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Environmental effects of production and consumption activities within an economy: the Aragon case.

Abstract The goal of this research paper is to analyze the households' environmental impact in a regional economy such as Aragon, focusing on water consumption, and water and atmosphere pollution. Our objective is to include not only the direct impact but also the indirect one that is generated by the production of goods and services in global and per capita. The framework of analysis is a SAMEA (Social Accounting Matrix and Environmental Accounts) built for Aragon in 1999. This SAMEA is composed by SAM (Social Accounting Matrix) and also the Water Accounts, the Water Pollution Accounts and the Atmosphere Emissions Accounts. For this reason, the SAMEA describes the relationship between the institutional activities and the environment. In order to obtain environmental impact of household activity in Aragon and to measure the individual responsibility, we are going to calculate indicators from the SAMEA model considering only households as exogenous account. The environmental effects are estimated for two water resources categories, for six water pollution categories and for six atmosphere emissions categories.

Keywords Per capita environmental impact * Atmospheric emissions * Water resource * SAMEA

JEL C10 * C67 * D57 * E20 * P00 * Q00 * Q51 * Q53 * R10 * Rl5 * R30

Introduction

In the past few years environmental issues have been being linked to the economy due to the fact that production and consumption activities are generating negative effects on the environment. Because of this, there is an increased effort to create an economic growth that goes along with natural resource preservation in what we call a sustainable development. One challenge for economists is to reach a sustainable development based on the lifestyles of each country or region.

In order to approach this topic, we need environmental indicators that are able to reflect the pressure of economic activities and consumption behaviors that are being put on the environment. One of the first approach happened in 1996 when Wakernagel and Rees (1996) defined the concept of Ecological Footprint as "the land and water area that is required to support a defined human population and material standard indefinitely, using prevailing technology". This concept has been used by several researchers as an indicator to evaluate if the lifestyle of one specific population is sustainable. This is the case for the following: Bicknell et al. (1998); Loh (2000); Ferng (2001, 2002); McDonald and Patterson (2004); Wiedmann et al. (2006); Hong et al. (2007), who all use multisectorial models to analyze and measure the ecological footprint.

Within this context, our objective is to analyze not only the environmental impact that households produce directly in the economy, but also the impact that is indirectly caused throughout the production of goods and services that is demanded. In order to analyze the individual responsibility we will also measure the environmental impact per capita.

These objectives are applied specifically in the Aragonese economy. Aragon is a Spanish region situated Northeast of Spain. Among its environmental issues linked to the economic activities are the lack of water and poor water quality and atmosphere emissions. Water is a limited resource and its demand increases as a consequence of economic and demographic growth so the need of water is becoming more important for the countryside as well as for the industry and urban areas. The polluted water problems in Aragon are due to the diffuse pollution which is caused by agricultural activities, urban and industrial spills. On the other hand, the Aragon economy does not meet the 15% of the GEI atmospheric emissions increase during the 2008-2012 period compared to that of 1990. 15% the percentage allowed by Spain to comply with the Kyoto Protocol agreements. In addition, the percentage of Aragon emissions in relation to the total emissions in Spain (5.5% in 2004 according to Santamarta (2005)) is higher than the one that represents its GDP and its population (around 3%).

As we mentioned before, this research paper claims to analyze the environmental effects of production activities to satisfy the households demand as well as the effects of households' consumption. In order to do this, we will add the Leontief model to include other activities that are not directly linked to production. Then, we will use a SAMEA (Social Accounting Matrix and Environmental Accounts) that contains economic and environmental information. This analytical framework has been used to study environmental issues such as: Resosudarmo and Thorbecke (1996) to study the pollutants in the Indonesia air; Peters and Hertwich (2006), to study the [CO.sub.2] emissions in Norway; Matete and Hassan (2006), to evaluate the ecological impacts of the Water Project in Lesotho; and Wissema and Dellink (2007) and, to measure the impact of an energy tax to reduce the [CO.sub.2] emissions in Ireland.

A SAMEA is composed by an economic part, the SAM, which it is an extension of the Input-output table where we add the disintegrated structure of spending and national income, and an environmental part that is made of different environmental accounts (water resource accounts, water pollution accounts and atmospheric emissions accounts). We used the SAMEA model built for the Aragon economy in 1999 for this paper.

The use of the Leontief model based on a SAM helps to understand how pollution and water consumption is associated with the households' activities and consumption behaviors through the economy map. This model has also been used before by other authors to analyze environmental issues. For example Reinert and Roland-Hoist (1997); analyzed the industrial pollution in North America; Rodriguez et al. (2007), who does environmental analysis in Spain; and Manresa and Sancho (2004) analyzed the emissions in Catalonia.

Our goal is to estimate the pollution and water consumption related to the households' activities and the consumption behavior for a regional economy, and for Aragon we assumed that all industries and institutions act to satisfy the households needs. We considered the account households as an exogenous account (1).

It is important to point out that one of the advantages of focusing our attention in only one region is to better adequate significant regional differences existing between goods produced, production structures and the technology of one specific economy, this is reflected in the social accounting matrix. In addition, many political measures tend to be specifically focused in one region, which could lead treating these problems in a regional frame to improve the veracity and usefulness of the results.

From this model we obtain indicators (direct and total) that will allow us to know the effects on the water consumption and pollution that are caused by the households on the Aragonese economy. These effects are obtained for two categories of the water resource, six categories of the water pollution, and six categories of the atmospheric emissions. Finally, to understand the individual responsibility of the Aragonese population on the water consumption and the pollution, effects per capita are obtained.

The research paper outline is as follows: the Methodology Section presents the methodology basis and the model to be used. In the Environmental Impact Section, we will explain the results obtained using this methodology in the Aragon economy, and the last section includes the most important conclusions of the research.

Methodology

For the reasons explained above we used the Leontief model based on a SAM which is a database where all the goods and income transactions are registered. All the transactions are produced among the different agents (producers, production factors, consumers, public sector and foreign sector) in an economy (national, regional or local) during a specific period of time, usually a calendar year.

In Table 1 we can see a SAM diagram which is made by seven added accounts representing the economy agents: production activities, production factors, households, companies, savings-investments and exterior service. In this table, [X.sub.ij] is the matrix that reflects the payments from accounts j to accounts i. SAM (2), that is used, is composed by 28 production activities accounts, three Foreign Sector Accounts (Spain, European Union and the rest of the World), two Production factors accounts (Labor and Capital factor), one account for households, another one for companies, another one for public sector, and the last one for savings-investments. As a result the SAM diagram has 37 rows and 37 columns.
Table 1 SAMA-99 Structure

                          1           2           3           4

1. Production         [X.sub.11]  0           [X.sub.13]  0
activities

2. Production         [x.sub.21]  0           0           0
factors

3. Households         0           [X.sub.32]  [X.sub.33]  [X.sub.34]

4. Companies          0           [X.sub.42]  [X.sub.43]  [X.sub.44]

5. Public sector      [X.sub.51]  [X.sub.52]  [X.sub.53]  [X.sub.54]

6. Saving-investment  0           0           [X.sub.63]  [X.sub.64]

7. Foreign sector     [X.sub.71]  0           [X.sub.73]  [X.sub.74]

Total                 [X.sub.i1]  [X.sub.i2]  [X.sub.i3]  [X.sub.i4]


                      5           6           7           Total

1. Production         [X.sub.15]  [X.sub.16]  [X.sub.17]  [X.sub.1j]
activities

2. Production            0           0           0        [X.sub.2j]
factors

3. Households         X35         0           [X.sub.37]  [X.sub.3j]

4. Companies          X45         0           [X.sub.47]  [X.sub.4j]

5. Public sector      0           [X.sub.56]  [X.sub.57]  [X.sub.5j]

6. Saving-investment  [X.sub.65]  0           0           [X.sub.6j]

7. Foreign sector     [X.sub.75]  [X.sub.76]  0           [X.sub.7j]

Total                 [X.sub.i5]  [X.sub.i6]  [X.sub.i7]


If we take a SAM, and include the environmental accounts, we obtain the SAMEA whose structure is presented on Table 2.
Table 2 SAMEA structure

                            1        2  3  4  5  6  7

1. Production activities

2. Production factors      SAM

3. Households

4. Companies

5. Public sector

6. Savings-investments

7. Foreign sector

Water collection,           Water
waterconsumption and water  account
uses

                            Water    Pollutants Spills    Atmospheric
                            Income   Spills to the Water  Emissions

1. Production activities

2. Production factors       Water      Water pollution    Athmosphcric
                            account    account            emissions
                                                          account

3. Households

4. Companies

5. Public sector

6. Savings-investments

7. Foreign sector

Water collection,
waterconsumption and water
uses


We can observe that the flow of natural resources is attracted by different economic agents and used as inputs, and registered by rows. Every result coming from the economic agent to the nature is registered by columns. The structures presented from the SAM and SAMEA have been used on the construction of the Aragon (3) SAMEA in 1999. From the water account we will consider the accounts of water consumption (CONS) and physical water consumption (CP: water consumption less the returns). In the water pollution account six subaccounts are included: The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (QOD), metals, phosphorus, nitrogen and solids in suspension. In the atmosphere emissions account we include the six greenhouse effect gases considered by the Kyoto Protocol: carbon dioxide, [CO.sub.2], nitrous oxide, [N.sub.2]O, methane, [CH.sub.4], hydrofluorcarbrides, HFC, perfluorocarbide, PFC, sulfur hexafluoruro, [SF.sub.6], and an account that summarizes all these emissions measured in equivalent unities of [CO.sub.2].

Taking into account the selection of exogenous and endogenous accounts we consider the households as an exogenous variable, the equations associated with the SAM on Table 1 are the following:

x = Ax + y (1)

Where A is the matrix of medium trends to the spending, x is the column vector obtained by the addition of the column vectors of the endogenous accounts, and y is the column vector that enters the income flow of the exogenous accounts. To resolve this equation for x, the incomes of the endogenous accounts are obtained depending on the income of the exogenous accounts:

x = [(I - A).sup.-1]y = My (2)

M is the accounting multiplier matrix whose components [m.sub.ij] gather the impact on the income of the endogenous account i because of an exogenous unit shock in endogenous account j.

In order to value the total impact of the water consumption or pollution that is attributed to the household's spending, it is necessary to calculate the direct impact of the households as well as the indirect one; the indirect impact was caused by the economy due to the production of goods and services that are part of the households' spending.

A way to calculate the water consumption and pollution in the production process within the described model is by multiplying a pollution coefficient vector, [c.sub.k], by M, to obtain the vertically integrated unit values vector. [c.sub.k] which is the coefficient vector that measures pollution type k is directly incorporated to the production of one monetary unit of goods or services. The vector of unit values vertically integrated type k of pollution is [[lambda]'.sub.k] = [c'.sub.k] M, that measures the pollution quantity generated in the production process of every sector, per exogenous account unit. This type of pollution generated by the production attributed to the expenses made by the exogenous accounts is [[lambda]'.sub.k] = [c'.sub.k] M y.

The coefficient vector [d.sub.k] is obtained by pollution type k generated on the same good or service consumption and the spending made in that consumption; [d.sub.k], gathers pollution type k generated directly by the same consumption of an income unit of the households. Then, the total pollution type k for the households' spending will be [c'.sub.k] My = [d.sub.k]y. In this formula we have the two components of the environmental impact, one generated by the production process, and the other generated by the consumption itself. The pollution unit values that are included in these two components are expressed as [v'.sub.k] = [c'.sub.k]M + [d.sub.k] = [[lambda]'.sub.k] + [d.sub.k]. Each [v.sub.kj] represents the pollution directly or indirectly caused by each expense unit in j, generated in the production process ([c.sub.k]'M) as well as in the consumption itself ([d.sub.k]). The model explained for each type of pollutant is also valid for the water consumption.

Environmental Impact Associated With the Households Spending

Direct Environmental Effects

The 1999 Aragon SAMEA was the point of departure for the model developed above. Based on the SAMEA we have calculated the coefficient vector of water consumption and each pollutant, [c.sub.k], which is presented in Table 3. In this table we can observe the activities that incorporate more pollution and water consumption directly to the production of 1000 Euros of households demand. Among these activities are energy products, agriculture, water, livestock farming and exterior service. Among them, energy products are important because of the atmosphere emissions, agriculture for water consumption, the livestock farming for the water pollution and the exterior sector not only for the water consumption but also for the water pollution and atmosphere emissions.
Table 3 Coefficients of water consumption and pollution

             CONS             CF          BOD      QOD     Metals
             1000            1000       Kg/1000  Kg/1000  Kg/1000
        [m.sup.3]/1000  [m.sup.3]/1000   [euro]   [euro]   [euro]
            [euro]          [euro]

AP1A         2.35            1.64         0.00     0.00     0.00
AP1B         0.08            0.02       593.99     0.00     0.00
AP2          0.15            0.01         0.00     0.00     0.00
AP3          0.36            0.17        47.16    93.54    30.40
AP4          0.00            0.00         0.10     0.04     0.02
APS          0.00            0.00         0.43     0.15     0.02
AP6          0.06            0.03        28.05    23.80    14.23
AP7          0.00            0.00         0.43     0.22     0.07
AP8          0.00            0.00         0.10     0.06     0.02
AP9          0.00            0.00         0.31     0.20     0.03
AP10         0.00            0.00         0.04     0.02     0.00
AP11         0.01            0.00         4.67     2.26     1.19
AP12         0.00            0.00         0.05     0.03     0.00
AP13         0.04            0.02        27.93    13.78     0.75
AP14         0.00            0.00         0.03     0.05     0.03
AP15         0.01            0.00         4.65     2.28     0.11
AP16         0.00            0.00         0.12     0.20     0.12
AP17         0.00            0.00         0.53     0.86     0.52
AP18         0.00            0.00         0.08     0.12     0.07
AP19         0.00            0.00         0.03     0.05     0.03
AP20         0.00            0.00         0.04     0.06     0.04
AP21         0.00            0.00         0.28     0.45     0.27
AP22         0.00            0.00         0.46     0.74     0.45
AP23         0.00            0.00         0.17     0.27     0.16
AP24         0.00            0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00
AP25         0.00            0.00         0.19     0.31     0.19
AP26         0.00            0.00         0.29     0.47     0.28
AP27         0.01            0.01        12.03    19.50    11.75
ESP          0.19            0.08        32.18     5.30     2.63
U.E.         0.06            0.03        14.03     3.23     1.60
RDM          0.08            0.03         9.04     2.75     1.26
L            0.00            0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00
K            0.00            0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00
SOC          0.00            0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00
AA.PP.       0.00            0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00
A-I          0.00            0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00
             3.43            2.05         777      171     66.24

        Nitrogen  Phosphorus  Sol Susp    [CO.sub.2]     [CH.sub.4]
        Kg/1000     Kg/1000    Kg/1000  t/1000 [euro]  t/1000 [euro]
         [euro]     [euro]     [euro]

AP1A       1.95       4.47       0.00        0.48          0.00
AP1B     166.88     112.52       1086        0.01          0.08
AP2        0.00       0.00       0.00        5.42          0.01
AP3        8.77       6.24       0.00        0.00          0.00
AP4        0.01       0.00       0.00        0.10          0.00
APS        0.03       0.02       0.00        1.12          0.00
AP6        1.70       1.68       0.00        0.04          0.00
AP7        0.02       0.03       0.00        0.08          0.00
AP8        0.02       0.00       0.00        0.11          0.00
AP9        0.03       0.02       0.00        0.01          0.00
AP10       0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00          0.00
AP11       0.68       0.19       0.00        0.19          0.00
AP12       0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00          0.00
AP13       3.55       1.74       0.00        0.01          0.00
AP14       0.01       0.01       0.00        0.07          0.00
AP15       0.61       0.28       0.00        0.04          0.00
AP16       0.02       0.02       0.00        0.12          0.00
AP17       0.10       0.08       0.00        0.02          0.00
AP18       0.01       0.01       0.00        0.39          0.00
AP19       0.01       0.00       0.00        0.01          0.00
AP20       0.01       0.01       0.00        0.00          0.00
AP21       0.05       0.04       0.00        0.02          0.00
AP22       0.09       0.07       0.00        0.02          0.00
AP23       0.03       0.03       0.00        0.02          0.00
AP24       0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00          0.00
AP25       0.04       0.03       0.00        0.00          0.00
AP26       0.06       0.04       0.00        0.00          0.00
AP27       2.36       1.85       0.00        0.02          0.00
ESP        9.24       5.94      69.50        1.13          0.01
U.E.       3.64       2.34      26.68        0.52          0.00
RDM        2.24       1.43      14.23        0.54          0.00
L          0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00          0.00
K          0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00          0.00
SOC        0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00          0.00
AA.PP.     0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00          0.00
A-I        0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00          0.00
           202        139        1197       10.51          0.11

          [N.sub.2]O     HFC      PFC    [SF.sub.6]   [CO.sub.2]
        t/1000 [euro]  Kg/1000  Kg/1000   Kg/1000    t/1000 [euro]
                       [euro]    [euro]   [euro]

AP1A        0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          1.47
AP1B        0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          1.70
AP2         0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          5.60
AP3         0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.00
AP4         0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.11
APS         0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          1.15
AP6         0.00         0.02     0.00     0.00          0.11
AP7         0.00         0.00     0.00     0,00          0.08
AP8         0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.11
AP9         0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.01
AP10        0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.01
AP11        0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.20
AP12        0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.00
AP13        0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.02
AP14        0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.07
AP15        0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.04
AP16        0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.13
AP17        0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.02
AP18        0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.40
AP19        0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.01
AP20        0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.00
AP21        0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.02
AP22        0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.03
AP23        0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.11
AP24        0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.00
AP25        0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.00
AP26        0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.01
AP27        0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.11
ESP         0.00         0.01     0.00     0.00          1.42
U.E.        0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.65
RDM         0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.65
L           0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.00
K           0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.00
SOC         0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.00
AA.PP.      0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.00
A-I         0.00         0.00     0.00     0.00          0.00
            0.00         0.04     0.00     0.00         26.90


Based on the Aragon SAMEA we have also obtained [c.sub.k]My and [d.sub.k]y, which allowed us to calculate how much water consumption and pollution is caused by the production processes, which is due to the consumption process and the totals associated with the households spending. We presented these calculations on Table 4. According to the results, the water consumption produced by the production processes in Aragon is 67.97% for total consumption and 77.72% in physical consumption, while the household direct consumption represents 1.18% and 0.42% respectively. The percentage of water consumption in the exterior production process (imported) is 30.86%) of the total consumption and 21.86% of the physical consumption.
Table 4 Water consumption and pollution generated by productive
processes and households' consumption

                       Productive Processes          Households

CONS (1000 [m.sub.3])      4,187,211         67.96%      72,438  1.18%
CF (1000 [m.sup.3])        2,695,653         77.72%      14,554  0.42%
BOD (kg)                 817,290,940         70.28%  15,950,594  1.37%
QOD (kg)                 112,945,374         53.73%  35,758,860  17.01%
Metals (kg)               51,827,417         63.06%      49,287  0.06%
Nitrogen (kg)            210,920,517         69.46%     818,527  0.27%
Phosphorus (kg)          147,106,104         71.06%     795,782  0.38%
Sol Susp (kg)          1,256,066,062         64.07%  21,156,313  1.08%
[CO.sub.2] (kt)               12,526         47.70%       1,653  6.29%
[CH.sub.4] (t)               123,336         62.67%       1,191  0.61%
[N.sub.2]O (t)                 5,416         54.69%         192  1.94%
HFC (kg)                      51,132         44.18%         369  0.32%
PFC (kg)                         126          1.44%           0  0.00%
[SF.sub.6] (kg)                  281         29.50%           0  0.00%
[CO.sub.2] eq (kt)        16,932,119         50.03%   1,738,440  5.14%


                         Imports                Total

CONS (1000 [m.sub.3])    1,901,258  30.86%     6,160,907
CF (1000 [m.sup.3])        758,278  21.86%      3,468,485
BOD (kg)               329,745,437  28.35%  1,162,986,971
QOD (kg)                61,500,414  29.26%    210,204,648
Metals (kg)             30,313,815  36.88%     82,190,518
Nitrogen (kg)           91,896,784  30.27%    303,635,828
Phosphorus (kg)         59,107,092  28.55%    207,008,977
Sol Susp (kg)          683,338,707  34.85%  1,960,561,082
[CO.sub.2] (kt)             12,080  46.00%         26,259
[CH.sub.4] (t)              72,280  36.73%        196,807
[N.sub.2]O (t)               4,295  43.37%          9,903
HFC (kg)                    64,223  55.50%        115,724
PFC (kg)                     8,579  98.55%          8,705
[SF.sub.6] (kg)                672  70.50%            953
[CO.sub.2] eq (kt)      15,173,233  44.83%     33,843,793


The percentage of water pollution is also higher in the production processes with figures between 63% and 71% with the exception of the QOD. However, the percentages of atmosphere emissions are less in the production processes and they increase in the imports. Therefore, Aragonese economy avoid imports to produce part of the atmospheric emissions needed to obtain goods and services for final domestic consumption. Therefore water consumption and pollution generated by the households are not as significant in relation to the ones generated by the production processes and imports in order to satisfy their demands.

It is also important to mention the participation of direct households' water spills in the total economy. They generate directly 17.01% of the total pollution in QOD. On the other hand, they have their highest participation on atmospheric emissions with 6.29% of [CO.sub.2] direct emissions over the total economy.

On the current analysis about environmental effects we have, so far, only taken into account the direct effects created by the different economic agents. However if we want this research paper to be complete, we have to analyze the direct and indirect effects on water consumption and on water and atmosphere pollution of every economic agent.

Environmental Direct and Indirect Effects

In order to know every activity on water consumption or pollution generated directly or indirectly, to produce and consume 1000 Euros of households spending we have obtained the values vector, [v'.sub.k] = [c'.sub.k]M + [d.sub.k], for water consumption and for every pollutant. In Table 5 we presented these values calculated on the Aragon economy.
Table 5 Water consumption and pollution unit values ([v'.sub.k] =
[c'.sub.k]M + [d.sub.k])

             CONS             CF          BOD      QOD     Metals

             1000            1000       Kg/1000  Kg/1000  Kg/1000
        [m.sup.3]/1000  [m.sup.3]/1000   [euro]   [euro]   [euro]
            [euro]          [euro]

AP1A         3.12            2.09       136.91    17.89    7.98
AP1B         0.82            0.45       719.33    14.59    6.83
AP2          0.67            0.28       103.75    11.86    5.42
AP3          2.54            0.69       519.56     1046   35.35
AP4          0.54            0.29       111.13    14.14    6.48
AP5          0.63            0.34       131.00    15.29    6.96
AP6          0.82            0.45       189.08    44.94   24.23
AP7          0.62            0.34       129.73    16.18    7.30
AP8          0.52            0.28       110.31    15.96    6.88
AP9          1.19            0.72       223.57    17.57    7.89
AP10         0.66            0.36       136.05    16.52    7.50
AP11         0.66            0.37       122.95    17.39    8.30
AP12         0.76            0.44       125.26    15.12    6.96
AP13         0.65            0.35       157.81    31.99    9.08
AP14         0.31            0.17        63.04     8.56    3.87
AP15         0.76            0.42       163.70    20.04    8.21
AP16         0.28            0.15        60.37     7.84    3.61
AP17         0.41            0.24        74.22     8.68    4.06
AP18         0.33            0.17        66.84     8.36    3.85
AP19         0.18            0.10        35.67     4.52    2.09
AP20         0.16            0.09        34.32     5.25    2.46
AP21         0.11            0.06        22.37     3.82    1.83
AP22         0.19            0.10        39.16     7.63    3.82
AP23         0.36            0.19        74.99    10.04    4.65
AP24         0.00            0.00         0.00     0.00    0.00
AP25         0.06            0.03        11.76     2.13    1.00
AP26         0.18            0.10        37.64     7.12    3.59
AP27         0.14            0.08        36.11    22.89   13.28
ESP          1.03            0.56       216.82    22.53   10.26
U.E.         0.62            0.33       129.02    18.95    8.57
RDM          0.58            0.31       111.86    16.97    7.69
L            0.00            0.00         0.00     0.00    0.00
K            0.09            0.05        18.94     3.36    1.57
SOC          0.21            0.12        45.51     7.82    3.60
AA.PP.       0.14            0.08        30.39     8.95    4.80
A-I          0.28            0.15        61.24    10.03    4.42
            20.61           10.95        4250      1501     244

        Nitrogen  Phosphorus  Sol Susp   CO2     CH4         N2O

        Kg/1000     Kg/1000   Kg/1000   t/1000  t/1000  t/1000 [euro]
         [euro]     [euro]     [euro]   [euro]  [euro]

AP1A      38.69      29.52     239.09    2.94    0.02       0.004
AP1B     200.51     135.54       1305    2.24    0.10       0.001
AP2       28.01      18.90     185.13   10.49    0.03       0.001
AP3       43.76      36.30     645.56    1.82    0.01       0.000
AP4       29.70      20.04     195.16    2.51    0.02       0.001
AP5       35.21      23.75     232.52    3.89    0.02       0.001
AP6       44.40      30.53     280.99    3.08    0.03       0.001
AP7       34.60      23.34     227.84    2.60    0.02       0.001
AP8       28.85      19.39     187.29    2.35    0.02       0.001
AP9       61.37      42.05     400.11    2.89    0.04       0.002
AP10      36.45      24.59     239.98    2.57    0.02       0.001
AP11      32.23      21.58     206.51    2.57    0.02       0.001
AP12      33.73      22.98     221.45    2.51    0.02       0.001
AP13      37.63      24.74     222.56    2.48    0.02       0.001
AP14      16.68      11.27     108.91    1.65    0.01       0.001
AP15      43.61      29.29     284.70    3.00    0.03       0.001
AP16      16.12      10.88     105.44    1.46    0.01       0.000
AP17      20.06      13.73     129.62    1.32    0.01       0.001
AP18      17.93      12.10     117.89    4.12    0.01       0.001
AP19       9.58       6.46      62.86    0.94    0.01       0.000
AP20       9.04       6.11      58.48    0.77    0.01       0.000
AP21       5.86       3.97      37.35    0.58    0.00       0.000
AP22       9.96       6.78      63.42    0.88    0.01       0.000
AP23      19.96      13.46     130.80    1.56    0.02       0.001
AP24       0.00       0.00       0.00    0.00    0.00       0.000
AP25       3.07       2.08      19.47    0.31    0.00       0.000
AP26       9.54       6.50      61.01    0.77    0.01       0.000
AP27       8.75       6.18      41.23    0.58    0.01       0.000
ESP       59.04      39.82     392.24    3.82    0.04       0.002
U.E.      33.86      22.77     222.26    2.71    0.02       0.001
RDM       29.32      19.76     189.51    2.53    0.02       0.001
L          0.00       0.00       0.00    0.00    0.00       0.000
K          4.88       3.29      31.11    0.43    0.00       0.000
SOC       11.74       7.92      75.05    1.05    0.01       0.000
AA.PP.     7.64       5.23      45.82    0.61    0.01       0.000
A-I       15.72      10.60     100.21    1.50    0.01       0.000
           1038        711       7067   75.56    0.62       0.030

              HFC             PFC             SF6            CO2eq

        Kg/1000 [euro]  Kg/1000 [euro]  Kg/1000 [euro]  t/1000 [euro]

AP1A         0.01            0.001          0.0001           4.81
AP1B         0.01            0.001          0.0001           4.75
AP2          0.01            0.001          0.0001          11.46
AP3          0.01            0.000          0.0000           2.18
AP4          0.01            0.001          0.0001           3.22
AP5          0.01            0.001          0.0001           4.74
AP6          0.04            0.001          0.0001           4.15
AP7          0.01            0.001          0.0002           3.42
AP8          0.01            0.001          0.0001           3.05
AP9          0.01            0.001          0.0001           4.23
AP10         0.02            0.001          0.0001           3.44
AP11         0.01            0.001          0.0001           3.36
AP12         0.01            0.001          0.0001           3.37
AP13         0.02            0.001          0.0001           3.29
AP14         0.01            0.001          0.0001           2.06
AP15         0.01            0.001          0.0001           3.99
AP16         0.01            0.000          0.0001           1.85
AP17         0.01            0.000          0.0001           1.79
AP18         0.01            0.001          0.0001           4.67
AP19         0.00            0.000          0.0000           1.19
AP20         0.00            0.000          0.0000           0.99
AP21         0.00            0.000          0.0000           0.73
AP22         0.01            0.000          0.0000           1.14
AP23         0.01            0.001          0.0001           2.14
AP24         0.00            0.000          0.0000           0.00
AP25         0.00            0.000          0.0000           0.39
AP26         0.01            0.000          0.0000           1.02
AP27         0.00            0.000          0.0000           0.84
ESP          0.02            0.002          0.0002           5.16
U.E.         0.02            0.002          0.0002           3.56
RDM          0.01            0.001          0.0001           3.28
L            0.00            0.000          0.0000           0.00
K            0.00            0.000          0.0000           0.56
SOC          0.01            0.000          0.0001           1.35
AA.PP.       0.00            0.000          0.0000           0.81
A-I          0.01            0.001          0.0001           1.90
             0.34            0.026          0.0028          98.89


Results show us that the sectors that consume more water to satisfy one household unit demand are: agriculture, food and water sector. For water pollution, the sectors with more water consumption depend on the specific pollutants. The water sector and the chemicals activities are the highest in QOD and Metals, while activities such as livestock farming and Food are the highest in Nitrogen and Phosphorus, and also with water activity in DOB and solids suspension. In atmosphere emissions the activity that represents the bigger amount of [CO.sub.2] is the energy products, in [CH.sub.4] livestock farming, in [N.sub.2]O agriculture, in HFC chemical products, in PFC Spain imports and in [SF.sub.6] metal products and equipment.

Nevertheless, the effects per household monetary spending unit show only one aspect of the problem. In order to have a better and complete overview we need to consider the total effect which will also be influenced by the spending volume of the households. Because of this Table 6 provides a percentage of water consumption and pollution according to the spending components of households and the percentage of spending that every household does in each account.
Table 6 Percentage embodied pollution and water consumption per
components of household expenditure

          HOG    CONS   CF     BOD    QOD   Metals  Nitrogen

AP1A      1.1%   9.5%  11.2%   2.2%   1.9%   1.8%     2.4%
AP1B      0.1%   0.3%   0.3%   1.2%   0.2%   0.2%     1.3%
AP2       2.2%   4.0%   3.0%   3.3%   2.5%   2.4%     3.4%
AP3       0.2%   0.4%   0.3%   0.3%   2.2%   1.6%     0.3%
AP4       0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%     0.0%
AP5       0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%     0.1%
AP6       0.9%   2.1%   2.0%   2.6%   4.1%   4.6%     2.3%
AP7       1.0%   1.8%   1.7%   2.0%   1.6%   1.6%     2.0%
AP8       2.1%   3.1%   2.9%   3.4%   3.3%   3.0%     3.4%
AP9       5.8%  19.1%  20.4%  19.0%   9.8%   9.4%    19.8%
AP10      2.4%   4.3%   4.2%   4.8%   3.8%   3.7%     4.8%
AP11      0.8%   1.4%   1.4%   1.4%   1.3%   1.3%     1.4%
AP12      0.0%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%     0.1%
AP13      1.3%   2.3%   2.2%   2.9%   3.9%   2.4%     2.7%
AP14      0.4%   0.4%   0.3%   0.4%   0.3%   0.3%     0.4%
AP15      0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%     0.0%
AP16     10.9%   8.5%   8.1%   9.6%   8.2%   8.0%     9.7%
AP17     10.2%  11.5%  11.9%  11.1%   8.5%   8.4%    11.3%
AP18      2.8%   2.5%   2.3%   2.7%   2.2%   2.2%     2.8%
AP19      1.1%   0.6%   0.5%   0.6%   0.5%   0.5%     0.6%
AP20      7.0%   3.1%   3.0%   3.5%   3.5%   3.5%     3.5%
AP21      1.0%   0.3%   0.3%   0.3%   0.4%   0.4%     0.3%
AP22      1.6%   0.9%   0.8%   0.9%   1.2%   1.3%     0.9%
AP23      2.9%   2.8%   2.7%   3.1%   2.7%   2.7%     3.1%
AP24      0.7%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%     0.0%
AP25      0.2%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%     0.0%
AP26      0.5%   0.2%   0.2%   0.3%   0.3%   0.3%     0.2%
AP27      0.2%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   0.3%   0.4%     0.1%
ESP       0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%     0.0%
U.E.      0.5%   0.8%   0.8%   0.9%   0.9%   0.9%     0.9%
RDM       0.1%   0.2%   0.2%   0.2%   0.2%   0.2%     0.2%
L         0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%     0.0%
[KAPPA]   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%     0.0%
SOC       5.6%   3.3%   3.1%   3.7%   4.2%   4.1%     3.6%
AA.PP.   29.1%  10.9%  10.6%  12.9%  25.0%  28.4%    12.3%
A - I     7.0%   5.5%   5.2%   6.3%   6.8%   6.3%     6.1%
          100%   100%   100%.  100%   100%   100%     100%

         Phosphorus  Sol Susp   C02    CH4    N20    HFC    PFC

AP1A        2.7%       2.3%     2.2%   2.2%   8.2%   2.1%   2.1%
AP1B        1.3%       1.3%     0.2%   1.0%   0.2%   0.2%   0.2%
AP2         3.3%       3.5%    12.8%   4.8%   3.7%   3.1%   3.5%
AP3         0.3%       0.2%     0.3%   0.2%   0.2%   0.2%   0.2%
AP4         0.0%       0.0%     0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%
AP5         0.1%       0.1%     0.2%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%
AP6         2.3%       2.3%     2.0%   2.1%   2.1%   5.8%   2.4%
AP7         2.0%       2.0%     1.8%   1.9%   1.9%   2.0%   2.3%
AP8         3.4%       3.4%     3.4%   3.3%   3.3%   3.9%   4.3%
AP9        19.9%      20.1%    11.4%  17.4%  18.0%  12.0%  13.2%
AP10        4.8%       5.0%     4.2%   4.6%   4.5%   5.3%   5.3%
AP11        1.3%       1.4%     1.3%   1.3%   1.4%   1.4%   1.4%
AP12        0.1%       0.1%     0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%
AP13        2.6%       2.5%     2.2%   2.3%   2.2%   3.2%   2.7%
AP14        0.4%       0.4%     0.5%   0.4%   0.4%   0.4%   0.4%
AP15        0.0%       0.0%     0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%
AP16        9.6%       9.9%    10.8%   9.8%   9.1%   9.9%  10.3%
AP17       11.4%      11.4%     9.2%  10.5%  11.1%   8.8%   9.4%
AP18        2.7%       2.8%     3.8%   2.8%   2.7%   2.7%   3.0%
AP19        0.6%       0.6%     0.7%   0.7%   0.6%   0.6%   0.6%
AP20        3.4%       3.5%     3.6%   3.6%   3.3%   3.8%   4.1%
AP21        0.3%       0.3%     0.4%   0.3%   0.3%   0.3%   0.3%
AP22        0.9%       0.9%     1.0%   0.9%   0.9%   1.3%   1.0%
AP23        3.1%       3.2%     3.0%   4.2%   3.1%   3.2%   3.6%
AP24        0.0%       0.0%     0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%
AP25        0.0%       0.0%     0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%
AP26        0.2%       0.2%     0.2%   0.2%   0.3%   0.4%   0.3%
AP27        0.1%       0.1%     0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%   0.1%
ESP         0.0%       0.0%     0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%
U.E.        0.9%       0.9%     0.9%   0.9%   0.9%   1.1%   1,4%
RDM         0.2%       0.2%     0.2%   0.2%   0.2%   0.2%   0.3%
L           0.0%       0.0%     0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%
[KAPPA]     0.0%       0.0%     0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%   0.0%
SOC         3.6%       3.6%     4.0%   3.8%   3.6%   4.6%   5.1%
AA.PP.     12.3%      11.5%    12.2%  13.8%  11.6%  15.7%  14.0%
A - I       6.1%       6.1%     7.2%   6.4%   5.9%   7.7%   8.3%
            100%       100%     100%   100%   100%   100%   100%

          SF6   C02eq

AP1A      2.0%   2.8%
AP1B      0.2%   0.3%
AP2       3.4%  10.8%
AP3       0.2%   0.3%
AP4       0.0%   0.0%
AP5       0.1%   0.2%
AP6       2.2%   2.0%
AP7       3.0%   1.9%
AP8       4.4%   3.4%
AP9      12.3%  12.8%
AP10      5.0%   4.3%
AP11      1.3%   1.3%
AP12      0.1%   0.1%
AP13      2.6%   2.2%
AP14      0.5%   0.5%
AP15      0.0%   0.0%
AP16     10.1%  10.5%
AP17      9.1%   9.5%
AP18      2.8%   3.6%
AP19      0.6%   0.7%
AP20      4.2%   3.6%
AP21      0.3%   0.4%
AP22      1.0%   1.0%
AP23      3.4%   3.2%
AP24      0.0%   0.0%
AP25      0.0%   0.0%
AP26      0.3%   0.2%
AP27      0.1%   0.1%
ESP       0.0%   0.0%
U.E.      1.3%   0.9%
RDM       0.3%   0.2%
L         0.0%   0.0%
[KAPPA]   0.0%   0.0%
SOC       5.4%   3.9%
AA.PP.   14.3%  12.4%
A - I     9.6%   7.0%
          100%   100%


According to the results, we verified that most of the households spending activities are the ones that cause higher percentage of water consumption and pollution in their production processes in order to satisfy the households' demands. These activities are commercial services, catering and restaurants, food, beverage and tobacco. In the food case this effect is due to the ability to pollute, water consumption, as well as the amount of spending in this category. For activities such as trade and catering, it is mainly due to the high household demand of these activities. The property activities do not show important levels of water consumption or pollution percentage. On the other hand, agriculture represents an important physical consumption much higher than the household spending percentage. The same happens with chemical products for the water pollution.

Per capita indicators provide us a similar approach comparable among different regions. In Table 7 we present the per capita figures that allow us to know water consumption, water pollution and atmospheric emissions caused by an individual in the production and consumption of household demand's goods and services. The Spanish Statistical Institute is the information source for the Aragonese population.
Table 7 Per capita (embodied) pollution and water consumption global
values ([v'.sub.k]y = [c'.sub.k]My + [d.sub.k]y)

             CONS            CF          BOD     QOD   Metals  Nitrogen

        1000 [m.sup.3]  1000[m.sup.3]    Kgs      Kg     Kg       Kg

APIA         0.49           0.33        21.38    2.79   1.25     6.04
APIB         0.01           0.01        12.05    0.24   0.11     3.36
AP2          0.21           0.09        31.85    3.64   1.66     8.60
AP3          0.08           0.02        16.55   33.32   1.13     1.39
AP4          0.00           0.00         0.02    0.00   0.00     0.01
AP5          0.01           0.00         1.35    0.16   0.07     0.36
AP6          0.11           0.06        25.02    5.95   3.21     5.88
AP7          0.09           0.05        19.04    2.37   1.07     5.08
AP8          0.16           0.08        33.14    4.80   2.07     8.67
AP9          0.98           0.59       183.43   14.41   6.47    50.36
AP10         0.22           0.12        45.86    5.57   2.53    12.29
AP11         0.07           0.04        13.17    1.86   0.89     3.45
AP12         0.00           0.00         0.77    0.09   0.04     0.21
AP13         0.12           0.06        28.43    5.76   1.64     6.78
AP14         0.02           0.01         3.76    0.51   0.23     1.00
AP15         0.00           0.00         0.00    0.00   0.00     0.00
AP16         0.44           0.24        92.75   12.04   5.54    24.76
AP17         0.59           0.35       106.81   12.50   5.84    28.88
AP18         0.13           0.07        26.23    3.28   1.51     7.04
AP19         0.03           0.02         5.68    0.72   0.33     1.52
AP20         0.16           0.09        33.59    5.14   2.41     8.84
AP21         0.02           0.01         3.06    0.52   0.25     0.80
AP22         0.04           0.02         9.04    1.76   0.88     2.30
AP23         0.14           0.08        30.08    4.03   1.87     8.01
AP24         0.00           0.00         0.00    0.00   0.00     0.00
AP25         0.00           0.00         0.31    0.06   0.03     0.08
AP26         0.01           0.01         2.42    0.46   0.23     0.61
AP27         0.00           0.00         0.81    0.51   0.30     0.20
ESP          0.00           0.00         0.00    0.00   0.00     0.00
U.E.         0.04           0.02         8.92    1.31   0.59     2.34
RDM          0.01           0.01         1.85    0.28   0.13     0.49
L            0.00           0.00         0.00    0.00   0.00     0.00
K            0.00           0.00         0.00    0.00   0.00     0.00
SOC          0.17           0.09        36.04    6.19   2.85     9.30
AA.PP.       0.56           0.31       124.50   36.66  19.65    31.29
A - I        0.28           0.15        60.70    9.94   4.39    15.58
             5.2            2.9        978.6   176.9   69.2    255.5

        Phosphorus  Sol Susp    C02  CH4    N20    HFC    PFC

            Kg         Kg        t    t      t      Kg     Kg

APIA       4.61       37.33    0.46  0.00  0.001  0.002  0.000
APIB       2.27       21.87    0.04  0.00  0.000  0.000  0.000
AP2        5.80       56.83    3.22  0.01  0.000  0.003  0.000
AP3        1.16       20.57    0.06  0.00  0.000  0.000  0.000
AP4        0.00        0.04    0.00  0.00  0.000  0.000  0.000
AP5        0.25        2.40    0.04  0.00  0.000  0.000  0.000
AP6        4.04       37.19    0.41  0.00  0.000  0.006  0.000
AP7        3.43       33.44    0.38  0.00  0.000  0.002  0.000
AP8        5.82       56.26    0.71  0.01  0.000  0.004  0.000
AP9       34.50      328.28    2.37  0.03  0.001  0.012  0.001
AP10       8.29       80.90    0.87  0.01  0:000  0.005  0.000
AP11       2.31       22.11    0.28  0.00  0.000  0.001  0.000
AP12       0.14        1.37    0.02  0.00  0.000  0.000  0.000
AP13       4.46       40.09    0.45  0.00  0.000  0.003  0.000
AP14       0.67        6.50    0.10  0.00  0.000  0.000  0.000
AP15       0.00        0.00    0.00  0.00  0.000  0.000  0.000
AP16      16.71      162.01    2.24  0.02  0.001  0.010  0.001
AP17      19.75      186.54    1.91  0.02  0.001  0.009  0.001
AP18       4.75       46.27    1.62  0.01  0.000  0.003  0.000
AP19       1.03       10.01    0.15  0.00  0.000  0.001  0.000
AP20       5.98       57.24    0.75  0.01  0.000  0.004  0.000
AP21       0.54        5.12    0.08  0.00  0.000  0.000  0.000
AP22       1.57       14.64    0.20  0.00  0.000  0.001  0.000
AP23       5.40       52.46    0.63  0.01  0.000  0.003  0.000
AP24       0.00        0.00    0.00  0.00  0.000  0.000  0.000
AP25       0.06        0.52    0.01  0.00  0.000  0.000  0.000
AP26       0.42        3.93    0.05  0.00  0.000  0.000  0.000
AP27       0.14        0.93    0.01  0.00  0.000  0.000  0.000
ESP        0.00        0.00    0.00  0.00  0.000  0.000  0.000
U.E.       1.57       15.36    0.19  0.00  0.000  0.001  0.000
RDM        0.33        3.14    0.04  0.00  0.000  0.000  0.000
L          0.00        0.00    0.00  0.00  0.000  0.000  0.000
K          0.00        0.00    0.00  0.00  0.000  0.000  0.000
SOC        6.27       59.43    0.83  0.01  0.000  0.004  0.000
AA.PP.    21.43      187.69    2.52  0.02  0.001  0.015  0.001
A - I     10.50       99.33    1.49  0.01  0.000  0.007  0.001
         174.2         1650   22.1   0.02  0.008  0.097  0.007

         SF6   C02eq

          Kg     t

APIA    0.000  0.75
APIB    0.000  0.08
AP2     0.000  3.52
AP3     0.000  0.07
AP4     0.000  0.00
AP5     0.000  0.05
AP6     0.000  0.55
AP7     0.000  0.50
AP8     0.000  0.92
AP9     0.000  3.47
AP10    0.000  1.16
AP11    0.000  0.36
AP12    0.000  0.02
AP13    0.000  0.59
AP14    0.000  0.12
AP15    0.000  0.00
AP16    0.000  2.84
AP17    0.000  2.58
AP18    0.000  1.83
AP19    0.000  0.19
AP20    0.000  0.97
AP21    0.000  0.10
AP22    0.000  0.26
AP23    0.000  0.86
AP24    0.000  0.00
AP25    0.000  0.01
AP26    0.000  0.07
AP27    0.000  0.02
ESP     0.000  0.00
U.E.    0.000  0.25
RDM     0.000  0.05
L       0.000  0.00
K       0.000  0.00
SOC     0.000  1.07
AA.PP.  0.000  3.34
A - I   0.000  1.88
        0.001  28.5


Based on the SAMEA we obtained direct water consumption per person. In the Aragon economy, it is around 610,339 liters per year. As a consequence of the water returns the physical consumption is five times less: 122,626 liters. However, we can see in Table 7 that the real water consumption for a person as a consequence of the production and his or her demand consumption is 5,184,294 liters, and physical consumption is 2,918,669 liters. We can then see that the households' water consumption is higher due to the demand production rather than the direct consumption itself. Because of this situation it would be interesting to lead policies oriented to change the demand behaviors or the production systems that satisfy their demand in order to get a more efficient use of water.

According to the results of Table 7, the production activities that consume more water to satisfy households' demands are Food, beverage and tobacco, catering and restaurants, agriculture and commercial services. If we look at the physical consumption we realize that the services activities are not as important as a consequence of its returns. Nevertheless, agriculture and water are very important on the water direct consumption. This happens because Agriculture products, that directly consume water, are important input for the food industry which at the same time is essential for Catering and restaurants. However, water demand in these categories are different. In catering and restaurants the increasingly water consumption is due fundamentally to the high level of its final demand. On the other hand, in the food processing industry, the water consumption is high at global levels as well as per demand unit.

Water pollution per person, because of demand production and its demand consumption, is 978.6 kg in BOD and 255.5 kg in Nitrogen per year. If we take the six accountants that more water spills produce to satisfy the households demands per capita, for each pollutant or pollutant indicator, we can prove that these accounts are production activities such as food, beverage and tobacco, catering and restaurants, commercial services, textiles, leather and shoes along with institutional accounts from the public sector and savings-investments. This last data indicates that the households' incomes for Public Sector and Savings being used by these accounts produce important direct or indirect effects on water pollution. However if we compare these results with the ones obtained on the direct water pollution, we can conclude that livestock farming stands out on the direct water pollution; but its effects on water pollution have less importance when it is considered not only direct effects but the indirect effects. However, food and catering and restaurants effects are more important when direct and indirect effects are considered. The reason for this situation is the water pollution transfer from livestock farming to food, catering and restaurants as a consequence of having livestock as one of the principal inputs of food activity and the result product of this one to catering and restaurants.

The atmospheric GG emission in [CO.sub.2] equivalent units, per individual that is caused to produce and consume the households' demands is 28.47 t. per year. (This amount includes the emissions made by Exterior Service through imports which is 45%) We also observe that the activities that generate more water pollution to satisfy households' demands are the same activities that generate more atmospheric emissions. These activities are: food, beverage, and tobacco, energy products, commercial services, catering and restaurants along with public sector and savings-investments. This coincidence is a consequence of the household high demand in these accounts. Catering, restaurants and commercial services are not important on the direct and indirect impact of water and atmosphere pollution per household demand unit. Therefore, the importance of environmental effects of these activities is because of the high demand that households do on these activities. For this reason the goal of decreasing pollution should be proposed as a modification of consumption behavior or more environmental policies designed so that these activities are more environmental efficient. Finally, for energy products, we have observed that their atmospheric emissions are important in unit terms as well as global. It would be interesting for this activity to design policies oriented to a more [CO.sub.2] efficient emission production.

Conclusions

Based on our goal we have obtained the environmental effects in terms of water consumption, and water and atmosphere pollution caused directly or indirectly by different production sectors and institutions in order to satisfy the households' demands as well as by the consumption activities that households do.

All this data has also allowed us to get the water consumption and pollution caused by individual in the Aragon economy. This valuable information is relevant when designing environmental policies. We would like to share the most important conclusions of our research paper:

Water consumption and pollution directly caused by households are not significant compared to the pollution caused by the production processes and imports to satisfy a household's demand. If we focus our attention on the households' direct effects, these factors directly very pollutant from the atmospheric point of view in [CO.sub.2], and from the water point of view, in QOD.

Agriculture and livestock farming are great direct water consumers and direct pollutants. It would be interesting to create environmental measures that modify the current production systems of these two activities so they can be more environmentally efficient. Nevertheless, we have verified that part of the high water consumption and water pollution are associated to the livestock farming activities which are linked to production and services on the food industry and catering, consequently we can say that these two industries are also co-responsible for the final resource consumption.

We have also proved that the production sectors that generate more pollution and water consumption to produce goods and services are the food industry, catering and restaurants, and commercial services, because of the amount of the household demands that do these activities. For this reason it is a link between the environmental impact and the households' consumption behaviors. It would be an interesting approach to discuss environmental policies willing to change consumption behaviors.

The energy products directly and indirectly generate important [CO.sub.2] emissions, so it would be interesting to consider the development of solar and wind energy.

Finally, we also found out that besides the households spending in production activities, the household incomes also go to both the public sector and savings causing effects on water consumption and pollution too.

Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Sciencie and Education Department for their financial support under Project number SEJ2007-60960/ECON "Crecimiento, recursos naturales, cambio tecnologico y patrones de demanda".

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Further Reading

IBERCAJA. (2003). Estructura productiva de la economia aragonesa, Marco Input-Output de Aragon 1999. Zaragoza: Caja de Ahorros y Monte de Piedad de Zaragoza, Aragon y Rioja.

INE. (2005). Cuentas ambientales. Metodologia general. Pagina web del Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, www.ine.es/inebmenu/mnu_medioambiente. (Pagina web visitada el 15-12-2005).

Round, J. (2003). Constructing SAMs for development policy analysis: lessons learned and challenges ahead. Economic Systems Research, 15(2).

Sanchez-Choliz,. Julio & Duarte, R. (2003). Analysing pollution by way of vertically integrated coefficients, with an application to the water sector in Aragon. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 27(2).

M. Flores-Garcia ([??]) * A. J. Mainar

Department of Economy and Management, University of Zaragoza, Maria de Luna 3, Building Betancourt, 50005 Zaragoza, Spain

e-mail: monicafl@unizar.es

(1) The Production Sectors, the Foreign Sector and the rest of Institutional Accounts: Public sector, Companies, Production Factors, Savings and Investments are considered as endogenous accounts so they consume water and generate pollution to satisfy the households' consumption. We are also aware of the simplicity of the exogenous supposedly fact especially on the Exterior Sector. However, according to our objective, this simplicity is compensated by a better capacity to approach the environmental consequences of the households' spending.

(2) The subaccounts used with their symbols are the following: 1A: Agriculture, forest culture and aquiculture; 1B: Livestock farming; 2: Energy products; 3: Water; 4: Minerals and metals; 5: Minerals and no metal products; 6: Chemical Products; 7: Metal products and equipment: 8: Transportation material; 9: Food, beverage and tobacco; 10: Textiles, leather and shoes; 11: Paper and printing items; 12: Wood and Cork (except wood furniture); 13: Rubber, plastics and other manufacture; 14: Construction and Engineering; 15: Reclamation and repairs; 16: Commercial services; 17: Catering and restaurants; 18: Transportation and communication; 19: Credit and insurances; 20: Property activities; 21: Private education; 22: Private health services; 23: Other sale services; 24: Domestic services; 25: Public education; 26: Public health services; 27: Other public services; L: Labor factor; K: Capital Factor; HOG: Households; SOC: Companies; AA.PP.: Public sector; A-I: Capital Account; ESP: Spain; UE: European Union; RM: Rest of the World.

(3) The SAMEA for the Aragon economy in 1999 is available for an author petition.

Published online: 11 July 2009

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Comment:Environmental effects of production and consumption activities within an economy: the Aragon case.
Author:Flores-Garcia, Monica; Mainar, Alfredo J.
Publication:International Advances in Economic Research
Geographic Code:4EUSP
Date:Nov 1, 2009
Words:10645
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