% trichloroacetic acid were added and heated at 100 C for 20 min. The TBARS was measured spectrophotometrically at 532 nm. The results were expressed as percentage inhibition of deoxyribose oxidation, as determined by the following formula.
Inhibition(%) = (1 - [B/A]) x 100
where A was the malonaldehyde produced by Fenton reaction treated alone and B was the malonaldehyde produced in the presence of essential oil of Senecio graciliflorus DC and known antioxidant (Vitamin C).
Cytotoxicity using SRB assay
RPMI-1640 medium, streptomycin, foetal bovine serum, sodium bicarbonate, phosphate buffer saline, sulphorhodamine, trypsin, 5-flurouracil and gentamycin sulphate were purchased from Sigma Chemicals Co. Glacial acetic acid from Fischer scientific and trichloroactetic acid (TCA) from Merck specialities private limited. All the human cancer cell lines (A-549, THP-1, PC-3, HCT-116) were obtained from ATCC Sigma. All the cells used were grown in RPMI-1640 medium containing 10% FBS, 100 unit penicillin/100 [micro]g streptomycin per ml medium. Cells were allowed to grow in carbon dioxide incubator (Thermo Scientific, USA) at 37[degrees]C with 98% humidity and 5% C[O.sub.2] gas environment.
In the present study the cytotoxic effect of the essential oil was evaluated using Sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay. The SRB dye binds to the basic protein of cells that have been fixed to tissue-culture plates by trichloroacetic acid (TCA). As the binding of SRB is stoichiometric, the amount of dye extracted from stained cells is directly proportional to the cell number. In the present case, all cell lines seeded in flat-bottomed 96-well plates were allowed to adhere overnight and then media containing different oil samples (varying concentrations) were added. The plates were assayed for 48 h. The cells were fixed by adding 50 [micro]l of ice-cold 50% TCA to each well for 60 min. The plates were washed five times in running tap water and stained with 100 [micro]l per well SRB reagent (0.4%, w/v SRB) in 1 % acetic acid for 30 min. The plates were washed five times in 1 % acetic acid to remove unbound SRB and allowed to dry overnight. SRB was solubilised with 100 [micro]l per well 10 mM tris-base, shaken for 5 min and the optical density was measured at 570 nm.
Results and discussion
Chemical composition of oil
Hydrodistillation of different parts of Senecio graciliflorus DC yielded yellow to green coloured oil. A total of 17, 20, 19 and 17 constituents were identified by combined GC-FID and GC-MS analysis (Table 1). The typical GC-MS chromatograms are presented in Fig. 2. [alpha]-pinene (33.97% in flower, 18.36% in leaf, 24.66% in stem and 36.36% in root oil), cis-ocimene (26.83% in flower, 24.14% in leaf, 24.97% in stem and 11.15% in root oil), 1,2,3-trimethylcyclohexane (6.37% in flower, 14.11% in leaf, 11.15% in shoot and 13.32% in root oil), [beta]-pinene (11.9% in flower, 6.41% in leaf, 9.05% in stem and 10.84% in root) were the major constituents of essential oil. The most abundant constituents thus observed were [alpha]-pinene (33.97% in flower oil and 36.36% in root oil) and Cis-cimene (24.14% in leaf and 24.97% in stem) essential oils. A fair amount of variation in composition was observed in different parts of this plant.
The chemical class distribution of essential oil is given in Table 2. It can be seen that the oil of all parts of Senecio graciliflorus DC is monoterpene rich. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constitute 85.28% of flower, 57.53% of leaf, 67.74% of stem and 64.98% of root oil. Other constituents which constitute 11.20% of flower oil, 28.65% of leaf oil, 20.36% of stem oil and 25.49% of root oil mainly include 1-ethyl cyclopentane, trans-7-methyl-3-octene, 1,2,3-trimethylcyclohexane, neryl acetate, 1-dodecyne and 5-undecen-3-yne. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons predominated in the stem essential oil (8.78%) followed by leaf oil (7.48%), root oil (3.03%) and flower oil (2.81%). Oxygenated monoterpenes were however completely absent except for octenyl acetate (~1-2% only). However oxygenated sesquiterpenes were present in the least quantities.
Our data regarding the chemical composition of the essential oil is in accordance with that of other senecio species reported in literature; e.g., Senecio cineraria DC leaves (Grace and Khattab, 1998), Senecio fllaginoides aerial parts (Arancibia et al., 1999) and Senecio graveolens leaves (Perez et al., 1999) have predominance of monoterpene hydrocarbons while others like Senecio tephrosioides Tuez (Fernandez-Zuniga et al., 1996) or Senecio ambavilla (Bory) Pers (Vera et al., 1994) have the prevalence of oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes respectively as abundant chemical class.
The essential oil of Senecio graciliflorus DC was subjected to antioxidant profiling using DPPH and OH radical scavenging assay systems. Generally the antioxidant activity is determined by at least two assay systems to establish the authenticity because of highly reactive facet of essential oils. So the essential oil of Senecio graciliflorus DC was screened for antioxidant activity using these two complementary assays. It was observed that the oil possess a dose dependent antioxidant potential both in DPPH and OH radical scavenging assays (Figs. 3 and 4). In both the assay systems vitamin C served as a positive control. In DPPH assay flower essential oil exhibited strong antioxidant potential with [IC.sub.50] of 21.6 [+ or -] 0.6 [micro]g/ml followed by root oil (24.2 [+ or -] 0.8 [micro]g/ml), leaf oil (24.8 [+ or -] 0.7 [micro]g/ml) and stem oil (27.7 [+ or -] 1.0 [micro]g/ml) compared to Vitamin C with [IC.sub.50] value of 14.3 [+ or -] 0.3 [micro]g/ml. However in OH radical assay the highest scavenging effect was observed in flower oil ([IC.sub.50] = 26 [+ or -] 1.0 [micro]g/ml) compared to standard Vitamin C whose [IC.sub.50] value was found to be 20 [+ or -]0.7 [micro]g/ml). The [IC.sub.50] values of all the samples have been graphically presented in Fig. 5.
Senecio graciliflorus DC essential oil was also studied in a calorimetric Sulphorhodamine B assay against a panel of 4 human cancerous cell lines viz. Human Lung (A-549), leukaemia (THP-1), Prostate (PC-3) and colon (HCT-116) cancer cell lines. Preliminary screening of essential oil of various parts of Senecio graciliflorus DC was first carried out at a fixed concentration of 50 [micro]g/ml with Mitomycin-C as standard (Fig. 6). The oils that exhibited >50% inhibition against any cell line were assayed further to determine [IC.sub.50] value and a dose-dependent cytotoxicity relation was observed. Senecio graciliflorus DC leaf essential oil was found to be most potent against human lung cancer cells ([IC.sub.50] = 19.1 [+ or -]0.9 [micro]g/ml) followed by root oil against the same cell line with [IC.sub.50] of 21.3 [+ or -]1.1 [micro]g/ml. The results are shown in Figs. 6 and 7.
Previously it has been shown that the chemical constituents like [alpha]-pinene, ocimene, [beta]-pinene etc. act in an additive way to account for the observed pharmacological effects of essential oils --a phenomenon called synergism. Synergism has emerged as a new research activity in recent years and the comparatively stronger pharmacological effects of different constituents in mixed state than in individual state are well explained in the light of synergism (Wagner and Ulrich-Merzenich, 2009), e.g., the cytotoxicity of the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and three of its major constituents [alpha]-pinene, [beta]-pinene and 1,8-cineole against the human tumour cell lines including human ovarian cancer cell lines (SK-OV3, HO-8910) and human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (Bel-7402) follows an order Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil > [alpha]-pinene > [beta]-pinene >1,8-cineole which is a strong indication of synergistic effect of the constituents (Wang et al., 2012). Similarly the DPPPH scavenging activity of Dacryodes buettneri H. J. Lam. is also attributed to the additive/synergistic effect of its constituents like 1,8-cineole, [alpha]-pinene and [beta]-pinene (Houghton, 2004). The potent cytotoxic effect of Cuatteria pogonopus essential oil is attributed to the additive/synergistic effects of its main constituents (Jose et al., 2013). In case of Tagetes patula L. the effective antioxidant activity has been attributed to the relatively high content of (3-ocimene, [beta]-pinene and trans-caryophyllene suggesting a synergistic effect of the constituents thereof (Negi et al., 2013). Since the essential oil of Senecio graciliflorus DC is also found to contain [alpha]-pinene, [beta]-pinene, ocimene and caryophyllene it is expected that the potent antioxidant and cytotoxic effect of this essential oil may be the outcome of synergistic effect of the major constituents. In addition to major constituents some minor constituents may also be contributing to the observed bioactivity (Wang et al., 2008).
A comparative study of the essential oil composition of different parts of Senecio graciliflorus DC growing in Kashmir Himalayas was carried out for the first time. The oil was further studied for cytotoxic (SRB assay) and antioxidant activities (DPPH and OH radical assays). The monoterpenoid rich essential oil of Senecio graciliflorus DC exhibits fair amount of cytotoxic and antioxidant activity. The highest content of monoterpene hydrocarbons was found in flower oil (85.28%) and [alpha]-pinene as the most abundant constituent (36.36%) in root oil. The pharmacological effect that this oil depicts is believed to be the outcome of the synergistic effect of the major constituents. This study thus reflects that Senecio graciliflorus DC could be considered as a new potential natural source of monoterpene rich oil that exhibits potent antioxidant and cytotoxic effect for use in food and pharmaceutical industry.
Received 20 September 2013
Received in revised form 4 November 2013
Accepted 30 January 2014
Conflicts of interest statement
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
One of the authors Shabir H. Lone thanks CSIR-India for the financial grant in the form of Senior Research Fellowship.
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Shabir H. Lone (a), Khursheed A. Bhat (a), *, Haroon M. Bhat (a), Rabiya Majeed (b), Rajneesh Anand (c), Abid Hamid (b), Mohd A. Khuroo (d)
(a) Bioorganic Chemistry Division, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR), Srinagar 190005, Jammu and Kashmir, India
(b) Cancer Pharmacology Division, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR),Jammu 180001, Jammu and Kashmir, India
(c) Instrumentation Division, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR), Jammu 180001, Jammu and Kashmir, India
(d) Department of Chemistry, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190006, India
* Corresponding author at: Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Sanat Nagar, Institute's Publication No. IIIM/1574/2013, Srinagar 190005, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Tel.: +91 1942431253x123; fax: +91 1942441331.
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (K.A. Bhat).
Table 1 Comparative quality profile of the volatiles of various parts of Senecio graciliflorus DC. Compounds Flower, % Area Leaf, % Area 1-Ethy1-2-methylcyclopentane 2.64 3.54 1,2,3-Trimethyl cyclohexane 6.37 14.11 Trans-7-methyl-3-octene 1.00 4.11 [alpha]-Pinene 33.97 18.36 Sabinene 5.24 2.46 [beta]-Pinene 11.90 6.41 Limonene 1.21 0.85 [beta]-Phellandrene 3.43 1.53 Cis-ocimene 26.83 24.14 Trans-[alpha]-ocimene 2.70 2.78 Octenyl acetate 0.61 1.02 5-Undecen-3-yne 0.54 1.11 1-Dodecyne - 1.70 Nerylacetate 0.65 4.08 [beta]-Caryophyllene 0.23 0.74 [alpha]-Caryophyllene 1.02 4.33 [alpha]-Curcumene 0.48 0.78 Valencene 1.08 1.11 [alpha]-Farnesene -- 0.52 [alpha]-Caryophyllene oxide -- 0.82 Total 99.90 95.50 Compounds Stem, % Area Root, % Area RI 1-Ethy1-2-methylcyclopentane 3.33 1.32 783 1,2,3-Trimethyl cyclohexane 11.15 13.32 870 Trans-7-methyl-3-octene 2.18 3.32 897 [alpha]-Pinene 24.66 36.36 932 Sabinene 3.02 2.53 969 [beta]-Pinene 9.05 10.84 974 Limonene 1.06 1.11 1024 [beta]-Phellandrene 2.25 1.60 1025 Cis-ocimene 24.97 11.15 1032 Trans-[alpha]-ocimene 2.73 1.39 1047 Octenyl acetate 1.02 1.81 1110 5-Undecen-3-yne 1.47 0.64 1164 1-Dodecyne 1.25 3.36 1184 Nerylacetate 0.98 3.53 1359 [beta]-Caryophyllene 1.00 0.49 1408 [alpha]-Caryophyllene 5.23 2.54 1417 [alpha]-Curcumene 1.23 -- 1479 Valencene 1.32 -- 1496 [alpha]-Farnesene -- -- 1520 [alpha]-Caryophyllene oxide 1.03 0.66 1582 Total 98.93 95.96 Compounds Method of detection 1-Ethy1-2-methylcyclopentane RI, MS 1,2,3-Trimethyl cyclohexane RI, MS, ST Trans-7-methyl-3-octene RI, MS [alpha]-Pinene RI, MS, ST Sabinene RI, MS [beta]-Pinene RI, MS, ST Limonene RI, MS [beta]-Phellandrene RI, MS Cis-ocimene RI, MS, ST Trans-[alpha]-ocimene RI, MS Octenyl acetate RI, MS 5-Undecen-3-yne RI, MS 1-Dodecyne RI, MS Nerylacetate RI, MS [beta]-Caryophyllene RI, MS [alpha]-Caryophyllene RI, MS [alpha]-Curcumene RI, MS Valencene RI, MS [alpha]-Farnesene RI, MS [alpha]-Caryophyllene oxide RI, MS Total Identification methods: MS, by comparison of the mass spectra with those from computer mass libraries, NIST 05 library, Wiley and Adams; RI, by comparison of R1 with those reported in literature; ST, by comparison of the retention time and mass spectra of authentic standards. Table 2 Chemical class distribution in the essential oils of Senecio graciliflorus DC. Plant part Flower % Area NC (a) Leaf % Area NC (a) Constituents Monoterpene Hydrocarbons 85.28 7 57.53 7 Oxygenated Monoterpenes 0.61 1 1.02 1 Sesquiterpene Hydrocarbons 2.81 4 7.48 5 Oxygenated Sesquiterpenes -- -- 0.82 1 Others 11.20 5 28.65 6 Total 99.90 17 95.50 20 Plant part Stem % Area NC (a) Root % Area NC (a) Constituents Monoterpene Hydrocarbons 67.74 7 64.98 7 Oxygenated Monoterpenes 1.02 1 1.80 1 Sesquiterpene Hydrocarbons 8.78 4 3.03 2 Oxygenated Sesquiterpenes 1.03 1 0.66 1 Others 20.36 6 25.49 6 Total 98.93 19 95.96 17 (a) Number of constituents
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|Author:||Lone, Shabir H.; Bhat, Khursheed A.; Bhat, Haroon M.; Majeed, Rabiya; Anand, Rajneesh; Hamid, Abid;|
|Publication:||Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy & Phytopharmacology|
|Date:||May 15, 2014|
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