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Environmental pollution in twin cities: Its awareness and control-a case study.


Industrialisation has brought prosperity to the people all over the world and increased the material comforts and benefits, At the same time, it created problems like AIR POLLUTION. The air that man breaths is polluted by industrial and automobile emissions bringing them into the atmosphere suspended articulate matter (SPM), oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, carbon monoxide, photochemical oxidants and hydrocarbons. These pollutants individually and collectively, have terogenic, carcinogenic or mutagenic effects and can also cause respiratory ailments; the physiological barriers are ineffective against them.

Air pollution means the presence of one or more contaminants in the atmosphere such as dust, fumes, gas, mist, odour, smoke or vapor, in quantities, with characteristics, and of durations such as to be injurious to human, plant or animal life or to property, or which unreasonably interfere with the comfortable enjoyment of life and property.

Air pollution may be any atmospheric condition in which certain substances are present in such concentrations that they can produce undesirable effects on man-and his environment. These substances include gases like sulphur oxides, NOx, CO, hydrocarbons etc,. Particulate matter like smoke, dust fumes, aerosols etc,.

Sources of air pollution

The sources of air pollution are of two types.

(a) Natural sources

(b) Anthropogenic sources.

Natural sources include wind blown dus, ash and gases, smoke and trace gases from forest fires.

Anthropogenic sources over agricultural operations, transportation systems, combustion of fuels, process industries etc,.

Classification of Air Pollutants

Air pollutants are classified into two groups

1. Primary air pollutants and

2. Secondary air pollutants.

Primary Pollutants

Pollutants that come directly into the atmosphere from the source of generation are called primary pollutants.

The major primary pollutants are

(a) CO

(b) Particulates

(c) Oxides of sulphur

(d) Hydrocarbons and

(e) Oxides of nitrogen.

Distribution of various pollutants in the atmosphere is as shown in the fig 1.

Secondary pollutants

Secondary pollutants are produced in the atmosphere due to chemical interaction of primary contaminants with oxygen, nitrogen, CO, etc,. in the air. Secondary pollutants constitute ozone, aldehydes,. PAN(Peroxy acetyl nitrate), photochemical smog, acid mists, sulpher trioxide, nitrogen dioxide.

Sampling and analysis of air pollutants

Twin cities (Hyderabad and Secundereabad) of A.P. are growing at a faster due to increased industrial activity, vehicular usage and urbanization. Over last 20 years air pollution has worsened due to N[O.sub.2],CO emissions, SPM, and S[O.sub.2].

In developing cities the burning of biomass, wood, and coal for domestic cooking or heating purposes has been a contributing factor to air pollution. The situation has continued to serious over the last 25 years and will definitely deteriorate over the next 20 years. Therefore the need is felt to asses the ambient air quality and its seasonal variation in different zones, so that based on the knowledge careful planning of the future industrial and residential areas can be envisaged.

There sampling stations are selected in twin cities in such a way that they are located in there different zones namely residential, industrial and commercial to cover spatial variations various types of industries are located in the industrial estate of Jeedimetla and is also densely populated. Sanjeeva reddy nagar is one of the residential areas in one of the residential areas in twin cities having many colleges and tutorials with moderate traffic and homes. Bhasheer Baug is a busy commercial are with busy traffic and frequent idle-runs of vehicles at traffic signals.

Air Quality Parameters

For ascertaining the quality of ambient air, three major air quality parameters are selected.


II. S[O.sub.2]

III. N[O.sub.x]

and monitoring is carried out for a period of three months during summer, monsoon and winter covering all seasons of 1997 to observe the effects of seasonal changes. The frequency of sampling for SMP, S[O.sub.2] and N[O.sub.x] is four times a month in each season for each sampling station and the sampling is carried for a period of 24 hours during each sampling.

To collect samples for S[O.sub.2], SPM and NOx ENVIROTECH model with gaseous sampling attachment is used and samples are collected round the clock during each sampling. S[O.sub.2] and N[O.sub.x] are sampled on eight hourly basis to get three samples in a day in sequential order by drawing air at a flow rate of one litre per minute(LPM) through Sodium tetra chloro mercurate and sodium hydroxide absorbing solution respectively.

SPUME is collected on eight hourly basis for 24 hours in order by drawing air at a flow rate of 1.1m3 in through glass micro fibber filter paper and estimated by gravimetric method using the formula

SPM([micro]g/[m.sup.3]) = Wt diff in grams X[10.sup.6]/Avg air flow rate in [m.sup.3]/min X time in min.

= [W.sub.2]-[W.sub.1] / V X[10.sup.6]

Where [W.sub.1] = Initial weight of filter in grams.

[W.sub.2] = Final weight of filter in grams.

V = Total volume of air in [m.sup.3]

[10.sup.6] = Conversion factor from grams to [micro]g

The meteorological date for Hyderabad and Secundereabad is collected from IMD (India Meteorological Department) for the above seasons.

Effects of Air Pollution

It has been found that air pollutants effecting human health, vegetation, animals and property. Some of the effects are physico-chemical & physiological.

Visibility is reduced, metals get corroded, material properties are changed and quality of life or system gets eroded. It is also found that the extent of damage depends upon the time of exposure & nature &concentration of contaminant.

Most of the effects of polluted air on man are related to ailments of respiratory tracts causing irritation. asthma, bronchitis, lung cancer etc,. In every major air pollution episode, the combination of sulphur oxides and particulates has been implicated as cause of the excess mortality observed. Industry, cement dusts, photochemical smog cause injury, partially or complete destruction of vegetation, reduction of growth and ultimately crop yield, S[O.sub.2], N[O.sup.2], ammonia, fluorides, [O.sup.3] [Cl.sup.2], PAN are responsible for destruction, dying, burning of leaf tissues (NECROSIS) and bleaching of green chlorophyll (CHLOROSIS).

Control of environmental air pollution

Some of the methods are suggested to control various types of pollutions.

* Controlling or confirming the pollutants at source & methods are suggested to do the above.

* Dilution of the pollutants in the atmosphere to permissible levels before they can reach the receptor.

* To mitigate the industrial pollution "GREEN BELT" is effective and economical method. It remains effective for considerable period of time without much recurring expenditure as compared to other pollution control measure. Therefore in every industrial area provision should be made for allocating space for developing green belt by selecting proper trees namely Albizzia lebbek, Azadirachta, azadirachta indica, tectona grandis, terminalia arjuna, cassia fistula, polylthia longfolia etc,. having high AIR POLLUTION TOLERENCE INDEX (APTI) value for minimizing environmental pollution caused by gaseous pollutants.

* Environmental pollutions caused by industrial effluents can be reduced in two ways: (a) Raw materials & process must be selected carefully so that the quantity of effluents should be harmless. (b) The effluents must be analysed for various hazardous chemicals & conc. of these chemicals must be compared with the max. allowable conc.(MAC) led by "Pollution control board". If the conc. given to the effluents before being disposed off.

* It has been found that by starting a common effluent treatment plants in industrial estate, pollution can be reduced to a greater extent. "The Jeedimetla common effluent treatment plant" in Hyderabad is the best example.

* Environmental education at all levels of non formal & formal education should be give very much importance.

* Catalytic convertors should be made compulsory for all petrol driven vehicles & dieselized vehicles must have a particle trap.

* To encourage the introduction of modern technology in vehicles, the price differential between diesel & petrol should be minimised as diesel is greater sources of pollutant releases. As both petrol & diesel are used mainly for public use (to the extent of 70 to 80%), it is not desirable to allow one to be more expensive than the other: this only prevent modern technology in the I.C. engines from coming to India.

* Enforcing check on heavy vehicle's emission by respective authorities & up gradation of fuel quality.


Conclusion and Results

From the observation it is found that all the monitoring stations are affected by one or more poll-ting activities. Some of the results are

(1) Study zones, indicate air borne dust pollution.

(2) Winter is critical for maximum account of gaseous pollution and summer for air borne dust pollution.

(3) High incidence of N[O.sub.x] at high volume traffic points contrary signal.


We express our thanks to Management, Principal and Director, Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology, Gandipet, Hyderabad, for help and encouragement to publish this paper.


[1] T.T.T.I Courses material- environmental pollution.

[2] Indian journal of environmental pollutions vol 17 no 10 October 1991.

[3] FARMCO(Agriculture based magazine), dept of farm Science & Rural Development, LOYOLA ACADEMY, SEC-BAD, Vol. 12 ,AUG 1995.

N.V. Sreenivaslu (1) and P. Giridhar Reddy (2)

(1) Associate Professor, Mech. Engg. Dept., C.B.I.T., Hyderabad -500075.AP. India

(2) Associate Professor, Chemistry Dept., C.B.I.T., Hyderabad -500075.AP. India
Details of sampling stations:

S.No Name of The Sampling Name of The Activity

1. Sanjeeva Reddy Nagar Residential
2. Jeedimetla Industrial
3. Bhaseer Bagh Commercial cum traffic

Effect of meterials:

Pollutant Type of effect

Particulates abrasion & corrosion
 caused when combined
 with gaseous pollutants
sulphur oxides Corrosion, fading of colors


Nitrogen Oxides Cause dyes to fade and
 whites to turn yellow

Pollutant Materials effected

Particulates metals, paints & textiles

sulphur oxides Steel, zinc, electrical
 equipment, lime stone,
 statues, textiles, leather.
 Iron, Al, Cu, silver, building
 materials,leather, paper
Nitrogen Oxides textiles


Parameter: SMP ([micro]g/Cu.m)

Season No.of Minimum Concentration Mean
 samples Maximum

Summer 12 316 561 416
Monsoon 12 190 450 333
Winter 12 205 479 356

Parameter : SO2 ([micro]g/Cu.m)

Summer 12 17.86 50.12 33.52
Monsoon 12 16.69 45.88 30.62
Winter 12 29.37 57.74 40.80

Parameter: Nox ([micro]g/Cu.m)

Summer 12 37.05 192.75 103.52
Monsoon 12 34.84 149.90 80.60
Winter 12 50.77 208.11 102.61


Parameter: SPM

Season No.of samples Minimum Concentration Mean

Summer 12 149 392 279
Monsoon 12 94 367 226
Winter 12 107 389 229

Parameter: SO2

Summer 12 12.29 21.58 16.59
Monsoon 12 9.40 18.80 13.73
Winter 12 13.51 22.01 18.07

Parameter: NOx

Summer 12 16.30 54.59 32.63
Monsoon 12 19.23 49.85 31.45
Winter 12 26.86 59.94 42.69


Parameter: SPM

Summer 12 244 546 395
Monsoon 12 239 507 356
Winter 12 337 521 403

Parameter: SO2

Summer 12 22.98 41.96 34.51
Monsoon 12 20.43 37.23 29.88
Winter 12 27.35 42.14 35.01

Parameter: NOx

Summer 12 25.07 166.35 85.50
Monsoon 12 40.74 126.93 79.64
Winter 12 75.71 211.87 135.01
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Article Details
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Author:Sreenivaslu, N.V.; Reddy, P. Giridhar
Publication:International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Feb 1, 2010
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