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Entrepreneurship education & culture of enterprise: relevance & policy issues.


Entrepreneurship is a remarkable force that has a huge impact on facilitating growth and societal progress of a nation. It involves innovation, employment generation and social empowerment. Education in the area of entrepreneurship may help people to develop skills and knowledge, which could benefit them for starting, organizing and managing their own enterprises. About 12 per cent of the world's population in the age range of 1864 years is constituted by entrepreneurs of one or the other kind. Level of entrepreneurial activity has increased over 50 per cent between 2001 and 2002 and this rise comes amidst a decline of 25 per cent in the global average during this time period. About two-thirds of the entrepreneurs are men and one-third is women with the largest representation from the age-group of 25-44 years (Reynolds et al, 2001). Among the Asian countries, India, China and Thailand demonstrate relatively high degrees of new technology in entrepreneurship (Niels et al, 2007). An adequate provision for education is one of the important requirements for a nation's development (Gopalkrishna & Rao, 2012). Initiating one's own venture has never been an easy task, however, a formal training could help a person to move ahead with proper planning. Therefore entrepreneurship education is gaining much momentum in recent times. Educational institutions imparting formal and textual education may not be in a position to offer any assurance to get access to employment in the formal job market. In such situation, entrepreneurship education is extremely important as it encourages innovation, fosters job creation, and improves global competitiveness. The nature of emerging economic entities and the new business creation provides the structures within which individuals acquire most of their economic resources in addition to social recognition. Education, training and work experience are considered to be the most common indicators of human capital, associated with the success of entrepreneurs. Against this backdrop the present paper aims at analyzing the importance of entrepreneurship education in India. There would be an attempt to understand how the policies can be intervened to strengthen the entrepreneurial spirits among the students.

Contemporary Relevance

Human capital is one of the major contributing factors for the growth and development of any nation. The role of entrepreneurs in creating new enterprises is of crucial importance. Indian economy needs to enhance the level of innovation, creativity and the spirit of entrepreneurship in order to confront the global competitiveness. It is important to mention that only accumulation of knowledge and information does not solve the purpose of disseminating entrepreneurial spirit among the students. If the framework of knowledge can transform the structure and future of the concerned organization in a positive direction then only one can be convinced about the appropriate utilization of knowledge. Hence the success depends upon how the knowledge is utilised in what direction and for what purpose.

Age, gender, work status, education, income, and perceptions are all significant socio-economic factors for an individual's decision to start a business. People with post-secondary or graduate education are more involved in early-stage entrepreneurial activity (Niels & Hardin, 2006). The National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) shows the decadal increase in unemployment rate in India. The figure of unemployment has increased by one million between 2000-01 and 2001-02. An increasing unemployment rate i.e. 9.2% and under-employment in India emphasize the importance of entrepreneurial activities in the country (NSSO, 2004). The Planning Commission report also strongly recommended self-employment as a wayout for the problem of unemployment (Planning Commission, 2002). India has emerged as the second most entrepreneu -rially active nation among the 37 nations which account for 62% of the world's population. Total Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) Index defined as the percentage of people who undertake entrepreneurial activities in comparison to the labour force (population aged 18-64 years) is 17.9% for India (Niels & Hardin, 2006). However, the level of entrepreneurial activity in India may not be sustainable without the support of the right kind of education system. There is a need to create a strong link between the spirit of entrepreneurship and education (Reynolds et al, 2000). Countries which have emphasized on Entrepreneurship Development Program have been found to be successful in achieving higher growth of micro, small and medium enterprises i.e. MSME, (Jahanshahi et al, 2011).

In today's context one needs to reflect upon the trends and advances in technology that can further influence the manufacturing process, process of information technology and on the whole the overall development of a unit. One needs to create additional intellectual capital, which can enable to enhance the capabilities. Improving the training of the staff members and providing the learning atmosphere is a very important component for building the intellectual capital, which further enhances the culture of innovation. The learning need not be only passive rather it should be replaced with creativity, active problem solving with innovative ideas. Instead of having rigid rules and regulations the educational institutions need to be transformed into flexible and responsive networks for creating and exploiting relevant atmosphere for dissemination of knowledge and information. The people involved with training and development should keep in mind that their current activities should continue to promote uniform and standard knowledge, attitude and skills for inculcating entrepreneurial spirit among the learners (Swedberg, 2000). The atmosphere in which the learning goes on should offer greater variety and appropriate environment for successful continuation of the tasks and stimulation for initiating other related activities.

Our knowledge entrepreneurs need to confront the realities of the situation, confront with practical problems rather than getting carried away by the rhetoric of knowledge management. One needs to give a serious thought about what should be the outcome of textual information, conduction of conferences as well as imparted teaching and training. One can notice the missing dimensions of knowledge creation, knowledge management and the exploitation of knowledge. The traditional approach to knowledge is entirely different than the way knowledge is conceptualized and conceived today. The traditional approach has emphasized knowledge that is to be preserved and stored rather than being disseminated. Accumulation of knowledge is a process rather than an event. What used to be the past knowledge may not be relevant in today's context and may not contribute to open avenues for future opportunities. At the same time one cannot rule out the fact that the contemporary knowledge is based on the past experiences. It can contribute as the foundation of the present learning process with a flow of connectivity. Experiences contribute in rectifying and modifying the existing knowledge base.

Entrepreneurship Education

Entrepreneurship as a concept is defined and analysed in different ways by different scholars across distinct time and space (Sexton & Landstorm, 2000; Hisrich & Peters, 2002; Iversen et al, 2008; Trivedi & Stokols, 2011). Some of the scholars have tried to define entrepreneurship education within the same culture of enterprise. Even if there are innovative ideas and new creations, within the same cultural context the industrial bases can be renewed and the modern industrial structures can be maintained and sustained (Jack & Anderson, 1999). Of course, it is too difficult a task to arrive at any consensus, as the whole process of conceptualization is never uniform and one-dimensional. Some scholars have made an attempt to provide an integrated approach to the understanding of entrepreneurship looking at the concept and the process from academic, political and socio-economic angle (Tripathi, 1985; Nabi & Holden, 2008).

Though the concept of entrepreneurship has been introduced some time back but entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurship research are relatively recent. The first systematic approach towards entrepreneurship research and education had taken place in the year 1982 with the publication of "The Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship". Looking at the contemporary scenario, the scope of the entrepreneurship education has been widened to a great extent. It is no more confined to wealth generation only; rather it has multi-disciplinary approach and dimension. The recent changes in the socio-economic sphere have contributed in understanding the entrepreneurial education in a broader way. The curriculum is oriented to enhance the productive knowledge of the students, teachers, researchers, practitioners as well as the policy makers. Entrepreneurship education has a multidimensional approach. The aim is to effectively interact with the concerned faculty members, students, researchers, entrepreneurs and the policy makers. The basic purpose of encouraging entrepreneurial efforts is to make the entrepreneurs self reliant, create job opportunities, improve the economic condition of the people from different strata and orient the public policy in such a way, that it could facilitate such initiatives. The recent approach in theorising entrepreneurship has dealt with the analysis of the process of equilibrium (Krisner 1973, 1982, Minniti & Bygrave, 2001). The very approach of this theory is based on the understanding that economic imbalances exist in various forms and the entrepreneur takes the initiative to identify these imbalances. Thus, it could be interpreted that unlike the traditional view the entrepreneur not only identifies and exploits the existing opportunities but also creates the opportunities for him/ her and for others. The definition of entrepreneurship is no more confined within economic sphere. It has been conceptualized and practiced within the discourse of other social sciences; such as psychology, sociology, economics, history, business history, anthropology and other related disciplines (Swedberg, 2000; Blackburn and Kovalainen, 2009).

Curriculum Development in Entrepreneurship

One of the major objectives of any educational institution is to impart knowledge to the students through a proper learning environment. The knowledge could be considered as the most valuable if it is accessible, current and relevant to the learners with a success oriented approach. At this juncture, information can be more easily disseminated, what used to be a difficult task, years before. Information technology has contributed tremendously to a faster access to information and dissemination. Exploitation of knowledge and information is no doubt of crucial importance at the same time one needs to be aware of the implications, impacts and consequences of the knowledge explosion.

It is important to introduce the course on entrepreneurship in the curricula in order to encourage and motivate the students to become entrepreneurs. A number of factors can contribute significantly for entrepreneurial skill development such as resource mobilization, innovation, observation, management, risk assessment, team building and so on. Students are in a formative stage in terms of deciding about their career when they are enrolled in secondary or higher secondary education. Time and again it has been realized that the curricula introduced in the general education system lack the dimensions of practical implications of the textual information. The most important task is to extract the practical knowledge about entrepreneurship from the existing text and the curricula. It could be used as a useful exercise and resource base for the students of entrepreneurship. Introducing entrepreneurship education in the curricula has many other important dimensions. It has been felt that there is an emerging interest in the discipline of entrepreneurship (Brockhaus et al., 2001). Being an entrepreneur was never seriously taken into account; hence the educational orientation in entrepreneurship was not a priority among the policy makers, or the professionals of the leading educational institutions. Introducing the topic of entrepreneurship can legitimize the initiatives related to entrepreneurial activities among the prospective entrepreneurs or the stakeholders in this profession.

Despite the growing need there is dearth of literature in the area of entrepreneurship education and curriculum. It is very important to bridge the gap between the practical situation and the textual education obtained through the formal educational institutions. The curriculum directed towards entrepreneurial education can contribute in this process (Saini & Gurjar, 2001; UNESCO, 2004). A thorough need assessment can help in identifying the real problems and outcome of the existing educational institutions. Only the literature review in this area may not bring substantial results, as there is dearth of literature related to the curriculum development in entrepreneurship. Developing the entrepreneurial spirit among the youngsters may not be only confined and interpreted as the sole responsibility of the educational institutions. Parents, family members and the community on the whole can also play a key role in encouraging and developing the spirit of entrepreneurship among their children. Along with the characteristics for being an entrepreneur, appropriate atmosphere that is most suitable to provide the opportunities and encouragement is essential.

Primary Education & Entrepreneurship

So far in Indian context entrepreneurship education is largely found in the curriculum of higher education. Entrepreneurship education at primary level is not very common and usually not encouraged, whereas this is the context in which one can consider the hidden potential for exploration. Entrepreneurship education is considered to be a lifelong learning process, beginning from elementary school to all levels of education, including adult education (Ramanigopal et al, 2012). So the entrepreneurship education can be included in the primary level of curriculum. Formal education in entrepreneurship makes a case for early intervention by exposing students to successful stories, the underlying rationale and mechanism for tapping and evolving their entrepreneurial instincts. Children can be attracted to entrepreneurship education through various games, storybooks containing interesting biographies of owners of established business houses. Some institutions and business houses are taking interest to organise summer camps for the children. Such children can be identified through some games, skill identification and achievement-motivation training through these programs and activities. Children having genuine interest and potential can be tapped to meet the challenges of an entrepreneur in future. The children get opportunity to interact with well-known entrepreneurs which encourages and inspires them for future. Exposure to technology, for instance use of children friendly computer- software, appropriate video games can help in generating interest. At the early stages education awareness can be built to incorporate the spirit among the children. The success stories of entrepreneurs can help them in inculcating the right spirit. The NCERT and the state governments can take the initiative by introducing such specific subjects. Vaidya (2002) has explored an encouraging entrepreneurial construct among students of age group 11-14 years. On the whole interest in the field of entrepreneurship can be determined through the activities in which the children are engaged. These activities can be identified, monitored and nurtured by the seniors. There is consolidated effort to universalize elementary education across regions and social groups. Government has introduced various programmes and schemes under Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA) to facilitate the process of enrolment and retention. The analytical reports have reflected many such government initiatives (Mehta, 2006; Paltasingh, 2012). Vocational education with an entrepreneurial approach has been introduced in many government schools and residential schools especially for the girls that enable the children to use the leisure hours in a productive manner through a process of skill learning with play and game method (Paltasingh, 2012). These are small initiatives, but they encourage creativity and develop the entrepreneurial talents among the children. Lot more development can happen in this field for inculcating the entrepreneurial spirit among the youngsters.

At Secondary Level

At the primary level the children can only be oriented towards entrepreneurship through interesting success stories, games etc. But the real implementation and inculcation of ideas can take place during the secondary level of education as at that time the children are in a formative stage. Apart from the textual information the students should be encouraged to be taught in a vocational stream. This can only be possible by introducing entrepreneurship as a part of the curriculum. Unless the curriculum is introduced the students may not take their initiative with seriousness to learn entrepreneurship as a subject.

Realising the importance of the growing need in this area, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), under Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India has introduced a course on 'Entrepreneurship' at the senior secondary stage. The course aims to provide both knowledge and skills to learners, to empower them to be productive and self-reliant. CBSE has introduced entrepreneurship as a subject in the curriculum for Class XI in the academic year 2001-02 and for class XII in March 2003 (CBSE, 2005). The curriculum is designed in a manner that can reflect the needs and aspirations of young learners in the changing socio-economic context. The aim is to stimulate and encourage the individual potential in acquiring the spirit of entrepreneurship. Students from an early stage can be encouraged to understand the importance of entrepreneurial quality that can ensure decent and dignified means of living to every individual. The course can enable the students to understand the concept and process of entrepreneurship, acquire the quality, competency, skill and motivation to manage the entrepreneurial venture. The course is expected to help them in realizing the importance of entrepreneurship which has a positive impact on socioeconomic prosperity at an individual level and consequently can facilitate the development of the broader social structure. This is a good initiative to generate interest in entrepreneurship among the young students. It is expected that this initiative can change the mindset of the students regarding their future career. The present educational institutions mostly encourage the students to be the job seekers rather than be independent for starting the enterprises. The curriculum on entrepreneurship is important in this context. With addition to the individual independence, it can bring about social development and prosperity. Basic objective of this course is to develop the understanding on the concept and process of entrepreneurship that can further enable the students to develop the skill of creating and managing the entrepreneurial venture. On the whole lessons pertaining to management of the enterprise in an efficient manner can be included in the curriculum. There are many qualities, which are indirectly involved to generate and motivate the students to start an entrepreneurial career. The course also aims at developing the leadership quality, self-confidence, creativity, commitment, team building and taking the initiatives to start one's own venture. Hence it is crucial to discuss entrepreneurship education at secondary level. At this stage, career options of the students are open for a concrete decision. Introducing the concept of potential entrepreneurs and pre-entrepreneurs at the high school level can facilitate the development of entrepreneurial spirit among the young students.

In most of the developing countries there are facts and issues concerning huge number of drop outs among the school children especially at the primary and secondary level. Not only the children but also the parents feel that the formal educational degree may not help much to secure employment. Educational institutions do not guarantee the students for an appropriate job. The dropped out children are also not competent for confronting a skilled urban market. There is a growing unproductive labour force in most of the developing countries. Children are not encouraged to continue in the formal education institutions, because of the growing financial burden without much security for the future. The need for entrepreneurship education is precisely to address some of these limitations found in the system of formal education. Only introduction of entrepreneurship in curricula is not enough. The students have to face the challenge of globalization and liberalization process. They have to confront the realities of life in an extremely competitive world. After the completion of entrepreneurship education at secondary level, the role of the higher education institution needs to be extended a bit further. Many students are not aware of how to receive finances for entrepreneurial efforts. There is also the need to network among the potential entrepreneurs. The curriculum can be designed in such a way that the teachers/trainers can identify the potential entrepreneurs. During the childhood and adolescence years youngsters can be encouraged for such a profession. There is a plan to publish a manual on the practical work to be undertaken by students enrolled in both class XI and XII. The teachers are also undertaking induction courses that can facilitate them for effective curriculum transaction.

At the Level of Higher Education

The existing education system, especially in the public sector undertakings do not have adequate support for encouraging entrepreneurship. Very often it is noticed that teachers themselves do not encourage the children to start their independent ventures. There is an urgent need to re-structure and re-orient the system of education, which can emphasize on entrepreneurship education. The curricula of entrepreneurship programme have to have distinct identity and need to be differentiated from traditional management programmes. Students need to be encouraged through skill development courses in areas like negotiation, leadership, creative thinking, innovative ideas, exposure to technological innovations and new product development. The students need to be trained and taught to enhance their ability to identify and exploit business opportunities with appropriate planning. The traditional management education model does not encourage entrepreneurship as a career option. A new approach and paradigm is required that can encourage- practice and participation, receptivity and adoptability, and rational selection of the business venture. On the whole, entrepreneurship education can be given importance as an independent academic discipline to be designed considering the contemporary scenario. The training programmes need to be designed in such a way that can fulfil the requirement of the potential entrepreneurs. In India the education sector is to a great extent controlled by Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) and it is channelized through various regulatory bodies like CBSE, UGC and AICTE. These regulatory bodies can have the dialogues to introduce entrepreneurship in the curriculum framework with a proper connectivity and uniformity in each stage of education. Entrepreneurial teaching and training bridges the gap between theory and practice; providing the opportunity to learners to differentiate themselves by developing self-confidence and independent thinking. In the long run these youngsters become more productive in creating employment opportunities for others through their own initiatives. There has to be innovation in teaching strategies, design in curricula, structure and sequence of the course content, delivering style and so on.

This is the most critical stage of a student to decide about the career. Unfortunately Indian educational system have not generated much interest among the students to choose entrepreneurship as an alternative career apart from searching jobs in both public and private sectors. Adequate importance should be given on motivating, and encouraging the students for launching their own enterprises. The UGC has to take major initiatives to launch the curricula on entrepreneurship in each and every institute/university. By integrating the entrepreneurial curricula into the mainstream education and at the same time keeping the distinct focus a major step can be achieved. Apart from the regular teaching on entrepreneurship the students should be motivated and given the adequate support for practical implementations to set up the enterprises. As an outcome of this course the students are expected to learn the entrepreneurial quality, competency and motivation. The course can also orient the students to understand the market situation, do the market assessment, environmental scanning and identify the entrepreneurial opportunities. They can be taught how to prepare a project report, resource assessment and mobilization of resources.

Now it is heartening to know that apart from the core entrepreneurship institutions many leading institutions, especially those imparting management education are encouraging the students to take entrepreneurship as a career option with seriousness. Entrepreneurship cells are opened at the IIMs and other institutions of higher learning (Quacquarelli, 2012). Some of the graduates of these schools are interested to start their own creative ventures giving up the job offers from corporate with high salary because of their interest to be entrepreneurs. This trend was not found earlier. In addition there are few distance education programmes in entrepreneurship in different organization like "Open Learning Programme" in entrepreneur ship. The course is specifically useful to those students who cannot be enrolled in a formal education system because of time and resource constraints. Such kinds of distance courses give flexibility to learn at the convenience of the learner with adequate teaching and learning materials. However the existing effort is not enough and needs to be intensified to fulfil the needs of aspiring students. Some relevant practical inputs could be given to the students at higher level that can help in creating awareness and encouragement among the students to select entrepreneurship as a career option. Students should be aware of various support systems and agencies that can facilitate them to avail loans from banks and other financial institutions to initiate business ventures.

More than 100 departments from different universities offer courses in entrepreneurship In India. The Indian Institute of Entrepreneurship (IIE) undertakes training, research and consultancy activities in the small industry sector focusing on entrepreneurship development. The Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies (NMIMS) conducts fulltime program on family business management. Indian School of Business (ISB), Hyderabad, offers long term entrepreneurial and incubation assistance. AIMA Centre for Management Education, Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT), FICCI, Small Industries Service Institute, National Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Development (NSTED), National Institute for Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development (NIESBUD), ASEED, Indian Institute of Planning and Management (IIPM), Institute of Marketing and Management (IMM), and Jamia Millia Islamia in New Delhi conduct some short term courses in entrepreneurship in India. The other institutions imparting full time courses include ; Indian Institute of Management (IIM) at Ahmedabad, Bangalore & Kolkata, Xavier Labour Relations Institute (XLRI), Jharkhand, Xavier Institute of Management (XIM), Orissa, Management Development Institute, Haryana, Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management (IIITM), Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Symbiosis Centre for Management, Maharashtra. Some institutions do not have core courses on entrepreneurship. However, they organise several training programmes and courses covering some important aspects of entrepreneurship like competency mapping, Talent Management, Transformational Leadership etc. For instance, Sri Ram Centre for Industrial Relations and Human Resources is contributing significantly in this direction. Similarly IGNOU, New Delhi offers conceptual learning about entrepreneurship through distance learning mode. An international networking in the field of entrepreneurship education is also evident. For instance, Yale School of Management initiated a course linking Yale students with social enterprises (SEs) based in India. The course is meant for the Yale students to understand the practical issues faced by the social entrepreneurs. In India, the IIM Bangalore (NSRCEL-IIMB) carries out international collaboration projects like Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) Project with the London Business School. In IIM Calcutta, entrepreneurship cell organise one of the biggest business plan contest in Asia, i2I (ideas to implementation) with Yale Entrepreneurial Society (YES) of the Yale University. Such initiatives are positive steps to promote entrepreneurship at higher education level.

Policy Interventions & Conclusion

Identifying the right opportunity at the right time, tapping of appropriate natural and human resources, and preparedness for taking risks can all contribute to enhance the spirit of entrepreneurs. Along with the theoretical understanding, entrepreneurship needs to be conceptualized and prepared as a practical enterprise. The theory and practice of entrepreneurship needs to be given equal importance by learning the innovative business pattern across time, space and cultures. Entrepreneurship also needs to be perceived from new angles and perspectives. It is important to demystify the conceptual understanding of entrepreneurship and transform it into a practical skill that can help the potential entrepreneurs to proceed in the right direction.

Over the years the importance of introducing entrepreneurship at various levels of education (primary, secondary and higher) in a more intensified way is seriously thought as it can lessen the burden of unemployment as well as add on to the economic base of the country. Formal education system is an important medium through which entrepreneurial spirit can be inculcated among the youngsters. With regard to the curricula, entrepreneurship education needs to be introduced at all levels of education i.e. primary, secondary and higher education. The curricula can be designed according to the level and requirement of the learner. The existing programme on entrepreneurship developments has not been able to generate much interest among the young students. The curricula needs to be designed in such a way that at the end of the course the students should have combination of conceptual, textual as well as practical knowledge & information. There is an urgent need to introduce the competency-based programme, which is distinct from the conventional programme. The instruction in the classroom can be designed to ensure that the students are confident enough to demonstrate certain competencies essential for starting an enterprise of one's own choice. The students need to be provided with adequate training strategies, methods and instructional materials. The classroom situation needs to be more participatory rather than one-dimensional, entrepreneurship deals with diverse & complex issues. Hence there should be importance on heterogeneous phenomenon while adopting global approach to entrepreneurship education (Fayolle, 2010).

There is a growing interest in the development of education programs that nurture and facilitate entrepreneurship. It is important to understand, what makes an entrepreneur and how his/her interest can be encouraged further. Interest in entrepreneurship and setting up of business houses largely depends upon the interest of the concerned person, which can be encouraged through formal entrepreneurship education programs. The qualities like values, attitudes, self-confidence, creativity, risk taking and motivation can be influenced by the formal education system. The dissemination and acquisition of knowledge and skill development can be expected to increase the efficiency and potentiality of prospective entrepreneurs. Teaching entrepreneurship in an appropriate manner can help the youngsters to be more creative and self-confident and act in a socially responsible manner. Evidences and past experiences have ascertained that entrepreneurship is an important driving force towards economic growth. Such a development in the economy is influenced by government policy, which can further make an impact on institutional environment where policy issues, decisions regarding business ventures are set (Minniti, 2008). The educational institutions need to follow an integrative organizational model, which can contribute in developing the new ideas and new strategies crossing the borders of the structures and instructions followed in one conventional structure and atmosphere. There can be linkages between National Curriculum Framework at different levels, NGOs and agencies promoting entrepreneurship and content based teachers' training module. The process of integration, both internally and externally, in terms of creating organizational ties and supporting an atmosphere for organizational-environment linkages can contribute immensely in the process of strengthening the entrepreneurial education.

Entrepreneurship education need not be understood from a purely economic perspective. Incorporation of only economic dimension may orient the students towards entrepreneurial career in a limited and monotonous way. Students might lose interest if entrepreneurship is linked only with economic aspect. Rather the students should be taught that the concept of innovation and newness is an integral part of entrepreneurship. The newness or the innovative strategy can be perceived from a new product to a new distribution system to a method for developing a new organizational structure through imparting the entrepreneurial spirit with the help of educational institutions. Subsequent policy interventions can be made for appropriate introduction of the curricula and teaching methods at all levels of education.


A part of the paper was presented at 6th Biennial Conference on 'Advances and Trends in Entrepreneurship Education and Research' at EDI, Ahmedabad; (February 09-11, 2005).The paper has been subsequently updated & modified.


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Tattwamasi Paltasingh is Associate Professor, Sardar Patel Institute of Economic & Social Research (SPIESR), Thaltej, Ahmedabad 380054. E-mail:
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Author:Paltasingh, Tattwamasi
Publication:Indian Journal of Industrial Relations
Article Type:Abstract
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Oct 1, 2012
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