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Entrepreneurial motives of Indian entrepreneurs: an empirical study.

Introduction

Entrepreneurial motivation is one of the key elements in entrepreneurial performance. Stuart & Abetti (1990) found a positive correlation between objectives pursued by entrepreneurs and the performance of their businesses. Kurtako et al. (1997) and Robichaud et al. (2001) observed entrepreneurial motivation as goal statement that entrepreneurs seek to achieve; they grouped various items measuring entrepreneurial motivation into four motivational factors, viz., Extrinsic Rewards, Intrinsic Rewards, Independence/Autonomy, and Family Security. Dubini and Aziendale (1988), on the basis of the findings of their study of 163 Italy based entrepreneurs, grouped factors of entrepreneurial motivation into seven sets, viz., (i) Achievement (related to sense of individualism, accomplishment and development); (ii) Philanthropy (related to welfare of the individual, family or community); (iii) Status (related to recognition, prestige, respect); (iv) Materialism (related to economic consideration); (v) Escape (related to escape, an undesirable situation); (vi) Freedom (related to flexibility of work, time, collaborations); and (vii) Role Model (related to continuing family tradition). Rodrigo (1986), in his study of Cali Columbia based 64 entrepreneurs, found out the following motivating factors for entrepreneurship: independence, desire to make a reality of their ideas, confidence in their capacities, desire to develop their initiative and creativity, money, desire to be their own boss, and desire to define their life path before getting old. Vidyu Lata (1990) suggests that security, prestige, power and social service are equally potential motives. Thus, various motives have been identified as factors of entrepreneurial motivation.

Earlier Research

In a number of research studies, attempts have been made to rank entrepreneurial motives as perceived by the entrepreneurs themselves. McClelland (1961) identified 'need for achievement' as the single most important factor of entrepreneurial motivation. Hornaday and Bunker (1970) also supported the McClelland's view considering achievement motive as an explanatory variable for entrepreneurial behavior. Collins and Moore (1970) recognized independence as an important entrepreneurial motive. Further, Hornaday and Aboud (1971) reported that the need for achievement, support, independence, and leadership are the most significant entrepreneurial characteristics. Alange (1988), in his Swedish study (which was a part of an international cross-cultural study of 15 countries), found that Swedish entrepreneurs were motivated by need for independence. Bhattacharya (1979) found that power, self-actualization and achievement motivation are significantly higher in entrepreneurs compared to economic and affiliation motivation. Respect for work was recognized as an important motivating factor of entrepreneurship by Akhouri and Mishra (1990). Vijaya and Kamalanabhan (1998) also found that economic factors and the need for independence emerge as major reasons for the respondents wanting to go into business. In Mitchell's (2004) study of motive profiles of 101 South African entrepreneurs, both men and women entrepreneurs were found to be primarily motivated by the need for independence, need for material incentives and the need for achievement; the need to contribute to the community was not found to be an important reason. Murugesan & Sankaran (2006), in their study of 153 entrepreneurs of Tamil Nadu (India), found that the majority of entrepreneurs were motivated mainly by the urge to attain economic independence such as the desire to earn money and to be self-employed. Chowdhary & Monika Prakash (2007), in their exploratory study of entrepreneurial motives of 179 young Indian entrepreneurs, found that autonomy and freedom dominated the motives for entrepreneurship. The results of the recent study of 243 Indian North Eastern (Assamese) entrepreneurs on entrepreneurial motivation conducted by Khanka (2009) showed that entrepreneurs were primarily motivated by the need for economic achievement, personal growth, autonomy and recognition; the desire to contribute to the community was not found to be an important reason to become an entrepreneur. The above mentioned outcomes of earlier research indicated that no single set of motives has been found to be fully operational in the case of entrepreneurs. Therefore, it is worthwhile to understand which motive / set of motives is more fundamental in the case of existing entrepreneurs. In this direction, on the basis of the extensive review of the earlier research on entrepreneurship, Jain (2011) developed a simple framework of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial competencies in which he incorporated the entrepreneurial motives too as part of the entrepreneurial competencies which include: achievement motivation (need for achievement), need for such aspects as independence/autonomy/personal control, personal growth and development, social recognition and respect, social security & greater comfort for self and family, money/wealth, and enjoying creative, innovative and path-breaking work. Keeping in view the findings of the earlier research in general and Jain's framework in particular, the authors have taken up the present study in the Indian context.

Research Methodology

The present study was carried out with two objectives: first, to rank the various entrepreneurial motives as perceived by the entrepreneurs themselves, and second, to assess the level of achievement motivation of Indian entrepreneurs as well as to make comparisons between the achievement motivation levels of entrepreneurs and intrapreneurs of Indian service provider enterprises.

Sampling Design: The study was carried out with a sample survey of 134 entrepreneurs (owner-managers) belonging to various service provider enterprises of India. Purposive and convenient sampling was adopted to select the enterprises/entrepreneurs. Out of the 134 entrepreneurs so selected 109 were males and 25 were females. Such selected enterprises/entrepreneurs represent different types of ownership, viz., sole-proprietary firms, partnership firms, private limited companies, cooperative societies, and joint hindu families. Only tiny, small, and medium sized service provider enterprises consisting of the following segments were selected for the survey: IT & IT Enabled Services, KPO & BPO Services, Consultancy Services, Tourism, Travel & Hospitaility Services, Health Care Services, Education & Training Services, Advertising Services, and Other Misc. Services which include event management services, entertainment & recreation services, services regarding automobiles servicing, packaging services, courier services, transportation services, beauty parlors, retailers etc. The respondent entrepreneurs have educational qualifications such as non-graduates, graduates, and post-graduates. They also belong to differing age range, family backgrounds such as farming, business, and service as occupation of their father/parents. It is noteworthy that for the purpose of making comparison, achievement motivation scale (AMS) was administered to 116 intrapreneurs besides 134 entrepreneurs.

Data Collection: The following two scales have been administered for the purpose of collecting primary data for the study: first, Entrepreneurial Motivation Scale (a Likert Type five-point scale) which contains eleven items out of which first five items were adapted from the Entrepreneurial Motivation Scale developed by Kurtako et al. (1997), the next five items were adapted from the Entrepreneurial Motivation Scale developed by Vijaya & Kamalanabhan (1998) and the eleventh item was developed by the authors. Second, Achievement Motivation Scale (a Likert Type five-point scale) which contains ten items out of which first eight items were adapted from the Entrepreneurial Orientation Scale developed by Robinson et al. (1991) and the remaining two items were developed by the authors themselves. These scales are given in Appendix I & II.

Reliability Test: The reliability of the above mentioned both the scales have been tested and reliability coefficients, i.e., Cronbach's alpha (a) scores for such scales were obtained as .756 and .768 respectively which indicate the overall reliability of the scales.

Analysis of Data: Statistical tools like mean, standard deviation, t-test, ANOVA, etc. have been used for the purpose of analysis and inference. Data analysis was done with the help of 'SPSS' software package.

Key Variables Studied: Besides 'Achievement Motivation', the following entrepreneurial motives have been selected for the present study to: (i) set standards for achievement and then strive to achieve them; (ii) utilize one's talent and capabilities; (iii) provide more financial security and comfort to one's family; (iv) become self-employed; (v) do something new and path breaking; (vi) make more money and creating personal wealth; (vii) have personal freedom and independence; (viii) fulfill one's temperament and receiving the joy of engaging oneself in entrepreneurial activities; (ix) lead a more comfortable life; (x) serve the society and; (xi) obtain more reputation and status in the society. 'Achievement Motivation' has been studied in more depth and for the purpose, a ten item five point Likert type scale was administered.

Survey Results

1) As ranked on the basis of mean score (Table 1), "to utilize one's talent and capabilities" has been found as the prime entrepreneurial motive followed by the motive "to set standards for achievement and then to strive to achieve them". Entrepreneurial motives such as "to provide more financial security and comfort to family", "to become self-employed", "to do something new and path-breaking" and "to make money and personal wealth" have also been found very important (in the rank order). Other motives have been found less important in the rank order.

2) Entrepreneurial motives were found to be perceived almost similar by both male and female entrepreneurs without significant variation at 0. 05 level of significance (Table 2).

3) No significant variation between the motives of the entrepreneurs belonging to different age ranges (viz., 25-30 years, 30-35 years, 35-40 years, and 40 and above years) (Table 3), (at 0.05 level of significance) was found as regards most of the motives except in case of the following three:(i) "to have personal freedom and independence", (ii) "to fulfill one's temperament and receiving the joy of engaging oneself in entrepreneurial activities", (iii) "to utilize one's talent and capabilities". The first was found to be higher for entrepreneurs in the age range of "40 years and above" as compared to all those who are in other age ranges whereas the other two motives were found to be higher in the age range of "30-35 years". This indicates that: (i) Those below the age of 35 years intend to enjoy the entrepreneurial activities more than the elder entrepreneurs, (ii) Those below the age of 40 years intend to utilize their talent and capabilities" more than the elder entrepreneurs; and (iii) elder entrepreneurs (above the age of 40 years) intend "to have personal freedom and independence" more than their younger counterparts.

4) No significant variation (at 0.05 level of significance) between the motives of entrepreneurs belonging to different levels of educational qualifications (viz., non-graduates, graduates, and post-graduates) (Table 4), was found as regards most of the motives except in the case of three: (i) "to make more money and personal wealth"; (ii) "to do something new and path breaking"; and (iii) "to utilize their talent and capabilities". The first was found to be significantly higher for non-graduate entrepreneurs than the others whereas the other two motives were found to be significantly higher for post-graduates than the others. This indicates that the post-graduates intend to utilize their talent and capabilities as well as to do something new and path breaking when compared to graduates and non-graduates.

5) No significant variation was found (at 0.05 level of significance) between the motives of entrepreneurs belonging to different family backgrounds (viz. farming, business, private sector service, and public / government sector service) (Table 5), as regards most of the motives except in the case of: (i) "to make more money and personal wealth"; (ii) " to lead a more comfortable life"; and (iii) "to obtain more reputation and status in the society". The first and the third were found to be higher for those who belong to farming or private sector service whereas the second was found to be higher for those who belong to business background. This indicates that more entrepreneurs belonging to farming or private service background intend to obtain more reputation and status in the society from their entrepreneurial activities than those who belong to business family background.

6) No significant variation was found (Table 6) between seven motives of the entrepreneurs belonging to different segments of services (viz., IT & ITES, Consultancy, Tourism, Travel & Hospitality, Medical & Healthcare, Education & Training, and Advertising & Marketing), but the following four items were found with significant variation (at 0.05 level of significance): (i) "To make more money and personal wealth"; (ii) "To do something new and path breaking"; (iii) "To set standards for achievement and then to strive to achieve them"; and (iv) "To fulfill one's temperament and receiving the joy of engaging oneself in entrepreneurial activities". On further analysis, the first three such motives were found with significant variation particularly between the two segments, viz., 'IT & ITES' and 'Medical & Healthcare'.

7. No significant variation (at 0.05 level of significance) between motives of the entrepreneurs belonging to different types of firm ownerships (viz., Single Owner Firms, Private Limited Company, and Public Limited Company) (Table 7) was found as regards most of the motives except in case of the following two: "to lead a more comfortable life", and "to fulfill one's temperament and receiving the joy of engaging oneself in entrepreneurial activities". The former was found to be important more for entrepreneurs belonging to private sector than those belonging to the public sector, whereas the later was found to be important more for entrepreneurs belonging to private sector than those belonging to single owner firms.

8. Most of the entrepreneurs were perceived to have 'Achievement Motive (AM)' as moderately positive. Such a perception was found common among both male and female entrepreneurs as well as among the entrepreneurs of different age ranges without significant variation (at 0.05 level of significance). However, more post-graduate entrepreneurs were perceived to have such a motive (AM) than the graduate or non-graduate entrepreneurs. Similarly, more entrepreneurs with business family background have such a motive (AM) than those who with of service family background (either private sector or public / government sector service). Achievement Motivation of entrepreneurs having single ownership has been found at significantly higher level than those belonging to private sector companies. So far as Achievement Motivation of entrepreneurs belonging to different segments of services is concerned, it varied significantly (Table 8).

Most of the intrapreneurs also perceived to have their 'Achievement Motive (AM)' as moderately positive. Such a perception was found common between both male and female intrapreneurs; among intrapreneurs belonging to different family backgrounds as well as those belonging to various segments of services. The same is the case with intrapreneurs belonging to various types of firm ownership. However, the Achievement Motive (AM) score was found with significant variation (at 0.05 level of significance) among the intrapreneurs of different age ranges as well as among the intrapreneurs having different levels of educational qualifications (Table 9)

It is worth noting that both entrepreneurs and intrapreneurs were found to have Achievement Motivation (AM) as moderately positive (Entrepreneurs: Mean = 36.49, S.D. = 2.73; Intrapreneurs: Mean = 31.33, S.D. = 3.91) but with significant variation (t-value = 3.779) at 0.05 level of significance; such motivation (AM) was found to be significantly higher among entrepreneurs than among the intrapreneurs.

Discussion & Implications

In the earlier research including Indian studies (e.g. Khanka, 2009; Murugesan & Sankaran, 2006; Mitchell, 2004; Das, 1999), it was found that entrepreneurs were primarily motivated by economic achievement, whereas in the present study such a motive was found at the sixth rank. The following three, viz., "to utilize one's talent and capabilities", "to set standards for achievement and then to strive to achieve them" and "to provide more financial security & comfort to family" emerged as the most important motives. "To become self-employed", "to do something new and path-breaking", and "to make money and personal wealth" have also been ranked in higher order. Such fundamental motives of entrepreneurs are changing gradually. However, more cross-cultural and cross-sector studies should be carried out by the future researchers to understand the changing profile of entrepreneurial motives across the cultures and across the sectors.

The findings of the study indicate that younger entrepreneurs intend "to enjoy the entrepreneurial activities" and "to utilize their talent and capabilities" than the elder entrepreneurs; but the elder entrepreneurs intend "to have personal freedom and independence" than the younger entrepreneurs. The findings also indicate that the post-graduates intend "to utilize their talent and capabilities" as well as "to do something new and path breaking" through their entrepreneurship as compared to graduates and non-graduates. Further, more entrepreneurs belonging to farm family background or private service intend "to obtain better reputation and status in the society from their entrepreneurial activities than all those who belong to background of business family. In the matter of such findings, rare research studies have been carried out so far. Before making broad generalization, more research studies across the cultures and across the sectors within the same culture need to be carried out.

Shaver and Scott (1991), in their review of literature, indicate that overall, achievement motivation is a valid predictor of entrepreneurial behavior. Johnson (1990), in his analysis of the results of twenty-three earlier studies, found a positive relationship between achievement motivation and entrepreneurship. In a study of entrepreneurs in New England and rural Florida, need for achievement was found as a personality trait that differentiated founders and non-founders of entrepreneurial firms (Babb & Babb, 1992). Such a result was found in contrast to those of Low & Macmillan (1988) which found that need for achievement was not a differentiating factor between entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs. However, the results of the present study revealed that both entrepreneurs and intrapreneurs were found to have achievement motivation (AM) as moderately positive but with significant variation. Such a trend indicates that in service sector firms in India, 'achievement motivation' will no longer be a differentiating factor between entrepreneurs and intrapreneurs. The same trend may be observed in other countries too is yet to be tested. Some cross cultural studies on the issue (e,g. Hisrich, 1986; Emmeline, 1998) have also been carried out in the past. Emmeline (1998) found that "Achievement Motivation Levels" did not differ significantly between Irish and American subjects, nor did they differ significantly between men and women. However, the results of such a study indicated that there is a significant national difference in entrepreneurial intention, but not in levels of Achievement Motivation which implies that the same may not be a simple predictor of entrepreneurial intention. Taormina and Lao (2007), in their study of 337 Chinese respondents, found that 'Achievement Striving' which is similar to McClelland's (1961) "Need for Achievement" was positively and significantly correlated with motivation to start a business. Such a finding largely paralleled outcomes of earlier research indicating that 'achievement motivation' continues to be an important factor in influencing people to engage themselves in entrepreneurial endeavours.

Concluding Remarks

Entrepreneurial motivation and sustained entrepreneurship are viewed as much broader concepts. However, more agreement is with the proposition that entrepreneurs will be motivated to continue to behave entrepreneurially as long as they see entrepreneurship as an alternative with the highest expected outcome as proposed by Naffziger et al. (1994). A number of factors stimulate entrepreneurial behavior and the significance of specific factors changes with the change in situational and cultural contexts. More often, overlapping of various factors has combined effect in the process of influencing entrepreneurial motivation. However, Achievement Motivation continues to be the prime mover across the situational and cultural contexts. It is suggested that a country's level of entrepreneurial activities and consequent growth of the economy can be enhanced by raising the level of achievement motivation of increasing number of people, particularly the youngsters. It is expected from the government as well as from business giants including the activists of business networks that they will do their best to create hospitable climate towards entrepreneurship so as to convince people to perceive the entrepreneurship as a noble or highly esteemed activity. The founding of a venture should be perceived as a valued achievement. This is a presumption that pervades much of the earlier research including cross cultural research in the area of entrepreneurship.

Appendix I

Entrepreneurial Motives Scale *

Instructions: Ten Statements pertaining to entrepreneurial motives are given below. Please describe your entrepreneurial motive by the way of rating on each statement using the following five point scale: Strongly Agree (5), Agree (4), Neither Agree Nor-Disagree (3), Disagree (2), Strongly Disagree (1).

1. I started my business and remain in the business because I wanted to make money and personal wealth.

2. I ventured into my business because I wanted to be self-employed.

3. I started my own firm in order to maintain my personal freedom / independence.

4. I started my business in order to lead a comfortable life.

5. I started my business because of my temperament for business and the joy which I receive by engaging myself in business activities.

6. I started my business and continue to do the same because I want to do something new and path breaking.

7. I started my business because I wanted to make best utilization of my talent and capabilities.

8. I ventured into business in order to serve the society through business.

9. I ventured into my business to provide more financial security and greater comfort to my family.

10. I started my own business venture for obtaining more reputation and status in the society/ community I live in.

11. I myself set standards as regards to my venture and then strive to achieve them.

[* Source: First five items of the above mentioned Entrepreneurial Motives Scale (EMS) were adapted from the Entrepreneurial Motivation Scale developed by Kurtako et al. (1997) ; the next five items of the scale were adapted from the Entrepreneurial Motivation Scale developed by Vijaya & Kamalanabhan (1998) and the eleventh item was developed by the authors of this paper.. It is also to be noted that the five items of the scale of Kurtako et al. (1997) was extracted from research paper authored by Robinchud et al. (2001) as the same was cited therein.]

Appendix II

Achievement Motivation Scale **

Instructions: Ten Statements pertaining to entrepreneurial / intrapreneurial motives are given below. Please describe your motive by the way of rating on each statement using the following five point scale: Strongly Agree (5), Agree (4), Neither Agree Nor Disagree (3), Disagree (2), Strongly Disagree (1).

1. When my performance excels, I get excited.

2. I invest enough time and other resources in making my organization to perform better.

3. I often sacrifice personal comforts in order to take advantage of business opportunities.

4. I make serious efforts to get the best out of my business resources.

5. I feel proud in achieving good results in my business.

6. I spend a considerable amount of time analyzing my future business needs before I allocate my resources.

7. I make it a point to do something significant and meaningful at work every day.

8. I feel depressed when I do not accomplish any meaningful work.

9. I set standards for myself and then strive to achieve them.

10. I work hard for hours together to be successful in whatever I undertake.

[** Source: First eight items of the above mentioned Achievement Motivation Scale (AMS) were adapted from the Entrepreneurial Attitude Scale developed by Robinson et al. (1997) and the remaining two items of the AMS were developed by the authors of this paper.]

References

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Ravindra Jain is Professor in Business Management, Faculty of Management Studies, Vikram University, Ujjain 456010. E-mail: jainravindrak@rediffmail.com. Saiyed Wajid Ali is Research Scholar, Faculty of Management Studies, Vikram University, Ujjain and Assistant Professor in Management, Centre for Management Studies, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025. E-mail: saiyed.wajid@gmail.com.
Table 1 Rank Order of Entrepreneurial Motive

Motives Mean S.D. Rank
 (N = 134) Order

To Utilize One's Talent and Capabilities 4.59 .640 1
To Set Standards for Achievement and 4.30 .977 2
 Then to Strive to Achieve Them
To Provide More Financial Security and 4.28 .837 3
 Comfort to One's Family
To Become Self Employed 4.25 .888 4
To Do Something New and Path Breaking 4.24 .877 5
To Make More Money and Personal Wealth 4.19 .977 6
To Have Personal Freedom and Independence 4.08 .989 7
To Fulfill One's Temperament and
 Receiving the Joy of Engaging Oneself
 in Entrepreneurial Activities 4.04 .913 8
To Lead a More Comfortable Life 3.83 1.147 9
To Serve the Society 3.78 .994 10
To Obtain More Reputation and Status in 3.73 1.164 11
 the Society

Table 2 Comparison Between Motives of Male and Female Entrepreneurs
(t-test Results)

Entrepreneurial Motives Males Females
 (N = 109) (N = 25)

 Mean S.D. Mean S.D.

To Utilize One's Talent and
 Capabilities 4.61 .592 4.48 .823
To set standards for Achievement 4.28 .734 4.36 .569
 and then to Strive to achieve
 them
To Provide More Financial 4.28 .851 4.28 .792
 and Comfort to One's Family
 Security
To Become Self Employed 4.25 .914 4.24 .779
To Do Something New and Path 4.28 .851 4.04 .978
 Breaking
To Make More Money and 4.22 .956 4.08 1.077
 Personal Wealth
To Have Personal Freedom and 4.07 .988 4.12 1.013
 Independence
To Fulfill One's Temperament and 4.08 .840 3.84 1.179
 Receiving the Joy of Engaging
 Oneself in Entrepreneurial
 Activities
To Lead a More Comfortable Life 3.83 1.183 3.80 1.000
To Serve the Society 3.80 .931 3.68 1.249
To Obtain More Reputation and 3.79 1.131 3.48 1.295
 Status in the Society

Entrepreneurial Motives

 t-Value Sig.

To Utilize One's Talent and
 Capabilities .949 .344
To set standards for Achievement -.482 .630
 and then to Strive to achieve
 them
To Provide More Financial .024 .981
 and Comfort to One's Family
 Security
To Become Self Employed .039 .969
To Do Something New and Path 1.259 .210
 Breaking
To Make More Money and .646 .520
 Personal Wealth
To Have Personal Freedom and -.212 .833
 Independence
To Fulfill One's Temperament and 1.20 .232
 Receiving the Joy of Engaging
 Oneself in Entrepreneurial
 Activities
To Lead a More Comfortable Life .137 .892
To Serve the Society .535 .594
To Obtain More Reputation and 1.199 .233
 Status in the Society

* Significant at 0.05 level of significance
(table value = 1.96). On applying t Test, none of
the values was found significant.

Table 3 Comparison between Motives of Entrepreneurs Belonging
to Different Age Ranges (Results of ANOVA)

Motives 25-30 Years 30-35 Years
 (N=4) (N=19)

 Mean S.D. Mean S.D.
 Value Value

To Make More 4.25 .500 4.32 .582
 Money and
 Personal Wealth
To Become Self 4.25 .500 4.47 .697
 Employed
To Have Personal 4.50 .577 4.21 1.032
 Freedom and
 Independence
To Lead a More 3.75 1.258 3.58 1.346
 Comfortable Life
To Fulfill One's 4.50 .577 4.53 .697
 Temperament and
 Receiving the Joy
 of Engaging
 Oneself in
 Entrepreneurial
 Activities
To Do Something 4.75 .500 4.32 .749
 New and Path
 Breaking
To Utilize One's 4.50 .577 4.87 .895
 Talent and
 Capabilities
To Serve the 4.00 .816 3.58 1.121
 Society
To Provide More 4.25 .957 4.21 .855
 Financial Security
 and Comfort to
 One's Family
To Obtain More 3.75 1.258 3.95 .911
 Reputation and
 Status in the
 Society
To Set Standards 4.50 1.000 4.42 .607
 for Achievement
 and then to
 strive

Motives 35-40 Years 40 Years & F P
 (N = 54) above (N = 57) (Sig.)

 Mean S.D. Mean S.D.
 Value Value

To Make More 4.07 1.211 4.26 .856 .464 .708
 Money and
 Personal Wealth
To Become Self 4.33 .890 4.09 .950 1.200 .313
 Employed
To Have Personal 4.17 .906 5.93 1.067 3.121 .043 *
 Freedom and
 Independence
To Lead a More 3.91 .996 3.84 1.222 .388 .762
 Comfortable Life
To Fulfill One's 3.81 .953 4.05 .895 3.411 .020 *
 Temperament and
 Receiving the Joy
 of Engaging
 Oneself in
 Entrepreneurial
 Activities
To Do Something 4.11 .883 4.30 .925 .969 .409
 New and Path
 Breaking
To Utilize One's 4.65 .520 4.41 .648 3.276 .041 *
 Talent and
 Capabilities
To Serve the 3.78 1.093 3.82 .869 .357 .784
 Society
To Provide More 4.24 .950 4.35 .719 .216 .885
 Financial Security
 and Comfort to
 One's Family
To Obtain More 3.63 1.293 3.75 1.123 .358 .784
 Reputation and
 Status in the
 Society
To Set Standards 4.30 .690 4.25 .739 .402 .752
 for Achievement
 and then to
 strive

*. Significant at 0.05 level of significance
(Table Value of F = 2.6049).

Table 4 Comparison between Motives of Entrepreneurs having
Different Levels of Educational Qualifications.

(Results of ANOVA)

Entrepreneurial Motives Non-Graduates
 (N = 14)

 Mean Value S.D.

To Make More Money and Personal Wealth 4.71 .469
To Become Self Employed 4.36 .842
To Have Personal Freedom and 4.29 .726
 Independence
To Lead a More Comfortable Life 4.36 .929
To Fulfill One's Temperament and 4.00 .784
 Receiving the Joy of Engaging
 Oneself in Entrepreneurial
 Activities
To Do Something New and Path Breaking 4.21 .699
To Utilize One's Talent and 4.50 .519
 Capabilities
To Serve the Society 3.71 .726
To Provide More Financial Security 4.43 .646
 and Comfort to One's Family
To Obtain More Reputation and Status 4.07 .997
 in the Society
To set standards for Achievement and 4.36 .497
 then to Strive to achieve them

Entrepreneurial Motives Graduates
 (N = 51)

 Mean Value S.D.

To Make More Money and Personal Wealth 4.24 .862
To Become Self Employed 4.25 .868
To Have Personal Freedom and 4.08 1.111
 Independence
To Lead a More Comfortable Life 3.75 1.129
To Fulfill One's Temperament and 4.12 1.032
 Receiving the Joy of Engaging
 Oneself in Entrepreneurial
 Activities
To Do Something New and Path Breaking 4.35 .890
To Utilize One's Talent and 4.51 .723
 Capabilities
To Serve the Society 3.76 .929
To Provide More Financial Security 4.35 .688
 and Comfort to One's Family
To Obtain More Reputation and Status 3.82 1.090
 in the Society
To set standards for Achievement and 4.25 .627
 then to Strive to achieve them

Entrepreneurial Motives Post Graduates
 (N = 69)

 Mean Value S.D.

To Make More Money and Personal Wealth 4.06 1.097
To Become Self Employed 4.22 .921
To Have Personal Freedom and 4.04 .946
 Independence
To Lead a More Comfortable Life 3.78 1.187
To Fulfill One's Temperament and 3.99 .849
 Receiving the Joy of Engaging
 Oneself in Entrepreneurial
 Activities
To Do Something New and Path Breaking 4.46 .901
To Utilize One's Talent and 4.59 .602
 Capabilities
To Serve the Society 3.80 1.092
To Provide More Financial Security 4.20 .964
 and Comfort to One's Family
To Obtain More Reputation and Status 3.59 1.240
 in the Society
To set standards for Achievement and 4.32 .795
 then to Strive to achieve them

Entrepreneurial Motives

 F P (Sig.)

To Make More Money and Personal Wealth 4.861 .039 *
To Become Self Employed .146 .864
To Have Personal Freedom and .346 .708
 Independence
To Lead a More Comfortable Life 2.852 .066
To Fulfill One's Temperament and .317 .729
 Receiving the Joy of Engaging
 Oneself in Entrepreneurial
 Activities
To Do Something New and Path Breaking 4.316 .049 *
To Utilize One's Talent and 4.220 .028 *
 Capabilities
To Serve the Society .045 .956
To Provide More Financial Security .702 .497
 and Comfort to One's Family
To Obtain More Reputation and Status 1.240 .293
 in the Society
To set standards for Achievement and .173 .842
 then to Strive to achieve them

*. Significant at 0.05 level of significance
(Table Value of F=2.6049).

Table 5 Comparison between Motives of Entrepreneurs having
Different Family Backgrounds (Results of ANOVA)

Entrepreneurial Farming Service in
Motives (N = 29) Private
 Company/
 Firm (N = 20)

 Mean Value S.D. Mean Value S.D.

To Make More 4.38 .979 4.30 .470
 Money and
 Personal Wealth
To Become Self 4.17 .928 4.40 .754
 Employed
To Have Personal 4.21 .861 4.25 .716
 Freedom and
 Independence
To Lead a More 4.97 1.295 4.35 .933
 Comfortable Life
To Fulfill One's 3.86 .990 4.00 .795
 Temperament and
 Receiving the Joy
 of Engaging
 Oneself in
 Entrepreneurial
 Activities
To Do Something 4.34 .769 4.35 .988
 New and Path
 Breaking
To Utilize One's 4.62 .561 4.70 .470
 Talent and
 Capabilities
To Serve the 3.90 .772 4.05 .759
 Society
To Provide More 4.28 .996 4.80 .410
 Financial Security
 and Comfort to
 One's Family
To Obtain More 4.03 1.017 4.00 1.03
 Reputation and
 Status in the
 Society
To Set Standards 4.51 .771 4.30 .503
 for Achievement
 and then to Strive

Entrepreneurial Service in Business
Motives Public (N = 52)
 Sector/Govt.
 Organisation
 (N = 33)

 Mean Value S.D. Mean Value S.D.

To Make More 3.94 1.059 4.21 1.054
 Money and
 Personal Wealth
To Become Self 4.21 .960 4.25 .883
 Employed
To Have Personal 4.06 1.197 3.96 1.009
 Freedom and
 Independence
To Lead a More 4.00 1.090 3.44 1.074
 Comfortable Life
To Fulfill One's 4.03 .984 4.15 .872
 Temperament and
 Receiving the Joy
 of Engaging
 Oneself in
 Entrepreneurial
 Activities
To Do Something 4.27 .944 4.12 .855
 New and Path
 Breaking
To Utilize One's 4.48 .755 4.60 .664
 Talent and
 Capabilities
To Serve the 3.82 1.158 3.58 1.054
 Society
To Provide More 4.27 .839 4.10 .799
 Financial Security
 and Comfort to
 One's Family
To Obtain More 3.73 1.257 3.46 1.196
 Reputation and
 Status in the
 Society
To Set Standards 4.21 .781 4.69 .667
 for Achievement
 and then to Strive

Entrepreneurial F P
Motives (Sig.)

To Make More 3.254 .031 *
 Money and
 Personal Wealth
To Become Self .279 .841
 Employed
To Have Personal .603 .614
 Freedom and
 Independence
To Lead a More 3.975 .010 *
 Comfortable Life
To Fulfill One's .645 .587
 Temperament and
 Receiving the Joy
 of Engaging
 Oneself in
 Entrepreneurial
 Activities
To Do Something .602 .615
 New and Path
 Breaking
To Utilize One's .512 .674
 Talent and
 Capabilities
To Serve the 2.492 .072
 Society
To Provide More 1.608 .115
 Financial Security
 and Comfort to
 One's Family
To Obtain More 4.238 .012 *
 Reputation and
 Status in the
 Society
To Set Standards 3.040 .039 *
 for Achievement
 and then to Strive

*. Significant at 0.05 level of significance
(Table Value of F = 2.6049).

Table 6 Comparison Between Motives of Entrepreneurs
Belonging to Different Segments of Services.
(Results of Anova)

Entrepreneurial IT& ITES
Attitudes (N = 11)

 Mean Value S.D.

To Make More Money and 3.82 1.079
 Personal Wealth
To Become Self Employed 4.27 .786
To Have Personal Freedom 4.18 .982
 and Independence
To Lead a More Comfortable 4.00 1.095
 Life
To Receiving the Joy of in 4.09 .701
 Entrepreneurial Activities
To Do Something New and 4.64 .505
 Path Breaking
To Utilize One's Talent and 4.73 .467
 Capabilities
To Serve the Society 4.09 .701
To Provide More Financial 4.45 .688
 Security and Comfort to
 One's Family
To Obtain More Reputation 4.00 1.000
 and Status in the Society
 To Set Standards for
 Achievement and then to
Strive to Achieve them 4.55 .688

Entrepreneurial Consultancy
Attitudes (N = 23)

 Mean Value S.D.

To Make More Money and 4.00 1.348
 Personal Wealth
To Become Self Employed 4.13 .815
To Have Personal Freedom 4.26 .752
 and Independence
To Lead a More Comfortable 3.78 1.126
 Life
To Receiving the Joy of in 3.78 .998
 Entrepreneurial Activities
To Do Something New and 4.22 .951
 Path Breaking
To Utilize One's Talent and 4.61 .583
 Capabilities
To Serve the Society 3.83 1.029
To Provide More Financial 4.17 1.193
 Security and Comfort to
 One's Family
To Obtain More Reputation 3.43 1.273
 and Status in the Society
 To Set Standards for
 Achievement and then to
Strive to Achieve them 4.30 .765

Entrepreneurial Tourism,
Attitudes Travel &
 Hospitality
 (N = 41)

 Mean Value S.D.

To Make More Money and 4.20 .901
 Personal Wealth
To Become Self Employed 4.39 .802
To Have Personal Freedom 4.10 .970
 and Independence
To Lead a More Comfortable 3.80 1.077
 Life
To Receiving the Joy of in 4.15 .882
 Entrepreneurial Activities
To Do Something New and 4.27 .742
 Path Breaking
To Utilize One's Talent and 4.61 .586
 Capabilities
To Serve the Society 3.78 1.037
To Provide More Financial 4.27 .708
 Security and Comfort to
 One's Family
To Obtain More Reputation 3.78 1.235
 and Status in the Society
 To Set Standards for
 Achievement and then to
Strive to Achieve them 4.32 .687

Entrepreneurial Medical &
Attitudes Health
 (N = 11)

 Mean Value S.D.

To Make More Money and 4.45 .522
 Personal Wealth
To Become Self Employed 4.27 .905
To Have Personal Freedom 3.73 1.348
 and Independence
To Lead a More Comfortable 4.09 1.136
 Life
To Receiving the Joy of in 3.55 1.128
 Entrepreneurial Activities
To Do Something New and 3.91 1.375
 Path Breaking
To Utilize One's Talent and 4.36 1.027
 Capabilities
To Serve the Society 3.91 .944
To Provide More Financial 4.55 .688
 Security and Comfort to
 One's Family
To Obtain More Reputation 3.55 .934
 and Status in the Society
 To Set Standards for
 Achievement and then to
Strive to Achieve them 4.82 .405

Entrepreneurial Education &
Attitudes Trg. (N = 12)

 Mean Value S.D.

To Make More Money and 4.45 .522
 Personal Wealth
To Become Self Employed 4.08 .996
To Have Personal Freedom 3.83 1.115
 and Independence
To Lead a More Comfortable 3.83 .937
 Life
To Receiving the Joy of in 4.07 .835
 Entrepreneurial Activities
To Do Something New and 4.00 .853
 Path Breaking
To Utilize One's Talent and 4.75 .452
 Capabilities
To Serve the Society 3.33 1.371
To Provide More Financial 4.17 1.030
 Security and Comfort to
 One's Family
To Obtain More Reputation 3.50 1.382
 and Status in the Society
 To Set Standards for
 Achievement and then to
Strive to Achieve them 4.33 .651

Entrepreneurial Adv. & Mkg.
Attitudes (N = 15)

 Mean Value S.D.

To Make More Money and 4.15 4.23
 Personal Wealth
To Become Self Employed 4.07 1.223
To Have Personal Freedom 4.00 1.069
 and Independence
To Lead a More Comfortable 3.47 1.407
 Life
To Receiving the Joy of in 4.00 .926
 Entrepreneurial Activities
To Do Something New and 4.13 .915
 Path Breaking
To Utilize One's Talent and 4.40 .910
 Capabilities
To Serve the Society 3.47 1.060
To Provide More Financial 4.07 .961
 Security and Comfort to
 One's Family
To Obtain More Reputation 3.87 1.060
 and Status in the Society
 To Set Standards for
 Achievement and then to
Strive to Achieve them 3.87 .915

Entrepreneurial F P
Attitudes (Sig.)

To Make More Money and 2.735 .041 *
 Personal Wealth
To Become Self Employed .413 .869
To Have Personal Freedom .556 .765
 and Independence
To Lead a More Comfortable .424 .862
 Life
To Receiving the Joy of in 3.252 .028 *
 Entrepreneurial Activities
To Do Something New and 3.918 .020 *
 Path Breaking
To Utilize One's Talent and .666 .677
 Capabilities
To Serve the Society .976 .445
To Provide More Financial .625 .710
 Security and Comfort to
 One's Family
To Obtain More Reputation .633 .703
 and Status in the Society
 To Set Standards for
 Achievement and then to
Strive to Achieve them 3.017 .026 *

*. Significant at 0.05 level of significance
(Table Value of F = 2.6049).

Table 7 Comparison Between Motives of Entrepreneurs
Belonging to Different Type of Firms

(Results of ANOVA)

Entrepreneurial Single Owner
Motives Firm (N = 80)

 Mean Value S.D.

To Make More 4.19 .956
 Money and
 Personal Wealth
To Become Self 4.21 .867
 Employed
To Have Personal 4.06 .972
 Freedom and
 Independence
To Lead a More 3.78 1.169
 Comfortable Life
To Fulfill One's 3.92 .965
 Temperament and
 Receiving the Joy
 of Engaging
 Oneself in
 Entrepreneurial
 Activities
To Do Something 4.25 .864
 New and Path
 Breaking
To Utilize One's 4.60 .648
 Talent and
 Capabilities
To Serve the 3.80 .986
 Society
To Provide More 4.19 .887
 Financial Security
 and Comfort to
 One's Family
To Obtain More 3.75 1.131
 Reputation and
 Status in the
 Society
To Set Standards 4.06 .919
 for Achievement
 and then to Strive
 to Achieve them

Entrepreneurial Private
Motives Ltd. Company/
 (N = 28)

 Mean Value S.D.

To Make More 4.25 .967
 Money and
 Personal Wealth
To Become Self 4.36 .989
 Employed
To Have Personal 4.14 1.079
 Freedom and
 Independence
To Lead a More 3.96 1.170
 Comfortable Life
To Fulfill One's 4.29 .854
 Temperament and
 Receiving the Joy
 of Engaging
 Oneself in
 Entrepreneurial
 Activities
To Do Something 4.43 .790
 New and Path
 Breaking
To Utilize One's 4.43 .690
 Talent and
 Capabilities
To Serve the 3.86 .803
 Society
To Provide More 4.32 .723
 Financial Security
 and Comfort to
 One's Family
To Obtain More 3.64 1.367
 Reputation and
 Status in the
 Society
To Set Standards 4.36 .559
 for Achievement
 and then to Strive
 to Achieve them

Entrepreneurial Public
Motives Ltd. Company/
 (N = 3)

 Mean Value S.D.

To Make More 4.33 .577
 Money and
 Personal Wealth
To Become Self 4.33 .577
 Employed
To Have Personal 3.67 1.528
 Freedom and
 Independence
To Lead a More 2.67 1.528
 Comfortable Life
To Fulfill One's 4.17 .577
 Temperament and
 Receiving the Joy
 of Engaging
 Oneself in
 Entrepreneurial
 Activities
To Do Something 5.00 .000
 New and Path
 Breaking
To Utilize One's 5.00 .000
 Talent and
 Capabilities
To Serve the 3.33 1.155
 Society
To Provide More 4.67 .577
 Financial Security
 and Comfort to
 One's Family
To Obtain More 4.00 1.000
 Reputation and
 Status in the
 Society
To Set Standards 4.33 .577
 for Achievement
 and then to Strive
 to Achieve them

Entrepreneurial Any Other
Motives Type
 (N = 52)

 Mean Value S.D.

To Make More 4.13 1.140
 Money and
 Personal Wealth
To Become Self 4.22 .902
 Employed
To Have Personal 4.13 .920
 Freedom and
 Independence
To Lead a More 4.00 .953
 Comfortable Life
To Fulfill One's 4.04 .767
 Temperament and
 Receiving the Joy
 of Engaging
 Oneself in
 Entrepreneurial
 Activities
To Do Something 3.87 .968
 New and Path
 Breaking
To Utilize One's 4.70 .559
 Talent and
 Capabilities
To Serve the 3.65 1.229
 Society
To Provide More 4.52 .790
 Financial Security
 and Comfort to
 One's Family
To Obtain More 3.74 1.096
 Reputation and
 Status in the
 Society
To Set Standards 4.17 .576
 for Achievement
 and then to Strive
 to Achieve them

Entrepreneurial F P
Motives (Sig.)

To Make More .083 .969
 Money and
 Personal Wealth
To Become Self .198 .897
 Employed
To Have Personal .236 .871
 Freedom and
 Independence
To Lead a More 4.398 .024 *
 Comfortable Life
To Fulfill One's 4.892 .019 *
 Temperament and
 Receiving the Joy
 of Engaging
 Oneself in
 Entrepreneurial
 Activities
To Do Something 2.647 .052
 New and Path
 Breaking
To Utilize One's 1.227 .303
 Talent and
 Capabilities
To Serve the .390 .760
 Society
To Provide More 1.206 .310
 Financial Security
 and Comfort to
 One's Family
To Obtain More .112 .953
 Reputation and
 Status in the
 Society
To Set Standards 1.005 .393
 for Achievement
 and then to Strive
 to Achieve them

*. Significant at 0.05 level of significance
(Table Value of F = 2.6049).

Table 8 Achievement Motivation of the Entrepreneurs:
Comparison Between Various Segments of Entrepreneurs

[Results of t test and ANOVA]

 Mean S.D.
 Value

Over all (N = 134) 31.46 2.73
Male Entrepreneurs (N = 109) 31.25 2.77
Female Entrepreneurs (N = 25) 31.67 2.60
Entrepreneurs in the Age (N = 04) 31.53 1.96
 Range of 25-30 Years
Entrepreneurs in the Age (N = 19) 31.66 2.99
 Range of 30-35 Years
Entrepreneurs in the Age (N = 54) 31.29 2.94
 Range of 35-40 Years
Entrepreneurs in the Age (N = 57) 31.24 2.54
Range of 40 Years & Above (N = 14) 30.39 2.72
Non-graduate Entrepreneurs
Graduate Entrepreneurs (N = 51) 30.86 2.55
Post-graduate Entrepreneurs (N = 69) 32.65 2.86
Entrepreneurs having Family (N = 29) 30.91 3.02
 Background of Farming
Entrepreneurs having Family (N = 20) 28.79 2.54
 Background of Private Service
Entrepreneurs having Family (N = 33) 28.86 2.25
 Background of Govt. /
 Public Sector Service
Entrepreneurs having Family (N = 52) 31.04 2.91
 Background of Business
Entrepreneurs belonging to (N = 80) 33.21 2.64
 Single Ownership Firm
Entrepreneurs belonging to (N = 28) 30.94 2.97
 Private Limited Companies
Entrepreneurs belonging to (N = 26) 32.06 2.73
 Other Type of Ownership
Entrepreneurs belonging to (N = 11) 32.16 2.74
 IT & ITES
Entrepreneurs belonging to (N = 23) 30.17 3.23
 Consultancy Services
Entrepreneurs belonging to (N = 41) 32.18 2.22
 Tourism, Travel and
 Hospitality Services
Entrepreneurs belonging to (N = 11) 31.96 2.60
 Health Care Services
Entrepreneurs belonging to (N = 12) 32.08 2.43
 Education & Training Services
Entrepreneurs belonging to (N = 15) 30.33 2.91
 Adverting Services
Entrepreneurs belonging to (N = 21) 30.85 2.87
 other segments

 t Value F Value P
 (t Test (ANOVA) (Sig.)
 Result) Result)
Over all - -
Male Entrepreneurs -.698 .486
Female Entrepreneurs
Entrepreneurs in the Age .948
 Range of 25-30 Years
Entrepreneurs in the Age
 Range of 30-35 Years
Entrepreneurs in the Age .121
 Range of 35-40 Years
Entrepreneurs in the Age
Range of 40 Years & Above 5.612 028 *
Non-graduate Entrepreneurs
Graduate Entrepreneurs
Post-graduate Entrepreneurs
Entrepreneurs having Family 4.419 .038 *
 Background of Farming
Entrepreneurs having Family
 Background of Private Service
Entrepreneurs having Family
 Background of Govt. /
 Public Sector Service
Entrepreneurs having Family
 Background of Business
Entrepreneurs belonging to 5.896 0.043 *
 Single Ownership Firm
Entrepreneurs belonging to
 Private Limited Companies
Entrepreneurs belonging to
 Other Type of Ownership
Entrepreneurs belonging to 5.412 0.012 *
 IT & ITES
Entrepreneurs belonging to
 Consultancy Services
Entrepreneurs belonging to
 Tourism, Travel and
 Hospitality Services
Entrepreneurs belonging to
 Health Care Services
Entrepreneurs belonging to
 Education & Training Services
Entrepreneurs belonging to
 Adverting Services
Entrepreneurs belonging to
 other segments

*. Significant at 0.05 level of significance
(Table Value of F = 2.6049, Table Value t = 1.96).

Table 9 Achievement Motivation of the Intrapreneurs:
Comparison Between Various Segments of Intrapreneurs
(Results of t Test and ANOVA)

 Mean S.D.
 Value

Overall (N = 116)
Male Intrapreneurs (N = 83) 34.42 4.28
Female Intrapreneurs (N = 33) 34.69 2.83
Intrapreneurs in the Age (N = 05) 31.21 3.13
 Range of 25-30 Years
Intrapreneurs in the Age (N = 14) 35.41 3.23
 Range of 30-35 Years
Intrapreneurs in the (N = 63) 34.51 3.56
 Age Range of 35-40 Years
Intrapreneurs in the Age Range (N = 34) 34.58 4.69
 of 40 Years & Above
Non-graduate Intrapreneurs (N = 02) 32.18 4.27
Graduate Intrapreneurs (N = 34) 34.33 4.52
Post-graduate Intrapreneurs (N = 80) 34.60 3.66
Intrapreneurs having Family (N = 26) 33.85 4.78
 Background of Farming
Intrapreneurs having Family (N = 34) 34.86 2.57
 Background of Private Service
Intrapreneurs having Family (N = 25) 34.34 3.72
 Background of Govt./
 Public Sector Service
Intrapreneurs having Family (N = 31) 34.76 4.54
 Background of Business
Intrapreneurs belonging to (N = 25) 35.10 4.06
 Single Ownership Firm
Intrapreneurs belonging to (N = 60) 34.43 4.15
 Private Limited Companies
Intrapreneurs belonging to (N = 12) 33.33 2.19
 Public Limited Companies
Intrapreneurs belonging to (N = 19) 34.66 3.85
 Other Type of Ownership
Intrapreneurs belonging to IT (N = 22) 35.15 3.16
 & ITES
Intrapreneurs belonging to (N = 21) 34.36 4.17
 Consultancy Services
Intrapreneurs belonging to (N = 25) 33.97 4.41
 Tourism, Travel and
 Hospitality Services
Intrapreneurs belonging to (N = 15) 35.34 3.63
 Health Care Services
Intrapreneurs belonging to (N = 12) 33.26 3.48
 Education & Training Services
Intrapreneurs belonging to (N = 04) 35.34 3.38
 Adverting Services
Intrapreneurs belonging to (N = 17) 34.53 4.56
 other segments

 t Value F Value P
 (t Test (ANOVA) (Sig.)
 Result) Result)

Overall
Male Intrapreneurs -.336 - .737
Female Intrapreneurs
Intrapreneurs in the Age - 3.865 .023 *
 Range of 25-30 Years
Intrapreneurs in the Age
 Range of 30-35 Years
Intrapreneurs in the
 Age Range of 35-40 Years
Intrapreneurs in the Age Range
 of 40 Years & Above
Non-graduate Intrapreneurs - 3.890 .042 *
Graduate Intrapreneurs
Post-graduate Intrapreneurs
Intrapreneurs having Family - .388 .762
 Background of Farming
Intrapreneurs having Family
 Background of Private Service
Intrapreneurs having Family
 Background of Govt./
 Public Sector Service
Intrapreneurs having Family
 Background of Business
Intrapreneurs belonging to - .567 .638
 Single Ownership Firm
Intrapreneurs belonging to
 Private Limited Companies
Intrapreneurs belonging to
 Public Limited Companies
Intrapreneurs belonging to
 Other Type of Ownership
Intrapreneurs belonging to IT - .519 .793
 & ITES
Intrapreneurs belonging to
 Consultancy Services
Intrapreneurs belonging to
 Tourism, Travel and
 Hospitality Services
Intrapreneurs belonging to
 Health Care Services
Intrapreneurs belonging to
 Education & Training Services
Intrapreneurs belonging to
 Adverting Services
Intrapreneurs belonging to
 other segments

* Significant at 0.05 level of significance
(Table Value of F = 2.6049, Table Value t = 1.96).
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Author:Jain, Ravindra; Ali, Saiyed Wajid
Publication:Indian Journal of Industrial Relations
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jul 1, 2012
Words:8903
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